The Wild Wood Flower – A Great American Classic, But What Does it Mean?

I’ll twine ‘mid the ringlets

Of my raven black hair,

The lilies so pale

And the roses so fair.

Without argument one of the most charming, intriguing, and captivating of all early American folk poems and songs is The Wildwood Flower. Its haunting tale has arrested the fascination and loyalty of untold thousands. A major feature of its fascination and holding-power lies in the fact that it is a riddle that has never been solved. Clearly, as the poem unfolds, the Wildwood Flower is a jilted girl, but what is the meaning of the other metaphors and symbols built into this classic? 

As the heartbroken lover sits alone in the wooded vale that was once their trysting place, she winds the locks of her raven black hair purposefully around her fingers. That image is clear enough but then the lyric becomes vague. Are the lilies flowers of the glen or are they a metaphor for something else? And what are the meanings of the roses, the myrtle, and the pale amanita with bright blue eyes? To the discerning reader or listener is evident that something other than the literal is intended here. The amanita is a deadly poison toadstool known as the Death Hood. It does not have bright blue eyes. And what can be said about the rest of the lyric? Is it simply a lament and a fantasy to try to comfort herself in her heartbreak and loneliness; or is it the revelation of a clever plot to take revenge on this opportunistic swain who has compromised her and then lost interest?

I am going to offer some thoughts as to what this fascinating tale says to me but before I do I want to preface it with some realities about the times in which this occurred, and these kinds of situations. In the lonely backwoods of early America opportunities for romance and a future did not come around that often. Beside that, in the times in which this poem was written, a girl who had lost her virtue had a greatly reduced chance of finding marriage and happiness with a respectable man. Lying to a young woman, telling her you loved her, seducing her, and then going off and leaving her was virtually a death sentence. The hatred and vengeance that eventually emerged from these numbing heartbreaks often resulted in the death of the offender. There are many such stories that have caught on as legends from the rural settings of early America. There is Frankie and Johnny, the Banks of the Ohio, Barbara Allen, and many others where jilted love and betrayal resulted in the death of the perpetrator. That having said, I wish to give you my version of the meaning of this elusive tale. 

It is obvious that I possess no special insights and what I am going to say is nothing more than my own opinion. It is not offered to contradict the conclusions of anyone else, to intrude into the sanctuary that may have been built up in anyone’s mind about this haunting story, or to in any way offend anyone. It is just my offering as to what is taking place here.

I’ll twine ‘mid the ringlets

Of my raven black hair,

The lilies so pale

And the roses so fair,

The myrtle so bright

With an emerald hue,

And the pale amanita

With eyes of bright blue.  

A girl is sitting, probably in the all-together, in a wooded glen where she used to meet with her lover, where she succumbed to his lies of love and marriage, and where she lost her virtue. The last line of verse 3 reveals that she is a frail girl and not a great physical beauty, but she has some charms. She has raven black hair which she is absently but aggressively twisting around her fingers. The Song of Solomon and other historic literature lay the foundation for inferring that lilies are her breasts. The roses are her glowing red cheeks, not glowing now because of love and excitement as in verse 2, but in this instance burning with anger and hurt. The myrtle is the dark green lashes over her eyes and the pale amanita is the ghostly white face, colorless with rage and hatred (the death hood), out of which bright blue eyes are blazing as if to make appear before her now in the glen the scene that she is envisioning in her mind.


I’ll sing and I’ll dance,  

My laugh shall be gay;  

I’ll cease this wild weeping – 

Drive sorrow away,  

Tho’ my heart is now breaking,  

He never shall know  

That his name made me tremble  

And my pale cheeks to glow.  

The girl has struggled with heartbreak and hurt until her tears are dry. Now the desperate but futile hope that he will return to her has faded. In its place a plan for revenge has begun to form. First of all she must stop acting as if she cares. She must come to the party, throw herself with abandonment into the game, charm every man whom she can, and make herself an item of discussion and an object of ambition. All of this will be a part of her plot to get even with him for what he has done to her but he must never know it. He must be made to believe that she cared no more about him than he did about her and that he was just another of her flings.


I’ll think of him never –

I’ll be wildly gay,  

I’ll charm ev’ry heart,  

And the crowd I will sway,  

I’ll live yet to see him,  

Regret the dark hour  

When he won, then neglected,  

The frail wildwood flower.  

Until the trap is ready to spring she must put him out of her mind and apply herself to her plan. She will let her hair down and be the life of the party. She will play the lover to every man whom she can charm. Why not? What is there for her to lose now? But this will be an act, not the real desires of her heart. The purpose is to make him jealous. Such young men as he are selfish and possessive. The time will come when he will begin to wonder what he has walked away from and he will eventually take the bait and come back to her. When he does, their meeting place will not be the dance hall but again the wild wood glen where he broke her heart and ruined her life. Her plan will succeed and he will come back, but he will never leave her again. Once she has him in the power of her charms the death hood will engulf him and take his life from him.


He told me he loved me,  

And promis’d to love,  

Trough ill and misfortune,  

All others above,  

Another has won him;  

Ah, misery to tell;  

He left me in silence –

no word of farewell.  

As the girl sits in the wild wood and contemplates her drastic scheme, she begins to rationalize. It is his fault; not hers. He told her loved her and she believed him or she would never have given herself away to him. He spoke of love and lifelong commitment and he was so convincing. He callously took her life and future to fulfill his lust and greed. He shattered her dreams and grand hopes for husband, home, and family, and then walked away without so much as a “goodbye.”


He taught me to love him,  

He call’d me his flower  

That blossom’d for him  

All the brighter each hour;  

But I woke from my dreaming,  

My idol was clay;  

My visions of love  

Have all faded away.  

Clearly an intimate conjugal relationship is indicated here. No girl needs to be “taught” how to have feelings of love and endearment. The sweet intimacy that ought to have belonged to her soul mate alone was given to this deceiver. He told her the things she wanted to hear. “She was what he had always wanted and what he lived for. She was his glorious wildwood flower that kept opening out its blossom bigger and brighter each hour.”

But then the dream vanished in the harsh light of reality. It was all a lie. Her marvelous idol was nothing more that a pile of dirt. He was gone, and with him her hopes for a happy future. He had killed her, and now she had a plot to get even. It was justified; what he had done to her, she would do to him.

Could this frail country girl actually carry out her plan for vengeance? Did her wild scheme have a chance of success? Was she another Frankie with a pistol behind her back?  Who knows? And for the narrative, it does not matter. She is a crushed, jilted, and heartbroken country maid who has been used and cast aside; and she is trying desperately to survive. She seeks to find some satisfaction for the wrong that has been done her. She will make him pay; he has to pay. If in no other way, it has all played out before her in the meadow this day while she sits as she was when she saw him last, twists her raven black hair forcefully around he long white fingers, and seeks consolation in feelings of revenge.

History of Bowling

The history of bowling can be traced back to the Stone Age. The first evidence of the game was discovered by the British Anthropologist Sir Flinders Petrie and his team of archaeologists in Egypt in the 1930s. He unearthed a collection of objects from a small child? S grave that appeared to have been the primitive form of the game. However, some argument that the game evolved much later than that. William Pehle, a German historian, claimed that the game of bowling originated in Germany around 300 AD. In Germany, the game had its origin as a religious ceremony for determining absence of sin. This game, introduced by the German monks to the masses, flourished as a custom test of faith.

In England, bowling was started as early as the 1100s. Through England, several variations of bowling, such as half-bowls, skittles and ninepins, exhausted during the mid 1300s. But, the first written statement of the game was made by the King Edward III in the year 1366. In this reference, he allegedly imposed a ban on playing this game among his troops because it was distracting the troops from archery practice. Later, during the reign of King Henry VIII, the game gained popularity and was played as a symbol of nobility and social status.

Bowling has been popular in America since Colonial days. During 17th century, English, Dutch and German settlers imported their own version of bowling to America. At that time, the game consulted of nine pins which were regularly played in an area of ​​New York City still known as "Bowling Green". Connecticut banned ninepins in 1841 because of their gambling implications.

The American Bowling Congress was formed on 9 September 1895 and is accredited with standardizing bowling in the United States and organizing official competition. The Women's Bowling League followed in 1917, under the encouragement of proprietor Dennis Sweeny.

Through the years, the game has changed. A variety of tactics have been developed. The invention of automatic pinspotter in the 1940s revolutionized both the bowling game and industry. Currently, the sport of bowling is enjoyed by 95 million people in more than ninety countries worldwide.

What to Know about Dry Oxygen

Virtually always, if your doctor recommends dry oxygen as opposed to other kinds of home oxygen equipment, he or she will also recommend that you use a humidifier. As a matter of fact, it is essential to have more than one humidifier when you use dry oxygen. The reason for this is that without a humidifier, you run certain risks – and, in the very least, it is much less comfortable to use dry oxygen equipment without a humidifier.

Dry oxygen is, under certain circumstances, a preferred oxygen delivery system for the patient. Therefore, when one uses dry oxygen, for whatever reason, a certain amount of moisture must be maintained in the surrounding environment. Most importantly, the humidity in the air will adhere to the dry oxygen emitted as it is delivered by your dry oxygen equipment.

Nonetheless, the dry oxygen requires clean water in the air around you. This means that the water you use in your humidifier must be filtered, distilled, it should not be tap water – that will actually have a negative effect on the reliability of your dry oxygen equipment.

Your humidifier or humidifiers must be regularly emptied and refilled with clean water for several reasons. The minerals and other things included in normal tap water could potentially cause damage to your dry oxygen equipment. Therefore, you must also be sure that the humidifier is regularly cleaned with soap and water – thoroughly rinsed, and that the water is consistently replaced strictly with filtered water. Then you can attach the humidifier to your mask or your nasal cannula.

One reason to store dry oxygen instead of moist oxygen is that some high-pressure oxygen tanks can become corroded by the moisture. It is also possible with moist oxygen tanks that the oxygen could, as a result of condensation from the moisture, form and freeze during use. A dry oxygen tank provides the ability for easier storage as well as eliminating the above problems.

As far as what becomes less of a risk for you, comes a much more comfortable state when you use dry oxygen and a humidifier. Your nose, throat, and mouth are much less likely to become dry. Some people have very sensitive skin as well, and with extra moisture in the air you can avoid skin irritations due to dryness.

A dry oxygen tank is definitely something to consider if you are a patient or caregiver who requires oxygen equipment. But remember to always check with your doctor, of course, before you make any changes to your methods and / or back – up delivery system.

Custom Entrance Doors – Inspired by the Georgian Period

Building a Georgian period-style home is an exciting endeavor, but it can be a challenging one when trying to find the perfect grand entrance door. Most of the contemporary mass-produced doors available on the common market seem monotonously drab, structurally flimsy, and characteristically lacking. It seems almost impossible to find an entrance door that properly replicates the warmth, graciousness, and traditional flair of a solid timber Georgian door. Skilled craftsmen from a bespoke joinery can create and install such a gem, as well as taking care to match the custom door and windows accordingly to achieve the symmetrical balance and modest elegance inherent in Georgian architecture.

Because the grand entry door creates the first impression of a home, it should be carefully selected to accurately represent the period style and to reflect highly upon the homeowners' understanding of the coordinating elements of Georgian construction. While Georgian doors share a common theme, enough variations of the theme exist to satisfy all homebuilders' personal preferences. Interesting examples of several different, yet similar, Georgian doors at a glance are found on the famous poster of "The Doors of Dublin," a colorful collage of thirty-six wonderful Georgian doorways photographed in and around Fitzwilliam Square. All have either a semi-circular or a semi-elliptical fanlight window above the door and sturdy pilasters, corbels, and architraves, yet each has its own unique design of glazing bars and individual color choices. Henrietta Street also features some of the oldest and largest Georgian dwellings in Dublin, and many fine examples are found in Merrion Square and North Great George's Street.

With the earliest houses in dating back to the early 1700s, Fitzwilliam Square spans the entire Georgian period from the ascension of King George I and was the last Georgian square to be completed in Dublin in 1830, shortly before the death of King George IV. London at the time was also experiencing rapid growth, and much of inner London's construction is Georgian architecture, with the traditional features of sash windows rectangular in shape and proportionately placed according to the Golden Mean, and distinct entrance doors with paneled fields, bright, brass door furniture, and decorative knockers.

Often called "the most famous front door in the world," No. 10 Downing Street features a fine Georgian grand entrance door to the official residence of the prime minister of the United Kingdom. Located in the city of Westminster in London, the building is almost three hundred years old and has come close to being demolished several times, but staunch conservationists, architecture enthusiasts, and heritage foundations have managed to convince successful governments over the years to preserve and maintain the historically significant structure. The original entrance door was narrow, six-paneled, and made of strong black oak; a modest semi-circular fanlight window rests above the door, a handsome black iron knocker in the shape of a lion's head is centered between the door panels, and a central brass knob and brass letter box decorate the lower half. Margaret Thatcher has fond memories of the residence and its features, and she once stated, "All Prime Ministers are intensely aware that, as tenants and stewards of No. 10 Downing Street, they have in their charge one of the most precious jewels in the nation's heritage. "

While other grand entrance doors may not become quite as famous as No.10 Downing Street, it can be beautifully designed, strongly constructed, and historically accurate. Working with a bespoke joinery and its expert craftsmen who are experienced with Georgian period architecture, coordination of door and window styles and their symmetrical placement, specialist fittings, and strong attention to detail will ensure that a custom grand entrance door makes the perfect first, and lasting, impression upon all its visitors.

Collecting Masterworks Is Not an Infallible Art – The Business of Art Must Be Infallible

Collecting masterworks is anything but an infallible art. But the business of art must be infallible. Where you buy the piece of art is just as important as what you buy. A reputable source that will stand behind what they sell is an imperative.

A few years ago, I worked for a major retail gallery and we made a purchase from a major European auction house. Normally, their documentation is impossible. The fact that it was not correct and that they stood behind their mistake only verifies their reputation and their credibility.

The piece in question was a woodcut from the print oeuvre of Albrecht Durer. Specifically, it was the Birth of a Virgin (M. 192 B. 80) from Albrecht Durer's great woodcut cycle, the Life of a Virgin.

It was bought as a Meder A impression before the 1511 edition with Latin text on the verso . The image was perfectly documented in Joseph Meder's catalog raisonne, Durer-Katalog, Ein Handbuch Uber Albrecht Durer's Stiche, Radierungen, Holzschnitte, Deren Zustande, Ausgaben und Wasserzeichenn , as being:

Clear, clean, and with full borders, before the crack and the defective shawl of the woman sitting on the left. Printed before the Italian journey.

Since Joseph Meder did not differiate which Italian journey, it had to be printed before 1510 at the very least.

The description from the auction house's catalog described the masterwork as being printed on laid paper, not having a watermark (which is not rare) and having two collectors' stamps on the verso from previous owners (which I honestly do not remember what they were) .

The woodcut was a beautiful piece of art. It was exactly as the auction house described. In short, it looked perfect!

So what was the problem? To be honest, I do not know why I had a problem with it, but I was having one of Malcolm Gladwell's blink experiences.

I put it under a light table again; and, there was a watermark that was not described in the auction house's description. After further review, I realized it was a watermark that carried an incredible history in its own right.

The watermark was from the accused paper house of J. Honig and Zoonen, which was the paper used to print the broadsides of the Declaration of Independence – in 1776.

I asked myself (rhetorically), how can a Meder A impression before Latin text from Albrecht Durer's great woodcut cycle, the Life of a Virgin, which was printed before the Italian journey (1510) have a watermark from a paper house that did not exist until two hundred sixty-six years later?

Aside from his many other accomplishments, without Albrecht Durer was also capable of time travel, a Meder A impression of the Birth of a Virgin before the Latin text edition of 1511 with a J. Honig and Zoonen watermark was simply impossible.

Quite a conundrum. If the auction house did not honor its mistake, this certainly would have made matter worse.

However, this was not the case. As soon as the auction house was contacted, it immediately reimbursed the money with a sincere apology.

We continued to do business with the auction house because they stood behind what they sold.

So even though collecting masterworks is not an infallible art, the business of art must be infallible.

So, You Want to Build Your Own Baseball Or Softball Training Facility? Part 2 of 3

PART 2 – Standard Components

The Optimal & Recommended Products

I do have my favorites. All tend to be associated with hitting and pitching, although speed, defense and strength products can figure into this category … dependent upon your business model.

Batting Cages & Tunnels

This is the backbone of your work space and is of paramount importance … you do not want to buy this stuff twice!

Most indoor facilities tend to use a cabling system to hang their nets as opposed to the steel framework you see at a typical ballpark. We can help you design and decide on your choices.

Standard sizes cages are more inexpensive and will fit most, so see if these sizes will fit you:

(and yes, we can custom-build for your unique building)

Recommended Standard Sizes

12 ft H x 14 ft W x 55 ft L

12 ft H x 14 ft W x 70 ft L

Please do NOT purchase 12 ft wide cages if you can avoid this … they are just too small for your LH and RH hitters and will potentially drive you nuts on a daily basis. You will probably have premature wear from RH hitters who follow through and graze the net.

We understand that many or even most facilities are housed in buildings that have been converted from another use … one more reason to be dealing with someone with experience.

Here's a few more helpful thoughts on the subject of batting cages and nets:

The length of your cages will not determine the future success of your hitters … but pitchers must practice at their game-distances. So, you can save some money and precious space utilizing shrighter cages for hitters. The weight (strength) of your netting is of highest importance … there are variations in materials, and how they are knotted … boring stuff but this will determine function, longevity and your ultimate price.

Please speak with us about your options if you are unclear as to your available choices … please DO NOT SHOP BY LENGTH, WIDTH, HEIGHT AND PRICE ONLY!

The ultimate price of your nets will include their years of service!

Pitcher's L Screens

Buy one for every batters cage. I like the 7 ft x 7 ft and absolutely recommend good ones … not necessarily the Pro Stuff. Much of that tends to be too big (8 ft x 8 ft), and too heavy for indoor use. Just make sure you are getting very heavy pillow case-style netting (we carry two strengths of net) because you will be very close to batters and need heavy double-sided netting that is thick enough to reasonably assure that you will see your next birthday . AND YES, do get the wheel kits … and thank me later.

Turf & Stance Mats

Concrete floors eat balls and are very difficult for coaches to stand on for hours every day.

Turf is a very popular but expensive piece of your budget. We happen to be based in Atlanta, Georgia where most turf is manufactured so we have spent many hours learning inside these plants. Turf is graduated and designed for various sports and applications so all synthetic athletic turf is not all created equal. Please call and let us help you in making these decisions.

Home Plate Stance Mats are 6 ft x 12 ft heavy synthetic turf batters mats that are both spike-proof and weather-proof and should last you many years without showing failure. Most have the parallel-only lines of the batters box tufted in with white turf, basic models have rubber painted homeplates , deluxe have flocked white homeplates , ALL our stance mats are matched with a heavy, thick backer for cushioning and support indoors or out and will last for many years without failure!

Turf Infield – An Ultimate Tool That Separates Your Facility From the Pack

Any facility that contains a large enough turfed area for taking infield practice can not be beaten by new or existing competition that does not have same capabilities … especially in colder weather areas. It is a large investment but one that totally escalates any facility to an elite status.

Please call us to discuss and for some advise. The info we will need are your dimensions and what type of existing floor that you have.

Pitching Machines

  • Iron Mike Arm Style Machines aka Master Pitching Machine Model MP4 or MP6.

These workhorses are almost identical but carry a hefty price difference.

Each can be set up for baseball or softball use (and changed in 5 minutes or less). You can dump up to 600 bb or 400 sb in the large hopper. Include is a FREE corded remote control, perfect for teaching and to help keep the area safer. These models throw accurate fastballs-only at speeds ranging from 25 to 85 mph every 7 seconds … with very little maintenance making them perfect for heavy users and pro ballclubs alike. They will perform for years without problem or issue!

  • BATA Brand Wheel-Type Pitching Machines

The advantage of this type of pitching machine is that many can be set up to throw LH and RH breaking balls as well as fastballs … all at various speeds (usually manually adjusted). The disadvantage is that they require auto ball feeders or a 2nd person to hand feed the machine. Although important and absolutely recommended, I would purchase only the good stuff, such as our Bata Brand, which we have transported for over 7 years without one motor replacement … and the wheels seem to go forever even in heavy duty Spring training or Institutional use … just a great machine (FYI – I recommend the BATA 2 but the newer BATA 3 is the newest and very popular facilities for its randomization of fastballs or breaking balls without adjustment).

Portable Pitching Mounds

6 "Tall Mounds for up to age 12

10 "Tall for adult size players (If purchasing one size, choose the adult sizes).

Leather Baseballs & Leather Softballs

Balls are a recurring expense and one you should think about from the beginning.

Pitchers must throw good leather baseballs though no pitchers ERA will improve because you purchased the best game balls you can find. Same goes for your hitters because you have more choices for them (see below).

I really like Wilson A 1030 practice balls that come with a 6 gallon TALL coaches bucket and snap-lid. Regular 5 gallon buckets are too short and can make your back ache over time … plus they hold 20% less. These are priced right and do seem to last as long as you'd expect.

Wilson A 1015 Baseballs is as good a ball as any training facility might need. Nice seams and good feel too. They have a "B" grade cover ("A" being the best) A better ball for a bit more money. No bucket included. Sold by the dozen and savings by the 10 dozen case.

My personal favorite ball for pitching machines is BADEN Brand Ballistic Leather Machine Pitch Baseballs . This is a new concept where the ball has lower seams to throw straighter pitches with less resistance from the high spin rate of the pitching machine tires or wheels plus it is stitched with KEVLAR, the bullet-proof vest material. This reduces the premature wear even good game balls will experience, as they are stitched with easily breakable cotton string.

Needless to say, these balls outlast most good quality leather balls when used in your pitching machines. Prices are surprisingly low. Purchase by the dozen with savings by the 10 dozen case!

Dimple Balls are absolutely practical and the choice for many heavy use facilities. They are graduated like anything else so many people who have had bad luck with them figure that they are all bad. The truth is that many are bad and we only carry a pro ball. This means that not only are they "sting free" (meaning that they are not hard as rocks, which can damage expensive metal bats and raise hell with wheel-type pitching machines). But they do not feel like you are hiring a tomato either … ours actually have a nice pop to them and they travel well.

Yellow machine pitch dimple balls – this is the standard … sold by the dozen and by money-saving 10 dz case for baseball and 6 dz case for our 12 inch softballs.

What a great idea … these longgoing dimple balls look like a real game ball to the hitter!

Turf Infield

This is the ultimate for any indoor facility … an entire turfed infield area for team and individual defensive work. Due to the cost, many who choose to do this will arrange their batting cage layout so that cages can be dropped to one end of the building by "shower curtain rod" method for double use of the same area. Again, you may want to call us to discuss ideas.

Sport Specific Speed ​​and agility training days or hours can also be added to more than justify this expense and build more streams of revenue while really helping players improve quicker … all under one roof!

Hitting Stations

Wasting practice time is a huge sin that we have all watched over and over … players are bored and skills may not get taught or committed to muscle memory while players are waiting for their turn in the cage.

Anytime you can use machinery to "multiply" your coaching staff, you and your players will benefit. Most equipment is not designed for your heavy, daily use so be a bit catious when choosing.

The above are great teaching and learning ideas that will also add revenue streams.

They combine the corners of building good repeatable swings and come from some great inventors of modern baseball training aids.

Please consider these as opportunities to both you as a successful and innovative innovator. Do not short-change your kids on the maximum quality learning that new and modern teaching ideas can give them!

Remember, any limited extra space can be put to good use IF you give it some thought. Consider every station you utilize outdoors and call us to discuss how we may be able to help you design and bring it indoors.

  1. Batting Tee Stations
  2. Soft Toss Stations – Automated

We have the best soft toss machine I have ever used … and it can be utilized for baseball and fastpitch with no change over or down time! Its also on wheels and moves in aand out of cages with no hassle.

  1. Soft Toss Stations – Manual – We have an excellent selection of portable and stationary net and safety screens … plus custom applications too!
  2. Stationary Hitting Stations – Many need only one person to operate. Some are attached to fence posts, some are free standing. Se what fits and extra corner you had no plans for. It all adds up!
  3. Underload & Overload Training Devises

See Bratt's Weighted Bats, Edge Power Weighted Gloves, SwftStick Underload Training Bats, Ripken Kinect Training Bats. Great stuuf that will hold up to your heavy use.

Additional Items We Find Useful

  1. Radar Guns – This link shows you all our offers but one good one with a padded case is all you need. The best radar gun on the market, bar none, is the Stalker Brand baseball & Softball Radar Gun. This is what MLB Scouts use … period. Our association with the manufacturer has given us a window into what the good radar guns should do (technology evolves and so do these fine instruments). The newest models are actually superior to the older standard models that still dominate Big League Baseball. But since they hold up so well, it will be some seasons before the new AND LESS EXPENSIVE models are seen beginning carried by today's pro scouts. Click to see the new and older model Stalker Radar Guns.
  2. Bleachers and Bench Seating
  3. Pitching Targets, Nets & Screens – we carry most all size and strengths in catch nets, hitters sock nets, baffle nets and cage dividers, Strike Zone Pads, ZIP Nets for garage opening types of applications. Many of our screens have optional wheel kits for true portablility (more important than you might think).
  4. Pitchers Rubbers, Throwdown Bases and related items.
  5. Aluminum bats, wood training bats, one handed bats, good quality one size fits all helmets with and without facemasks. These are all necessary as many of your students may not even own some of these basics.
  6. Shatterproof full length mirrors
  7. Video Software for pitchers and hitters (requires a video camera)

Runtime Error 217 – How to Fix This Common Windows Error

Runtime Error 217 typically shows when you use an application on Windows, and an error occurs. The big problem with this particular error is that it’s continually being shown for a wide number of different reasons. This makes it quite difficult to resolve, if you don’t know exactly what the problem is & how to fix it. This tutorial should show you want to do…

The typical Runtime 217 error is caused by problems ranging from registry errors, Msvcrt.dll being outdated, viruses and some other menial problems. In order to resolve this issue, you need to take several steps to fix the various problems that are causing this error, as follows:

The first thing you need to do to repair the Runtime 217 error is to fix the outdated “Msvcrt.dll” file that could be on your system. One of the main causes of this error is the way in which Msvcrt.dll is left outdated when you try and update your computer, making it important that you’re able have the most up to date version of this file on your system. To do this, it’s advisable that you use the Windows update feature to repair the various damaged elements of the Msvcrt.dll on your system, which should stop the 217 error in most cases.

After you’ve done that, you should look to correct the “regional” settings for your system. The regional settings determine what language & time settings you have, making it important that you’re able to have them working as smoothly as possible. To do this, you need to click onto your time settings for your PC and ensure they are set to be the correct time for your current location.

It’s also advisable that you replace the “StDole32.tlb” file on your PC. This is a template file that the likes of Microsoft Office & Windows uses to display information. It’s often the case that this file will either become damaged or corrupted, leading your computer to be unable to load it, causing big problems for your system. To fix this, it’s recommended that you download the file from the Internet and replace it on your PC.

Proceeding these steps, it’s also recommended that you use a “registry cleaner” to fix the various errors that are inside your system. One of the main causes of the 217 error is to have various problems inside the “registry” database, making it highly recommended that you’re able to fix the various registry errors inside your system in the most effective way. The registry is basically a big database inside the Windows system, which stores vital settings & information for your computer. This means that if you’re looking to use a file / program that needs to use the registry, it needs to be able to read the various registry settings it requires to run. Unfortunately, one of the big problems for computers is the way in which many registry settings either become damaged or corrupted, leading to problems such as the Runtime Error 217.

What Wheels and Tires Can You Use on Your Freelander?

Because a Freelander is a 4×4 vehicle the type of wheels and tires you use are very important to ensure you do no damage to the drive train.

Recommended Tire Sizes

The recommended tyre sizes for a Freelander 1 (1998 – 2006) are:

  • 15 inch wheels: 195/80 R15
  • 16 inch wheels: 215/65 R16
  • 17 inch wheels: 235/55 R17
  • 18 inch wheels: 235/50 R18
  • 19 inch wheels: 245/45 R19
  • 20 inch wheels: 245/40 R20
  • 22 inch wheels: 295/30 R22

Although we do not come across many Freelanders with 22 inch wheels!

For the Freelander 2 (2006 onwards) the recommended tyre sizes are:

  • 16 inch wheels: 215/75 R16
  • 17 inch wheels: 235/65 R17
  • 18 inch wheels: 235/60 R18
  • 19 inch wheels: 235/55 R19
  • 20 inch wheels: 275/40 R20
  • 22 inch wheels: 265/35 R22

What do the Tire Size Numbers Mean?

Although many of us are quite used to ordering tires by their numbers, and know they are important, we do not all understand what they mean.

If we take the 16 inch wheels for a Freelander 1 the tires should be:

215/65 R16

The first number, 215, is the width of the ty in mm from side wall to side wall when it is not stressed and you are looking at it from the top. The technical name is the section width.

The second number, 65, is the ratio of the height of the tire sidewall expressed as a percentage of the width. The technical name is the aspect ratio, or section height. In this case, 65% of 215 mm is 139.75 mm.

The R means the ty is of a radial construction, this just means the cord plies are arranged at 90 degrees to the direction of travel, or radially (from the center of the tire).

The next number, 16, is the diameter in inches of the rim of the wheel the ty is designed to fit on. So in this case it is a tire for a 16 inch wheel.

It is a bit strange that tyre sizes mix inches with mm, but that's the way it is done!

When you look at the size printed on the ty this number, eg 215/65 R16, will be followed by two numbers and a letter. The two numbers are the load index and the letter is the speed rating. The load index indicates how much weight the tyre can take (for a Freelander you need a minimum load index of 84 or 85, depending on the exact model of Freelander you have) and the speed rating refer to the speed you can travel at for 10 minutes continuously without the ty breaking into pieces.

The speed ratings are:

  • Speed ​​Symbol Max Speed ​​Capability
  • MPH Km / h
  • L 120 75
  • M 130 81
  • N 140 87
  • P 150 95
  • Q 160 100
  • R 170 105
  • S 180 113
  • T 190 118
  • U 200 125
  • H 210 130
  • V 240 150
  • W 270 168
  • Y 300 186
  • Z 240+ 150+

Can You Use a Different Sized Tire from the Recommended on Your Freelander?

Provided the overall circumference of the wheel with the tire fitted is within plus or minus 2.5% of the recommended then you should not have any problems in fitting different ty sizes to your Freelander (although the speedometer will be reading slowly inaccurately). The overall circumference is calculated from the overall diameter.

If the overall circumference is more than plus or minus 2.5% then you run the risk of damage to your drive train.

Taking the most common Freelander ty sizes, here are some alternative sizes you could use:

195/80 R15 alternatives are:

  • 205/75 R15 (-0.87% difference in circumference)
  • 215/70 R15 (-1.70% difference in circumference)
  • 215/75 R15 (+ 1.47% difference in circumference)
  • 225/70 R15 (+ 0.32% difference in circumference)
  • 235/70 R15 (+ 2.34% difference in circumference)

215/65 R16 alternatives are:

  • 225/65 R16 (+ 1.76% difference in circumference)
  • 225/60 R16 (-1.44% difference in circumference)
  • 235/60 R16 (+ 0.28% difference in circumference)
  • 255/55 R16 (0% difference in circumference)

215/75 R16 alternatives are:

  • 225/70 R16 (-0.83% difference in circumference)
  • 225/75 R16 (+ 2.19% difference in circumference)
  • 235/65 R16 (-2.19% difference in circumference)
  • 235/70 R16 (+ 1.09% difference in circumference)
  • 255/65 R16 (+ 1.36% difference in circumference)

235/65 R17 alternatives are:

  • 245/65 R17 (+ 1.64% difference in circumference)
  • 255/60 R17 (0% difference in circumference)
  • 265/60 R17 (+ 1.64% difference in circumference)
  • 275/55 R17 (-1.52% difference in circumference)

Do remember that if there is a difference in the circumference then your speedometer reading will be slightly wrong.

You can check whether it is safe to replace your current tires with any other size by using one of the size size calculators available, so if you would like to check for yourself then try this tire calculator .

How Many Tires Should You Replace on Your Freelander?

It is always recommended to replace all four tires at the same time on your Freelander, with the same make, model and type, so as not to cause damage to the drive train.

The 4×4 system on the Freelander 1 is very sensitive to differences in the rolling radius of the tires, and if these different by more than 5mm you are risking damage to the drive train, particularly to the rear differential.

To check that your tires are not winding up your viscous coupling unit (VCU) – the bulbous piece in the center of the prop shaft running from the front to the back of your Freelander 1 – which is the hub of sending drive to the rear wheels , then drive your Freelander for about 5 – 10 miles, then get underneath and check the temperature of the VCU. BE CAREFUL, the VCU can get very hot! If the VCC is too hot to comfortably hold your hand on it then you have an issue with your tires, and you should look to replace them IMMEDIATELY – otherwise you are going to have a very big bill for drive train items.

If you do only replace two tires on your Freelander 1 then make sure the new tires go on the rear (the same make, model and type as the front ones) AND check the temperature of the VCU, as above, to make sure it is not heating up. Never replace just one tyre on a Freelander.

A Little More Technical Detail on Freelander Tires and Wheels

For those of you who like a little more technical detail on your Freelander tires and wheels here is a bit more information.

For the Freelander 1:

  • PCD 5 x 114
  • Offset 35 to 45
  • Bore 64.1
  • Fittings N 12 x 1.5

For the Freelander 2:

  • PCD 5 x 108
  • Offset 35 to 50
  • Bore 63.4
  • Fittings N 14 x 1.5

If you do not understand what these means, here is a brief explanation.

PCD is the Pitch Circle Diameter. This is the diameter, in mm, of a circle drawn through the wheels bolt holes. It also indicates the number of studies, or bolts, the wheel will have. So the Freelander 1 has 5 bolts and the diameter of a circle drawn through the bolt holes is 114 mm. The Freelander 2 has 5 bolts and a diameter of 108 mm.

The offset is where the wheel will sit in relation to the body line of the vehicle. Offset is usually stamped on the wheel and is measured in millimeters of et (et is the short form of the German word 'Einpresstiefe' which literally translates as insertion depth). The numbers are essentially the distance between the center of the wheel and the hub.

The center bore of a wheel is the center which fits over the hub. The bore measurement is the diameter in mm of the center bore.

The fittings are the wheel nuts and bolts required.

What is Foundation Piering and How Does it Work?

Today, more and more homes are being built on unstable soils, such as the ones that you learned about in previous chapters. Between expansive and hydro-compactable soils and subsidence, foundations are pushed and pulled, creating movement. Each year, thousands of homeowners are faced with evaluating and repairing foundation problems. Thankfully, this means that there are reliable, engineered solutions available.

What exactly is available and is it the right solution for your structural problems?

Since the root of structural problems is the soil, the first two solutions deal with taking the foundation’s weight off of unstable soils and placing it on bedrock or other stable soil-these solutions are called push piers and helical piers.

Push Piers are basically long steel shafts that are hydraulically driven into the ground through the unstable surface soils until they reach bed-rock or other load bearing strata. Technicians can tell that the piers have reached bedrock by measuring the hydraulic pressure required to drive the piers into the ground until they meet an engineer specified depth. The home’s weight is then transferred off of the unstable soil and onto the piers through pier brackets attached to the footing of the house.

Helical Piers are similarly driven into the ground using hydraulics, but they are turned into the ground like a giant screw. In fact, they are giant screws that literally hold up a house through resistance power. The home’s weight is then transferred onto the piers using the same durable steel brackets.

Indications that You Need a Piering System:

You have an area of your foundation wall that is experiencing vertical movement, such as sinking.

Your chimney is not flush with your home.

Your soil conditions can be classified as expansive, subsiding, hydro-compactable, or active.

How Piers are installed in 6 Basic Steps:

Step 1: Outside, sod and landscaping around the home is removed and set aside.

Step 2: Soil is removed until the footing of the concrete foundation is revealed.

Step 3: Foundation pier anchoring brackets of heavy, industrial-strength steel are attached to the home’s footings.

Step 4: Rugged steel piers are hydraulically driven down to solid bedrock or equal-load bearing strata.

Step 5: The weight of the home, anchored to the steel brackets, is carefully transferred from unstable soil to rock-solid piers.

Step 6: After an engineer’s approval, the soil around the home is replaced and landscaping can be returned to its original location.

There are several other options that have been employed during different eras to resolve foundation problems. The oldest method is to jack up the house and replace the foundation and the newest method is to utilize piering systems either on the entire perimeter of the home, or just one portion. Here’s a breakdown of the other methods that people have used to resolve foundation issues from oldest to most recent:

Replace the Foundation:

Destroys yard and takes several weeks to complete

No warranty against the same problem reoccuring (expect same result

Footings are still in the Active Zone


Concrete Underpinning/Spread Footings:

Can take weeks/months

Added weight of the concrete can make problem worse

Structure cannot be lifted

Footings are still in the Active Zone

Concrete Piers:

Concrete cylinders can break during installation and CANNOT be retrieved due to depths

Cylinders create too much skin friction to get through the Active Zone

May require additional shims in the future

Even if shimming is included in the warranty, the damage from re-settlement and re-excavation is not covered

Square Shaft Helical Piers:

Originally designed to provide resistance to guy wires on electrical towers during high winds.

Not designed to hold up weight through soils

Square shafts experience bending and folding when a foundation’s weight resting on it.

Concrete Piers with Cable Reinforcement:

Engineered for specific soil conditions that are not present in Colorado.

Cylinders create too much skin friction to get through the Active Zone

Cabling in center of pier stretches over time, allowing for moment after piers in place.

Additional cabling on exterior of cylinders can increase skin friction of cylinder.

Finally, piering systems:

Push Piers WILL:

Allow the deepest penetration of any steel pier type.

Allow for the possibility of low impact interior installations (typically, with far less collateral damage than the exterior approach)

Provide a lifetime warranty, transferable for the first 25 years that vertical movement in the piered areas will not occur

Perform its job in most soil conditions for a designed life in excess of 100 years

Push Piers MAY:

Allow for the likelihood of lifting a structure to a flatter, more level condition

Allow for the possibility of closing or shrinking existing cracks in brick, stucco, sheetrock, or other interior or exterior finishes

Allow for the re-alignment of sticking doors or windows, and the straightening of leaning chimneys

Push Piers WILL NOT:

Guaranty that perfectly flat or level final conditions will be achieved

Provide lateral (horizontal) restraint to a bowing foundation wall

Improve the water tightness or lower the moisture level in a basement

Helical Piers WILL:

Perform its job in most soil conditions for a designed life in excess of 100 years

Allow for installation on relatively older, weaker, or lighter foundation types

Allow for installation as a pre-construction (or new construction) bearing system in poor soils

Allow for a horizontal installation as a “tie-back” system to provide resistance against land creep in hillside areas

With a few rare exceptions, require exterior excavation, with destruction to surrounding landscaping or paving

Provide a lifetime warranty, transferable for the first 25 years, that vertical movement in the piered areas will not occur

Helical Piers MAY:

Allow for the likelihood of lifting a structure to a flatter, more level condition

Allow for the possibility of closing or shrinking existing cracks in brick, stucco, sheetrock, or other interior or exterior finishes

Allow for the re-alignment of sticking doors or windows, and the straightening of leaning chimneys

Helical Piers WILL NOT:

Guaranty that perfectly flat or level final conditions will be achieved

Provide lateral (horizontal) restraint to a bowing foundation wall (unless specifically installed in “tie-back” mode)

Improve the water tightness or lower the moisture level in a basement

How To Clean A Motorcycle To A Showroom Shine

Why clean your motorcycle?

If you have paid good money for your motorcycle it is always important to make sure it looks its best. Why would you want to spend loads of money on a motorcycle just to let it go tatty and look dirty? If you are wanting to sell your motorcycle then making it look "spick and span" is a great way to catch a potential buyers eye and could even increase the value or what the buyer is willing to pay. Another great benefit of cleaning your motorcycle is can spot any faults while cleaning it which can be vital for a riders safety.

What you will need?

A must own tool in my opinion is a paddock stand. A paddock stand is perfect for any and all maintenance jobs and every motorcycle enthusiasts should own one. For the best results I recommend using a pressure washer or a high pressure spray nozzle, a paint brush cut down to around 2 inch's and degreaser to get chain lube and grease off your motorcycle. You will also need a high standard cleaning agent and WD40 as well as some motorcycle shampoo (not washing up liquid as anything that contains salt should be avoided) and a good quality absorbent cloth to soak up access water. To finish off the motorcycle to a high standard you will need a good quality wax.

For tools you will need any and all Allen keys to remove the body work. This is essential as the amount of dirt and grim that gets under the bodywork can be harmful to your motorcycle and removing this will give it the professionally cleaned look.

Anyone can clean a motorcycle!

The only reason a person should not do this is if they have a phobia of a bit of work. There really is no other excuse or reason why someone should not be able to do this so try not to worry or get scared of breaking something. This is the basic of maintenance that will also give you the opportunity to learn about your motorcycle and the basic parts.

Step 1

Place your motorcycle on your paddock stand so you can get to all of your motorcycle and turn your rear wheel with ease. Make sure you have connected your hose to a pressure washer or high pressure pray nozzle. Try not to do this after a long ride and it would be ideal if your motorcycle was cold so the soapy water does not dry to quick.

Step 2

This is very important, make sure you apply lube to the chain to prevent the links getting water in them. Use the cut down paintbrush to apply degreaser to any areas with collected grease or oil (most commonly the rear rims front sprockets etc) and gently dab it off. Do not soak the baring's or the chain as these will dry and seize up.

Step 3

Now its time to spray your motorcycle with the cleaning agent or soapy water. Make sure you go crazy on any areas where dirt has built up and only use a light mist on the areas like the tank, screen and switchgear. Spray as much as you can on the front of the engine as this is where grime collects and if needs be loosen the grime up with a cloth or sponge.

Step 4

Time to fire up the pressure washer and blast away the loose dirt, this will prevent scratching when washing the soapy water with a sponge. Always start at the top of your motorcycle and typically work your way down but do not aim directly at the switchgear or any areas with bearings. Also it is advised that you use a softer spray when cleaning the radiator.

Step 5

Take your motorcycle off of your paddock stand and grab your handlebars firmly. now you have removed it from your paddock stand and have a hold of your motorcycle, lean it to the side and onto your knee. This will help your motorcycle dry off and once you have done one side make sure you do the other. Now you have fired off the access water put your motorcycle back onto your paddock stand and remove the fairing. Soak up all excess water with a cloth and make sure you concentrate on your engine as this is more important than the bodywork.

Step 6

Apply your cleaning agent to areas which could not be reached with the fairing on. These areas should be things like the radiator and cylinder head. Use the washer to to blow all the cleaning agent off but take car not to hit discharge part's such as the battery, it would be a good idea to protect these areas with plastic bags.

Step 7

Mix the motorcycle shampoo with warm water in a bucket and use a clean sponge or cloth for cleaning. Wash the panels you have removed and then rinse it off with clean water. Leave them to dry and wash the rest of your motorcycle and again rinse with clean cold water.

Step 8

Remove access water and when your motorcycle is dry apply the WD40 to any working parts such as the switchgear and throttle.

Step 9

Now the body work is dry from earlier you can put it back on your motorcycle again and grease up the fastener threads. Make sure you also grease up areas like pivots.

Step 10

Motorcycle's will get scratched over time because of loose gravel on the roads but if you see one you could always give them a touch up with paint from your local dealer. for the small scratches you can always try to buff them out while washing your motorcycle and use T-cut renovation cream if you have any.

Step 11

Now it's time to get busy with your polish or wax to make sure it shimmers and shines in the light. Make sure you take your time when applying your wax or polish as you want it to look its best.


Now you have finished cleaning your motorcycle its times to put your feet up and enjoy a nice cold beer or go for a ride and show off your freshly cleaned motorcycle (i advise you do not do both). I would recommend you do this at least once per month or if you are going to sell you motorcycle the day before someone comes round to see it. The more often you do clean your motorcycle the more you will lean about it and also grow attached to it.

Structural Design – A Set of Process For Various Structural Phases

Structural design is an important part of structural engineering used broadly in construction of different type of building like residential, commercial, industrial and institutional. It can be described as a set of process which takes place for various construction phases. Structural design play vital role in completion of complex structural projects. For faster infrastructure development this technology is must required. In the modern time we can not imagine any construction without designing.

Basically the load of building and external forces is calculated using this technology. For any kind of construction building stability is must require so work should be done without any error. Today structural industry has developed much software to get error free solutions and AutoCAD is one of the most popular software used in designing.

All the designing phases start with basic sketches and using the computer technology it will be converted in to proper design manner. In the past time design was made by hand so accuracy was not guaranteed but with globalization structural industry introduced latest technological steps and standards must be followed to satisfy the complete design phase.

Importance of structural design is increased as the building construction business is on top gear. People from structural industry understand that to get higher success ratio designing is most important phase. Various firms or builder or contractors are hiring professional designers for better output. Most of the popular firms have created separate team of designers to get better growth in short time.

In any kind of building development, various phases like project requirements, material specification and analysis can be evaluated by structural design. In any kind of construction project handmade drawings are created to get the basic ideas and that helps to prevent redesigning. Basically design services include design of reinforced cement concrete structure, steel plate girder, and truss girder. Design of pre stressed and post tensioned structures can also be evaluated by using this technology.

For outsourcing purpose it is good option to know that there are so many firms are offering low cost structural design services.

If you want to outsource your design projects or if you need free quotation for your projects please email us at

View more about our services at

Laser Printers And Inkjet Printers – Advantages And Disadvantages

When choosing a printer the first choice will be whether to buy a laser printer or an inkjet printer. The following summarize the main advantages and disadvantages of inkjet and laser printers.

Inkjet Printers

Inkjet printers works by propelling droplets of ink onto the paper. The ink is released from small removable cartridges and if it is a colour inkjet printer there will normally be a black cartridge and three different coloured cartridges. You can either replace the whole cartridge or refill the cartridges with a special refill kit.


  • Inkjet printers are considerably cheaper to buy.
  • High end printers are capable of producing good quality images when used with special paper.
  • Most models are relatively light weight and compact so they don’t take up too much space on the desk.


  • Due to the cost of ink, running an inkjet printer over time is a more expensive than a laser printer.
  • Prints emerge from the printer slightly wet and may need time to dry.
  • Printing is slower and therefore inkjets aren’t designed for high volume printing.

Laser Printers

This printer incorporates a laser beam as a part of the image processing. Rather than using ink a laser printer uses toner, a dry plastic powder combined with carbon black or colouring agents. The consumable a part of the printer is encased in a cartridge which needs to be replaced from time to time.


  • Laser prints are generally very high and very accurate.
  • For high volume printing laser printers are considerably cheaper to run.
  • Printing is fast so they can handle large volumes.
  • Due to the technology used prints from a laser printer emerge from the printer dry to the touch.


  • Buying a laser printer can be expensive when compared to an inkjet.
  • Colour laser printers are significantly more expensive than a colour inkjet.
  • Laser printers are larger and heavier as they need to contain the imaging drum and laser technology.

How to Become a 3D Rendering Professional in Diverse Industries

One of the most thought after skills nowdays is 3D rendering. From construction to entertainment, 3D rendering skills are greatly valued. With the manifestation of the benefits of using this tool in various industries, it Is easy to understand why a lot of people are interested to learn 3D rendering. But how does one become a 3D rendering professional?

There is no degree offering purely 3D rendering, but there are voluntary schools for it and there are seminars, too. 3D rendering skills must also be matched with other skills in order to make money from it. This article will provide a quick overview of what a person needs to learn in order to become a 3D renderer.

Graphic Design

Graphic artists will always be in demand because people will always look for beauty and order in things. They always want to be amazed visually and stunning by beauty.Those who wants to be a 3D graphic designer may want to consider taking up graphical design or visual arts in college to hone their design skills. After all, what good are a person's 3D rendering skills if the graphics he or she creates are not visually appealing?

Field to study: Fine Arts, Design


Human beings will always build structures because that's how civilization grows. When it comes to building designs, architects are kings. Architects have a skill that's important to a 3D renderer: drafting. Technical drawing, or the ability to make and interpret plans is a useful skill for any 3D rendering professional. Most 3D rendering companies like Power Rendering require this skill from their employees. Architects accept 3D architectural rendering jobs during their free time or they choose to do them full-time, that's how lucrative they are.

Fields to study: Architecture, Engineering

Gadgets Designers

Not a lot of people know this, but the phones and other gadgets that use every day are designed using 3D rendering. This is how companies manage to make phones and computers smaller and smaller. To work in this field, a person must have knowledge in electronics. Studying even just a two-year electronics course before jumping into the 3D rendering is the way to go if a person wants a career in this field.

Field to study: Electronics

3D rendering skills can bring in a lot of employment opportunities for a person. However, they must have some background knowledge of the field where they will use their rendering skills. For example, it's difficult to be a 3D architectural renderer if it does not have knowledge in architecture. 3D rendering is a technology that supports many industries and those who are good at it will make a lot of money.

10 University of Georgia Quirks, Facts and Traditions

o “The Arch,” an iron gate found on everything from the UGA logo to t-shirts is representative of the Arch on campus which was an original gateway to the school. Legend has it that if a freshman walks under The Arch during his first year, he will never graduate.

o When the UGA Bulldogs have won a home football game, the school’s Chapel Bell traditionally rings until midnight. Except when Georgia beats Georgia Tech, one of their biggest rivals- then the bell rings the entire night! In the old days, it was the job of freshmen to do the hard work of ringing the bell- today, fans, students, and alumni all take turns.

o During the 2007 Season, the bell was ringing after UGA’s defeat over the University of Florida, when the 877 pound bell fell. It has since been returned to the platform.

o The Bulldogs like to get their opponents ‘Between the Hedges.’ This is a reference to the hedges that grow all the way around the playing field of Sanford Stadium, and dates back to the 30’s, when a sports writer made the reference.

o In 1939, Coach Wally Butts decided silver pants would pair well with red jerseys- thus began the start of the Bulldog’s ‘silver britches.’ Although Coach Vince Dooley changed the pants to white for several years, the silver britches were brought back in 1980, and were worn during the school’s National Championship season.

o UGA has a student ID card and travels in his own dog house- with air conditioning! Because bulldogs are susceptible to heat stroke, he spends football games perched on bags of ice. If opposing teams get to close to his precious ice, he growls ferociously. He’s a tough pup, who wears a jersey with a Varsity letter and a spiked collar.

o The costumed bulldog mascot is called ‘Hairy Dawg.’

o Football players go through the ‘Dog Walk,’ which features players walking through crowds of fans on their way into Stanford Stadium, led by the Redcoat Band.

o Georgia’s original colors included ‘old gold,’ until the intense rivalry between Georgia Tech and Georgia resulted in a skirmish over colors- Georgia students declared yellow an unfit color for the Georgia Bulldogs, deeming it a cowardly color, and yellow was removed- and Crimson (also referred to as ‘Good old Georgia Red) and black have been the official colors ever since.

o College Football was nearly outlawed in 1987, after UGA Quarterback Richard Gammon was injured so severely in a game against the University of Virginia, he died as a result. In those days, players did not wear helmets. Football was immediately disbanded in schools across Georgia, and just as the Georgia Legislature was gearing up to formally outlaw college football, Richard’s mother wrote a letter, published in newspapers, asking the legislature to save football, saying it was her son’s most cherished object.” The ban was defeated, and college football in Georgia survived! Today, visitors to Rome, Georgia, Gammon’s hometown, can stop and pay tribute at the family graves, complete with plaques detailing the sad death and a mother’s great plea to rescue the sport so beloved by her son.

Funny Construction Humor

Six Phases of a Construction Project:

1) Enthusiasm

2) Disillusionment

3) Panic

4) Search For The Guilty

5) Punishment Of The Innocent

6) Praise & Honors For The Non-Participants

Directory of Construction Terminology:

Contractor – A gambler that never gets to cut, shuffle or deal.

Bid Opening – A poker game where the losing hand wins.

Bid – A wild guess carried out to two decimal places.

Low Bidder – A contractor who is wondering why he's left out.

Engineer's Estimate – The cost of construction in heaven.

Project Manager – The conductor of an orchestra in which every musician is in a different union.

Critical Path Method – A management technique for losing your shirt under personal control.

OSHA – A protective coating made by half-baking a mixture of fine print, red tape, split hairs, and
baloney – usually applied at random with a shotgun.

Strike – An effort to increase egg production by strangling the chicken.

Delayed Payment – A tourniquet applied at the pockets.

Completion Date – The point where liquidated damages begin.

Liquidated Damages – A penalty for failing to achieve the impossible.

Auditor – A person who goes in after the war is lost and bayonets the wounded.

Lawyer – A person who goes in after the auditors and strips the bodies.