Real Estate Investing Basics – Choose Your Neighbor Marketing

A very effective, yet often overlooked method of marketing both your rentals and your houses for sale is door to door flyers in the neighborhood of your property. Residents who live near your property are likely to know someone – a friend, colleague or family member in the market for housing that they can pass your flyer on to. You may also attract the direct attention of a neighbor who is ready to buy or move up/down in their housing.

If you are local and don’t mind running around the neighborhood yourself, this method will only cost you a few hours plus the cost of printing. If you’re not available for the distribution, or just have better things to do, paying someone to distribute flyers is very cheap and incredibly cost effective if it results in a sale or a qualified tenant placement. Just remember to do a quick drive through of the neighborhood to ensure the flyers have been distributed if you’re paying someone to do it.

As for the content of the flyer, it’s worth it to take some quality photographs of the interior and exterior of the home. If your main selling point is the quality of the property, be sure to feature these in full color along with some of the basic specs of the home. If you are advertising a rent to own that’s a really great deal, make sure your analysis of the numbers is prominent and easily understood. Also, be sure to emphasize that this property is in their neighborhood and that this is an opportunity for them to choose their new neighbor. Lastly, don’t forget to include full contact information: your telephone number, fax number, email address and 24 hour recorded information line if you have one.

A more expensive variation of this method is to use direct mail to target your property’s neighborhood. Again, you’ll want to tailor your marketing message to let them know that this is their chance to mold the neighborhood by helping to select the new neighbors. To maximize your exposure, try using both flyer and direct mail distribution methods, timed several weeks apart to make sure that as many neighbors as possible get your message that you have a great property for sale or rent in their neighborhood.

Basketball – The Power of Symbolism in Free-Throw Shooting

As a Coach and teacher for some 40 years or so I have learned a few things myself. Learning is a fascinating thing and yet I think some of us take this for granted. “Life” itself is a tremendous journey filled with constant learning, to help us improve our station in life, hopefully make a good respectable living, and survive to the end in every aspect of life. Learning helps us make the decisions that we become accountable for whether right or wrong.

The power to ‘chose’ is probably the greatest power we have in life. Every single thing we do can be traced back to a thought and then a choice which ultimately lead to a destiny. I don’t want to philosophize too much here but ultimately this article is about leaving an impact through visual symbols which will possibly last a lifetime.

Charles Garfield once said, “A key to self-management is the capacity for self-observation. It is important to realize that self-observation is not the same as over criticism, judgmentalism, or paralysis by analysis. It is rather a consistent monitoring of one’s own performance”.

Another reason I am writing about symbolism is that the greatest teacher of all Jesus Christ taught in parables and symbols and if these parables and symbols left long lasting impressions in my mind then I hope it will have some effect on you the reader.

Over the many years of teaching I have found that I have used more and more visuals or symbols to help the students to possibly see what I see. Another teaching tool like an overhead projector projecting a picture on a screen. There’s a visual right there. It seems we get on the same page faster.

Here are 4 reasons why I use symbols in my coaching methods.

  1. Symbols create visuals which help recall important concepts.
  2. Symbols can represent and create feelings we can control.
  3. Symbols can teach varying principles according to personal readiness to learn or upgrade.
  4. Symbols can possibly expedite learning by clarifying imaginary visuals or pictures.

As I have said before when it comes to shooting free-throws in a superbly consistent and efficient manner it takes more than just ‘being a human’. You must become a ‘human doing’. Shooters are not born. They are made. So the first key is to find your maximum capacity as a free-throw shooter by learning what your maximum best average is from the line. If the best in the world namely the NBA players average about 72%, you can measure yourself along those numbers which really are very mediocre for a skill that is so simple and repetitive.

William James authored this comment which is perfect for my message. He stated, “A mind once stretched by a great idea or new understanding will never fully return to its original dimensions”. That’s why once you hit 90% from the line you won’t go back to 70% ever again. You will respect the changes you have made to elevate your numbers through cognitive learning.

Since there are about 25 scientific principles that must be respected when shooting a free-throw or a three-pointer I have found that just about every principle carries some symbolism with it. Don’t forget that every principle has some scientific attachment to it and there are few if any shortcuts. Try to defy gravity. Try drinking unleaded gas. These are scientific principles that we all respect whether its through fear or knowledge is irrelevant. The result is the same and that’s what we want, positive reinforcement and instant gratification.

Symbolism for the Shooting mechanism:

1. The ‘life’ of a free throw which is only about a second or so is symbolic to ‘life’ itself. The free-throw takes a second and life on the average is about 75 years depending if you are a male or female. Females are more blessed and average a few years more according to scientific studies. To shoot a perfect free-throw you need a goal. IT is the goal. It takes motivation, desire, dedication, knowledge and never ending practice of perfect principles to achieve the desired result which is perfection.

To lead an almost perfect “life” requires the same process. The goal is Heaven or eternal life. (Apologies to atheists and non believers. My intent is not to hurt any ones feelings). Diligently seeking and gaining the appropriate knowledge, application of learned principles, desire to follow a certain predicted path (which can be good or evil), personal motivation, dedication, practicing and applying principles and values that provide the desired result. You tell me if its tougher to master the one second to shoot a free-throw in the game of basketball or the 75 years to master yourself in the game of life?

2.  Hand-ball relationship. Not only should the hand be placed with the index finger at 90 degrees to the seams (seams are not crucial here but the index finger in the middle of the ball is). Hand should be as wide as possible to get the palm off the ball and it will be easier to maintain a level of consistency with the wide hand.

The symbolism here is that of writing with a pen or pencil. Do you not get your fingers placed the same every single time on the writing utensil and do you not write with the fingers and not the arm and larger muscles of the body? The fingers do the walking. The yellow pages ad may ring a bell.

3. The guide hand. This is the support hand that stabilizes the ball during the pick up or the catch.

The symbolism here is the visual of the space shuttle ready to blast off into space. Just moments after the rockets have fired up and spewed megatons of fire and smoke into the ground and atmosphere you see the supporting metal scaffolding slowly peel away to allow blast off.

Same as the left guide hand which after steadying the ball into the ‘shot pocket’ it peels away a couple inches to allow for the shot to be fired unhindered by it just before pulling the trigger with the right hand. (Opposite for left hand shooters).

4.  The ‘shot pocket’ is the area of the body near where the ball comes to rest briefly after picking the ball up just prior to releasing the ball. Depending on the size and strength of the shooter is where the shot pocket may be. In may be near the belly, or the chest or the right side of the face or even behind the top of the head

The symbolism here is cocked trigger, before pressing the trigger.

If there is no pause before you pull the trigger then the shot can be called a ‘chuck’ or thrust. A shot is disciplined and a ‘chuck’ or thrust isis undisciplined. This pause usually separates males from females simply due to lack of strength.

5. The shooting arm includes the part of the anatomy from the shoulder joint to the wrist joint. When you straighten it or ‘lock’ the elbow during the shot to give the whole arm an appearance of straight, you are actually symbolizing a rifle barrel with the bullet in the chamber just before it is fired.

6. The follow through which is the final stage of the shot and is simply the wide open hand starting in a palms up position facing the ceiling (holding the ball) to finished with the wide open hand with palm down facing the floor.

The symbolism here is like closing the lid (hinged) on a cookie jar as opposed to sticking the whole hand in the cookie jar. The hand stays somewhat curved with no joints bending except the wrist.

7. The wide finger spread before and after the shot Guarantees consistency in the ball delivery because it limits any excess movement by keeping all finger joints in locked mode. The only joint that bends on the hand during a shot is the wrist.

The symbolism here is like a ducks webbed feet which always stay wide for maximum traction while paddling. Imagine rowing a boat with a broom handle instead of an oar. Same principle. No direction or power with a thin follow through.

8. The Shot arc is usually the same as the angle of release which also equals the angle of entry of the ball in the basket.

The symbolism here for the arc is to imagine shooting out of the top of an old red British phone booth. You definitely don’t want your follow through to be level with your forehead or close to your ear.

9. The ‘complete follow through’ is the holding pattern during the shot at least until the ball hits the rim. This is full arm extended with wrist bent and hand parallel to the floor and no joints bent.

The symbolism here is the Statue of Liberty holding the flaming torch proud and high and for quite a long time. (Hold follow through for life of the shot or till it hits the rim).

10.The inside edge of the shooting wrist If you have the perfect shot pocket just a couple inches above the forehead and the inside edge of the shooting wrist will be in line with the front center of the rim.

Symbolism here is the inside edge of the shooting wrist compares to the peep sight on the tip of a rifle or shotgun. Thus when you have the perfect line you will have the center front of the rim, the inside edge of your shooting wrist and your eyes form a perfectly straight line just like a long rifle barrel.

A good closing statement for all the above symbolism was given by Frank Andrews when he said “Mindfulness is the practice of aiming your attention, moment to moment, in the direction of your purpose. It is called mindfulness because you have to keep your purpose in mind as you watch your attention. Then, whenever you notice that your aim has drifted off, you calmly realign it”. Absolutely perfect.

Copyright 2009, Ed Palubinskas. All rights reserved.

The Future of Archery – Archers Honing Their Skills in Outer Space Considered

Have you ever wondered what types of sports will survive in the future, sports which will be played on other planets in space colonies? How about in orbiting space hotels, or space stations? How about in long-range cargo ships traveling through space to other planets? It might take them 10 months to get to the next nearest planet, Mars for instance or perhaps 10 years to get to a planet which is near the outside of our solar system. That’s a lot of time, and the crew will obviously be well compensated for their journey, but how will they spend their time?

What will they do? Will they write novels, play card games, and engage in various sport activities? What type of sport activities? What types of sports might they play on a cargo ship, a spacecraft that is extremely long, with large corridors – how about Archery? Sure, why not, and have you ever considered the future of archery in space? Chances are you’ve never considered this, but perhaps you might wish to engage your mind and consider why archery makes the most sense.

It’s not easy to play a sport in zero gravity, but without gravity the arrows will go much straighter, and they will be much more accurate. In fact they will remain accurate to the point where the arrow will go exactly where it’s pointed, and thus it will not deviate much. No wind to worry about and no gravity to pull the arrow down. Therefore it’s all about the skill of the archer.

Since the spacecraft will be made of high-tech materials there is no need to worry about the arrow penetrating the sidewalls, or bulkheads of the spacecraft, especially if they are using wooden arrows with steel tips. Consider if you will that carbon nano-tube composites and graphene coatings will be in the neighborhood of 250 times as strong as steel. The arrow is no match, therefore not a problem.

By the time a cargo crew reaches its destination nearly everyone on the ship will be excellent marksman with a bow and arrow, or a crossbow. When they finally do get back to Earth they can enter the Olympic Archery Competition. At that point they will be so accurate all they will have to do is compensate for the wind and gravity on Earth. If you are an archer, or you love the sport of archery, then please go ahead and shoot me an e-mail as I’d like to hear your comments on this article. Meanwhile, please think on it and consider all this.

Heads Up! The Way You Are Sleeping May Be Killing You!

Every one of us has a mysterious double life.

For about two thirds of the time we are conscious beings, thinking about the world within and without, and negotiating our ways through the obstacles of life. For the other one third of the time we are nearly lifeless lumps of flesh, unconscious to everything but our own fantasies, as we lie flat in bed asleep. We all know that sleep is important for health. But for an activity that consumes about 8 hours of everyday of life, surprisingly little is thought about the act of sleeping, or the way our culture teaches us to sleep. Sleep behavior, like all human activities, is defined by our culture.

Sometimes, the practices taught by our culture can impact on the way our bodies function. As medical anthropologists, we research ways our cultural practices may be affecting our health. And we have found that the way we have been trained to sleep may be one of the most important causes of various diseases plaguing our society.

Of course, when you consider the culture of sleeping, it includes such isues as the length of time to sleep, and time of day for sleep. Do you take frequent naps or do you sleep 8 hours straight? Do you sleep at night or during the day?

Other issues concern sleepwear. Do you sleep nude, or with pajamas or lingerie? Do you sleep in your underwear? Should the sheets be natural fabrics, such as cotton or silk, or is polyester okay? What about the detergent and fabric softeners used in the sheets, pillow case, and pj’s?

Should you eat before you sleep? What is the impact of watching television before sleep? Should you take sleeping pills to help you sleep?

These are some of the culturally defined issues that help determine how we sleep, all of which may have some potential impact on health. However, there is one cultural issue that tops the list of importance, and which may greatly determine your health status. It has to do with your sleep position. Are you sleeping on a firm, flat bed, face down, with your nose and eye compressed against the bed and pillow? Or are you on your back with your head slightly elevated, as is the case for many native cultures that use hammocks or other non-flat surfaces for sleep?

The reason we ask this last question is because the circulation to the head and brain is completely related to your body position when sleeping.

We all have had a time of experiencing dizziness or lightheadedness when getting out of bed too quickly. This effect is called orthostatic hypotension, and results from the fact that blood pressure falls when you lie down, and sudden raising of the head may temporarily deprive the brain of sufficient blood pressure, resulting in the dizziness or lightheadedness. The blood pressure soon rises, increasing the blood supply to the brain, as you feel normal again.

This phenomenon shows that the body’s position, relative to gravity, influences head and brain circulation. You can also demonstrate this by doing a head stand, which many yoga practitioners do daily. Intracranial pressure rises dramatically, as blood rushes to the head, which becomes beet red, and the neck veins swell out, as blood pools in the venous system.

But apart from these examples, very little, if anything, is mentioned in medical physiology textbooks about gravity and its impact on circulation. Yet, you cannot fully understand brain circulation without considering gravity.

The effect of gravity on brain circulation is purely mechanical, and relates to the position of the head relative to the pumping heart. When we are standing up, the head is above the heart, so blood must pump against the force of gravity — from the heart to the brain — lowering the effective pressure with which the arterial blood is delivered to the brain. Meanwhile, drainage of blood from the brain to the heart is facilitated by the pull of gravity.

In contrast, when we lie down and are horizontal, the heart and head are now on the same plane. This eliminates the effects of gravity on brain circulation. Blood from the heart pumps powerfully into the head without gravity’s resistance, increasing intracranial pressure. And blood returning from the brain to the heart must do so without gravity’s assistance, causing a back-up of blood in the brain.

Essentially, intracranial pressure increases, and overall brain circulation diminishes, when you are lying flat compared to standing up.

Of course, the body is intelligent and has mechanisms for controlling brain pressure under different gravity situations. When the brain gets pressurized from lying down, there are various pressure receptors in the head and neck designed to lower blood pressure, thereby preventing too much brain pressure and the possibility of blowing a blood vessel or creating a cerebral aneurysm. This is why blood pressure is lower when we are sleeping, and horizontal.

But these brain mechanisms for adjusting pressure have their limits. As we go through the day in a vertical position, gravity relentlessly pulls our body’s fluids downwards, which is why many people have swollen feet and ankles by day’s end. Once we lie down, the gravity effect is lost, as fluid leaves the legs and returns to the head. So despite our brains normal defense mechanisms, throughout the night intracranial pressure increases and is highest in the morning, after hours of lying flat, and lowest at the end of the day, after hours of being vertical.

What happens when intracranial pressure is high from long periods of lying flat? The increased arterial pressure causes extra cerebral spinal fluid to form in the brain’s ventricles, increasing intracranial fluid pressure. The ventricles swell and the cells of the brain become bathed in excess fluid, essentially causing brain edema. This edema would lower the available oxygen and sugar for brain cells. The lack of gravity assisted drainage from the brain would cause a back-up of blood in the venous system and collecting sinuses in the brain. The brain’s circulation would become relatively stagnant, as the only force moving blood through would be the pushing force of the arterial pressure (which is greatly reduced after going through the cerebral circulation) and the sucking force of the heart’s right atrium. And in addition to the brain swelling under the pressure, the eyes, ears, face, sinuses, gums — the entire head — will become pressurized and the tissues congested with fluid!

There is one field of medicine that avidly studies this effect of gravity on physiology. That sub-specialty is Space Medicine. Astronauts in space are in a zero-gravity field, and it is known that this causes blood to shift to the head and brain, causing increased brain pressure and accompanying migraines, glaucoma, Meniere’s disease, and other problems associated with a pressurized, congested brain. To study the negative effects of zero-gravity here on Earth, these space scientists have people lie down flat! However, since medicine is so wide a field, with sub-specialists learning more and more about less and less, there is little exchange of ideas between space medicine and Earth-bound medicine. Otherwise, someone would have realized that lying flat is what we do when we sleep. If it causes problems for astronauts, then couldn’t it cause problems for everyone else?

We found out about this Space research while we performed our own research into sleep positions as a possible cause of migraines. We hypothesized that sleeping too flat for too long each night could lead to brain pressure and fluid accumulation (edema) within the brain tissue, with associated hypoxia and hypoglycemia. The brain cannot function well without proper amounts of oxygen or sugar, and this condition would be at its worst in the morning, which is when most migraines occur.

While migraines have been thought of as a pathological phenomenon, it is also possible that the migraine is the brain’s defense mechanism to receive new blood along with sugar and oxygen. After all, the only way the brain can get what it needs is from the bloodstream, and during a migraine arteries to the head open up and send blood with force throughout the brain. Perhaps, we reasoned, the migraine is a type of emergency “brain flush”, replacing old blood with new. If so, could we prevent migraines by having migraine sufferers sleep with their heads slightly elevated?

We tested our theory by having about 100 volunteer migraineurs sleep with the heads of their beds elevated, from 10-30 degrees. Head elevation, we theorized, would improve the brain circulation by providing some gravity assistance to drainage. Interestingly, we found that Space Medicine researchers discovered that brain circulation (and heart pumping) is optimal at a 30-degree head of bed elevation.

To our amazement, we found that the majority of the migraineurs in our study experienced relief by this simple sleep position change! Many had no new migraines, after being migraine sufferers for 30 or more years! The results were very fast, within a few days. And there were very interesting side effects, too. Our volunteers woke up more alert. Morning sinus congestion was significantly reduced for most people. Some reported that they no longer had certain allergies. Could we have discovered the real purpose and cause of migraines?

The implications of these findings were, frankly, astounding to us. So many diseases are related to increased brain pressure of “unknown” cause. Sleep position was never studied as the cause of this increased pressure. The implications go far beyond the prevention and treatment of migraines. Any condition that is related to brain pressure, and that is usually worse in the morning after a night of horizontal time, can be potentially related to this gravity and sleep position issue.

Keep in mind that the brain is the central nervous system controlling and modifying all bodily functions. If certain centers of the brain are congested and pressurized daily by sleeping too flat for long hours, those centers can malfunction. Depending on the way a person sleeps, the idiosyncrasies of their brain circulation, and other variables, different people might experience this brain pressure differently. For some, the respiratory centers of the hypothalamus might be particularly congested, resulting in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (which has been associated with head and body position while sleeping), sleep apnea, or even asthma. Sleep apnea has been shown to be treatable with changes in sleep position.

Strokes are clearly associated with brain pressure, and usually occur at night or in the early morning, while sleeping. This is when brain pressure is highest.

Glaucoma is clearly caused by this mechanism. It is already known that eye pressure increases when the head is down, and decreases when the head is up. It is essential to note the head position when taking eye pressure readings because of this sensitive relationship between intraocular pressure and head position. Eye pressure is also highest in the early morning. Elevating the head while sleeping should be routine for glaucoma treatment and prevention.

Baggy eyes and sinus congestion seem to be related to head pressure. Just as the brain gets extra pressure when lying down, the head and face are pressurized, too. People with these problems usually find immediate relief by sleeping elevated 10-30 degrees.

Alzheimer’s disease, we believe, might be the end disease caused by chronic brain congestion and pressure from flat sleeping. The cerebral ventricles of the Alzheimer’s brain are expanded, suggesting a history of ventricular pressure, and generalized lesions along the ventricles may indicate areas of brain tissue that have deteriorated from this chronic pressure. Other research has already shown Alzheimer’s is associated with increased brain pressure, but the cause has been considered unknown, as is the case with almost all brain pressure problems.

It should be noted that the blood-brain barrier cannot function properly when pressurized. Excessive intracranial pressure can cause leaks in this barrier by expanding the basement membrane, allowing heavy metals, e.g., aluminum and mercury, as well as viruses and bacteria, to enter the brain that would have otherwise been excluded. This may be why heavy metals have been associated with certain brain problems, such as Alzheimer’s.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is also known to be associated with congestion of the “impulse center” within the brain that helps control behavior. We found several children with ADHD experience profound improvement of self control by elevating their heads while sleeping.

In addition to head position relative to gravity, we also have found side or belly sleeping can create problems. For example, we found several cases of carpel tunnel syndrome related to sleeping on the hands or wrists, and shoulder pain from sleeping on the side. And keep in mind that head pressure increases, and drainage diminishes, when the head is rotated to the side. Sleeping on the back avoids compression of limbs and internal organs.

It is also interesting to note that patients with asymmetrical problems will typically be worse on the side they sleep on. For example, eye pathology will be worse in the eye on the side of the face that is slept on most. Ear infections will be worse on the “down” ear. You can also tell the side a person sleeps on by observing the shape of the nose. Apart from injuries, the nose should be symmetrical, but becomes curved away from the pillow because of sleeping on the side of the face and pressing on the nose for hours each night. The nose will point away from the side that is most slept on.

Men should be told that side sleeping may result in testicular compression and possible dysfunction. And women who sleep on their sides or stomachs subject their breasts to compression and impaired circulation. Side sleepers may have more breast trouble on the side they sleep on.

We should forewarn the practitioner, however, that, while the effect of elevating the head while sleeping will be dramatic and transformative for many patients and should be considered essential to disease prevention strategies, the fact is that many people resist changing their sleep behaviors. They have been conditioned to sleep a certain way since birth. And even when they want to change their sleep position, it’s difficult to ensure compliance when the subject is unconscious! It takes tremendous will power to alter sleep behavior. But it is well worth the trouble, as people usually see within a week of sleeping elevated.

We found the best methods for head elevation include using more pillows, using a foam wedge, placing blocks under the legs of the bed frame at the head of the bed, or using an adjustable bed. While the ideal position is with the head from 10-30 degrees elevated, 10 degrees elevation is fine to start with. The legs should be slightly elevated, too, and the person should try to stay on his or her back as much as possible. The ideal position is one you would be in if leaning back in a recliner chair. (Recliners would be fine to use, too, but they usually give poor lower back support.) Also, be aware that some people will find one degree of elevation more comfortable than another. People with low blood pressure may need their heads lower than those with higher blood pressure. Others may have some neck and shoulder discomfort from the new position. However, by experimenting with pillows under the arms, underneath the buttocks (which prevents sliding down the bed), and under the feet and legs, the patient should find a comfortable solution.

Also, when taking in to effect patient history, realize that neck injuries and tight neck muscles can impair venous drainage of the brain by compression of the jugular veins by the tight muscles. Neck massage and spinal adjustments may help improve overall brain circulation. We have had a few case histories where there was little or no improvement from head elevation, but the subjects had a history of neck injuries.

Of course, there will be times when people feel lightheaded and need to lie down to get more blood to the head. It might also be better for people to sleep less at night and to make up for lost sleep with a nap, or a siesta, during the day. That would avoid extremes of high and low brain pressure. But our culture makes it necessary for most people to do all their sleeping at once. Sleeping, after all, is a cultural issue. The point is to be aware of how you feel, and realize that your body position relative to gravity may be a key factor affecting health and disease.

We are continuing to research this effect of gravity and sleep position on health, and encourage practitioners to communicate their patients’ experiences with us. We also highly encourage you to read our book, Get It Up! Revealing the Simple Surprising Lifestyle that Causes Migraines, Alzheimer’s, Stroke, Glaucoma, Sleep Apnea, Impotence, and More! (ISCD Press, 2001), where we discuss the profound implications of this theory, including a lengthy list of references about brain pressure and various diseases and the effect of gravity on brain circulation. After you see the evidence, you will probably be as amazed as we are that sleep research has been ignoring this critical aspect of sleep.

Sleeping too flat each day may be the greatest lifestyle mistake people are making in our culture. Some of the worst diseases of our time may be all in our bed!

Folliculitis Treatment For All 4 Types

Folliculitis is a terrible disease to contract. Chances are you are reading this because you are looking for answers. You know then that there are four causes and the treatment options are mostly prescription medications. The 4 categories of folliculitis are bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic.

It is not Acne; it is called Folliculitis, which is the inflammation of one or more hair follicles occurring anywhere on the skin. The common symptoms are a rash, itching and pimples or pustules near a hair follicle on the neck, groin or genital area.

Some day to day things to change to reduce the incidence of Folliculitis is to reduce friction from clothing, avoid shaving or use a new, clean razor each time you shave. You may want to sterilize the razor. Lastly do your best to keep the area clean and avoid clothing and washcloths that could be contaminated.

As has been mentioned there are different types of Folliculitis and the current treatment used, they are:

Bacterial Folliculitis

Bacterial Folliculitis is a result of one of the types of the Staphylococcus bacteria, Pseudonomas, Proteus or Coliform bacteria getting under the skin by some break in the skin and infecting a hair follicle. Once the bacteria are trapped under the skin it is possible for it to spread to other parts of the body.

The types of Folliculitis caused by bacteria are “Hot Tub” Folliculitis and Gram-Negative Folliculitis. Superficial Folliculitis, also known as Impetigo, consists of pustules but the infection can go deeper into the skin causing pain and pus. These can often result in scarring to the skin.

Superficial Folliculitis often responds to a topical antibiotic like Mupirocin or fusidic acid ointment. The cases where the Folliculitis has gone deeper into the skin require broad-spectrum antibiotics like cephalosporins, macrolides, or fluoroquinolone. Lancing is required to drain carbuncles and furuncles if they do not drain on their own.

Fungal Folliculitis

Fungal infections are either superficial or deep and can even spread to the blood or internal organs. Three categories of functions are common in the body; Dermatophytic Folliculitis, Pityrosporum Folliculitis and Candida Folliculitis.

Dermatophytic Folliculitis is caused by a fungal species and the severity of the infection will be directly related to the depth of fungal penetration in the hair shaft. Athlete’s Foot and Jock Itch are both conditions caused by Ringworm, which are well-known types of this condition. Unsightly pustules of various sizes are present filled with pus and it is common that there will be a loss of the hair shaft. It is not uncommon for there to be scarring in cases of bad folliculitis. If the penetration into the skin is deep there may also be pain, fever and permanent hair loss. Griseofulvin and Terbinafine HCl are used as treatment options that produce good results.

When yeast is able to enter a hair follicle and reproduce causing an itchy skin eruption it is known as Pityrosporum Folliculitis. It can be effectively treated with a topical antifungal medication.

Candida Folliculitis is caused by the Candida fungus and is the most common in infecting people. This is best treated with Itraconazole, a broad-spectrum antifungal agent.

Viral Folliculitis

This is an infrequent infection of the hair follicle by a virus such as the herpes simple virus or herpes zoster virus. They are treated by the use of oral antihistamines or surgical removal.

Parasitic Folliculitis

Parasites cause Folliculitis when they burrow their way into a hair follicle to live there or lay eggs. Two mites, Demodex Folliculorum and Demodex Brevis are natural hosts of the hair follicle. The most well-known form of this infection is Rosacea, which is commonly mistaken for as acne. A course of treatment would be the use of a topical Permethrin cream like Elimite or Acticin, systemic Ivermectin or Itraconazale.

Teaching Historical Fencing – The Flourish

Is it possible to train in complex movements with the sword without having an opponent or drill partner with whom to work? If so, is this training of any value? Did fencers do this in the Middle Ages or Renaissance? The answer to all three questions is “yes,” and such drills should be a regular part of your historical fencing training.

For over 100 years Japanese martial artists have used kata, series of steps, kicks, punches, or weapons actions as a traditional part of their training. Such kata often include 50 or more distinct movements. Among the founders of modern karate one or two kata formed the basis for lifetime study, although the number of kata have proliferated and their quality arguably declined with the widespread commercialization of the martial arts.

In Europe some 400 to 500 years before the development of karate kata, swordsmen were using series of movements to flourish, a term found in both German and English Long Sword texts, with solo footwork movements and blade actions much like the kata. Lindholm’s and Hull’s translations of Dobringer’s gloss of Liechtenauer’s teaching verse for the Long Sword includes a flourish that starts with the gate or barrier guard, includes displacements, and ends with attacking blade work. This flourish appears to be a prebouting display of expertise for the amusement of spectators and the intimidation of opponents.

The surviving English texts interpreted by Heslop and Bradak include flourishes, as well as a variety of other exercises that can be done without an opponent. They view these as training tools suitable for solo practice. In fact, the more complicated sequences may actually be better practiced without a partner in order to avoid training the partner to excel in the role of target (not something that you would want in an actual sword fight).

Thus there are actual historical flourishes that can be used for training. However, you can construct flourishes for your students using the following guidelines:

The first rule is do nothing that would not make sense in an actual fight. That seems obvious, but it can be easy to forget that these were weapons designed to kill people, and that the people who used them had no interest in training in techniques that would result in their own death or serious injury. Flourish does not mean that you have a license to do unhistorical or fanciful weapon twirling.

Second, decide what mix of technique you will use. You may focus solely on attacks. However, incorporating changes of guard and defensive actions help develop a broader range of abilities. At the same time you should decide what distances the flourish simulates. A flourish with a concentration on renewals of attack at short distance is a much different exercise from one in which the offense is based on passing steps and full arm actions.

Third, restrict your flourish to a number of steps that can be remembered easily. Fifty steps becomes as much a memory exercise as a fighting one. Dobringer’s flourish at its most basic is eight actions; the English Additional Manuscript 39564 flourishes are longer, but still under two dozen movements (depending on how you count them).

Fourth, have the movement flow forward and back. This is a practical consideration to enable you to fit your flourish into your available training area. However, German practice technique is movement based with footwork accompanying strikes; English practice does include actions delivered apparently without footwork.

Fifth, have your actions end up in the right place. Each blade and foot movement should flow seamlessly from the immediately preceding movement. If the students have to stop and reposition out of sequence to make the flourish work, each repositioning would create opportunities to be hit in an actual fight.

Sixth, write down a description, let it sit overnight, and then see if you can execute it as written. Revise if necessary, and then give it to your students to try.

Finally go back and make certain that what you have designed makes tactical sense. Is it something that a Medieval or Renaissance fencer would do if faced with an armed opponent desiring his harm or death? Only after these checks are done can you be confident that it can be assigned for practice.

The flourish can become an excellent tool for warm-up, for solo practice, and for displays of skill during open houses or other recruiting activity. It offers your students a challenge that they bear full responsibility for meeting, helping to create pride in their performance. And it further connects them to the history of fencing and to the importance of fighting spirit in swordplay.

Scaffolding Towers Review: The "Gardeno" Mobile Work Platform

When you think about the phrase "scaffolding tower," chances are you think of the type large scaffolding systems you see deployed on a construction site. While it's true that scaffolding towers are used extensively in construction, as an avid DIYer, I've often wished there was a scaled down model designed for use by home-owners, especially in the garden. Well, my wait is over. I've found the perfect solution: the "Gardeno" mobile work platform. Read on to learn more.

About the "Gardeno" Mobile Work Platform

Since I have a fairly extensive garden, I'm always looking for products that will expedite its care. This is an exceptionally stable and strong mini scaffold designed with gardeners in mind. The "Gardeno" is mounted on two large (10in) pneumatic tires, so it's quite easy to move over many types of surfaces, hard or soft. By the way, a pneumatic ty is one that's filled with air, rather than being solid. Fitted with independent screw jacks at each corner, along with durable steel foot pads that are 6in in diameter, the "Gardeno" is easy to level. The footpads prevent sinking if the platform is located on soft ground. The platform adjusts to four heights: 50cms (20in), 80cms (32in), 110cms (44in), and 140cms (55in). The platform is sturdily built from plywood, which tend to be stronger than plain wood planks. Surrounding the platform is a strong steel frame to which it is securely mounted.

Features and Specifications

The "Gardeno" will support a maximum load of 200kg (31.5st). Remember that this rating includes both the weight of the person and the weight of any tools or materials that are present. When I was shopping for a work platform, I found many models to be quite difficult to handle. One of the reasons I chose this one is that it's amazingly light and so very easy for one person to handle. I simply use the inbuilt handles to wheel it to a new location in my garden, very much like a wheelbarrow and not much heavier. Quite well balanced! For durability, the "Gardeno" is finished in tough epoxy-based powder coat over heavy duty construction that uses strong 32mm (1.25in) quality tubular steel.

More about the "Gardeno" Work Platform

You should know that this product requires some minor assembly, but no tools are required. Just follow the simple instructions. When you're done using the "Gardeno," just remove a few pins to pack it flat for easy storage, even in small spaces. The platform size is a generous 115cms x 42cms (45in x 16.5in). I've been able to reach working heights of up to 3.5m (11ft6), so it's great for trimming small trees and the ivy that grows on my house. Expect to pay about £ 85.00 for the versatile "Gardeno." The price should include VAT and free delivery.

For anyone with an extensive garden or a list of DIY projects that require working at height, the "Gardeno" mobile work platform is a versatile alternative to large scaffolding towers.

Build Your Home With Larger Garage Door Sizes

When designing a new home or garage it is very important take the time to consider what garage door sizes will work best. It is important not to assume that you will only need a standard size door. Once you have made the decision it is more or less irrevocable. In addition you also should consider increasing the size of your garage and that includes the height of the garage walls as well. It really is hard to beat an oversize garage.

Even if you presently own only a single medium size car you should seriously consider spending the extra money to make your garage larger and that includes the garage doors. Standard garage door sizes include 8’x7′ and 8’x16′ sizes. These sizes will accommodate a medium size care comfortably but not a large SUV or ordinary pickup truck. In many cases an 8 foot high just will not give a pickup enough clearance vertical clearance and many times the trucks mirrors will not make through the 7 foot width.

If you work with your builder and architect you will find that it will not cost that much more to increase the garage wall height. Doing so will give you a lot more options in terms of the capability. A garage with 10 high side walls will easily accommodate a 9 foot garage door. So why do you need a 9 foot garage door? If you own a pickup truck you will sooner or later have it loaded with a high load and that load will easily make it into the garage and out of the weather. If you load up the roof rack of your SUV with a luggage box in most cases it will not clear a standard 7 foot high garage door.

When it comes to garage door sizes width is also a critical consideration. If you own a boat or utility trailer you will find that they are frequently close to 9 foot wide. This means your toys are going to be sitting out in the weather because they are too wide to fit through the standard 7 foot wide door. Even a person who handles a vehicle and trailer well will appreciate the extra width of a 10 or 12 foot wide door when back up the load into the garage. The extra width may also keep people from banging your truck mirrors.

In many cases people will opt for the standard 16 foot double garage doors. These doors do give you the width you need to back in your pontoon boat and other wide loads. Again having a 9 or 10 foot high door will allow you to back it in without taking down the bimini or hard top.

Designing and building a home with an oversize garage is a good investment in the value of your home. Even if you never use the garage to its full potential it will appeal to a larger market when it comes time to sell your home. Using large garage door sizes will allow the next owner to store all his or her toys in the garage. This is especially true if your oversize garage is enclosed with the best garage doors as well. In terms of garage doors pricing spending a small additional amount of money to oversize your garage may increase the value of your property substantially.

Replacing Linkage Pins and Bushes on Mini Excavator – Part One

Doing the necessary checks

It is critical to replace the linkage pins and bushes before they wear out. If you do not do this the structure of the mini excavator will also wear down and this is a much more costly problem to fix, in comparison to the cost of the pins and bushes which are relatively cheap to replace. It would be unhealthy for your business to let your excavator machine wear down when this can be avoided by making small repairs.

When you are doing this maintenance to your mini excavator, you first of all need to identify the parts that need replacing. To do this, you need to check all the joints to see if there are any excess play and movement in them. There should not be any movement side-to-side, and the pins should not rattle in the joint. When you have done these checks you should now have a list of the pins and bushes that you require. Look for a reputable supplier for these parts.

It is important that you make sure that the parts you have purchased are properly hardened, this means that both the pins and bushes have been heat treated in order to make them hard wearing so that they last longer. Pins and bushes are subjected to a lot of strain so you do not want these parts breaking early or wearing too fast. You will find that some suppliers will offer you un-hardened pins which are often slightly cheaper than hardened ones. However, you should avoid purchasing these parts because they will wear very fast and cause problems later on.

Replacing the pins

Once you have all the parts that you require, you need to start replacing them.

  1. Before you fit the new pins and bushes you need to remove the existing ones that need replacing.
  2. The pins should simply un-bolt and pull out. Be aware however that when you are taking out the pins which hold the excavator arm into place, you may need somebody to help you secure it. Perhaps you may even need a forklift, overhead crane or another excavator to support the arm as you take it apart.

Removing the bushes and replacing them is more difficult than the pins. For our guide on how to do this read our ‘Replacing Linkage Pins and Bushes on Mini Excavators- Part Two’ article. This will support you when replacing them tricky bushes.

7 Ways to Unburden and Feel Happier

When people speak of being unhappy they often talk about being weighed down or feel like they’re carrying the weight of the world on their shoulders. They’re burdened and feel overwhelmed, they need to offload some unnecessary extras. Here are seven ideas for instant unburdening:

Start with you you.

1. Get a haircut

That big haystack on your head annoys you every time you catch a glimpse in the mirror but you haven’t got around to getting the professional attention it desperately needed well over three weeks ago. You’ll feel sleek and sharp and maybe a few ounces lighter once you’ve had it cropped. You’ll look great, feel more confident and be more self-assured.

2. Floss your teeth

Be truthful, you don’t do this nearly as often as you should and you’re weighed down by all the decaying food you’re carrying between your teeth. OK so I’m exaggerating, but you’ll feel better for doing it and you might be more likely to smile, and therefore feel happier.

Move on to your immediate physical surroundings.

3. De-clutter your cell phone

Start modestly by deleting all your ‘read’ text messages including the dirty jokes you keep but are too frightened to forward. You’ve been meaning to do it for a while, so do it now, it’ll take you less than a minute. Save the one or two messages that you really need to another folder and then delete the rest en-masse. If you’re feeling brave, get rid of all the sent messages too.

You’ve taken a ton of pictures on your phone camera. 60% of them are likely to be blurred, mistimed, badly framed, full of red-eye, too dark, taken by mistake. Get rid of the dud ones, you’ll feel better and have more storage space for the good photos of your friends caught in compromising positions.

4. De-clutter you purse/wallet/pockets

Remove five items from your purse/wallet/pockets, you don’t need half of what you keep in there.

Get rid of the old receipts you’re keeping for no reason other than to pad out your wallet to give the illusion of wealth.

Remove the rarely used store cards or credit cards. You don’t need all of them all the time and if you lost them it’s a pain to phone around so many card companies – be selective about what you take out with you.

Dump the ton of business cards you’ve collected. Be honest you have no intention of following up on them anyway, you only took them to avoid causing offense.

Move on to your home, and deal with just one place or you probably won’t do it at all.

5. Tidy your wardrobe

Start by getting rid of just 7 items, one for each day of the week.

Ditch the t-shirt with the armpit stains, I don’t care if you wear it every day, it’s rancid, dump it.

Donate the two pairs of Simpsons socks you got for Christmas. Men: the disgusting novelty ties hanging on you wardrobe door have to go, preferably to the incinerator. Ladies: get rid of the gray bras that should be white, you’ll feel much more confident that you can deal with any emergency involving your blouse falling off. There’s a coat you haven’t worn for three years, I know you paid 300 dollars for it but if you never use it, it might as well be worth 5 – donate it or junk it. There’s also an expensive pair of shoes that cut the feet off you whenever you wear them because they’re too small. When you bought them you told the assistant you were a size smaller than you are because you were too ashamed to admit you have the feet of a Sasquatch. Donate them so someone with normal sized feet can get the benefit.

Move on to your life.

6. Deal with the personal stuff.

They churn you up inside and tackling them can be unpleasant, no wonder we put off dealing with these burdens.

You owe someone an apology. You forgot their birthday. You called their husband a slob. You kicked their dog. You kicked their husband. You borrowed a DVD and never gave it back. Whatever it is, it’s been playing on your mind for too long. Do it. Do it now. Today. Don’t let it run on even for one more day.

Move on to your mind.

7. Empty your head.

You can’t make sense of everything that’s going on, it’s all too much! Slow down. Stop. Get a pen and paper, spend 15 minutes getting the contents of your mind onto the paper. But not everything, some of the dark stuff is best kept in there – you put it on paper and suddenly it becomes evidence!

Look at what you’ve come up with and see whether there’s anything there that’s truly important. The rest you can forget. Screw up the paper and throw it away (or recycle it responsibly because you care passionately about the planet).

Try it out!

Doing some or all of these things needn’t take very long at all and when you’re done you’ll feel less burdened. Your unconscious mind will breath a sigh of relief and you won’t experience quite so many nagging thoughts that occur at the most inconvenient times, like when you’re spying on your neighbors (I’m kidding!).

I hope I’ve made you smile with this short list of ideas to unburden and feel happier.

Rousseau – Slavery, War, and Natural Law

Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his writing The Social Contract, (Rousseau), philosophizes on what a civil society entails. Rousseau shows great ability to allow reason to prevail over manipulation in his political assertions. In the writings ‘Of Slavery’ section, Rousseau examines the nature of conflicts and alleges that war exists between states and not man. Rousseau applies reason to the actions of man and claims it to be a requirement for civil society to exist. Following his logic, he surmises that slavery of individuals and/or whole societies cannot exist in a civil world because this contract would be invalid in the eyes of reason and nature. I believe Rousseau’s ideas are sound in principal and should and some should be incorporated into modern legal doctrines. Natural law works subtly against violators of it by natural methods. This sometimes takes its form in the conscience of people and directs them to act helping to regulate natural order.

Rousseau attempts in his writing to show that there is a higher reasoning than the conscience of man, and this is verbalized in his statement concerning men who submit into a contract of slavery voluntarily, “for to alienate another’s liberty is contrary to the natural order, …” (Rousseau 61).

Rousseau continues that slavery is a not a valid contract by reasoning fairness to both parties does not exist, in effect making such an arrangement in the eyes of common sense “vain and meaningless” (Rousseau, 61).

It is easy enough for slaves to agree with this train of thought; but what is there to make free people or slaveholders to find truth in Rousseau’s beliefs?

Rousseau’s rhetoric involves presenting scenarios, often the opinions of others, and countering them in accordance to his philosophies. Using Grotius’ theory on the rationalization for slavery of the defeated in war, Rousseau briefly looks at these justifications to lay a base of reasons, creating contrast for his own opinions on which he then elucidates. Grotius held that it is a right of the victor to extirpate, referring to the defeated, he followed this argument by concluding that it is within the victor’s rights to “ransom his life at the expense of his liberty”(Rousseau, 62).

Grotius elaborates in his book On the Law of War and Peace referring to enslaving losers of war, “Nor is the commission of crime requisite to reduce them to this condition, but the fate of all is alike, who are unfortunately taken within the territories of an enemy, upon the breaking out of war” (Grotius). Grotius’ opinions give no merit to moral civility. The ruler or ruling that denies the property and liberty to the individuals of a defeated nation or group is fighting an uphill battle on civility and natural law, forces that are often underestimated by corrupt oppressors. The definition of natural law that I am referring to is well defined in James A. Donald’s Natural Law and Natural Rights including “Conduct which violates natural law is conduct such that, if a man were to use individual unorganized violence to prevent such conduct, or, in the absence of orderly society, use individual unorganized violence to punish such conduct, then such violence would not indicate that the person using such violence, (violence in accord with natural law) is a danger to a reasonable man” (Donald).

Donald and I agree that this theory of natural law is embedded in human nature and government policies that go against the ingrained human core morals will always be subject to resistance equaling that to which it is opposed. When evaluating causes and definition of war, one can see that indiscriminate killing and slavery are direct extensions of war, and being such will always face opposition.

Rousseau goes into some depth on what he considers reasons for war. He argues that men become enemies through war by accident, further claiming that wars exist over property rather than person (Rousseau, 62). Being so, he argues that a just victor prince, in reflection of his own laws, will respect the lives of his captives and their property as individuals, but not the property of the fallen state. What I find most compelling of Rousseau’s points falls in his statement, “The object of war being the destruction of the enemy state, a commander has a perfect right to kill its defenders so long as their arms are in their hands: but once they have laid them down and have submitted, they cease to be enemies, or instruments employed by an enemy, and revert to the condition of men, pure and simple, over whose lives no one can any longer exercise a rightful claim” (Rousseau, 62). This train of thought is followed in his next paragraph, “If war does not give to the victor the right to massacre his defeated enemies, he cannot base upon a nonexistent right any claim to the further one of enslaving them” (Rousseau, 63).

I cannot sit back and watch the beating of a defenseless child, I must intervene. This compulsion is a manifestation of natural law. To silently observe without contest the rape of another or the willful destruction of another’s property, the lack of challenge of such actions make the observer a participant by condoning such oppression. As an individual and as part of a nation, I find it an inherent duty to make effort to curtail blatant and excessive practices that would shock the moral conscience of free men by consensus (a method natural law dictates), of nations and individuals alike. Excessive exposure to violations of natural law are used to pacify its predominance by socially conditioning a numbing of man’s innate sense to critical violations of natural law by creating overwhelming conditions that can confuse and build tolerance in the morally inclined. The portrayal of wars conducted by the United States by the media is one example of this infusion of acceptance by overwhelming viewers with examples of rationalized treachery.

In The Social Contract, Rousseau spells out what he believes are necessary virtues for a civil society to exist. His progressive ideas toward slavery contrasted its actual widespread institution. While some would differ from his opinion, his carefully thought and expressed views have been often considered over the 200 years since first being published. Natural law was not invented nor created, it was discovered. Entwined to us since our conception, it is a law, though unwritten and underappreciated, violations of it, even the most encompassing and conniving are guaranteed to face permanent resistance at all points. Practices that do not conflict natural law have more than sum of its parts (supporters), the permanent effects of reason will further these applications.

© 2005 – David Oppenheimer – Performance Impressions

Works Cited

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract. The Origin of Civil Society. A World of Ideas. Ed. Lee A. Jacobus. Boston:Bedford/St. Martins, 2006.

Grotius, Hugo. On the Law of War and Peace. Book II. Chapter 7, (1) Trans. A. C. Campbell. 21 Sept. 2005

Grotius – On the Law of War and Peace

Natural Law and Natural Rights. Ed. James A. Donald. James’s Liberty File Collection Index. 28 Oct. 2005 Natural Law and Rights

The Importance of Proper Storage of Drugs Illustrated by the Example of the Latest SSRI Drug

STORAGE is the process of keeping drugs at home. Drugs are chemicals that react to external stimulants such as heat, moisture, light, dust, etc. In many cases, such reaction leads only to superficial changes, such as discoloration. In many other cases, the reaction may affect the drug more seriously, leading to reduction or elimination of its efficacy and/or potency. There are cases of drugs that, thus affected, not only exert no healing effect but also cause adverse effects on the patient’s health,

Storage therefore must not be taken lightly. This is even more important in the storage of anti-depressant drugs such as Lexapro because if its healing property is lost or diminished, the patient, given his or her psychological/mental condition, may altogether refuse to take any medication and allow his or her condition to deteriorate to suicidal tendencies, if not suicide itself.

Label instructions: It is always a good practice to read storage instructions printed on the container or strips in which the medicine comes. Many liquid medicines are required to be used within a certain number of days after opening the container, after which their potency is reduced or lost. Reading instructions on the label is therefore the first thing one should do on purchasing a medicine. In fact, these instructions are enough to store medicines properly and one does not usually require further advice on it.

Storage of Lexapro: Lexapro is the latest anti-depressant drug belonging to the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) group of drugs. It is used in the treatment of depression and generalized anxiety disorders. The following are the storage instructions for Lexapro, which must be strictly adhere to:

  • Store at room temperature between 59 and 86 degrees F (15 and 30 degrees C)
  • Store away from heat, direct light, and moisture. Keep the capsule or tablet away from the bathroom, kitchen sink, and other damp places. Heat or moisture can cause the medicine to break down or crack
  • Keep out of reach of children (this is applicable to all medicines)

To conclude, do not take storage of drugs lightly. Improper storage can reduce or even eliminate potency of the drug and this can dilute the patient’s confidence in the treatment he or she is receiving. In the case of patients with psychosomatic illnesses, this dilution of confidence can seriously impair chances of recovery and can even lead to suicide.

The Cyberspace and Its Intricacies

I think I live in cyberspace, as everything from my geyser to the air conditioner, cell phone to the car, coffee maker to the food processor work on the computer technology. From getting up in the morning to going to bed in the night, I am so incredibly surrounded by the computers that I have almost forgot to realize that these are computers.

Decades ago, cyberspace was in its embryonic stage and was actually tough to understand as its meaning was confined to the network of computers connecting a few organizations virtually. But, the scenario today is utterly different as every string that connects us with another string is connected by computers and the internet. Be it a politician, businessman, a common man, bureaucrat or ethicist, everyone is so damn affected by issues related to the internet. The name given to such issues is cyber security issues.

Every habitat of this cyberspace confronts with different cyber security issues and the variety is so high that a single issue hardly gets so viral that everyone can understand it. There are copious issues, questions and answers that remain so poorly understood by the masses. Hence, we need to be more knowledgeable and involved in order to understand more and think harder about the new cyber threats that pop up almost every day in the cyberspace we inhabit.

I really worry, “if the cyber anxiety among the nations tightens on cybersecurity issues, privacy issues and hacking issues then there would be a devastating cyber war”. The possibility of cyber war is so high that the business of cyber security is expanding massively and so are the special army units with cyber defence techniques. Cyber threats have so badly taken over our minds that we are ready to compromise with our privacy.

If I can ever imagine about the cyber war, the only thing that strikes my mind is:

Cyberwar would not be limited to the armies fighting with each other at the border or in the air, in fact, it would be beyond that. The cyber potent country will hack the tools of other nations` which are used to establish the network and disable them, i.e. the message encoding machines that are used to convey the troop movement and other vital information during the war would be destroyed, the communication channel, the transportation and other crucial organizations will be wiped away.

In simpler words the victory will be the fate of a cyber potent country or there will be no victory because the whole space will come to a stand still.

What we actually need to understand?

The age of Technology moves much faster than the human age. Every other day a new technology takes birth leaving the earlier ones behind. For example, there was a time when Roadrunner was the super fast computer, but, within a few years it was out of league of supercomputers as new technology with new possibilities came up ans there were other supercomputers faster than Roadrunner. It was a week before when I started writing about Moto 360 and Asus Zen Watch, but, finally when I thought of publishing it I found that LG Smartwatch was in the market with enhanced features. In this case, it was a matter of a few days and I had to think of rewriting the review. This is how technology is moving at an unimaginable speed and will keep on moving.

No one can really predict the future or fate of the cyberspace. The theories and trends we believe today, can be amazingly different in the near future. For example, the clogged water evaporates with the heat, but, we never know where the each evaporated water molecule actually goes and which water molecule is going to evaporate next. The only part of the theory we know as of now is that it is the heat that causes evaporation. There can be much more to know about the same in future.

So, is the case with the facts and believes related to cyber security. We can never predict the upcoming threats and the sustainability of the security measures which are the best in today`s date. There are threats we know and there are threats we know that we do not know about and then there are threats that are yet unknown about cyber security.

Had such threats been known to us at the time of inception of the computer world, the human race would have restricted its exposure to it. Well! this would also have proved a fatal decision because there would have been something else that would have replaced computer world with its own boons and curses.

Hence, more important is building proper understanding and enacting thoughtful responses towards every new possibility cyberspace can offer us. In short the inhabitants of the cyber world have to be vigilant enough to manage and understand the risks that are complementary with its comforts and joys – this is exactly what we need to understand.

Functions And Applications Of DC Motors

The Direct Current motor or the DC motor helps to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. It is used in majority of household applications and electronic devices. It is widely used in CD players, computers, remote control airplanes, electric razors and so forth. Some of the most important parts of the Direct Current motor include the rotor, armature, stator, commutators with brushes. It is considered to be the simplest types of motor used in many of the electrical appliances. Compared to the AC motor, it is more controllable and powerful.

Working Procedure of DC Motors

A field of magnetism is created inside the device as it is equipped with magnets and electromagnetic windings. An armature is placed in between the south and north poles of the magnet inside the motor. When power is passed throughout the armature, the magnetic field interacts with the field generated by the armature. The opposite polarity causes the motor to turn.

There are basically three types of DC motors which include the stepper motor, the brushed and the brushless motors.

Stepper Motors: One of the most common varieties of Direct Current motors includes the stepper motor. These electrical brushless motors function on the basis of electromagnets that rotate the internal shaft. There are computer controlled stepper motors available in most of the online and offline shops. It is widely used in satellites, Floppy drives, CD drives, toys and scanners. Due to its functional operations, it can be controlled quite easily. But the stepper motors require an external controller as it includes low power.

Brushed Motor: The Brushed motors are considered to be the standard dc motors that can be powered by any type of Direct Current battery. It includes a split run commutator. However, these devices have certain drawbacks. The brushes and the commutator ring come into contact with one another which create friction and considerable damage to the ring and the brushes. Both the ring and the brushes will require constant replacements. The modern brushes are made of carbon which is durable compared to the copper wires. It also causes less friction. These devices are less expensive and easy to operate.

Brushless Motors: As these motors do not include brushes, it is considered to be the most appropriate device. It is durable and includes less maintenance. It is also efficient and powerful compared to the other types of Direct Current motors. It includes an external commutator and a rotor which reverses the direction of the current.

As this motor does not include brushes, there is hardly any possibility of friction and equipment damage. It can therefore be used or heavy machineries and electrical equipments. It is also considered to be cost efficient and durable. It is also cooler than the AC motors and so it last longer.

The DC motor is used in different applications such as boring mills, weaving machines, lathes, shapers and spinning machines. It is also used in air compressors, vacuum cleaners, sewing machines, elevators and hair dryers. Apart from these, it is used for a wide variety of industrial purposes.

Candles: History and Perspective

What role do candles play in your life? Since they were first invented, their role in human societies continues to diversify. In the beginning, it was all about light. Of course, the meaning of light is as diverse as it is essential to our existence. A candle may play a different role in your life today, tomorrow or the next day. Just how profoundly have candles affected human development functionally, culturally and spiritually?

Retail sails for candles in the U.S. for 2001 were approximately 2.3 billion dollars. Candles are used in seven out of 10 U.S. households. The majority of candle consumers burn candles between one and three times per week and burn one to two candles at a time. There are over 300 known commercial manufacturers of candles in the U.S. alone. These statistics are provided by the National Candle Association (NCA – []).

What elements constitute or define a candle? The essential elements of early candles were a wick, fuel and container or mount. Aromatherapy and colorants have become common editions to most modern candles. Candles have been used for thousands of years but until the 20th century, their essential and primary purpose was to provide artificial light. Today, the applications for candles are so broad and diverse; they have become an integral part of our everyday lives. [].


It is fair to assume that controlling and capturing fire to produce artificial light on demand has been an obsession since early man first discovered fire. The first known records of this process begin with the ancient Egyptians. Clay candle holders dating from the 4th century B.C. have been found in Egypt. Egyptians eventually used rush lights or torches. They made these torches by soaking the pithy core of reeds in molten tallow. Tallow is the fatty tissue or suet of animals. The tallow of cattle and sheep was routinely used because it became hard. There was no wick involved in these early candles.


The people of the Roman Empire were the first to use candle wicks. They melted tallow to a very liquid state and poured it over flax, hemp or cotton fiber which created a wick. These candles provided artificial light for utilitarian purposes and were also used in religious ceremonies. There were two primary problems with the use of tallow. It produced both a terrible odor and smoke. Tallow did not burn cleanly.


Early Asian cultures extracted wax from insects (coccos pella) and seeds and then molded it in tube containers of plant paper. The Japanese extracted wax from tree nuts to create candles. In China, beeswax was used during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.).


Early Indian cultures extracted wax from boiling cinnamon and created tapered candles. These candles were used in Indian Temples.

Middle Ages

By this time, beeswax had been discovered. Although harder to acquire, this was a great improvement because the beeswax produced a subtle sweet smell and burned cleanly. These candles were highly valued by the clergy and upper classes that were among those who could access/afford them.

North America

In the first century A.D., Native Americans burned oily fish that were called candlefish. Missionaries that eventually settled the southwestern United States boiled bark from the Cerio tree to extract wax for candle making. Colonial women in New England discovered they could boil the grayish green berries of bayberry bushes and extract wax. This was a difficult and tedious process but the bayberry wax burned sweetly and cleanly. In the late eighteenth century, the whaling industry developed. Spermaceti wax, a whale product that had a mild odor and was harder than both tallow and beeswax made candles available to more people. Many historians claim that the first “standard candles” were made using spermaceti wax.

The Industrial Age


Mass production came to candle making. Joseph Morgan invented a machine that used a cylinder featuring a piston that ejected candles as they solidified in their molds.


Paraffin wax was invented. It is processed by distilling the residues left behind by the refining of crude petroleum. This bluish-white wax burned cleanly and with no unpleasant or much odor of any kind. It was also cheap to produce.

20th Century

Eventually, stearic acid was added since it was discovered this ingredient in the original tallow candles was what maintained a higher melting point and produced a harder candle. The growth of the meatpacking and oil industries made candles a common necessity. In 1879, the electric light bulb was invented. However, history did not end for the development of the candle. This was just a temporary setback that reinvented the mission and the market for candles.

Modern Chandlers (Candle Makers)

Internationally, paraffin remains the most popular candle fuel although the use of stearic wax is mostly practiced in Europe. However, technology continues to develop candles that offer new and more benefits. In 1992, after much testing Michael Richards made the first all vegetable candle wax which has developed into our modern soy candle. The versatility of this wax allows for use in both low-melt container candles and high temperature melt for free standing pillar candles.

Gel candles

The most recent state-of-the-art technology revolves around gel candles. The gel is a combination of polymer resin and mineral oil. The patent for making gel wax is held by Penreco Corporaton (US Patent 5,879,694) and is called versagel. Gel provides exceptional safety in terms of its flash point. It is best used in creating what is known as a hurricane candle by putting it in a decorative translucent container and adding a wick. Due to the clarity of the gel, these candles produce 40% more luminescence than regular paraffin wax. Modern chandlers turned artists, now produce beautiful collectibles in the form of embedded glass candle designs. The gel can be reinstated, and the candle passed down through generations to be used again and again. Detailed pictures of these art candles are available at [].

So…What role do candles play in your life?

Well, they can still light a room…but they can also light a heart. They can express love that lasts a lifetime and an infinite collection of special moments and appreciation. Candles are a cultural, technical, artistic, therapeutic and spiritual expression of the finest moments in human evolution and experience. That is why they are still present in our lives…in spite of the electric light bulb. This article invites you to use them to celebrate life in all its creative glory.