Children’s Crafts – Their Importance & Value For Healthy Development

Children love crafts. They seem to become fixated when they are drawing, painting, cutting, pasting and working through kids crafts and activities. Kids love working with their hands. The sense of joy that children experience during the participation of arts and crafts is an unmistakable give away that something greater is going on with their learning. Why is this?

There is something in the sense of achievement children get when they are working on crafts or craft activities that involves their creativity and stimulates their imagination.

But there is so much more to this picture than a sense of achievement.

The amazing developmental benefits that children can obtain through creative craft ideas make childrens crafts such a crucial part of a child’s healthy development.

Below are some of the developmental skills that a child can learn through simple craft activities.

Social Skills: Children receive feedback through observation and the modeling of their parent/ teacher. In addition, interacting with other children also teaches acceptable social skills. Simple crafts for kids can be an amazing way to engage a child through appropriate play and talk.

Fine Motor Skills Development: Crafts assist children with the development of their fine motor skills. Children’s crafts and kids activities teach simple skills such as holding pencils and scissors correctly, cutting, pasting and coloring techniques.

Creative and Visual Spatial Development: Creative development is one of the key benefits that crafts and art activities offer. Through the use of creative craft ideas for kids, the choice of materials and simple task related instructions, their imagination and ability to make creative choices can develop. Children create an image of what they want to create in their task. They can transfer this image through the use of their hands and the materials into their craft work. When developed appropriately, this important skill can assist children with skills such as visualizing details, the recall of information through mental imagery, creation of living pictures and visualizing of goals. Good kids craft and activities resources with easy to implement craft ideas are an important aspect for this learning.

Linguistic Development: Another benefit crafts for kids offer is the development of a wider range of vocabulary. Through discussing the creation and work required to complete crafts, the parent can create dialogue which both increases vocabulary and creates meaning and understanding. When completing any craft activitiy, children are given further learning opportunities through observing their parent/ teacher’s expressions of verbal problem solving and positive reinforcement. When choosing craft ideas for kids, childrens crafts and activities, ensure that you have quality resources which enable discussion.

In addition to the above developmental benefits, easy craft ideas for kids can also assist with the development of:

Concentration and the completion of tasks: Children’s crafts assist with the development of the ability to concentrate and avoid distractions. Through the focus that is required to work through craft activities, children learn to focus on one task at a time. They learn that through focus they are able to successfully complete a task.

Skills in planning: Arts and crafts for kids assist with the development of both visual and verbal planning skills. Visual spatial skill development assists children to create plans in their mind’s eye of what they want to achieve through their craft project.

Persistence and Seeing Tasks Through to Completion: Children learn the skill of persistence when completing any activity or craft project. Choosing from one of many craft ideas and seeing the task through to completion regardless of set backs is an important skill for children to learn. If developed early in life, this can assist a child with school work, project development and goal setting.

Success and Self Worth: The participation and completion crafts assist with one of the most important aspects of healthy growth and development: the experience of self worth through success. Through skills discussed earlier such as concentration, persistence, planning, creative development and visual spatial development, children learn what is required to complete a task and to create their vision through the use of their hands. Praise and feedback are important factors here when they are attempting activity or kids craft project. Assisting children if they are struggling with an aspect or completion of a task can be important. Giving praise throughout the process and at the completion of the task helps the child to learn a sense of accomplishment associated with the development and completion of projects.

Creative craft ideas for kids are so valuable for healthy development. The best part of all is that assisting children with arts and craft activities can be so simple. With creative and easy craft ideas for kids, simple materials and a sense of fun, you too can have a great time! Whether you are a parent, teacher, grandparent or nanny, kids crafts and children’s activities are a fantastic way to connect with children and watch them grow and develop.

For printable craft ideas for kids and printable kids activities resources see: []

Working on the Road – Productivity Tips for the Business Traveller

Does your job involve a lot of business travel, such as attending conferences, trade shows and meetings in other cities? Business travel can be a great opportunity to network with new people, make important professional connections and get inspired by new ideas. However, frequent travel can really put a damper on your productivity. It is hard enough to stay on top of things when you are in one place, so when you are always staying in hotels and are travelling on trains and planes you might find it extra difficult to keep up with your work.

What can a road warrior and frequent traveller do to keep productive even when on a business trip? Here are some tips for staying focused while you are on the road:

Establish Productivity Routines

The hardest part of getting work done while you are on a business trip is how displaced you will feel. If you are used to working in your office at work or your desk at home, being in an unfamiliar hotel or serviced apartment can really throw you off.

In order to get your brain into ‘work -mode’, you can form a ritual that means it is time to get down to business. Set up the desk at your accommodation in the same way that your desk is set up at home or at the office. It can really help to stay in serviced apartments rather than a small hotel room, because you will be more likely to have a large and practical desk that is conducive to productivity. It’s hard to do your best work when you are curled up on the hotel bed.

Wake up at a specific time, drink your morning coffee, put on your favourite working music and get down to work. Plan around your conference or meetings and schedule in hours of work time where you make the decision to focus and get specific tasks completed.

Get Enough Sleep

Even though you are disturbed from your usual routines at home, it is still very important to get enough sleep so that you can maximise your productivity. It can be hard to get enough sleep during a business trip because there is so much going on. It might be tempting to have a few more drinks with colleagues in the evening, but this can really ruin your plans to get up early and do a couple of hours of work before the conference starts.

Burning the candle at both ends can work only for a couple of days until you start feeling terrible and your exhaustion really compromises your productivity. Keep yourself sharp and alert by getting the sleep you need.

Take Advantage of Time in Transit

Make sure your laptop is fully charged and make the most of any time that you spend waiting for a plane or sitting on a train. These are prime work hours because you are stuck in your seat anyway and can’t be distracted by anything else. The more work you get done on the flight or the train journey, the less you will have to do when you get there.

These are just a few tips that will help any business traveller stay productive and get things done while on the road.

Killer Alpha Male Chest Workout

Everyone wants to develop a lean muscular physique. The quickest way to get there and stay there is via resistance training. My favorite style of resistance training is old school weight training accompanied by the sound of clanging plates with heavy loads on a barbell. Do you know who trained/trains like that? Arnold, Zane, Reeves, Coleman, and Cutler are a few of the guys with that training mentality. What do you think of their physical development? These men have mastered the Alpha Male Physique.

Though a well balanced physique is essential, nothing screams Alpha Male Physique like a HUGE MUSCULAR CHEST. Let’s look at Arnold… arguably the greatest chest of all time. How did he get there? He trained with intensity. He trained with power. He trained with a goal in mind. He trained with real deal heavy weight Home Gym. The result was a chest that made history. As far as I’m concerned, if it’s good enough for Arnold it’s good enough for all of us!

There are many maximum lift milestones along the way of building your ultimate alpha chest. Oftentimes 135 lbs, 225 lbs, 315 lbs, 405 lbs and even heavier weights are popular goals that we aspire to conquer at one point or another during our training careers. Others take more of a “pound for pound” approach to measure their success. Some people have the goal of benching their bodyweight, 1.5 times their body weight, or even twice their body weight. Most of the time when people talk about this, they are talking about their Flat Barbell Bench Press One Rep Max. This is a great exercise and a good way to establish quantitative goals; but, don’t forget the ultimate goal. The ultimate goal is a great chest… not just moving a certain load on the bar (unless you are a power lifter). The great chest you are going to create is a result of more than just the development that comes just from Flat Bench.

So how do you develop your most impressive chest?

You need to pack on lean mass and slash excess fat. Like the greats, you must move serious weight and focus on training all areas of the chest. Often people do just flat bench and forget about the variations to get well rounded results. To put on slabs of pectoral beef you must hit flat, incline and decline chest movements. Time and time again you will see chests that look like ski slopes. There are two reasons for this. The first reason is simply excess adipose tissue. Extra fat on the chest it tends to collect at the lower portion of the pec area. This creates the “slope effect.” To lose this one has to lose total body fat. The second contributor to the “slope effect” chest is that the mid and lower portion of the pecs are somewhat developed; however, the upper portion is severely underdeveloped. This is a result of doing just flat bench and neglecting incline movements.

You combat this and build your alpha chest by following a well designed chest training program that puts an appropriate emphasis on the upper chest, mid chest, and lower chest. One way to ensure this is to start one out of two or two out of three chest workouts with the emphasis on the upper portion of the chest. To place more emphasis on any particular muscle group simply start the workout with exercises that are specific to that area. Because you are fresh at the beginning of the workout the results for that area will often be greatest. I suppose by now you are looking for a killer Alpha Male Chest Workout? Well here you go!

Sample Workout

Month One

Incline Barbell Bench Press: 3x 15-20 reps

Decline Barbell Bench Press: 3×15-20 reps

Flat Barbell Bench Press: 3×15-20 reps

Feet on Bench Push-Ups: 2 sets of MAX reps (one minute rest between sets)

Month Two

Flat Barbell Bench Press: 4×10-15 reps

Incline Barbell Bench Press: 4×10-15 reps

Decline Barbell Bench Press: 4×10-15 reps

Hands on Bench Push-Ups: 3 sets of MAX reps (one minute rest between sets)

Month Three

Incline Barbell Bench Press: 5×5-10 reps

Flat Barbell Bench Press: 5×5-10 reps

Decline Barbell Bench Press: 5×5-10 reps

Regular Pushups: 4 sets of MAX reps (one minute rest between sets)

Now you know what to do. How do you go about getting it done? You need the proper equipment. There are many options out there; but, don’t be fooled by inferior products. Make sure to invest in a bench that can handle the weight you can do today and more importantly the weight you will be able to do tomorrow. Also chose a piece of equipment that offers versatility while maintaining the integrity of each position. Often companies cut corners and the functionality is sacrificed for increased versatility. When it comes to a piece of equipment that is both functional in all positions and versatile, which leads me to the most fit equipment for these kind of workouts.

More versatility exists because of the dual sided racking station posts. You can use them for holding the barbell elevated to shoulder height for squats. Or you can rack a loaded barbell at hip height for rows, or deadlifts from the opposite side of the bench. No matter how you look at it there are numerous options and no excuses when using this sturdy and versatile bench.

No more excuses! It’s time to make it happen and create your Alpha Chest.

Live Sound Mixing Outdoors

Live Sound Problem Areas

Some of the problems of live sound mixing inside are reflections and the standing waves created by the dimensions and shape of the rooms and the position of the stage in the room. This changes with an outdoor venue. There may be few or no reflections with an outdoor stage. If there are reflections, there is usually a much longer delay before they return to the stage. Sometimes specific frequencies will reflect from some surface but other frequencies will not be reflected to the same extent.

Often there will be less problems with feedback on an open outdoor stage. If there is a roof it is usually higher than in a club stage situation. Also there may be no walls or just a back wall to reflect sounds back to the microphones. Inside stages with close walls and ceiling can reflect sound back to the microphones whereas outside this is often not a problem.

There are likely to be cancellation and reinforced areas that are dependent on speaker location. These will be more predictable with outdoor sound. If you use a stack on either side of the stage including subs there will be strong low end in the center of the venue but there will also be cancellation points off center on each side, usually between the center-line and the stacks. From a position directly in front of either stack you may hear the actual balance of the mix.

What is needed for Outdoor Shows

Depending on the style of music and the volume desired a sound system may require more power and more speakers for an outdoor show. You may also need to mike some things that are not needed in a club venue. Outdoor stages are often bigger than the stages in clubs, so you will not have as much bleed into the vocal mikes and other live mikes on stage. If you have the proper equipment it is easier to mix outdoors because you are not fighting the sound problems inherit in a room.

You may need to have an input from each instrument as well as your vocal mikes. You may also find benefit when working out doors to put up overhead mikes on the drum kit. Cymbals may bleed into vocal mikes on a club stage but may be lost on an outdoor stage. Also miking each individual drum will give you more control if you have the mikes and channels available. Guitars and keyboards may need to be in the mix for balance and dispersion. Many guitar cabinets tend to be beamy and the sound can drop off axis often dependent on frequency.

The monitor system may also need to be stronger for a large outdoor stage. Musicians may need more things in their monitors for timing. More monitor mixes are also desirable for outdoor venues. Usually for events other than concerts four mixes will work well. A stage right, center stage, stage left, and drum mix will allow you to give the musicians what they need to hear in most cases.

Have a Good Show

I have heard many people say that they think outdoor gigs are hard. The real secret is to have enough PA for the gig and venue. I much prefer to mix outdoors, but I have the necessary level of equipment available for the jobs that I take. A live stereo recording of an outdoor gig with enough mikes and equipment can be very good.

HUD-1 As A Marketing Tool – For Realtors

How Can HUD-1 Help You Generate Business?


HUD-1 is a standard form you use very often. The form serves not just as a settlement closing statement, but also as a proof of payment of different tax deductions. Understanding the form and the tax deductible items and communicating them to your clients will help your clients to minimize their taxes and help you to build trust and get more business exposure.

What is the HUD-1


HUD-1 is a form used by the settlement agent (closing agent) to itemize all incoming funds and all charges paid and accrued by a borrower and seller for a real estate transaction.

When is the HUD-1 Issued?

The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) requires that the form be issued in all real estate transactions in the United States which involve federally related mortgage loans. RESPA states you should be given a copy of the HUD-1 at least one day prior to settlement.

When Do Clients Need HUD-1 For Taxes?


Clients use the information included in the form when they file their annual taxes. The filing deadline is normally April 15 of every year for the proceeding year. To allow the client enough time to file taxes using the HUD-1 information, it is recommended that a copy of the HUD-1 will be sent to the client in January.

Because the real estate transaction takes place during the year, usually long before filing the tax return, the HUD-1 given to the client at closing time could be lost or misplace. Sending the client a copy of the HUD-1 with a cover letter will be very helpful and time savings to the client.

HUD-1 Client Sample Letter


The following is a sample letter you can use to send your clients:



Dear [Client’s Name]:

Tax time indeed is just around the corner, and the first thing you will need is a copy of the Closing Statement on your property. Moving can be a very busy time, and you may have misplaced this very important document.

I would like to be sure you avail yourself of all the tax advantages possible from our transaction. If your accountant has any questions, please have him or her call me (if you need a referral to an accounting you can trust, I’d be happy to provide you with one).

I look forward to continuing as your realtor and providing you the highest level of service possible.

Yours sincerely,

[your name]

Oh, by the way… If any of your friends or relatives are thinking about buying or selling a home, I’d love to be of service to them. So, when you think of these people, just give me a call with their name and number. I’ll be happy to follow up and tend to their Real Estate needs.

Which HUD-1 Information Is Important For Your Client’s Taxes?

The information reported in the HUD-1 relates to the following tax statements and schedules:

Tax form HUD-1 line

Schedule A (itemized deductions), Line 10 – Annual mortgage interest deduction Line 901

Schedule A (itemized deductions), Line 10 – Points deduction Line 802

Schedule A (itemized deductions), Line 6 – Real estate taxes deduction Line 1003, 1004

Schedule E (rental income), Line 20 – Depreciation (cost of property is required) Line 101, 102

Schedule E (rental income), Line 12a – Mortgage Interest Deduction Line 901, 802

Schedule E (rental income), Line 9 – Insurance 903, 1001, 1002

Schedule E (rental income), Line 16a – Real state taxes 1003, 1004

Schedule E (rental income), Line 18 – Other deductions 703, 801-811, 1005, 1101-1110, 1201-3, 1301-1302

Schedule D (capital gain) Part I, II, Column d – Sales Price 401, 402

Schedule D (capital gain) – Part I, II, Column e – Cost or other basis 101, 102

Form 6252 (installment sale), Line 8 – Selling price 401, 402

Form 6252 (installment sale), Line 8 – Cost or other basis 101, 102

Form 4797 (sale of business property), Part I, Column d – Cost or other basis 401, 402

Form 4797 (sale of business property), Part I, Column f – 101, 102

HUD-1’s two sections


Section J, Summary of Borrower’s Transaction

This section contains 6 sections, and basically summarizes the entries made to the section L (Settlement charges, see below).

o Section 100, Gross Amount Due from Borrower

o Section 200, Amounts Paid By or In Behalf of Borrower

o Section 300, Cash at Settlement From/To Borrower

o Section 400, Gross Amount Due to Seller

o Section 500, Reductions in Amount Due to Seller

o Section 600, Cash at Settlement To/From Seller

Section L, Settlement Charges

That’s where many entries are tabulated before being brought forward to page 1. Columns contain charges that are paid from either the borrower’s or the seller’s funds. Your closing statement probably won’t have entries in all lines.

o Section 700, Agency Commissions

o Section 800, Items Payable in Connection with Loan

o Section 900, Items Required by Lender to be Paid in Advance

o Section 1000, Reserves Deposited with Lender

o Section 1100, Title Charges

o Section 1200, Government Recording and Transfer Charges

o Sections 1300 & 1400, Additional Settlement Charges and Totals

Line By Line Description

Section 700, Agency Commissions

701 Commissions paid to real estate agencies

702 Commissions paid to real estate agencies

Section 800, Items Payable in Connection with Loan

801 Processing or originating loan fees. If the fee is a percentage of the loan amount, the percentage will be stated.

802 “Points” charged by the lender. Each point is 1% of the loan amount.

803 Appraisal fees. If paid with loan application before closing, it should be marked “POC,” (paid outside of closing). The amount would be shown, but would not be included in the total fees you bring to settlement.

804 Cost of the credit report if it is not included in the Origination Fee.

805 Inspections fee, done at the request of the lender.

806 Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI) application fee.

807 Assumption fee, when buyer takes over seller’s existing mortgage.

808 Miscellaneous items connected with the loan, such as fees paid to a mortgage broker.

809 Miscellaneous items connected with the loan, such as fees paid to a mortgage broker.

810 Miscellaneous items connected with the loan, such as fees paid to a mortgage broker.

811 Miscellaneous items connected with the loan, such as fees paid to a mortgage broker.

Section 900, Items Required by Lender to be Paid in Advance

901 Interest collected at settlement for the time period between closing and the first monthly payment.

902 Mortgage insurance premiums due at settlement. Escrow reserves for mortgage insurance are recorded later. If your mortgage insurance is a lump sum payment good for the life of the loan it should be noted.

903 Hazard insurance premiums due at settlement. It is not used for insurance reserves that will go into escrow.

904 Miscellaneous items: flood insurance, mortgage life insurance, credit life insurance and disability insurance premiums.

905 Miscellaneous items: flood insurance, mortgage life insurance, credit life insurance and disability insurance premiums.

Section 1000 Reserves Deposited with Lender

1001-1007 Funds used to start the borrower’s escrow account, from which the lender will pay next year’s premiums. Each mortgage payment includes an amount that covers a portion of these recurring expenses.

1008 Escrow adjustment calculated by the settlement agent by comparing different escrow formulas to assure the lender does not collect more escrow funds than allowed.

Section 1100, Title Charges

1101 Settlement agent’s fee.

The fees for the abstract or title search and examination are entered in lines

1102 Abstract / title search fee

1103 Examination fee

1104 Title insurance binder (also called a commitment to insure). Payment for title insurance policies is entered later.

1105 Deed preparations record charges and work on mortgages and notes

1106 The fee charged by a notary public for authenticating the execution of the settlement documents

1107 Attorney’s fees.

1108 Title insurance (except the cost of the binder).

1109 Informational lines disclosing costs for the separate title insurance policies (Only line 1108 is carried forward.)

1110 Informational lines disclosing costs for the separate title insurance policies (Only line 1108 is carried forward.)

1111-1113 Other title-related charges which vary by location: tax certificate fee / private tax fee

Section 1200, Government Recording and Transfer Charges

1201 Recording fee

1202 City or County recording fee

1203 State recording fee

1204-1205 Miscellaneous recording fee items

Section 1300, Survey and inspections fees (for pests, lead-based paint, radon, structural inspections, inspections for heating, plumbing, or electrical equipment) and home warranty.

Line 1400 Total settlement charges paid from borrower’s and seller’s funds. They are also entered in Sections J and K,

lines 103 and 502.

Section J, Summary of Borrower’s Transaction

Section 100, Gross Amount Due from Borrower

Line 101 Gross sales price of the property.

Line 102 Personal property charges (draperies, washer, dryer, outdoor furniture, and decorative items purchased from the seller)

Line 103 Total settlement charges to borrower (from Line 1400 section L)

Lines 104-105 Amounts owed by the borrower or previously paid by the seller (include balance in the seller’s escrow account if the borrower is assuming the loan and uncollected rents borrower may owe the seller)

Lines 106-112 Item paid in advance by seller (Prorated portion of city/county taxes)

Line 120 Gross amount due from borrower. Total of Lines 101 through 112

Section 200, Amounts Paid By or In Behalf of Borrower

Line 201 Buyer’s credit for the earnest money paid when the offer was accepted.

Line 202 The new loan paid to the borrower by the lender.

Line 203 Loan borrower assumes or takes title subject to an existing loan or lien on the property.

Lines 204-209 Miscellaneous items paid by or on behalf of the buyer (allowance the seller is making for repairs or replacement of items or a note seller accepts from borrower for part of the purchase price)

Lines 210-219 Bills seller has not yet paid, but owes (taxes, assessments or rent collected in advance by the seller for a period extending beyond the settlement date)

Lines 220 Total for all items in Section 200. The total is added to the borrower’s proceeds.

Section 300, Cash at Settlement From/To Borrower

Lines 301 Summary of the total amount due from the borrower.

Lines 302 Summery of all items already paid by or for the borrower.

Lines 303 The difference between lines 301 and 302 representing the amount of money the borrower owes at closing. If negative number the borrower will receive funds back at closing.

Section K, Summary of Seller’s Transaction

Section 400, Gross Amount Due to Seller (amounts added to the seller’s funds)

Line 401 Gross sales price of the property.

Lines 404-405 Amounts owed by the borrower or previously paid by the seller (escrow account’s balance or uncollected rents)

Lines 406-412 Items paid in advance by the seller (prorated portion of city / county taxes)

line 420 is the gross amount due to the seller. Total of Lines 401 through 412.

Section 500, Reductions in Amount Due to Seller (amounts are subtracted from the seller’s funds)

line 501 When a third party holds the borrower’s earnest money deposit, and will pay it directly to the seller.

line 502 Total from line 1400, the seller’s total charges as computed in Section L.

line 503 When borrower assumes or takes title subject to existing liens which are deducted from the sales price.

line 504-505 First and/or second loans which will be paid-off as part of settlement (including accrued interest).

line 506-509 Miscellaneous entries

line 506 Deposits paid by the borrower to the seller or third party other than the settlement agent

line 510-519 Bills unpaid by seller (taxes, assessments or rent collected in advance )

line 520 Total of all items in Section 500. The total is deducted from the seller’s proceeds.

Section 600, Cash at Settlement To/From Seller

line line 601 Gross amount due to the seller, from line 420.

line 602 Total reductions in seller’s proceeds, from line 520.

line 603 Difference between lines 601 and 602. Cash amount paid to seller (if a negative number the seller owes money at closing)

HGH (Human Growth Hormone) Research

Human Growth Hormone (HGH, also known as Somatotropin) has a beneficial effect on every cell of our body. On command from the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland produces Human Growth Hormone, but as we get older, the pituitary gland does not release it. Science once believed that HGH was only required while the body grew to maturity; research now indicates that at any age, HGH is necessary in almost all functions of the body. But once the body matures, the levels of released HGH lowers, by as much as 80% from age 21 to 61. As HGH dimishes, so does the youth of our bodies.

The pituitary gland releases Human Growth Hormone in minute amounts, during the hours of sleep. During sleep, HGH helps repair the body, stimulating the growth of new muscle, bone and to replenish the cells with amino acids. With plenty of Human Growth Hormone, the effects of aging are reduced.

The Director of Geriatric Medicine at the Chicago Medical School University Of Health Sciences, Dr. Daniel Rudman, produced the results of his experiments with HGH in the New England Journal Of Medicine. He injected a group of 12 men, ages 61 to 81, with human growth hormone, During a six month period, and reversed their biological ages by 10 to 20 years. Dr. Rudman’s experiments produced a reduction in body fat by 14%, and lean muscle increased by almost 9%. Skin grew more youthful, and the test subjects reported more energy, and an increased sex drive.

Dr. Edmund Chein, M.D. of the Palm Springs Life Extension Institute, created an HGH regime that involved restoring levels of human growth hormone with low dose, high frequency injections. Dr. Chein assures his patients will experience increases in bone density of 1.5 to 2.5% every 6 months, as well as 10% loss of body fat, and increased muscle, and that this may continue until the patient attains the body of a 25 year old. This HGH regime is highly effective, but also very expensive; more than $1,500 a month!

Dr. L. E. Dorman presented research to the American College For The Advancement Of Medicine. Dr. Dorman’s research found he did not need to inject Human Growth Hormone. Dr. Dorman found that secretagogue compounds, taken orally, acted as stimulants or precursors for the production and release of the body’s own HGH. These secretagogues consist primarily of amino acids, which are compounded to stimulate the brain and pituatary gland to release Human Growth Hormone.

Releasing HGH with Sound: Binaural Beats

Studies have shown that Binaural Beat Brain Wave Entrainment can also release (HGH) Human Growth Hormone. Aerospace engineer Michael Herculese used delta brainwave entrainment of 1.05 Hz to stimulate HGH, and measured significant increases in HGH, as well as increased Testosterone and Serotonin levels. Dr. Norman Shealy, noted a release of HGH in response with a 7.8 hz photic stimulus.

Delta is the brain wave frequency of deep sleep, and also of deep healing. In Delta, our brains release HGH. Brain wave entrainment using binaural beat sound also promotes brain wave the balancing of the right and left hemispheres of the brain. Dr. Robert Cosgrove, M.D., a biomedical engineer, stated that brain wave balancing is “an excellent neuropathway exercise that promotes optimal brain performance.” Dr. Cosgrove believes that brain wave balancing “could delay deterioration of the brain due to aging for decades.”

A study by ex-President of the American Board of Anti-Aging Medicine, Dr. Vincent Giampapa, showed that Alpha, Theta and Delta brainwaves increase the production of Human Growth Hormone. These slower brainwaves also increase the production of melatonin and DHEA: DHEA by as much as 90%, and melatonin by as much as 300%.

The use of brain wave entrainment to produce Human Growth Hormone has many benefits not found in HGH dietary supplements, including an improved ability to learn, stress relief, and increased awareness.

Favorite Orchids – Brassavola

General Description

Brassavola is a small genus in the Cattleya alliance that consists of exotic looking orchids that are easy to grow. These orchids are native to the lowlands and tropical areas in Latin America, and the Caribbean where they are commonly grown as houseplants or outdoor plants. Robert Brown named this genus Brassavola in the early 1800’s in honor of Antonio Musa Brassavola, a famous Italian botanist and nobleman of 16th century Venice.

Brassavolas are widely crossed by professional hybridizers with other genera to create a vast array of flower colors and fragrance combinations. Many exotic hybrids count Brassavola orchids as parents. Brassavola species that were heavily crossed with Cattleyas and Laelias to produce hybrids known as Brasso-cattleyas and Brassolaeliocattleyas (now reclassified as Rhyncholaelia.) Today, there are about 20 recognized species under the Brassavola genus.

The leaves of Brassavolas are succulent, long, slender and pencil-like. These orchids typically bloom during summer and fall. The flowers are slender, often times spidery, and may take on white or lime-green colors, or a combination of both. They also frequently come with sweet, permeating evening scents that dissipate by morning. One particular species, the Brassavola flagellaris, which smells like hot chocolate, produces one of the most pleasing and intense fragrances among all orchids.

But the most well-known and easily cultivated species in this genus is the Brassavola nodosa, more commonly known as Lady of the Night. This orchid that hails from Mexico is named as such because of its delightful clove evening scent that can easily fill a large greenhouse. This particular species has made it to the lists of the 10 easiest orchids to grow, thus making it highly popular among amateur growers. Additionally, the Lady of the Night is an important orchid among expert and professional growers because it frequently passes on its ease of blooming, compact habit and fragrance to its offspring. In fact, this species has produced highly awarded hybrids like the Yellow Bird, Apache Sunrise, Carnival Kids, and Morning Glory. The Lady of the Night can also produce a stunning display of flowers, especially when it is not divided and is allowed to grow into a large plant.

Cultural Information

These orchids are fairly easy to grow and they are only particular when it comes to lighting. They need a lot of bright light. They can be grown in a greenhouse, on a windowsill, or under lights, as long as the light they receive falls within 2400 to 3600 foot candles.

Brassavolas can tolerate humidity levels as low as 40%. However, for the best flowering results, increase the humidity during active growth by misting the plants or using pebble trays. During active growth, they require copious amount of water, but must drain well. After new growths have developed, watering and the humidity level can be reduced, but take care not to allow the leaves to shrivel during this period.

Brassavolas thrive in intermediate (55°F to 60°F or 12.8°C to 15.6°C) to warm (65°F or 18.3°C higher) temperatures. They can be potted or placed in a hanging basket with a good potting mix for epiphytic orchids. They will also grow on a bark mount outdoors in mild climates. They can be fertilized regularly with diluted concentrations, or every 2 weeks during active growth and once a month during the rest period.

Description and Applications of an Aluminum Residential Fence

An aluminum residential fence is a galvanized steel ornamental fence system with a hard wearing powder coat finish. An aluminum residential fence is designed to hand over an exceptional ornamental value to residential homeowners. A selection of styles and colors completes whichever home in the middle of the classic look of ornamental fencing. Engineered for residential applications, this fence method provides the level of quality and resilience a homeowner requires.

Several companies offer aluminum residential fencing in several popular colors. Each powder coat finish has been specifically formulated for durability, with ultra-violet inhibitors to end the elements. It is possible to specifically formulate a powder to coat your ornamental fence.

Features and Benefits of aluminum residential fence

Duplex coating system of polyester resin above hot dipped galvanized steel prevents early rusting. Only one of its kinds Classic Premier Rail provides strength and allows for 8 'sections to trim down installation time and labor. Out of the ordinary retaining rod in the rail is protected from harsh environments and firmly holds pickets in place; no exterior fasteners are considered necessary.

Panels can be inclined up to 24 "in an 8 'section to consent to for grade changes and to with no trouble adjust and go after the contour of posts. coating leading to rust. A lot of choices of styles and colors are available to go together and add to your architecture. the intent of states Residential Classic Premier is warranted to be free from defects in material and workmanship from date of acquire.

Specification of aluminum residential fence

Heights Available for aluminum residential fence are 4 ', 5', 6 '. The colors available for the product are Black, White, Bronze and Desert Sand. The specification of Picket Material: 5/8 "- 18 Ga. Square pickets. Other specifications and features include; 1 1/4" rail, 2 "- 16 Ga. Square posts, Picket Tops: Universal Spear Picket, Styles: Universal 3 -Rail, Spear 3-Rail, Staggered Spear 3-Rail, Picket 3-Rail.

Testing Stun Gun Voltage – How to Ensure Your Device’s Effectiveness

In danger of being attacked, having self defense devices on hand is better than not having anything to protect you at all. Personal protection devices actually decrease your risk of being a victim of any forms of attack. However, you also need to be equipped with the knowledge of using it properly. It will be most effective if you know how it works.

Stun gun is a non-lethal self-defense device that uses electricity to temporarily immobilize an attacker. It works to disrupt the brain’s communication to the muscles of the body. Once the electric current from the gun is dumped into the attacker’s muscles, it causes them to do a great deal of work rapidly by interrupting the neurological impulses that control voluntary muscle movement. It will not however create a lasting damage to your attacker’s body. It only works to incapacitate him for a period of time just enough for you to escape and ask for help.

One of the most important factors that you should consider when buying this device is its voltage. The higher the voltage, the faster is the delivery of the electricity to an attacker’s body. Because of this, immobilization will also be quicker. The higher voltage guns usually look and sound more powerful than those with low voltages. If you test fire a high voltage gun, the electrical current which runs between the prongs create bright and intense lightning bolts. It will also produce loud crackling sounds which more often than not scare off an attacker. Higher voltage means greater effectiveness in a shorter period of time.

How do you test stun gun voltage?

Though powerful, a high voltage gun is still safe to handle. When you actually use it, you can be assured that the electric current will not pass on to you. However, in order to ensure its effectiveness, you need to test fire it so you can be sure that it will work when needed.

When testing the gun, make sure that you exercise all care and precaution. Not a single part of your body should get closer to the contact probes other than the switch and the safety zone plate which is about 1 ½ inches. Contact with the gun beyond that point may result in mild shock. When you press the switch, the gun will form an arc shape between the two electrodes. After test firing, the device needs to be discharged. Do this by touching probes against another piece of metal. If it emits a spark, then it is safe to use. Do not test fire longer than a second or two as this may damage your gun.

To use a stun gun, you need to be prepared and ready at all times. Make sure that you know how to manage it so you can use it to protect yourself effectively. Carry it with you wherever you go and do not be afraid to use it when the need comes.

The Sport of Archery in the Olympic Games

Archery was not a sports event in the first ancient Olympic Games in Greece. However, the games were held for over 1,000 years, so it's quite possible that at some time archery was an Olympic sport in the past.

Archery for men was an event for the first time in the modern Olympics in 1900. The first archery event for women was in 1904. However, there was no uniformity in the rules in those early Olympics and archery was dropped as an event after 1920. The international governing body for archery, the Federation Internationale de Tira l'Arc (FITA), was founded in 1931. It took many years before all countries accepted the new international rules for competition, but archery was able to return as an Olympic sport to the 1972 Munich Games. In 1988, team competitions were held in addition to the individual events.

Since 1992, the event format is head-to-head competition for the top 64 athletes. There are four archery events: Men's Individual, Women's Individual, Men's Team and Women's Team.

Individual competitors (men and women) shoot 72 arrows at a 'bulls-eye' target from a distance of 70 meters (229 feet, 8 inches). Each shot must be made within a 40-second time limit. A perfect score would be 720. A 'sudden death' overtime shot is made in the event of a tie.

Team competitions consist of 16 3-archer teams. As in the individual events, each archer shoots 72 arrows are shot at a distance of 70 meters. In a tie score, each team member will shoot one arrow. The arrow closest to the center of the target determines the winner.

The target has ten rings. One point is listed for an arrow landing in the outermost ring, 2 points for a hit in the next ring, continuing in this manner to the center ring which rewards 10 points.

The recurve bow is used by Olympic Archers. An arrow shot by this bow travels at more than 150 mph. The bows are very 'high-tech', manufactured from wood, fiberglass and graphite. They have stabilizers which help keep the arrow flights straight and sights to help in aiming. The strings are made from a hydrocarbon product or from Kevlar. The arrows are aluminum or carbon graphite. The cost of this gear is over $ 1,000.

An Olympic archer has typically been training for at least ten years. It's essential to develop perfect form (or as close to perfect as humanly possible). A good coach is also very important. The proper equipment, of course, is needed. Fortunately, archery is much less expensive to pursue than many other sports. Read, study, talk to other archers. Attend and compete in local and national tournaments. Most important, practice, practice, practice.

Archery is a sport accessible to many disabled athletes. A New Zealand woman, Neroli Fairhall, was the first paraplegic to compete in the Olympic Games. She was a gold medalist in the Commonwealth Games. This is also a sport that people can continue with for much of their lives and enjoy with their families. Hope to see you at the Olympics!

The Importance of Plumbers and Plumbing Services

Many often do not think much of plumber and plumber services. This is due to many reasons such as the low prestige of the trade or the infrequent need of and contact with the plumber. However, they provide a valuable service to society, allowing us to enjoy the comfort of our environment with a well functioning plumbing system.

While simple leaks in faucets can be address to by homeowners ourselves, leaks or burst in our pipes especially concealed ones often must be left to a professional plumber. With their wealth of knowledge and advance equipments, they can ensure that the affected area is fully repaired so that your home plumbing system is functioning well again.

Besides leaks or bursting, installation of pipes in homes must also be done by a plumber as we will not have the know-how to do so. Without a plumber, we will not have the pleasure of clean running water and enjoy the basic sanitary pleasures we are so used to enjoy today. Imagine how backward we will become without them, having to draw water from wells for our daily usage. Any home owners facing a stubborn clogged drain, choked basin or toilet bowl can testified to the importance of a plumber in their life. Imagine the stink caused by a choked toilet bowl or the situation of not being able to take a shower; one can easily guess how frustrated one can be. A plumber with their variety of useful tools can quickly rectify these problems and ensure everything run smoothly for us again.

What’s more, there may be instances when we drop something valuable or with high sentimental values such as jewellery into our drain. Who else can we turn to help us retrieve these items? Only a plumber will be able to help us do so without making a mess of drainage system. Thus, from the above, you can see the importance of plumber and plumbing services in our daily life. So next time you engage a plumber, remember the valuable service they bring to our society and how they can help us solve problems which we can’t deal with ourselves.

If you ever need plumbers in Singapore to help you, here is one reliable plumber in Singapore I recommend.

Roof Protection – An Essence for your Home

It does not matter where you go, but the best place on earth will surely be your home. The coziness and shelter that home gives is incomparable. You have been working hard day and night to get your house built, but do you now how you can do roof protection.

The aim of roof protection is to protect the roof ensuring long-term durability and safety. Your roof never has a “good day,” the terror of heat, rain or cold surrounds it on one or the other day. Risks that your house’s roof is prone to also depend on the place where your home is located.

Following some simple steps will better the roof protection:

o When planning to undertake the re-roofing project, make sure that your roofing contractor removes all the roof-covering materials, down to the sheathing. It is advisable that you never add a second layer of shingles over an existing layer in areas prone to strong winds.

o Install self-adhesive roof or window flashing tape over the joints between the outer layers to provide a backup level of water protection.

o Get the sheathing inspected for damage or a crumble. Replace any weak material with sheathing rated for your support spacing.

o When contracting for roof repairs, hire a licensed, insured professional roofing contractor.

In case, you stay at a higher altitude where heavy snowfall occurs you need to take special care as the snow that falls at the roof takes the form of ice dams. This snow starts melting with the heat coming from the home and finds its way under the roof shingles, causing damage to the interior of the home as well as the roof. Keep the following points in mind and ensure long and safe roof:

– Use a roof rake to remove snow from the roof. Do inspect and clean the gutters regularly.

– The attic floor should be insulated to help keep the attic roof cold. Try to keep it as cold on the underside of your roof as it is outside.

– Make sure that the vents or the openings are not blocked, and cold air is flowing along the underside of your roof.

The roof should be leak proof as the worn-out roofs begin to leak. Water entering into your home through leaky roofs can damage attic insulation, penetrate and destroy ceilings, and can eventually rot house’s support structure.

Groom the trees near on the property as they too can harm the roof. You can also hire a licensed, insured professional tree service to trim the tree properly and to keep branches away from harming the property.

Roof works as a shelter saving one from heat, cold winds, rain and many other harmful facets. It protects you and in return, you need to protect it to ensure your safety. Roof protection is an essence for your home, and ensures your home’s long life and durability. You care about your roof and it will surely take care of you.

13 Fatal Errors Managers Make and How You Can Avoid Them

Most corporate organisations collapse today as a result of ineffective management. This is because most people find themselves in managerial positions without prior training or preparation. Many errors are therefore committed by such managers which negatively affect their organisations. It is therefore necessary for such managers to learn from this book entitled “13 Fatal Errors Managers Make and How You Can Avoid Them”. It is written by Steven Brown, president of the Fortune Group.

Brown says for many years now, the Fortune Group and himself have been helping businesses to succeed and managers to manage. He reveals that within this period, he has seen just about every kind of business situation. Brown adds that after all these years in the trenches, solving real, not textbook, problems, he has discovered that companies fail primarily because managers fail.

And when managers fail, it is not because they cannot master numbers, but because they try to master people, or manipulate them, or ignore them, educates Brown.

He says this book is for managers, or anyone that wants to be one someday. The author adds that it is equally for old managers and young people just starting their business career. It is about perfecting your leadership and managerial skills by avoiding the common errors managers make with the people they manage, he stresses.

Brown gives you the truly classic mistakes that managers have been making all over. According to him, these errors can prove fatal for an individual or a company. He adds that you do not have to commit any of these common defects of managerial character, habit, style and judgement if you know what they are.

Brown discloses that in the hundreds of companies that the Fortune Group has served in the United States, Canada and Australia, he has scrupulously catalogued all the most common managerial errors that occur in business situations that have gone sour. He adds that the words used to describe the situations may differ, but the underlying problems seldom do.

This book has 13 chapters based on the identified number of errors. Fatal error number is referred to as refusal to accept personal accountability. According to Brown here, the five prerequisites essential for business success are quality or unique product; proper timing; adequate capital; people resources; and effective management.

In his words, “But if you lack the fifth element, you will not have the first four. Why? Take a look at the influence the final one will have on the first four. Without effective management, correct decisions cannot be made about the product’s features and the proper time for its introduction into the marketplace.”

Brown adds that the company lacking proper management cannot acquire, much less sustain adequate capital. He says above all, it takes good management to attract the best people and to coach and develop them.

The author expatiates that in business, everything begins and ends with management, and in order to work effectively, management must be accountable. According to Brown, when Harry Truman was president of the United States, he had a sign in the Oval Office: “The buck stops here”.

The author therefore advises that every manager should adopt the same dictum. Brown also discusses other concepts such as choosing the path; the failure formula; the three unspoken words; a philosophy of management, etc. in this chapter.

Failure to develop people is identified as the fatal error number two. According to the business management consultant, management has a major purpose: to provide for the continuation of the business over time, personnel change and absence.

Brown says a properly-managed business can continue successful operation over generations of employees and during the temporary or permanent absence of any given manager. “Moreover, your permanent absence due to transfer to another position, retirement, poor health, or even death must not cripple the company. If it will, then you are neglecting your obligations as a manager,” he declares.

Brown also looks at the concepts of ineffective management; characters versus character; sideline managing; management traps, etc. in this chapter.

In chapters three to seven, he respectively examines the fatal errors of trying to control results instead of influencing thinking; joining the crowd; managing everyone the same way; forgetting the importance of profit; concentrating on problems rather than objectives.

Chapter eight is based on fatal error number eight, that is, being a buddy, not a boss. According to Brown, so often managers want to be the employees’ buddy after hours, then come into the office and manage the next day but the employees will not allow it. He says it is an “either-or” situation. That is, you must be the buddy or the manager. Brown expatiates that successful hybrids do not exist in such a situation.

He educates that most managers have received advice through the years concerning how they should conduct themselves when in the company of those they manage. The author says he believes that most of the advice is an expression of the personal conviction of those passing on the advice.

In chapters nine to twelve, Brown notionally X-rays the fatal errors of failing to set standards; failure to train people; condoning incompetence; and recognising only top performers.

The author says, “If you took all the top performers in your industry and hired them for your company, at the end of a year only one person would hold the number-one spot…You cannot hire all the top performers, and you cannot build any department within a company with only top producers.”

Chapter thirteen, the last chapter is based on the fatal error number thirteen, that is, trying to manipulate people. According to him, as managers we can change the attitudes of our people, but we must also be careful about the methods we use to influence our staff.

Brown educates that good influences will add to the self-esteem of those on our staff and will make them more productive; while bad ones will cause the staff to feel manipulated, and production will be negatively affected.

He also looks at the sub-concepts of taking attitude into account; knowing your people; making management work; approaches to increased productivity; corporate philosophy, etc.

As regards stylistic diagnosis, Brown’s efforts deserve commendation. The language is simple and embroidered with good word-ordering which enhances comprehension. Brown is also very creative in the way he handles his concepts, making everything interesting.

He uses graphical embroidery to achieve visual reinforcement of understanding. The author includes “Fortune Action Contract”, an exercise section, at the end of every chapter to arouse readers’ active participation.

In the words of Dennis Waitley, author of “Seeds of Greatness”, “In the flood of ‘success’ books, this is a stand-out in style… and applications…Brown gives us a needed dose of preventive management medicine.”

However, fatal errors two and ten should have been merged because the concepts are similar.

Do you want to become a great manager by avoiding fatal errors managers make? If your answer is “Yes”, then this book is highly recommended to you.

Bokashi Composting: Overview, Advantages, and Drawbacks

Bokashi composting is a program of intense composting sans oxygen whereby food scraps are fermented inside a sealed bucket by means of a bran which is inoculated with effective microorganisms. Once totally fermented, the food waste is then typically entombed inside of a backyard garden where it breaks down quickly generating nutrient rich soil.

Heritage: Initially formulated and used in Japan, the process of bokashi biodegradation has been followed for hundreds of years. It was eventually popularized by Professor Teruo Higa who identified the appropriate amount of bacteria necessary to best biodegrade organic substances.

Composition: Bokasi bran is commonly comprised of wheat bran, water, molasses and microorganisms.

How it Works?: When Bokashi bran is combined with organic waste, the bacteria begin to develop triggering the material to ferment and break down.

Uses: Bokashi food recycling is practiced by people and companies.

In home functions, food is placed in an sealed container and the bokashi bran is added. Once a few weeks have passed, the bran and microorganisms start to digest and breakdown the organic material. Once the food is fermented it can be deposited in a compost mound, entombed in ditches, or in a backyard where it is going to easily dissolve.

Positive aspects: People that use Bokashi reference a variety of perks to using bokashi composting compared to typical food recycling tactics, including:

Speed: Organics decompose with bokashi bran for a length of a couple of weeks and are subsequently ready to get deposited in trenches or garden soil. Traditional food recycling typically takes more time (however it is dependent on your system of composting) and comes together over the course of a few months.

Scents: Since bokashi food recycling is anaerobic, the fermentation procedure has got to transpire inside of a hermetically sealed container. Thus, there is no bad odor involving bokashi composting.

Animals: Matured Bokashi organics are maintained inside a sealed container or buried in the soil and therefore, contrary to some backyard compost heaps, won’t generally bring in critters or mice.

Greenhouse Gases: No GHGs are made during bokashi food recycling. This is distinct from conventional food recycling through which greenhouse gases are created.

Health of the Soil: The water content in earth embedded with bokashi fermented food is normally higher than that of regular compost. As such, bokashi food recycling permits greater conservation of groundwater. The organic nutrients in the earth after bokashi fermentation are also less water soluble as are the nutrients derived from composting (with oxygen) and as a result are unlikely to leach away because of run-off following down pours.


Price: You will have to buy bokashi bran or mixture from a vendor like BokashiCycle.

Packaging: Bokashi fermentation is unlikely to break down and ferment compostable food packaging.

Loan-Out Companies for Creative Professionals – Do Artists Need to Incorporate?

If you work in the entertainment industry as a creative professional, it may be beneficial for you to form a “loan-out” company for liability and tax protection. Loan-out companies are entities which are owned by the talent; these companies then contract with third parties, such as film studios, and agree to provide the services of the owner. The talent is essentially hired by the loan-out company, who renders the services required by the company’s contract with the third party. Typically, the talent will form a Corporation or, more likely, an S Corporation. (The single member LLC is also becoming a popular vehicle for loan-out companies, depending on the state in which talent forms the business).

In other words, when MegaStudio contracts with its leading actor, the contract is between MegaStudio and ActorCorp. Actor will typically provide MegaStudio with an inducement letter in which the actor commits to provide their services to the studio and abide by the contract’s terms. The expenses which Actor incurs (lawyer’s fees, agent’s commissions, office/assistant expenses, travel expenses, wardrobe, publicity, etc.) are paid as business expenses through ActorCorp. The balance, after deducting payroll taxes, is then paid to the creative professional as salary, bonus or dividends, depending on the individual’s tax circumstances.

But when should you use a loan-out company?

If you’re a writer, actor or director, you should consider a loan-out company if your gross income from the creative services is between $75,000-$150,000 per year. However, this is only a general guideline. Depending on your personal financial situation, the corporate form may be beneficial for creative professionals who earn less, especially if you have assets you need to protect. If your gross earnings exceed $150,000 per year, a loan-out company should be considered a necessity.

In the music business, the need for a band to use a loan-out company has additional aspects which should be considered. Bands are unique, because unlike other creative professionals, there are two aspects to their business: (a) the creation/ownership/exploitation of the copyrights and (b) performance/merchandising rights. Unless you’re a solo act, your band is comprised of a couple of members, and you’ve probably got a handshake agreement where you’ve agreed to split everything you earn. This is fine if you’re a cover band playing the local saloon on Friday nights. However, most professional bands are operated through a corporation or LLC which contracts with the label and which contracts for their performances and their merchandising, with each member getting a pro rata share of the profits/losses.

Then, the band typically does one of two things. If all of the members are going to share in the publishing royalties from the song copyrights, the band will set up a separate entity to hold the copyrights. The publishing royalties are then split up through proportional shares of stock or membership interest in the loan-out company. Alternatively, each member sets up their own company, and each author’s fractional share is designated in the publishing contract with the company retained to administer the publishing rights.

In other bands, one or more (but less than all) of the members write the songs. Many of the great musical partnerships, like Lennon/McCartney, Page/Plant, Morrissey/Marr, managed their publishing in this manner. Depending on how your band agrees to split general band revenue and revenue from music publishing, all professional bands should have at least one business entity established and good documents prepared spelling out their agreement on how various revenue streams will be split.

Finally, what if you’re on the production side of the entertainment industry, i.e., producing a movie, a film, an album, or a play? In this instance, having your company organized as a corporation or an LLC is imperative. Have you ever seen a movie where there was only one producer listed in the credits? Me neither. Most producers have at least one, if not many, partners in the project. Even the smallest independent feature is likely to cost more than $100,000 to produce, and for every film which makes it to market, there are dozens where the project never makes a dime. As such, it’s important for the producers to protect themselves from liability to their investors and the myriad third parties they must contract with to get the project completed. Establishing a formal business entity which spell out the parties’ respective obligations and protect the individuals from personal liability is essential.