The Duty Of Confidentiality In Real Estate

In any Listing Agreement there is a point in time when the agency relationship ends.

A Listing Agreement, as it is widely known, is none other than a contract between the rightful titleholder of an interest in land (the ‘Principal’) and a duly licensed real estate firm (the ‘Agent’), whereby the firm stipulates and agrees to find a Buyer within a specified timeframe who is ready, willing and able to purchase the interest in land that is the subject matter of the contract while acting within the realm of the authority that the Principal confers onto the Agent, and wherein furthermore the titleholder stipulates and agrees to pay a commission should the licensee ever be successful in finding such Buyer.

As in all contracts, there is implied in a Listing Agreement an element which is commonly know at law as an ‘implied covenant of good faith and fair dealings’. This covenant is a general assumption of the law that the parties to the contract – in this case the titleholder and the licensed real estate firm – will deal fairly with each other and that they will not cause each other to suffer damages by either breaking their words or otherwise breach their respective and mutual contractual obligations, express and implied. A breach of this implied covenant gives rise to liability both in contract law and, depending on the circumstances, in tort as well.

Due to the particular nature of a Listing Agreement, the Courts have long since ruled that during the term of the agency relationship there is implied in the contract a second element that arises out of the many duties and responsibilities of the Agent towards the Principal: a duty of confidentiality, which obligates an Agent acting exclusively for a Seller or for a Buyer, or a Dual Agent acting for both parties under the provisions of a Limited Dual Agency Agreement, to keep confidential certain information provided by the Principal. Like for the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealings, a breach of this duty of confidentiality gives rise to liability both in contract law and, depending on the circumstances, in tort as well.

Pursuant to a recent decision of the Real Estate Council of British Columbia ( , the regulatory body empowered with the mandate to protect the interest of the public in matters involving Real Estate, a question now arises as to whether or not the duty of confidentiality extends beyond the expiration or otherwise termination of the Listing Agreement.

In a recent case the Real Estate Council reprimanded two licensees and a real estate firm for breaching a continuing duty of confidentiality, which the Real Estate Council found was owing to the Seller of a property. In this case the subject property was listed for sale for over two years. During the term of the Listing Agreement the price of the property was reduced on two occasions. This notwithstanding, the property ultimately did not sell and the listing expired.

Following the expiration of the listing the Seller entered into three separate ‘fee agreements’ with the real estate firm. On all three occasions the Seller declined agency representation, and the firm was identified as ‘Buyer’s Agent’ in these fee agreements. A party commenced a lawsuit as against the Seller, which was related to the subject property.

The lawyer acting for the Plaintiff approached the real estate firm and requested that they provide Affidavits containing information about the listing of the property. This lawyer made it very clear that if the firm did not provide the Affidavits voluntarily, he would either subpoena the firm and the licensees as witnesses to give evidence before the Judge, or he would obtain a Court Order pursuant to the Rules Of Court compelling the firm to give such evidence. The real estate firm, believing there was no other choice in the matter, promptly complied by providing the requested Affidavits.

As a direct and proximate result, the Seller filed a complaint with the Real Estate Council maintaining that the information contained in the Affidavits was ‘confidential’ and that the firm had breached a duty of confidentiality owing to the Seller. As it turned out, the Affidavits were never used in the court proceedings.

The real estate brokerage, on the other hand, took the position that any duty of confidentiality arising from the agency relationship ended with the expiration of the Listing Agreement. The firm argued, moreover, that even if there was a duty of continuing confidentiality such duty would not preclude or otherwise limit the evidence that the real estate brokerage would be compelled to give under a subpoena or in a process under the Rules Of Court. And, finally, the realty company pointed out that there is no such thing as a realtor-client privilege, and that in the instant circumstances the Seller could not have prevented the firm from giving evidence in the lawsuit.

The Real Estate Council did not accept the line of defence and maintained that there exists a continuing duty of confidentiality, which extends after the expiration of the Listing Agreement. Council ruled that by providing the Affidavits both the brokerage and the two licensee had breached this duty.

The attorney-client privilege is a legal concept that protects communications between a client and the attorney and keeps those communications confidential. There are limitations to the attorney-client privilege, like for instance the fact that the privilege protects the confidential communication but not the underlying information. For instance, if a client has previously disclosed confidential information to a third party who is not an attorney, and then gives the same information to an attorney, the attorney-client privilege will still protect the communication to the attorney, but will not protect the information provided to the third party.

Because of this, an analogy can be drawn in the case of a realtor-client privilege during the existence of a Listing Agreement, whereby confidential information is disclosed to a third party such as a Real Estate Board for publication under the terms of a Multiple Listings Service agreement, but not before such information is disclosed to the real estate brokerage. In this instance the privilege theoretically would protect the confidential communication as well as the underlying information.

And as to whether or not the duty of confidentiality extends past the termination of a Listing Agreement is still a matter of open debate, again in the case of an attorney-client privilege there is ample legal authority to support the position that such privilege does in fact extend indefinitely, so that arguably an analogy can be inferred as well respecting the duration of the duty of confidentiality that the Agent owes the Seller, to the extent that such duty extends indefinitely.

This, in a synopsis, seems to be the position taken by the Real Estate Council of British Columbia in this matter.

Clearly, whether the duty of confidentiality that stems out of a Listing Agreement survives the termination of the contract is problematic to the Real Estate profession in terms of practical applications. If, for instance, a listing with Brokerage A expires and the Seller re-lists with Brokerage B, if there is a continuing duty of confidentiality on the part of Brokerage A, in the absence of express consent on the part of the Seller a Realtor of Brokerage A could not act as a Buyer’s Agent for the purchase of the Seller’s property, if this was re-listed by Brokerage B. All of which, therefore, would fly right in the face of all the rules of professional cooperation between real estate firms and their representatives. In fact, this process could potentially destabilize the entire foundation of the Multiple Listings Service system.

In the absence of specific guidelines, until this entire matter is clarified perhaps the best course of action for real estate firms and licensees when requested by a lawyer to provide information that is confidential, is to respond that the brokerage will seek to obtain the necessary consent from the client and, if that consent is not forthcoming, that the lawyer will have to take the necessary legal steps to compel the disclosure of such information.

Five Reasons You May Need Dumpster Rental

There are several short-term events that require ordinary homeowners to request dumpster rental. Here are the top five reasons you might reserve an enormous metal receptacle for your yard.

1. Home Construction

Whether you’re putting in a new kitchen, master bathroom, or deck, there’s bound to be a lot of extra garbage that accumulates from a major home project. Because garbage men will not dispose of demolition or construction waste, it is your responsibly to arrange for the appropriate receptacle. Although it might be unsightly and take up a lot of space in your driveway, a commodious container can make cleanup a breeze by keeping all of the garbage in one place.

2. Yard Waste

If you handle you own yard work and landscaping, there may come a time when natural waste accumulates past the point where you can dispose of it by the curbside. Whether it is the arrival of autumn or a violent storm that creates the excess waste, dumpster rental may be the solution to your problem. In most cases, a smaller receptacle with only a few yards of storage space should be roomy enough to hold all your yard waste in a single job.

3. Moving

When changing addresses, there’s bound to be an assortment of items that you do not want or need. Broken furniture, old appliances, holiday decorations, and antiquated electronics are just a few of objects you might come across when clearing out closets, attics, and basements. Dumpster rental makes getting rid of this stuff a breeze. It might even be good therapy for you to unload unwanted trash with your own two hands.

4. Roof Repair

No matter whom you hire, roof replacement or repair can be a dangerous, messy job. Not only do worn-out shingles get everywhere, but also the nails that are used to attach them can easily end up in your front yard, posing a serious injury risk to your family and guests. As such, it is imperative that you arrange for dumpster rental before work commences. You might also remind your contractor that you expect all garbage and waste to be placed where it belongs — in the dumpster.

5. Garage Clean Out

From busted bicycles to old sports equipment and rusty tools, the American garage has become a storehouse for items that are too large or too dirty to be kept indoors. Because many of these items are simply taking up space, it makes sense to schedule a clean out from time to time. Renting a large metal receptacle that can be placed in your driveway, right next to the garage, obviously makes the job much easier. Instead of lugging heavy, possibly rusty objects long distances, you can simply throw them in the open container. When all the cleaning has been completed, and your garage is once again fit for a vehicle, you can have the rental company retrieve their dumpster and dispose of the waste.

Make any home cleanup project a breeze with convenient and affordable dumpster rental.

Comparing Commercial Boilers to Residential Boilers

A lot of people ask the question, what is the difference between commercial boilers, and a residential boiler system? Some people believe that the difference between these items is the quality of the device. There are people that believe if you purchase something designed for commercial use you will be getting a higher quality product, but the truth is the quality of commercial boilers and residential systems is the same. The difference between the two systems is the size of the units.

These systems are sized by the number of BTUs (British Thermal Units) and not by the actual size of the unit. A BTU is a British Thermal Units. This is a way to measure the amount of heat or cooling capacity a device has. A British Thermal Units is said to be equal to the amount of heat that would be produced by one single match. In order for these units to be described as commercial boilers they must be at least a three hundred thousand BTU device. Anything less than a three hundred thousand BTU device is considered to be appropriate for residential use.

Both types of units can be powered by several different heat sources. The main types of fuels that are used on both these device sizes are propane gas, natural gas, and electricity. In the past coal burning units were fairly popular as were wood burners and oil burners. Heating oil became obsolete do to the price of the heating oil and coal became obsolete as a fuel because of the difficulty in storing and in firing the unit with the material. Wood burners were operated fairly cheaply, but the difficulty in getting the wood and having someone keep the fire going in the furnace made wood obsolete.

Natural gas is used the most frequently in the commercial industries because they are capable of having this fuel piped directly to the unit in question. The fuel is cost efficient and it is extremely convenient. In commercial applications convenience and ease of use are often more important factors than the cost of an item. Some residential areas do not have piped natural gas lines so these people will choose either the electric powered units are the propane powered units. All of the devices are efficient and less costly to run than the alternative appliances.

Forced air heating units are the most popular in homes and in commercial settings the forced air systems are also very popular. When a commercial business has several rooms or offices that require heated or cooled air forced air devices are chosen for this job. The forced air device has a central location and duct work is installed in the walls or the ceilings to transport the heated air to each different section. These units are efficient, but they can be slightly noisy. They are quick to raise or lower the temperature of an area and the different sections of the property have the ability to adjust the temperature in their space by using closable vents and thermostat controls.

The Importance Of Opting For Temporary Stadium Flooring

For most outdoor venues such as product launches, concerts, charity fundraisers, parties, fairs and carnivals, people have to deal with several different elements. Weather is something organisers definitely watch out for. If the weather’s been dreary, one of the problems that the event will surely have is how wet and soft the ground will be. If the event is a casual one, people will easily overlook the ground issue and just choose to wear their galoshes, but if it’s something a little more formal and people will have to be dressed up, the condition of the ground will certainly be a huge problem.

There is, however, a solution to this: temporary stadium flooring. This can be rented for the event to make sure that various little disasters will be prevented. Temporary flooring sheets will protect event-goers’ shoes from sinking into the soft ground, getting grass stains and becoming all muddy.

Likewise, they will prevent people from experiencing accidents such as losing their balance when walking on soft ground and tripping over knotted grass blades. Women won’t have to worry about the heels of their fancy shoes sinking and breaking; they won’t even have to purchase those grass walkers, which help them walk comfortably on grass but reduce the elegance of their high heel shoes. Men, on the other hand, don’t have to worry about gaining a few centimetres in height because of the build-up of mud at the bottom of their shoes.

A heavy duty temporary roadway which is also a must to include for outdoor events scheduled after days of generous rain showers will make sure that vehicles don’t create ugly tracks on grass, or sink in soft ground, creating muddy pits that can cause other accidents. Temporary flooring is not only ideal for when the ground is soft; it’s also good to use on hot days especially if the ground is not covered with turf. Temporary flooring can prevent dust from rising in the air. With people walking and, at times, even running around, clouds of dust get created. Vendors at fair and carnivals don’t enjoy their wares getting all dusty because of the foot traffic. This can be controlled with the installation of temporary flooring. Whether it is wet or not outside, having temporary flooring is such a smart option.

For people who are thinking of staging an event at a local stadium, address the possibility of little disasters happening by renting temporary stadium flooring. This will greatly contribute to the overall success of your event.

Oily Skin Care Tips – Get Rid Of Those Pimples And Greasy Spots On Your Face Forever

Oily skin is not a disease, its just a skin texture that makes you uncomfortable from which you want to get rid of. Due to lack of proper guidance and information on oily skin care available, it has turned into one of the major skin problems resulting into pimples, acne, blackheads and many more.

Several factors are said to be responsible for the aggravation of an oily skin:


1. Heredity is quite responsible for an oily skin, but so do hormones. Pregnant women sometimes notice an increase in skin oil with the changes in hormonal activity. So do women going for birth control pills.

2. Stress can also lead in the overdrive of the oil glands.

3. The wrong cosmetics can easily aggravate an otherwise mild case of oily skin.

Some of these causes are within your ability to control, but others you will have to learn to live with.

In most of the cases, oily skin can be treated at home. But sometimes, the situation demands more than just a home remedy. You need to call for a doctor if you develop sever acne or notice notice any sudden change in your skin. Otherwise, go for these tips and try them at home:


1. Keep your skin absolutely clean – You might be quite aware of the fact, that oilier the skin, the dirtier it looks and feels. And to get rid of this, keep your skin clean by washing it at least twice a day.

Generally, some doctors recommend you to use detergent-type soaps on your face. As a substitute to it, you can add 1-2 drops of dish washing detergent to your regular soap.

While some doctors condemn the use of detergent-type soaps as they are too harsh for your oily facial skin. Instead they recommend glycerin soaps to be used to clean your face twice a day.

If using a detergent soap irritates your facial skin then try the glycerin soap,easily available over the counter.

2. Give Aloe-Vera a Try – This wonder plant of the household is the best at absorbing skin oils. Slice open a leaf and smear the gel on your face 3 times a day. Let it dry. Or you can also keep a small amount of gel in the refrigerator during the summers for a refreshing face-lift.

3. Wipe with Astringents – Wipe the oily spots on your face by rubbing alcohol or a combination of alcohol and acetone that helps degrease your oily skin. Many drugstores even sell pre-moistened, individually wrapped alcohol wipes that are really portable, you can carry them in your purse for quick touch-ups all day long.

4. Carry Tissue papers with you – Paper facial tissues are the best substitute of astringents as they help soak up excess oils in a pinch. Get those special oil-absorbing tissues from a cosmetic counter that are very in removing excessive oils between cleansings.

5. Rinse your face with cold water – Simply splashing your face with cold water and blotting it dry a couple of times a day is equivalent to applying chemicals to your skin. These cold water rinses remove excessive oils from your face.

6. Say NO to moisturizers – Do not ever go after those tempting advertisements compelling you to buy facial moisturizers for oily skin. These are the fatal temptations taking you to disastrous skin. Instead apply a sunscreen on your face before facing the sun or going outdoors. And yes, do not forget to check the labels for products especially designed for oily skin.

7. Make your own scrub – Make a paste of a small amount of ground almonds with honey and apply as a facial scrub for removing oils and dead skin cells. Now gently massage this paste on your face with a hot washcloth. Finally, rinse with cold water.

Another scrub from oatmeal mixed with aloe vera can prove to be very beneficial for you. Rub gently on your skin and leave on for 15 minutes, Then rinse thoroughly. And if suffering from acne on your face, then you should probably skip the scrub, as it can aggravate your already-irritated skin.

8. Apply Masques on your oily face – Masques prove to be very beneficial in reducing the oiliness. Either Clay masques or you can mix Fuller’s Earth (easily available) with a little water and make a paste. Apply this paste to the face and leave on for about 20 minutes and then rinse off.

9. Go for water-based cosmetics only – Try to make your skin breathe by living without make-up, especially foundation. Using make-up or foundation that are oil-based blocks the pores of your skin thereby resulting in blemishes. And if necessary, then use water-based make-up only, especially spot concealers rather than coating your entire face. In general, prefer stick with powder or gel blushers, and avoid cream foundations as much as possible.

10. Tie up your hair properly – Keep your hair away from your face as oily hair accompanies an oily skin.

11. Do not touch your facial skin – Avoid touching your face throughout the day as your hands deliver excessive oils and dirt.

12. Choose a powder for you – For that extra shine-free protection, use simple products for your oily face such as Johnsons Baby Powder. This makes a superb face powder when fluffed lightly over your makeup.

13. Splash on the hot suds – Hot water is a great solvent. So, warm water should be used to wash an oily face and that with plenty of soap. Hot water plus soap dissolves skin oil better than cold water and soap.

So, what say now! You are just a few clicks away from getting a new fresh and non-oily skin! Go ahead and check out for the home remedies for oily skin care at my health blog.

5 Tips To Clean Your RV Interior Before Selling It

If you are contemplating an RV sale, the first thought that is likely to cross your mind is “what steps would help me sell my RV quickly?” You are not the only seller who wants an answer to this question; most of the rig owners think the same when it comes to finding a taker for their RVs. Giving your motor home a thorough cleaning would be an excellent first step toward realizing your goal. Here is how to go about it:

1. Clean the Ceiling and Windows First

Start your cleaning project with the vents. Rinse the screens with a hose after taking them off. Next, remove any dirt build-up within the vent. Wipe down the covers, too. Now, keep the vents open for some time and turn on the fan. It will help the smelly air to escape. Next, move to the air conditioner; clean its air filters and vents. Remove the cobwebs, if there is any. As for the windows, detach and wash their screens first and then apply a gentle cleaner on them.

2. Get Rid of Molds

When an RV sits idle for a considerable time, it tends to get moldy. If you notice molds growing on the floor, do away with them immediately. Otherwise, an offensive musty smell coming from them may put off your prospects. To get rid of this menace, mix one cup of bleach with four cups of water, add it to a bucket and scrub the floor with it using a brush. Wash the floor once again with clean water and let it dry. Use a vacuum cleaner to reach the corners that are difficult to access.

3. Use Appropriate Cleaners for Different Kitchen Equipment and Cabinet

In the kitchen, you have to clean three items – cabinets, stove and the countertop. At first, empty out the contents of the cabinetry. Use an RV-friendly wood cleaner for wooden cabinets, and a mild cleanser for the vinyl wrapped units. A gentle wipe with a soft cloth is sufficient for keeping veneer cabinets clean. Use only specified cleaners for the stove top. Use warm soapy water for the range hood. Don’t scrub; otherwise, you will get it damaged. Countertops are usually easy to clean. Wipe it with a soft damp cloth to make it shine.

4. Sanitize the Bathroom

Use a squeegee and mild cleaner for cleaning the shower area. Clean the toilet with a brush. Don’t use any harsh detergent here as it may damage the surface. Next, flush the black tank with your garden hose and add deodorizer here.

5. Know the Areas That Need More Attention

In an RV, the items like door latches and steering tend to get dirty very quickly as most owners overlook them. If you go for test drives frequently with the potential buyers, consider cleaning the steering at least once a day. Door latches are another thing that you have to touch a lot while showcasing your rolling home to its future users. Wipe them two/three times in a week to prevent dirt accumulation.

If you are a first-time seller, it is natural for you to wonder “what steps can help me sell my RV quickly and hassle-free online.” Prep it right and start by giving your rig a thorough clean up. Follow our cleaning regimen for the best result.

Engineering Mathematics by K A Stroud

Engineering Mathematics by K. A. Stroud is a book that is recommended to most first year undergraduates for many technical subjects.

The book as new is not cheap, even in second hand it can be pricey.

My personal experience of using this book has been nothing but positive through my years in university and after. Even now I still have it around and I know some engineer friends who refer to it.

The book caters to all level of abilities, starting off with the basic grounding pf algebra and then progressing at a good pace with many examples, so you are not at a loss unlike with some other books which skip steps.

It allows you to learn at your own pace and progress at your pace as well. What I found with this book is the progress of understanding the subject area creeps up on you and before you know it; you maybe ahead of your contemporaries and people will begin asking you for help more than you’d like to.

It is a great book which builds up your confidence and then powers you along. Using this book, the lowest I got in a Mathematics exam in university was 60%. That was my fault as I was late for the exam. I found that Mathematics was the easier part of the course – I was doing Electrical Engineering and Electronics.

The only problem with this book is that because it is a recommended book, you will have trouble getting it from the library as there will be people hoarding it or double booking it.

If you can buy your own or get a second hand from charity shops.

I highly recommend this book for anyone doing a technical course.

How To Tell The Difference Between Acrylic, Glass And Crystal Awards

There’s nothing like showing your employees how much you appreciate them. Employees who feel valued and appreciated work harder and are less likely to look for new employment, which means businesses can spend fewer resources on hiring and training new employees.

However, if you’re planning on handing out acrylic, glass or crystal awards, you need to know what the difference is between the different types. Take a few minutes to learn the differences so that you can make the best possible decision for your company or organization.

So, What’s The Difference?

Although these materials can all look similar from afar, they’re actually very different. Glass is made from lime, silica and soda and acrylic is a sturdy plastic, while crystal has a lead oxide content anywhere from 1 to 49%. Lead makes this substance significantly heavier than glass or acrylic, but this weight also means that the award will be sturdier. There can also be a major price difference between the three types of materials, so the right one for you might just depend on your budget.

Each type of award can be completely personalized and this is typically done using laser engraving. The shape of the award may restrict the space available for engraving so before you choose a design, ask your award company for assistance in choosing the best type for the message you want to put on it.

What You Can Expect From Crystal Awards

If you’re giving out crystal awards, you should be able to hold it up to the light and it will cast small rainbows when you move it in and out of the light. The edges will also have slightly rounded edges — this is because the lead makes the surface sturdier. Crystal awards are usually the most expensive option out of the three, however they’re also available in a wide variety of shapes and designs. You’ll find a variety of designs in the shapes of flames, obelisks, cubes, pyramids and more.

What You Can Expect From Glass Designs

Glass is usually easier to engrave, which means that it won’t be as sturdy or substantial. The edges will typically be sharper, simply because of the cutting and engraving process that’s used. Additionally, the award may have a slightly green or yellow tint to it when it’s held up to the light. A glass award will likely be less expensive than its crystal counterpart, but pricier than an award made out of acrylic.

What You Can Expect From Acrylic Options

Acrylic is the least expensive option that businesses have. Like the others, they’re available in a variety of different shapes, including stars, rectangles, circles and semi circles. It’s possible to have these personalized and may even be possible to use color on the award in some instances.

Luckily for business owners, there is a wide variety of acrylic, glass and crystal awards to choose from. Before you buy one, make sure you’re making the right decision for your company — and your employees. They’ll certainly appreciate the care and thought that’s put into your decision and will know just how much you appreciate their efforts every day.

Wireless Dog Fence

Wireless fencing is a great choice for pet owners today. An invisible dog fence is something that every pet owner needs to have. This is the perfect combination of features that can be enjoyed all over. A wireless fence is very quick to install and very easy too. There are collar settings that can be adjusted, it’s portable and the reliability can be trusted at all times. There is so much to look forward to when you have a wireless fence. Your dog can be able to enjoy freedom in the yard at all times.

A wireless fence doesn’t require any wires or tools. You can change boundaries as you wish. This means less fuss and less money when compared to the traditional fence. Regardless of where you are going whether camping or visiting friends, this is a fence that you can stay with you at all times, meaning you can train and play with your pet whenever and wherever you are. Some of the fences are ideal for larger areas and so you must make your selection based on the area you want covered.

How a wireless fence works?

The boundaries of the pet are set by simply turning a knob which is located at the transmitter. This creates a circular wireless boundary for the pet.

When you have set the boundary, the transmitter will send some radio signals directed to the collar receiver that is on the pet. The pet has to be trained so as to note the warning tone or even the vibration when he gets near to the yard boundary. If your pet doesn’t respond to the warning, he then gets a static correction that is surprising, but quite safe right from the collar. This is set so as to remind the dog to remain in the yard.

Multiple pets

It is possible to contain many pets within a single system. You don’t have to leave any pet out. All the pets within the family including cats and dogs can receive a signal from one transmitter. When you are buying a transmitter, you should select a wireless collar receiver for all the pets in the family so as to give them outdoor freedom. Usually, the wireless and in-ground systems aren’t compatible. It is important to make sure that all the products that you purchase are compatible so as to enjoy their effectiveness completely.

Leaving town

Wireless pet containment systems are a great choice even when you are leaving town. You will not require a kennel or a pet sitter. There are so many pet friendly places and cities in the world and this means you can still set boundaries and reinforce the training offered to the pet regarding safety. Your pet can still have fun even when you are away from your home.

You will be able to enjoy your vacation more since you won’t have to look out for the pets at all times. You can also safely go for camping and all sorts of outdoor place without having to worry about losing your pet.

Informed Consent – The Importance of Obtaining Consent When Establishing a Patient Relationship

Consent is the voluntary permission granted from a patient from a medical professional to allow the permission to touch, examine, and perform medical services. If a medical provider were to touch or examine a patient without consent, they could be liable for battery. However, if a patient consents to a procedure, the physician CANNOT be held liable unless they fail to meet the accepted standard of care while performing the procedure.

Informed consent is when the patient agrees to a proposed plan of care, AFTER the advantages and risks of the treatment, treatment alternatives, potential outcomes, and the risks that may occur if treatment is refused, have been explained to and understood by the patient. Patients have the right to be told information that a “reasonable” person in the patient’s situation would want to know. This is referred to as the “Reasonable Person Standard”.

The process is much more than a patient simply signing a form. It is based on effective communication from a provider to a patient to explain complicated treatment plans in terms that a patient can understand. Informed consent allows the patient to understand the treatment and alternatives and allow them to make an informed decision regarding their care. The patient should sign a form acknowledging that they were informed about the aspects of the treatment and it’s alternatives as well as the treatments benefits and limits.

The explanation of a treatment or procedure alone does not constitute consent, as the patient must UNDERSTAND the explanation. After explaining the treatment plan and alternatives and the patient grants consent, the provider should ask the patient to summarize what they have been told to ensure that they truly understand. If possible, a family member or other responsible adult should be present and witness the process.

Within the physician/patient relationship, obtaining the informed consent of a patient is critical, as it is what holds the relationship together.

Because the practice of medicine is an evolving art and science, it is difficult to fully inform a patient about ALL the aspects of a treatment and all that can possibly go wrong. However, the provider must make a reasonable effort to do so, so that the patient can still make an informed decision.

A patient’s consent applies ONLY to the procedure that was explained to them and which they agreed to. For example, if a physician is performing surgery on a patient’s lung, and when doing so notices another condition that requires medical attention, if the surgeon were to correct the condition, they would still be liable for battery.

Medical providers are protected by law in emergency situations, in which a patient is not able to understand treatment information or provide consent.

Minors, the mentally incompetent, and those who do not understand English are deemed incapable of providing an informed consent.

Implied Consent

A medical provider should obtain written consent for treatment, regardless of its complexity, whenever possible. However, there are situations in which they can assume consent from a patient, such as when patients indicate by their behavior that they are accepting treatment or a procedure to be performed. This is referred to as “implied consent”. For example, if a patient schedules an appointment for a physical examination, it is implied that they consent the physician to touch them during the exam.

Exceptions to Consent

Exceptions are dependent on state law

* A physician does not have to inform a patient of risks that are commonly known

* In emergency situations, a provider can assume that informed consent would be granted if the emergency did not exist. However, the provider does NOT have the right to assume consent if the patient has refused consent in the past

* If a patient asks a physician NOT to disclose the risks of a treatment or procedure, the physician can respect the request and not disclose the risks

Refusal to Grant Consent

Competent adults, who are conscious and of sound mind, have a right to refuse any medical treatment or procedure. Regardless of the patient’s reasons, the refusal must be respected by medical providers, or they could be liable for battery.

If a patient refuses treatment, a provider should discuss alternatives and possibly encourage the patient to seek a second opinion. If the patient still refuses, a signed refusal to treat form should obtained from the patient and kept within their medical record. The document should state that the patient was informed of the possible consequences of refusing treatment.

The North American B-25 Mitchell

Driving down New Highway, which skirts the perimeter of Farmingdale, Long Island’s, Republic Airport, on the still-warm, crystal-blue Labor Day morning in 2006, and glimpsing the tails of the World War II B-24 Liberator, B-17 Flying Fortress, and B-25 Mitchell bombers, I had once again realized that the Collings Foundation’s annual Wings of Freedom fleet rotation, more than any other year, had transformed the general aviation field into an early-1940s pocket of time, a hub of medium and heavy bomber operations.

The aircraft intended for my mission, the North American B-25 Mitchell registered 130669 “Tondelayo” and wearing its drab olive-green livery, had been the third parked on the ramp of the American Airpower Museum, both an historical and symbolic position relative to the two heavier, longer-range aircraft which had been preceded it.

Resulting from a 1938 Air Corps requirement for a twin-engined, medium-range bomber which could fulfill niche roles its larger, quad-engined counterparts had been unable to, and tracing its lineage to the B-10, the B-12, the B-18, and the B-23, the B-25 itself, named after the US Army Air Corps Officer General Billy Mitchell, had been infused life as a self-funded project by North American Aviation in the form of the NA-40-1. The 19,500-pound prototype, featuring a narrow fuselage with a green house cockpit; a straight mid-wing; two, 1,100-horsepower R-1830 piston engines; an angular, twin vertical tail; and a tricycle undercarriage of single wheels, had first flown in January of 1939, but a power deficiency had necessitated the retrofit of 1,350-horsepower R-2600s. Although the modified version, designated NA-40-2, had offered superior performance, it crashed after a two-week test program.

Its NA-62 successor, which had been extensively modified, featured a wider fuselage which in turn increased the now lower-mounted, constant root-to-tip dihedral mid-wing span, 1,700-horsepower R-2600-9 engines, square-geometry vertical tails, and a 27,000-pound gross weight. Approved in September of 1939, this version, designated the XB-25, first flew in prototype form on August 19 of the following year.

Initially delivered to the Army Air Corps, the aircraft demonstrated directional stability deficiencies, resulting in the outer wing mounting redesign with the tenth aircraft off the production line, which reduced the engine-to-wing tip dihedral and gave it its characteristic gull-wing profile.

The B-25 Mitchell, in production form, appeared with an aluminum alloy, semi-monocoque fuselage, constructed of four longerons, which produced a 53.6-foot overall length. The cantilever, all-metal, mid-mounted wings, comprised of a two-spar, fuselage-integral center section housing integral fuel tanks and two outer, single-spar sections with detachable wing tips, featured sealed ailerons with both fixed and controllable trimming tabs and dual-section, hydraulically-operated, trailing edge slotted flaps divided by the engine nacelles. Spanning 67.7 feet, they sported a 609.8-square-foot area. Powered by two 1,700-horsepower, Wright-Cyclone two-row, 14-cylinder, air-cooled R-2600 piston engines housed in aerodynamic nacelles which traversed the wing chord and turned three-bladed, constant-speed, 12.7-foot, full-feathering, anti-icing Hamilton Standard propellers, the aircraft could climb to 15,000 feet in 11.3 minutes and attain a maximum speed of 303 mph at 13,000 feet. The cantilever twin vertical fins and rudders, fitted with fixed and controllable trimming tabs, had been modified with rounded tops and yielded a 16.5-foot aircraft height. The tricycle, single-wheeled, hydraulically-actuated, aft-retracting undercarriage, the first such configuration employed by a US bomber, featured aerodynamic door covers over all three wheel wells in both the extended and retracted positions, while the main wheels were equipped with hydraulic brakes. The aircraft, with a 21,100-pound empty weight, had a maximum gross weight of 33,500 pounds.

Several versions had been produced. The first of these, the B-25A, incorporated pilot armor and self-sealing fuel tanks, while its successor, the B-25B, introduced two electrically-operated Bendix turrets, each of which replaced the midship and tail guns and featured two.50 caliber machine guns. Entering service in 1941 with the 17th Bomb Group at McChord Field near Tacoma, Washington, the aircraft, whose production run totaled 120, also featured a separate photographic station between the upper turret and the tail and a shortened, 54.1-foot length.

Powered by two 1,700-horsepower Wright R-2600-13 engines, the B-25C, the third version, introduced an autopilot system and external racks which could carry eight 250-pound bombs, and a later fuel capacity increase to 1,100 gallons. Of the 3,909 build, 1,619 had been produced in Inglewood, California, while 2,290 had been assembled in Kansas City, Kansas, under the B-25D designation.

The singular B-25E and -F variants were intended as test vehicles of wing and tail anti-icing systems, while the B-25G replaced the glazed nose with an armored one, the latter containing two.50 caliber machine guns and one 9.6-foot-long, 900-pound, cradle-mounted, M-4 cannon capable of firing 23-inch, 15-pound shells. Although its armament had otherwise adhered to the B-25C standard, its bomb bay could accommodate an aircraft torpedo. The variant, operated by a crew of four and featuring a 50.10-foot overall length, enjoyed a 405-unit production run.

The B-25H, with significantly increased armament, featured four.50 caliber machine guns in the metallic, armored nose, and a further four on the side, arranged in pairs; a repositioned top turret, now located in the roof of the navigator’s compartment; the removal of the ventral turret; enlarged, aft-wing,.50 caliber machine gun waist positions; and a tail gun station with two further.50 caliber machine guns. As World War II’s most extensively armed design, it could attain 293-mph speeds at 13,000 feet and had a 23,800-foot service ceiling.

The B-25J, the definitive and numerically most popular version, had been intended for precision bombing. The aircraft, introducing a bombardier who increased the crew complement to six, reincorporated the glazed nose which had now been provisioned with one fixed and one flexible.50 caliber machine gun. The largest single Mitchell order, for 4,318 B-25s, had been placed on April 14, 1943, and the aircraft, attaining 292-mph speeds at 14,500 feet, could cruise at service ceilings of 25,500 feet.

Between 1941 and 1945, the Army Air Corps took delivery of 9,816 B-25s, 3,218 of which had been produced in Inglewood, California, until 1943, and the remaining 6,608 of which had been produced in Kansas City.

The B-25 Mitchell had several post-war applications. Demilitarized, and designated TB-25, the type, based upon the B-25J, had been converted into a trainer with the installation of an observer’s seat in the nose, ahead and below the cockpit; two student seats behind the standard two pilot-instructor positions; and up to five seats in the aft cabin. Of the 400 converted aircraft operated by the US Air Force during the 1950s, the last active-duty staff transport had not been retired until May 21, 1960, although it had continued to be operated by the air forces of Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Holland, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

A photographic reconnaissance variant, the F-10, had featured a nose-installed tri-metrogon camera along with other aerial photography equipment, while other non-military roles had included those of executive transport, freighter, and fire bomber.

The aircraft operating my Labor Day flight, a B-25J registered 44-28932, had been produced in August of 1944 by North American Aviation in Kansas City, Kansas. Accepted by the United States Army Air Corps on August 3 of that year, it had served in the US in the AAF Flying Training Command Program, serving 12 different air bases until January of 1959, at which time it had been declared surplus and had been deleted from the US Air Force inventory. Converted into a fire bomber, it had combated forest fires for another 25 years.

Acquired by the Collings Foundation in 1984, and restored by Tom Reilly Vintage Aircraft over a two-year period, the B-25J, the first World War II bomber in the collection, had been flown n air shows in the Boston area for a decade, whereafter it had been ferried to Chino, California, in late 2001, for a secondary restoration by Carl Scholl of Aero Trader, Inc. Subsequently repositioned to Midland, Texas, it was painted by AVSource West in its current Tondelayo livery after the B-25 which had been operated by the Air Apache 345th BG of the 5th Air Force in the Pacific Theater against targets in New Guinea, the 500th BS of the 5th Air Force itself having been the fourth squadron of the 345th BG to have attacked shipping in Vunapope near Rabaul on October 18, 1943. The Tondelayo name had been inspired by Hedy Lamarr’s character in the 1943 movie White Cargo and given by the crew of Lieutenant Ralph Wallace. The three-aircraft formation, comprised of the B-25 “Snafu” and flown by Captain Lyle Anacker, the “Tondelayo” flown by Lieutenant Wallace himself, and the “Sorry Satchul” flown by Lieutenant Paterson, had claimed three ships, but avenging fighters had attacked “Sorry Satchul,” hitting its port engine and forcing it to ditch, and “Tondelayo,” damaging its right engine. Shut down and feathered, it had almost wrenched itself from its mountings because of severe vibration.

Flying over Cape Gazelle toward base, the B-25 duo, maintaining tight formation, had been targeted by some 50 Japanese fighters, “Sorry Satchul” so badly damaged that it had been forced to head for shore and ditch and “Tondelayo,” despite its own critical wounds, hovering only 30 feet above the water where it had managed to shoot down five additional enemy aircraft. Limping into base at Kiriwina, the aircraft had subsequently been repaired and patched, receiving a new right wing, engine, propeller blades, and radio equipment. Its crew had been awarded the Silver Star.

Squatting under the forward fuselage and climbing the short ladder into the cockpit section on that Labor Day in 2006, I took the right of the two observer’s seats located a foot below, and behind, the cockpit, while the four other passengers entered the aft section, located behind the bomb bay, through the ventral hatch, which had been configured with an aft-facing, three-person bench seat and three individual seats. With the ladder now raised and the dual panel folded across it to form a portion of the integral floor, the B-25J had been secured for engine start.

The two-person cockpit, sporting bow tie control yokes, featured a throttle quadrant with the two engine throttles angled toward the pilot, two propeller-pitch throttles, and two fuel-mixture throttles angled toward the copilot.

Engine start, commencing with the right, number 2 powerplant, entailed turning the master ignition switch and right booster pump on, at which point the Wright R-2600 powerplant rotated and the interior became saturated with deep, vibrating, Hamilton Standard propeller-created noise. Priming and stabilizing them with the throttle to create between 800 and 1,000 revolutions per minute, the captain applied a full-rich mixture, causing them to settle into a throaty, 1,200-rpm idle. The process was repeated with the left, number 1 engine.

Contacting Republic Ground on 121.6 for taxi clearance, and armed with the latest automatic terminal information service data, the twin-finned bomber released its brakes at 0845, the thrust created by its engines, even at idle settings, sufficient to move it forward over the American Airpower ramp and away from the World War II bomber trio. Taxiing parallel to the active runway, 32, the B-25J periodically jolted in response to brake applications, turning on to the run-up area by means of differential power, its slipstream-bombarded twin rudders aerodynamically inducing ground turns. Extending its slotted, trailing edge flaps and advancing its throttles, the medium-capacity bomber, assuredly a giant in comparison to the currently landing Piper Warrior, moved on to the runway’s threshold, just as the B-17 had commenced its own taxi roll from the ramp.

Moving into take off position and aligning its nose wheel with the centerline, aircraft 130669 received take off clearance from Republic Tower on 125.2, slowly advancing its two throttles in order to establish initial directional control. Firmly maintaining a straight acceleration roll, the 1,500-horsepower twin-row radials powering the Collings Foundation aircraft exploded with cabin-saturating noise as smooth, steady throttle advancements pinnacled them into their METO settings of 2,600 revolutions-per-minute and 40 inches of manifold pressure. Counteracting wind-induced directional variations with subtle rudder deflections, the captain began applying control column back pressure at 75 knots indicated air speed, the now ground-separated nose wheel producing a lift-generating angle-of-attack. The air speed-created pressure differential, bathing the huge, outstretched, upper wing surfaces in a steady stream of accelerated air, removed all ground restraints and allowed them to peel the gravity-defying aircraft to which they had been attached off the ground at 115 knots. Retracting its tricycle undercarriage at the aircraft’s VMC-determined 145-knot speed, and trimming itself into its initial climb, the twin-engined bomber, encased in engine slipstream, rolled into a right bank over Route 110, headed toward Long Island’s south shore.

Maintaining a 150-degree heading, the now-graceful flying bird reduced its engine rpm to 2300 and its manifold pressure to 30, moving abreast of the metallic, erector set-appearing Captree Bridge at 1,000 feet, which stretched across the deep blue surface of the Great South Bay from the island to Jones Beach and its signature lighthouse. The azure of the water, seamlessly merging with that of the sky, melded into a surreal dimension, as viewed from the 270-degree-encompassing Plexiglas nose.

The power-to-weight ratio, coupled to its aerodynamic design, had been the key to the highly-maneuverable, medium mission bomber. Unlike its long-range, high-altitude, heavy B-17 and B-24 counterparts, the B-25, at half their acquisition costs, had been intended for interdiction purposes, delivering tactical blows to enemy targets closer to the front. Because of its maneuverability, it had been able to fly low-level, tree-top strafing sorties, where it had remained virtually hidden, and had then dropped parachute-retarding bombs, which had enabled it to escape before detonation. Although it had operated extensively in the Pacific, targeting Japanese air fields from treetop altitudes and skip-bombing enemy ships, it had been used in all theaters of operation, and had been flown by the Australians, the British, the Chinese, and the Dutch. It had been the first bomber to have been lend-leased to Russia.

The most famous B-25 mission, led by Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle and occurring on April 18, 1942, had entailed the launch of 16 aircraft from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet. Of the four candidate aircraft, inclusive of the B-18, the B-23, the B-26, and the B-25 itself, the latter had been chosen because of its performance. The aircraft, B-25Bs modified at the Northwest Airlines maintenance facility in Minnesota to increase their fuel tankage from 694 to 1,141 US gallons, had featured dorsal and ventral power turrets, but had been devoid of tail armament. Loaded on the USS Hornet for the sea journey to Japan, 16 aircraft, each at 31,000-pound gross weights, would take off from the 467-foot deck at a 450-mile distance, close enough to permit them to bomb targets in Tokyo, Yokahama, Kobe, and Nagoya, yet retain sufficient fuel supplies to continue the 1,200 miles to China.

Encountering a Japanese picket boat during the morning of April 18, and fearing imminent attack, Doolittle made the decision to launch the B-25 fleet at an 800-mile distance, or 350 miles further, from land, the first take off occurring at 8:18 a.m., which had been less than an hour after the boat had been sighted. Using strong headwinds and the deck’s sea swell-created inclination, the bombers had just been able to accomplish the precarious feat, with the last taking off at 9:21 a.m.

After some four hours of flying, the lead aircraft, flown by Doolittle himself, dropped the first bomb over Tokyo, shortly after which it had been joined by the remaining 15. Although all safely departed Japanese air space, insufficient fuel, caused by the earlier launching, and deteriorating weather, resulted in the crash-landing or abandonment of 15 B-25s in China, while the 16th landed in Vladivostock, where its crew had been captured.

Nevertheless, the mission had been both a technological and operational success, and had elevated troop morale and garnered tremendous notoriety for the aircraft.

Banking left to a 240-degree heading, aircraft 1306669 Tondelayo was carried back over Captree Bridge by its gull, variable-dihedral wings and its three-bladed propellers, crossing over Long Island’s south shore. The B-17 Flying Fortress, appearing particularly graceful over the blue surface of the Great South Bay, flexed off of the port cockpit windows. World War II skies had somehow been resurrected that morning.

Fuel burn depended on engine setting: at 180 mph, with the engines turning at 1,700 revolutions per minute and feeding off of 27 inches of manifold pressure, the aircraft burned 120 gallons per hour, while a ten-mph cruise speed increase, attained with a 1,800-rpm/28-inch setting, resulted in a 130-gallon per hour consumption.

Recontacting Republic Tower, aircraft 130699 advised its intention of “inbound for landing” and reduced power, now gravity-induced into its descent profile. Maintaining a 180-mph speed and a 320-degree heading, it extended its trailing edge flaps, which provided air speed control, by means of progressive drag production. Flap settings equally depended on flight phase: 1/4 for take off, 1/2 and 3/4 for descent, and full for landing.

The aircraft’s clean stalling speed had been 95 mph, which decreased to 83 mph at maximum gross weight with full flaps and undercarriage at 26,000 feet.

Extending its drag-producing landing gear into the slipstream, the aircraft inched toward Runway 32’s threshold, as its altimeter unwound: 600 feet…500…300…100…

Passing over the fence at 115 mph, the olive-green, twin-engined, twin-finned medium bomber sank toward the blurred concrete in a full back-pressure control yoke-induced flare, screeching on the ground with its left main wheel at 80 mph, at which time the friction sufficiently reduced its air speed to permit the remaining two bogies to settle earthward.

Completing its deceleration roll and taxiing on to the American Airpower Museum ramp, the B-25J Mitchell, as the medium mission bomber, had appropriately been the first to return to base, the B-17 and the B-24 still plying the skies. If World War II had still been raging, the sequence would have been exactly the same.

The Many Advantages to Leasing Third-Party Warehouse Space

Outsourcing is becoming a popular tool for running a business. Companies outsource a number of the services formerly performed by internal departments. Some examples of the departments whose work is outsourced might be human resources and payroll, the IT department, and some manufacturing. There is one service that you might not immediately think of. This is your warehousing. On the West Coast, a Los Angeles Contract Warehouse can make your company more efficient and can save you money. Whether you are in New York or Los Angeles 3PL (third-party logistics) is something you should consider.

One of the most compelling reasons to use a contract warehouse is that it gives you more flexibility. Even if your company owns and runs its own warehouses, you may have some times of the year when you have extra inventory that you need to store. If you did not have a contract warehouse available to you, you would need to have excess warehouse space that would just sit empty for most of the year. The rule that time equals space equals money tells us that owning warehouse space that will spend time empty is wasteful of scarce resources. Carrying this idea forward, you can see that the less space you own and the more you lease can increase your efficiency.

When you decide to lease contract warehouse space, you need to consider the characteristics and features of the space as you make your decision. While important in every location, in the Los Angeles area, an important consideration is whether the warehouse is on stabilized ground. This characteristic is even more important if the inventory to be stored consists of oil field equipment or heavy equipment of other types. Other characteristics to look for are high ceilings to allow for high rack storage, a dry and well-insulated building to protect weather-vulnerable inventory, and a location that is convenient to a highway so that the transport truck can get the goods to their destination quickly.

The next area to consider after the physical building is the warehouse personnel. In your own warehouse, you have the responsibility for training, managing, and paying the warehouse workers. By contrast, the staff and management of the contract warehouse have specialized training and only one goal, which is efficiently and safely handling your goods. This leaves you and your company the capacity to excel at your core competencies.

A final consideration is your ability to keep in touch with your inventory. If you work with a progressive, high-tech warehouse, they will have a web-enabled tracking system. Using this system, you should be able to access your inventory information online so that, at any moment, you can check for yourself the quantities and locations of your inventory. This system eliminates the chance that you will spend time on hold while someone else checks your information.

As you can see, third-party logistics is an important consideration in determining your storage solutions. The three areas that you need to investigate in making your selection is the quality of the physical building, the reliability and knowledgability of the staff, and the convenience of online access.

After the Prom Dress Care – How to Clean Your Prom Dress When the Prom Is Over

Prom is over and here you are looking at a formal dress made from special fabrics and you have no idea how to take care of it. If your dress is dry clean only and you have any stains on it, take it to the dry cleaners immediately.

If your dress is constructed using a washable fabric, read the care label on the garment and follow any instructions listed on the label. If you have acquired a stain on your dress and the garment is washable, pre-treat the stain as soon as possible. Never iron a stained area or dry the garment until the entire stain is removed as this could cause the stain to set. Always test stain removers on a hidden area of the garment before using it in a prominent area. When removing a stain, always blot the area using a clean white towel. Use a mild cleanser first on any stains and if needed move onto other stain removal aids. If you need to rub the area do it from the backside of the fabric instead of the front. Be sure to rinse any stain removal products from the dress before washing it. If your dress is clear of stains you can spot clean the under arm areas to remove any deodorant residue instead of washing the entire dress.

If you feel your dress needs to be completely washed or if your prom gown is beaded or adorned in sequins it is best to hand wash it using a gentle cleanser. Fill a container large enough to hold the dress. If you don’t have a container large enough you can use your bathtub. Add enough gentle cleanser to make the water a little sudsy. Put the gown into the sudsy water and dip it in and out, gently agitating it with each movement. Pay special attention to the underarm areas being sure to remove any residue from sweat or deodorant. Change to clear water and rinse in the same fashion. Experts recommend rolling the dress up in white towels to remove the excess water. Lay the gown flat and shape it, then allow it to dry completely.

To store your dress it is best to fold it using tissue paper in between the folds in a nice sturdy box. If you opt to hang your dress never hang it by the straps as this can distort the shape of your dress. Fold the back of the waist area across the hanger and store it in a garment bag. Be sure when you hang it in your closet that it isn’t stuffed between other clothes because this will cause wrinkles that could be very difficult to remove later.

Zoga Stretching Routine

The Zoga daily stretching routine is believed to ease joint pain and tightness and minimize muscle spasms. It is usually designed to improve energy, minimize stress and increase range of flexibility. In addition, the stretching routine will lengthen muscles, decompress joints, better posture and boost athletic performance. Here is really a comprehensive overview of the Zoga Stretching Routine.

What is Zoga Stretching? Zoga was created by Dr. Suzanne Osborne of Pure Life Inc. Dr. Osborne is also the author of the book “Pure Life, The Pura Vida Journey”. She is a retired Doctor of Chiropractic and is now an active alternative health and fitness educator.

Whenever performed daily, these low-impact stretches will improve your flexibility. In addition, quite a few people state that it simply makes them feel great. There are plenty of stretching routines currently available; however Zoga is different because as opposed to centering on a single body part it’s more like a fairly easy type of Yoga. You move your overall body to create a sweeping circuit of stretching rather than individual stretches. Zoga is based on physical rehabilitation and rehab style stretches.

Anyone can perform a Zoga stretching routine to increase flexibility in a quick and simple manner without much thought; yet it’s designed in a unique structure to unwind some joints and muscles ahead of stretching others. Zoga stretching routine is usually completed within 8-10 minutes each day, split up into two components. Part one is standing and part two is conducted on the ground. Some people choose to begin with part two very first thing each and every morning, while still in bed. This is particularly handy for seniors or those suffering from lower back pain or arthritis.

Don’t worry about going to a health club for these particular stretches. All you need is just a little space to stretch your muscles and a thick yoga exercise mat. The more padding more suitable it is. To start:

1. Take off your footwear.

2. Dress in loose, comfy clothes.

3. Limit disturbances. Turn off your cell phone ring if you possibly can. You can even put on some comforting music.

Try to start an everyday program. According to Dr. Osborne, reproducing the same regimen day-to-day will help reinforce neurological paths and signals one’s body to relax even more deeply.

Breathe deeply. Stand in front of a full length mirror if you can to evaluate your form. Gradually you can close your eyes while you carry out the stretching routine so that you can enhance your concentration.

Perform each and every stretch twice back to back. As you get accustomed to the regimen, you can add more repetitions. For physical exercises with a left to right action Dr. Osborne says to “always move toward the left side first. Go to the left side first, and then go to the right side. For example, if you are stretching your back by bending to the side, then you would reach with your right hand and bend to the left side first.”

She also states to not count during the stretching routine. In fact it needs to be much more about relaxing and it should really be a relaxing experience. Hold the stretches as long as you easily can. Learn the routine so each stretch flows to the next one.

The entire Zoga stretching routine involves your warm-up, then the standing stretches of lower back, neck, shoulder, “swimming” stretches, and “fencing & chopping wood” stretches. Going now to your mat, the stretches include low back warm up, raise and twist and then the runners stretches. The stretching routine is ended with a cool off.

DIY Carpet Cleaning Tips – Red Stain Removal

Red stains from drink spills are a common sight to a carpet cleaner. Sometimes these stains are permanently stuck to your carpet fibers either because of the type of drink spilled or because somebody tried to remove the red with a chemical that ended up actually making that stain permanent. Sometimes it is possible to actually remove the red color and restore the carpet to its original color. The purpose of this article is to address the red stains that can be removed. There is a procedure carpet cleaners use to remove red stains but it takes a bit of time and effort so the homeowner usually pays a premium price for removal of that Kool-aid spill in their children’s room. This is the method I am advocating since I know it works most of the time and I have used it many times. The success rate is not as high as the removal of rust stains or pet stains but it is worth a try if the spill is in a highly visible area.

Your best bet in getting the red out is to use a certain product that comes in two parts. These chemicals along with heat is what changes the molecular structure of the stain to neutralize the color. Before you begin you need to have a few items ready to use. Go to a janitor supply store or carpet cleaning supply place. Get a product called Red Relief. It comes in two red bottles. Part A and Part B. while you’re there get some terry cloth spotting towels too. This is all you will need along with your iron at home.

The procedure is simple but you may need to repeat it several times for maximum effect. First, warm up your iron to a temperature of medium high. Dampen a couple of those terry towels you bought. Now, mix equal amounts of part A and part B into a container. There should be enough liquid now to saturate the red stain. Just pour the mixture onto the stain and let it sit for the amount of time indicated in the instructions.

Next you must cover the wet stain with a dampened terry towel and heat it from above with your iron. The trick here of course is to get the chemicals hot enough to do their job but not so hot that you melt the carpet. Carpet is just plastic after all and melts like plastic so take your time in applying heat to carpet fibers. Check for results often by looking under the towel but keep the iron moving so you don’t burn one spot. As you alternately heat and blot the area the red will slowly vanish. It may take several tries to get it all out or it may be one of those types of red dye that causes permanent staining. The main thing is, if the red starts to fade for you, keep trying. You may have to do the whole procedure several times but don’t stop trying until no more red will come out of the carpet.

The last thing you need to do is to rinse that area well with clean water several times. This just gets any chemical residue that was left. If you still are not satisfied with the job, the spot can be repaired by removal and replacement of a section of carpet but this is dependent on whether or not you have a piece of carpet left over from your installation. Worst case scenario: replace the area of carpet with a matching piece from a closet or other hidden place in the house. This takes the skills of a professional installer though because it will be necessary to attach the new carpet piece with seaming tape and seaming iron. Before you go to that expense just try the chemical method above. You may get a pleasant surprise.