Laminate Wood Floors – Are Laminate Floors a Good Choice?

Laminate wood floors are a better option than hardwood floors as it does not stain, fade and dent with long time use. In addition to this, it is more scratch and water resistant than hardwood. When you select your laminate, be sure to look at the traffic and use of independent regions, as different laminate types may be required.

It is better to use entry level laminate wood flooring for regions with light traffic. This flooring comes with a warranty ranging from 10 to 15 years. However many people expect too much from this flooring, and think that it will perform well under heavy traffic conditions and still look good. On the contrast, entry level floor that is projected to high traffic signals to show signs of wear and tear within 3 to 5 years of installation.

Laminate wood floors are best on floors with paraffin wax.

Laminate floors have cores of different ranges where the thickest core is very stable, is less vulnerable to buckling and sounds more like hardwood when walked on. Water repellent chemicals are used for treating good quality cores which also helps in resisting swelling due to excessive moisture.

It is better to use laminate wood flooring on floors with paraffin wax impregnated joints. This is because the paraffin wax works like water repellent which results topical water spills from penetrating its core.

Although this looks like a good choice for use in bathrooms and kitchens, it is better to check on the warranty of the flooring as some laminates are not suited for use in bathrooms and kitchens. Laminate wood flooring is a great flooring option if you are looking for a rich and natural look at a home friendly price.

Keeping and Handling Japanese Inro

Antique lacquer has always been highly valued for its lasting qualities and strength, as not only could a very high gloss be achieved, but it also proved to be impervious to alcohol, acids and hot liquids. It appealed to the Zen Buddhism ideals of ‘Yin and Yang’, as lacquer appears to be so delicately beautiful and light in weight, yet it is hard, impermeable and enduring.

However, great care still needs to be taken when handling any antique Japanese lacquer, especially inro (when complete with the ojime and a netsuke, or manju), as the inro can so easily be damaged by knocks caused by a swinging netsuke. The most common cause of damage occurs when an inro is first picked up, for if the netsuke, or manju, is allowed to swing and bump into the inro, the lacquer will certainly dent and worse still a piece might actually break off.

The best and correct way to pick up an inro, is to firstly pick up the netsuke, or manju, then to also hold and use the silk cord to turn the inro around to look at the other side, rather than to finger the lacquer, as there is something in our perspiration that dulls the shine in time. As an alternative some people only handle lacquer whilst wearing very soft gloves.

All lacquer is best kept in a reasonably humid atmosphere, avoiding any sudden changes of temperature. In some climates this is difficult to arrange, without having good air-conditioning. It is also a good idea to keep a bowl, or two, of water where ever the inro are stored, but even more important to completely avoid the use of any hot spot lights within the same cabinet.

Antique Japanese lacquer Inro and boxes are such incredibly beautiful works of art, that I consider many of them to rate very highly, amongst the finest treasures of the World! So it is well worthwhile taking good care of them.

What Are Bound Carpet Remnants?

There is a huge misunderstanding when it comes to the term “bound carpet remnants”, as people tend to confuse this with small area carpeting, and this is just not true. A bound carpet simply means that a roll of carpet is covered in paper or plastic, and bound with rope, twine, or tape, and is ready to be shipped. What they confuse it with is carpet binding, and that means to take a remnant or small piece of carpeting and sew edging around sides to make it into a useable area piece for the kitchen, breakfast nook, or wherever it will fit tastefully.

The one thing this buzz phrase is good for is when calling around and shopping for this type of carpeting, and you ask the rep on the phone what type of bound carpet remnants they have in stock. This means they just came in and have not usually been sitting around the store for very long. The reason they come this way, is that a carpet maker may have run out of that particle resource when weaving the carpet together, and they did not have enough to make a complete roll of standard length. Another possibility is that the carpet was special ordered and the order was canceled in the middle of production, and this is what was left of the production run.

Sometimes you can get lucky enough to call various shops and they will have the carpet types in this set up, and buy say purchasing three of the bound product you can have enough to carpet your entire house. This will only work usually if you are going after a very popular, or well know brand and color. But there can be problems even if the part numbers match, as the batch number might be different and the colors of the material may be slightly varied. If you are not too picky then this will work fine for your purposes. If you are getting ready to sell your home, then keep looking, as a discerning buyer will always notice the smallest details like this.

If you are looking to make runners that match through out the house, you can save a lot of money by purchasing one of these left over carpets, and have a company cut and bind the runner pieces to your specifications. This could save two or three hundred dollars if the service company does over charge for its labor. If there is any left over, have them make some small fitted pieces for the foyer, and the back door as well.

What is Poison Croquet?

In some areas of the Western United States a simple form of croquet is being played, one different than the traditional competitive forms of croquet. This type of croquet is often called Poison, and is a favorite of amateur or casual croquet players. Poison croquet is played with the standard nine wicket croquet set. It can be played by 2,3,4,5, or 6 players. It has similar rules to American backyard croquet; however, it differs from other styles of croquet, in that no points are scored. The players all start at the same end of the nine-wicket croquet playing field, instead of having an equal number of players beginning at opposing sides. The order of the game follows the order of the colors on the croquet mallet with the corresponding ball color of each player. Rather than competing for points, or which “team” can complete the course first, with all of their croquet balls, the players compete to see who can become poison first, and eliminate all of the other players. A player becomes poison by hitting his or her ball through all nine wickets and striking the stick at end. Once a player’s ball becomes poison, any ball that they hit with their “poison” ball, is eliminated from the game. The goal is to eliminate all of the other players from the game by hitting them with the poison ball. The last player left in the game wins.

Other traditional rules of backyard or American croquet still apply. The ball must be hit forward through each wicket, rather than going through from the back end or from the opposing direction. An extra hit is gained for each wicket, through which a ball is hit; only one extra hit can be gained from each wicket. An extra hit is also gained by hitting the ball of another player. After the other player’s ball is hit, the player who hit the other player’s ball has two options: he may place his ball next to the other player’s ball, put his foot on his own ball, and knock the other player’s ball out of play by striking his own ball; or he may simply take another hit towards the next wicket.

Once a player has become poison, the other players can still become poison and win the game, although it is much more difficult. The other players still just have to finish the course and hit the stake at the end with their ball, but must do it without allowing the player who is currently poison to strike their ball with his or hers. If two or more players are poison, the player who hits his ball into the other’s first, wins (similar to marbles); or at least that player who was hit by a poison ball is out of the game. Once all players are eliminated, except one, the game is over and the final remaining player wins the game.

Poison croquet is popular among amateur croquet and yard game players because of its casual play and simple rules. One advantage of poison croquet is that it can be played on nearly any type of terrain. Like American or backyard nine-wicket croquet, poison croquet is traditionally played in any grass field, long or tall, thick or thin. However, poison croquet can also be played on other terrains to make it more interesting or to just change things. It can be played on a more rugged terrain or playing field with obstacles rather than being limited to a professional or well-groomed playing field.

Bricks & Sticks: Ceiling Options

Real estate ads and builders brochures often contain ceiling descriptions other than the standard eight-foot flat types that are found in many homes today. Understanding the options you have, especially when building a new home can create a unique space for your family to enjoy.

Tray: A stepped ceiling, where as the design moves further away from the sidewall, the ceiling continues to rise to a higher flat surface. Common in master bedrooms, living and dining rooms. Tray ceilings add an architectural look. Tray’s are typically recessed and require additional framing to support the structure.

Vaulted: Common styles include; angled, barrel and groin. An angled vault is the most typical, one or both sides of a ceiling slope upward towards the peak.Angled vaulted ceilings are popular in most living spaces including sunrooms and master bedrooms. A barrel is distinguished by it’s circular shape and add drama to long hallways. and a groin vault is the intersection of two barrel vaults at a right angle. Groin vaults are common in classical Roman architecture, but are seen today in foyers and breakfast rooms.

Exposed Beam: A beam that is structural or non-structural that is not covered with drywall, tin or wood. Styles include; hand-hewn, faux-wood and recycled finished beams that create an old-world feeling. Typically found in living, family, dining and breakfast rooms.

Domed: A round spherical-shaped ceiling that is supported only by it’s base. Recessed coves can accommodate uplighting. Found in classical buildings such as state capitals and in colonial-style homes. Domed ceilings can be plaster or pre-cast fiberglass.

Coffered: A boxed wood ceiling composed of twenty-four in squares surrounded by wood beams. Popular in dining rooms and libraries. Common period designs include Arts and Crafts, Georgian and Victorian. Common materials cherry, oak and mahogany.

Cathedral Ceiling: A blend of a double-angled vault with exposed beams.

Dropped Ceiling. The common application for dropping a ceiling below the structure is to cover heating and plumbing supply lines. Also used in renovating spaces where the original ceiling height is not visually pleasing or energy efficient.

Enjoy more Bricks & Sticks by Mark Nash. Topics include Ceiling options, Interior Lighting and Staircases.

© Copyright 2006 Mark Nash

Damaged House Siding?

How to Detect Damaged House Siding

Most people are unaware of the extent of damage to the siding on their homes. Water and moisture infiltration can cause house siding to expand, mold, deteriorate, warp, buckle, etc. However, many problems can be remedied if done early on.

Routine inspection is essential. Here are some tips to get you started:

Look for sickness.

Damage occurs most commonly around chimneys, near the ground, where roofs dead end at walls, and where gutters are present, so check there first. Inspect the bottom edges of your house siding. Dew tends to settle on the bottom edge and absorb into the entire panel. If you see cracks ("edge checking"), chipping of the laminate ("delamination"), or rot ("fungal degradation"), moisture has entered your house siding.

Compare thicknesses.

Inspect the panels up under the eaves and then compare with the panels nearest the ground. When siding absorbs moisture, the panels thicken or swell. This is referred to as "thickness swell." This may occur along the edges, joints, around nails, or through the entire panel.

Thumb pressure test.

When no visual damage is present, you can simply push on the house siding with your thumb. If the siding indents at all, there is damage.

House siding damage is usually due to moisture and / or poor installation. Siding can start to deteriorate within 5 to 10 years; however, damage occurring as early as 2 years is not uncommon.

When purchasing siding, make sure to keep the receipt. If you need to replace damaged house siding, note the brand, style, finish, and dimensions of the existing siding so you can find an exact match.

The Different Types of Electric Violins

Electric violins have been around for a long time and in today's world, they are available in different styles. There is the full electric type with built-in pickup and there is the electro-acoustic violin which has a separate pickup that is typically attached to the bridge, body and fingerboard. This piece will feature on full electric type and how you can find them.

Yamaha electric violins are available in the market and they are referred to as silent electric violins because they produce very little external noise while playing. They are ideal for home use because you will not disturb your neighbors or housemates while playing. A pair of headphones can be plugged into the violin so that you will be able to hear the sound as if you are in a concert. These violins can be plugged into an amplifier in order to get the best output.

The Stagg electric violins are made from solid maple and are covered with lacquer to give them smooth colored finish. There is a built-in 2 band equalizer and headphone pre-amp that is volume controlled. You will also find the case, a bow, rosin and a pair of stereo headphones in the package.

Violinsmart electric violins are affordable and are built to the standard of instruments two or three times their price. Majority of them come in a padded bag, a bow, rosin, a pair of headphones and an amp cable. There is also a built-in shoulder rest so that more comfort will be derived while playing the instrument. There are varieties of this brand of violin with the solid wood electric violin being a popular choice. You will also have the opportunity of choosing different colors since there are many varieties available.

The Barcelona beginner series electric violins are ideal for beginners. This is because they are affordable and everything that a beginner needs is incorporated in the set. The beginner series consist of the violin, a bow, hardshell case, rosin, a pair of headphones and an amp lead. There are seven colors to choose from giving you the opportunity to have a wide range of choices.

Cecilio electric violins are made from solid maple with an ebony fingerboard and mother-of-pearl inlay on the tailpiece. The Cecilio set consists of a hardshell case, a Brazil wood bow with Mongolian horsehair, an extra set of strings, a pair of headphones, rosin and an amp lead. You can get any of these violins from reputable online and offline stores.

The Best Modern Fireplaces

The only way you can get natural warmth and at the same time decorate the inner or outer part of your apartment is by installing the modern fireplaces. Before you think of making an installation, you need to be aware of the dangers of having a fireplace. However, the latest types of fire area designs are good at keeping off the hazards. The new types are good enough to ensure that they have burned a clean and denatured alcohol known as denatured alcohol.

The ventless fireplaces are the best since they generate heat which is necessary for warmth. Unlike the common ordinary inglenook, the modern types are normally unearthed right from the ground. The substance ethanol is normally obtained from plants. Some of the plants in which it is sourced are: sugar cane, bananas, potatoes and corn. The carbon that is released from the fire are fuel is normally reabsorbed by the plant since a mutual cycle.

The good thing about denatured ethanol is that that it is not an environment pollutant. This is because it produces very small amounts of CO and Co2 and water vapor which enables fires to burn in the univenented way. The gel fireplaces are normally made of grade 304 of stainless steel. The fuel burners have been designed in such a way that they can contain the fuel as it burns in an enclosed area.

One precaution people need to take is that they should never; leave the fireplace unattended to, especially while the fuel is still burning. Just like any other fire areas, the hearth should have a fire extinguisher cylinder a few distances away from. This helps maintain safety. The gel fuel fireplace is a good example of the latest technology of fireplaces.

Family Addiction Recovery – Detachment With Love As a Tool For Recovery

Detachment is a tool for family members' addiction recovery. It is also a therapeutic goal for family members in recovery. Detachment, in an addiction context, means letting go of efforts to control or take responsibility for the addict.

Alcohol / drug addiction not only has a typical progress for the individual, there is a progress to the family dynamics of addiction as well. As addiction progresses, the addict becomes more and more disabled by the addiction. In this progress, family members feel composed to take on increasingly more of the addict's roles and responsibilities. They often take on the job of "parenting" the adult addict.

Family members, trying so satisfactorily to fix the problem, often feel like they have lost themselves in the process or have become someone that they never wanted to be. They experience a wide range of significant emotional and mental health symptoms in the process.

The addict feet compelled to continue to the use the chemical in the face of negative consequences. Family members are simply "compelled". They observe someone that they love losing control over his / her life. They feel that the "must" do something to prevent it from happening or to fix it. This compulsion to take control is a typical part of the family dynamics of addiction. In a family system, this shift in responsibilities marks a pathological adjustment to the behavioral, emotional, relationship, spiritual, and physical changes of the addict as s / he progresses in his / her addiction.

As the addict continues to decline, the system incorporates the addict's changes into the structure and function of that system. Family members, in their attempts to solve the problems of the addiction, try reasonable problem solving behaviors that do not work on addiction. Their efforts to solve those problems amount to adjusting to the pathology of the addiction in a way that tends to maintain the dysfunction. These problem solving efforts are labeled "enabling" because they enable the addict to continue his / her drinking / using behavior by removing the "natural, negative consequences" of that behavior.

This does not mean that family members cause the addiction. Nor are they responsible for the addict remaining in the addiction. The family member is not responsible for another person's disease or recovery from it. Yet in the disease, the family member becomes hopelessly entangled in the destructive family dynamics of addiction.

In order for family members to recover their health and control over their own lives, they must detach with love from the addict. It helps family members to understand how their compulsion to fix the addict, helps perpetuate the problem, rather than solving those problems. The attempts of family members to "fix" the problems are viewed by the addict as "control".

In obsessing about the addict, family members lose themselves in the process. Family members often describe not knowing what they are feeling. They often question their own sanity, especially in a struggle to find out "the truth" about a suspected lie.

Family members often find themselves locked in a cycle of obsessing about the addict's behavior, emotionally reacting, and compulsively trying to make them change. Family members are certain that they know what is best for the addict, or what they need to do, to solve the problem. They invest emotionally in their solutions and feel compelled to impose those solutions on the addict. Family members continue the same problem solving behavior despite evidence that it is not working. No other possible solutions are considered; largely because family members are so invested in their solutions that they can not imagine that there could be another way.

Detachment is a tool that helps break that pattern. Detachment does not have to involve anger. Detachment with love does not involve a hostile withdrawal of love or support. It does not involve a hopeless or desperate acceptance of the unacceptable.

Detachment with love is about mentally, emotionally, and sometimes physically letting go of unhealthy entanglements with another person's life and responsibilities. Detachment with love involves letting go of problems that are not yours to solve. In family addiction, this detachment is about relinquishing responsibility over that which you have no authority and no power. It entails taking responsibility for one's own issues, feelings, behaviors, and happiness. Detachment with loves means to stop removing the natural negative consequences of the addict's behavior and to allow them to suffer those consequences.

Detachment with love allows family members to take better care of self. By detaching with love, you free yourself up to "care about" the addict, instead of "taking care of" them. For the family in recovery, "detachment with love" means letting the go of the compulsion to be responsible for the addict. It allows a family member to return to being the person s / he was before s / he became someone else in the process of trying to take responsibility for the addict's addiction.

Home Insulation – Guide to Insulating Crawl Space

Home insulation is considered an imperative for every household to keep excess use of energy and heating system under control. Crawl space or floor cools down the indoor climate of the house in winter. By laying insulating materials under the floor helps avoiding cold feet in the morning. At the same time, a well insulated floor reduces the use of heating systems with its capacity to prevent heat loss from the home and to bar the entry of cold air through floor area. According to an estimation of Energy Saving Trust, around 15% heat loss is possible from the floor. The materials and methods used for insulating crawl space or floor depends on various factors such as if the targeted space is ventilated and the construction of the building.

Types of Floor Insulation
Several types of materials can be chosen insulating crawl space and they range from fiberglass, foams, wood fibers to paper fibers. Various types of materials may come in various formats such as blank form, loose fill form or in rigid sheet form. The form you insulation you select for insulating your crawl space must be keeping in view of the intended area to be insulated with the floor under your home or the exterior walls.

Regardless of the type of materials chosen to insulate the floor, the function and the way the materials work are similar. All types of materials work by creating a blanket on a cold night by forming a barrier to trap the air around the source of heat and then locks the warm air inside the house. Heat always tenders to radiate and escapes from the source where it is produced. The insulation helps preventing escaping heat from the source.

The performance of the home insulation materials depends upon the efficiency of resisting heat flow. The resistance toward heat flow of a material is measured in R-value. The higher the R-value rating is for a material, the more energy and insulation efficient the product is proven to be. If you are insulating the external walls the fiberglass batt is a good insulator that you can choose. You need to cut the material in order to fit to the wall from the top to the down and a few feet exceeding the ground. When the crawl space has ventilation, insulate the under floor portion.

Ideas for Beginner Woodworking Projects

Hanging Organizer-You can build, essentially, a wood sign and affix interesting handles, knobs or hooks for hanging keys. You can make one with a magnetic strip for hanging knives in the kitchen. Heavy duty hooks can be used to create a great place to hang bags, purses, coats and backpacks. Simple products like this are great for practicing using a router to make edges and for practicing different staining and finishing techniques.

Birdhouse-A birdhouse is a great place to start practicing creating joints. You can use a router to make slats for creating joints, practice mortise and tenon joints, or practice making peg joints with wooden dowels. You can even leave the back side off of the birdhouse, attach a few suction cups, and display the birdhouse on the outside of your kitchen window. You'll love watching the nest from inside of the house.

Step Stool-A step stool is a great way to practice making sturdier items that need to bear some weight. Make several sizes to work your way up to building chairs and benches.

Folding Table-Small folding tables are great to have around the house. You can use them to eat on while watching television, or use them as a place to set your drink while you're working. Some people use these little portable tables all over the house.

Bench-Make a bench for your foyer or yard. Experiment with creating benches that have backs and also ones that do not. Benches are not very hard, but they do require learning about creating braces and cutting at an angle.

Wine Glass Slider-You can use dowel rods or thin pieces of wood mounted underneath your cabinets to make a slide to store wine glasses. This is an easy project, but it will give you the opportunity to learn how to match the stain and finish of your kitchen cabinets. Once you discover the right combination of stain and lacquer, you may wish to build other kitchen items, like a bread box, letter organizer, or pull down recipe book holder.

Wine Bottle Holder-This can be a small structure that sits on top of your counter, or one that hangs from the kitchen cabinets. Larger ones can sit on the floor. Simple projects like this make great gifts and can be painted to give the room personality.

Dog House-Creating a shelter for your pets is fun and gives you a chance to work on projects that will need to be finished for outdoor use.

Tool Box-Make a tool box for yourself to store or transport your woodworking tools. Use a sturdy hardwood dowel as a handle or for hanging things inside the box. You'll not only find this project fun, but you'll have a useful keepsake when you're done.

Analysis of Alvin Toffler’s Third Wave

Alvin Toffler in his seminal work denotes that civilization occurs in three stages which he describes metaphorically as Waves. The first wave was the agricultural civilization, the second wave was the industrial epoch and the third wave is technological society. He strongly derides doomsday prophets and espouses the view that civilization on the whole is evolving.

Now what is the first Wave or the agricultural civilization? People lived in communities in joint family set ups. Herding animal husbandry and tilling the soil were the primary occupations of the people. Society was clannish with Feudal, tenants and slaves. Production was mainly subsistence oriented. Medical facilities were not well developed death and infant mortality rates were high.

During the second wave industrialization occurred in societies. Industrialization saw the emergence of smoke stack industries. It was also the era colonization when European countries shifted their base into Asian and African colonies. From the colonies they exported raw materials and imported finished products. The second wave society also saw the shift of production from homes to factories. It also led to the rise of the press and post and telegraph. Family systems changed from joint families to nuclear families. An education system was created to suit the needs of the industrial class. The second wave also led to the creation of working class, the proletariat, the middle class, the petit bourgeoisie and the capitalists, the bourgeoisie. The workers became an exploited class. There was large scale migration of people from villages to towns and cities. A lot of changes underwent in History. Two World Wars were fought. The second wave also saw the emergence of Capitalism and Communism. There was the Eastern block and the Western Block. The second wave also saw the birth of the cold war. Smokestack industries created a lot of pollution. The second wave also saw the increase in health standards due to improvements in medicine. Infant mortality and death rate dropped. It also led to the democratization of societies. People became concerned with human rights, justice and law and order.

The Third Wave Society saw the emergence of the internet revolution, the weakening of nation states, the globalization of industry as transnational corporations, and the breakdown of family values. The third wave saw the shift of second wave industries to countries of Asia. Out sourcing began. The third wave also saw the origin of gay communities. Religion clashed with science. Terrorism spread its ugly tentacles. We have seen the rise of the Jihad and Jihad spread its horrendous fangs into Western democracies. Media became an open forum where people could freely express their dissent. The third wave also saw the rise of patent laws and regulations. The major industries of the third wave were the IT sector, oil and pharmaceuticals. The third wave the saw the decline of the nation state and the emergence of decolonized democracies in Asia and Africa. The third wave also began to motivate thinkers in new ways and led to new philosophical movements like deconstructionism and post structuralism. There was also an increase in feminist values and ideals.

A Brief Overview of the Electric Furnace Transformer

The most widespread function of transformers is actually in the transportation of electricity from power plants to the several positions in which the voltage is noticeably paced down to the functional levels. The electric furnace transformers keep a complete balance in the electricity distribution in circuits, machines and other sources involving power for its operation. The furnace transformer is generally made to alleviate the voltage fluctuation ensuing in breaking down of the electrical equipments.

The main purpose of transformer is to alter the voltage with the assist of shared electromagnetic introduction. The electrical current is produced to run all the way through the main coil/circuit that is once more used to make a magnetic field. As such, transformers function as energy converters which put the power from higher to lower voltage.

Electric Arc Furnace Transformers are needed for various furnace methods and applications too. They are mainly made for the ladle furnace, steel furnace and ferro-alloy furnace. They are just comparable to short or inundated Arc Furnace Transformers. These transformers are working under every rigorous condition relating to numerous over currents and over voltages that are prepared through short circuits in the furnace. EAF is renowned as a standard furnace that is utilized for steel production. Additionally, it is also applicable for the steel re-melting.

Actually, there are two kinds of arc furnaces that include direct furnaces and the indirect furnaces. Direct arc furnaces are having three electrodes which are mostly utilized to heat metal by means of arc and then it ultimately produces an implausible amount of heat and the water coverings all along with further cooling devices are also needed for operation. While, the indirect one is having one electrode and it functions just like the direct furnace does.

Besides, Electric arc furnaces permit steel to be manufactured from a 100% piece metal feedstock. This can highly lessens the energy that is needed to create steel. Arc furnaces are capable of starting and getting stopped quickly by allowing the steel mill to differ production as per the command.

Furnace transformers are however used in furnaces to assure the proper voltage in order to suit the heating needs. These are used with arc or induction furnaces of all sizes and are mostly used in gas factories, steel plants and in many other industries as well. High frequency transformers are also used in induction heating. Furnace transformers can also be manufactured as per the user requirements. It is generally used in steel industries for melting and ladle cleansing and in Ferro-alloy plants.

An Electric Arc Furnace is moreover a furnace that heat up charged material all the way through an electric arc. Such furnaces diverge from induction furnaces in so that the charge material is unswervingly uncovered to an electric arc. Also, furnace transformers especially for AC EAF operation are having huge functional areas.

To sum up, these transformers need to be sufficiently confined alongside common over voltages that are produced by the process operation and the very elevated mechanical and thermal pressure need to be controlled by an unbending devise.

How to Lay Drainage Pipes

Drainage pipes are used in the system of removing effluent from utilities to the sewer or septic tank. In sewer systems from houses, pipes are laid in between inspection chambers. The system must be able to clean itself without blockage. This is achieved by having the correct gradients. The system uses mostly UPVC tubing. Its important after laying to sufficient test before commissioning the system. This should be done between the inspection chambers.

Drainage pipes should be laid in trenches. The average depth is three hundred to five hundred millimeters. When the system passes below a parking, walkways or driveways, it is encased in concrete. When concluding the work, excavate to the required levels. These should be graduated toward the tanks or sewers. The slope should be in the ratio of one is to four. The trench bottoms are well compacted and rammed. Use pegs to set the levels in the trench bottoms.

Drainage pipes should be laid in a straight line. This should be joined with sockets leading uphill or towards the building. The system should lie on a solid and even ground. A good adhesive for the joints should be used for joining the male and female sockets. Ensure the manufacturers instructions are followed with the adhesive. When connecting to the inspection chambers, the pipe should go into the full wall thickness. Keep devris off the pipes.

The drainage pipes are carefully examined when laying. This is to ensure they are not punctured. Ensure the socket recesses are formed in the foundation. They should also be kept as short as possible. The entry and exit points in an inspection chamber should be level and well graded. The system is then covered with soil after all joints are complete. Connect to the sewer or septic tank. After this connect to the utilities to complete the drain.

Timber (Wood) As Building Material in Homes

Choosing the right material for building homes can be a huge ordinal, especially with so many building materials to choose from such as steel, stone, concrete, etc. However, a great option to choose as a building material in homes is Timber (Wood).

When wood is used for construction purposes, it is either cut or pressed into planks. As a result, you will get Timber. Timber is a generic building material that can be used to build almost any type of structure. Here are some of the benefits of using timber as a building material for homes:

• Flexibility

Timber is a very flexible construction material. Its flexibility makes designing a building quite easy. You can now determine the floor plan, number of rooms, etc. on the site. In addition, Timber can easily adjust to heavy weights because it is flexible enough to bend. However, the material is incredibly strong when compressed vertically.

Moreover, its thermal efficiency now allows you to build slimmer walls, so freeing almost 10% of space (as compared to other building materials) in every room, hallway and other parts of the house.

• Durability

With good design and the correct detailing, timber requires no chemical treatment and will last for a very long life. Perhaps this is why most of the large houses in the olden days were made out of Timber. Plus, the material is resistant to most climatic conditions such as heat, frost, corrosion, pollution, etc.

• Sound Insulation

The type and quality of timber used nowdays involves the use of a layered structure of different materials. As a result, the material can insulate sounds easily.

• A Sound Investment

Houses made out of Timber are definitely an excellent source of investment. They are inexpensive to build and have a comparatively low running and maintenance cost. On an average, the service life of wooden houses lasts between 80 to 100 years. In fact, many wooden homes built in the Middle-Ages still survived the elements and have lasted till today.

So, it is safe to say that houses made out of Timber are not only eco-friendly, but also economic. Moreover, they also provide you with the best means to integrate modern technology systems such as controlled ventilation, air extraction, and solar panels into an exquisite and lavishly designed contemporary beauty oriented in nature.