Headphone Guide – Understanding Different Designs and Cords

Buying headphones can be a confusing decision with so many kinds to choose from, let alone understand. If you’ve ever wondered at some of the terms used or what the advantages of each type are, read on.

We’ll get into discussion of major headphone designs and even cord information below, but first there are two items that bear mentioning to better understand what follows. First, since air pressure plays a big role in how we hear, a headphone’s seal is important in the way they will sound. Second, headphones at the most fundamental level come in two designs: open and closed. What this means essentially is that a headphone is either sealed off from the outside or vented to allow air (and sound) to pass freely.

Open vs. Closed Design

Generally open headphone designs are described as being more “natural” sounding, but this can come with drawbacks. Everything going on in the room around you will intrude on your music. This can occasionally be useful, but is often a hindrance that requires turning the volume up higher. Also, your music leaks out just as easily, which can bother others nearby if the area is otherwise quiet.

Closed headphones on the other hand offer a much more intimate listening experience and are nearly silent to those around you. The one disadvantage compared to open designs is that the bass can be muddier or certain other sound characteristics overly pronounced.



These are among the most common headphones in the mass market, largely due to their portability. They are light, easy to shove in a pocket, and fit right in your ear. Earbuds are inexpensive and easy to find in any store that sells electronics.

Being this small can come with a cost. The downside of earbuds is that they lack the driver size and the isolation to produce a high-quality listening experience. Models have varied slightly in size and shape attempting to improve upon this dilemma, but ultimately it is what it is. A common price ranges for this type is $10-50.


Earcup designs are the other most common type of headphone. Many of the behind-the-head style headphones you see are great examples. These are larger than earbuds, and work by sitting on the ear rather than in it. This larger design allows for a fuller range of sound and better power handling, but still lacks much of a seal between the ear and headphone. The result is the loss of detail and bass compared to other types. Still, this design is also inexpensive and easy to find, and still pretty portable. Typical price range for this type: $15-50.

Supra Aural

Supra aural headphones are larger still from the earcup design. They work again by sitting on the ear, but cover the entire ear and create a better seal by contact pressure (produced by the headband). This pressure can sometimes be uncomfortable for long listening sessions.

Overall range and detail are improved in this design from earcups, but at the cost of portability. These tend to be bulkier and heavier, but lighter than the circum aural designs we’ll discuss in a minute. Essentially, this type of headphone tries to play the middle ground between earcups and full-size headphones. Even in a closed design, however, supra aural headphones will leak sound. These tend to range from $15-100.

Circum Aural

These are full-size headphones and are as un-portable as they come. They are usually the heaviest and bulkiest type of headphone, but offer several advantages.

Because the pads go around the ear, they are typically more comfortable. This method also creates the best seal you’ll get other than canalphones, resulting in the ideal dynamic range. Headphones of this size often have large drivers, making them efficient and able to handle more power without distortion. The size, too, affects range in a positive way.

Open designs will still leak music or let ambience in, but the area between driver and ear still benefits from the seal. Closed circum aural headphones are ideal in this sense, being nearly silent to anyone nearby and blocking out a great deal of outside noise. Because those that purchase this style of headphone are often audio enthusiasts, build quality and price reflect this niche market. Prices tend to vary from $25-500, though it’s not unheard of to see circum aural headphones at $1000 or more.

Canalphones or In-Ear-Monitors (IEMs)

These are the newest style of headphone, aiming to bridge the gap between portability and sound quality. They are as small as earbuds and also go in the ear, but unlike earbuds they go into the ear canal like earplugs. This takes some getting used to for some users.

The major advantage of being inserted into the ear canal is isolation. Canalphones offer all the audible advantages circum aural designs have due to their seal, and can often block out even more outside noise. Because of both the seal and the proximity to the inner ear, dynamic range is dramatically improved compared to earbuds. The user will not have to turn the volume up as high and will also appreciate a much greater level of detail in listening as a result.

Though a bit more expensive, canalphones will outperform earbuds sonically in every way, and can prove to be just as portable. Cheaper models are in the same general price range as earbuds and earcup headphones. The higher end canalphones, though, can be just as costly as full-size headphones.



There are different cord designs employed with headphones as well. The simplest distinction to make is the general shape the cord makes-in most cases a “Y” or “J”. “Y” cords resemble the letter, wherein a single strand comes from the plug end and splits off to connect to each earcup. The “J” design, as it applies to earbuds and canalphones, starts with a singular strand and splits off. The difference from the “Y” cord is in that one side is longer than the other, meant to be wrapped around the back of the head and then go to the ear. This relieves some cord tension and makes it harder for the earphone on that side to be pulled out, however it can also be cumbersome. The third major configuration in cords is a straight cord, meaning it comes from the plug all the way up to what is usually the left earphone. It connects there, and the wire for the right side feeds internally through the headband. This is nice in that externally there is only one wire to deal with.

Many high-end headphones will use the “Y” cord rather than the straight design so that each side is exactly equal length. At this level, there is a degree of pickiness that insists each side is sonically matched as closely as possible.

Balanced and Unbalanced Cord Setups

You may also hear certain headphones being referred to as “balanced”. On a regular cord, the positive line is carried up each side, but one way or another the ground wire becomes shared. Even on a “Y” design where each side has its own wire, the grounds join at the end where the wire terminates into the plug. A balanced design essentially means that each side is completely separate, having its own positive and negative wire that never touch the other side. Doing this requires each side have its own plug at the end, which of course means you’d need a special output device to connect the headphones. Most devices use a stereo plug, whether 1/4″ or 1/8″.

Why, you ask, would someone want a completely separate connection? No matter how clean the connection is and how high quality the wire transmitting the signal, two ground signals crossing can always create interference or noise. This can be difficult to hear, which is why usually only extremely high-end headphones appear in a balanced design. Again, at that level the sensitivity of the headphones themselves and the ears of the audiophile may benefit from a design that minimizes any sort of audible noise whatsoever.

Does using a balanced cord design make a big enough difference to bother? This is a topic of debate among audiophiles. Most would agree the difference is small, but it remains a matter of opinion on how important that small difference is.

OFC and 7N Cables

OFC stands for oxygen-free copper. Cheaper copper wires are more prone to interactivity that can cause noise in the signal. A hiss or small levels of distortion are sometimes observed when using such cables. Higher end cables minimize this interference for the cleanest signal transmission.

Some of the highest end cables are called “seven 9’s”, or 7N cables. This refers to the number of decimal places in the oxygen-free rating. This appears as 99.9999999% oxygen-free. No cable can claim to be 100% free of anything that would cause interference, but these cables as you’d guess are as close as audibly possible.

On some higher end headphone models users claim that replacing the stock cables with expensive aftermarket ones improves sound quality notably. This, too, is a topic of heavy debate in the audiophile community. Many users insist that silver lined cords have a very different sound, for example, than copper or gold-tipped wires. Others maintain that’s all in people’s heads. What everyone does agree on is the importance of oxygen-free copper.

Gold-Tipped Plugs – What’s That About?

Gold itself is less conducive than copper, which is one of the reasons (the other being price) that the wires themselves are not gold. So then why all the fuss about gold-tipped plugs and adapters? Gold does not tarnish or corrode like copper does, so a partially gold connector or adapter is another way to ensure the cleanest signal transmission over time.

Since the plug of a wire is the only part that contacts air and therefore is susceptible to corrosion, it’s the only part that benefits from a gold mixture. Stay away from any expensive cables that claim the whole wire is gold or partially so-you’re just throwing your money away for a gimmick.


So that’s about it. Hopefully with all this in mind the questions in headphone buying will be a bit easier to understand. There are of course still other factors in any audio equipment to consider. This should get you started at least and on your way to making an informed decision when mulling over which pair of headphones are right for you.

How To Catch A Rabbit In My House – 3 Great Tricks That Worked

If you own a pet rabbit and he does not like to get picked up, then you know how difficult it could be to catch him. He sure knows that you want to bring him back to his cage, just like the last time. Rabbits are highly intelligent, and if they get the taste of having the whole house to themselves, catching them is sometimes tricky. I found 3 tricks on how to catch a rabbit in my house. They all worked for me with of course a little patience.

Attract the Rabbit: Instead of trying to chase the rabbit all over the house, try to attract it with something that you know he cannot resist, such as a fruit or a carrot. Then when he comes over to eat it, let him eat some of the treat and gently pick him up.

Make him jump in his box: Some rabbits do not like to be picked up at all. By doing it we can even injure them if they put up a good struggle. So instead, present the rabbit his litter box with a great treat he loves inside. Sit back and watch. He will eventually jump into his litter box and eat the treat. Then you can pick up the box with the rabbit inside and bring him where you want.

Make an easy cage entrance: If your cage only has an top opening, it will be harder to teach your rabbit to go back inside by himself. Make him a side door and attract him inside by again putting a great treat into the cage. By putting the cage in a room that you can put a gate on the entrance, your rabbit wont be able to run around the entire house.

Sometimes people think that putting the rabbit back in his cage as a punishment worked. But that will only teach him to hate his cage, when it should be his house. If you do that he will never want to go back to his cage by himself, so keep that in mind. Also if you are wondering how to catch rabbit in my house, try to handle him on other occasions than when you want him back in his cage.

The ROLE of Language in National Unity

Language plays a very vital role in any human community-school, company, organization, group, home etc. the language of any human society tells a lot about that society therefore, it can be further emphasized that language and any human society are inseparable. In any human society, language occupies a very important seat, more than it appears to all. The functions of language in any human community include the following; expression of thoughts, political, administration, education, social, religious, legislation and so on.

We shall however be using Nigeria as case study. The aim of any human community is to have peace and unity, many nations of the world today are facing different degrees of conflicts, and Nigeria unfortunately is one of such countries. This paper is set to examine the role language has to play in attaining national unity in Nigeria. People have in the past expressed their various views about the meaning of language.

A lecturer of mine, Professor Fakuade.G. said and I quote,” language is the faithful mirror of the society” in other words a language is what shows the true nature of any society. This implies that what a language is meant to do in any society is to reflect to the world what that society is all about. The language of any society therefore should give us a perfect knowledge of what that society is all about this includes; the culture, beliefs, mode of dressing, marriage and every other sociolinguistic information about the society. Language is also supposed to be seen as the symbol of a nation just as the flag, Anthem, Currency etc. in other words, language is to be the window through which people can see into the society.

As viewed by Bamgbose, English is the language of integration in Nigeria, amidst the compounding complexities of Nigeria especially in relation to the language question, the only language that indexes the spirit of togetherness is English. This shows clearly that so far in Nigeria, English Language has played a very important part in keeping Nigeria together as a unified nation. Amidst our cultural diversities and differences in beliefs, English language has still played a great role in keeping Nigeria together and since it is the connection between the various ethnic groups that exist in Nigeria, one cannot but give that plus to English in keeping us together so far. Out of the over 500 languages that we have in Nigeria we still have a link and that link is nothing but English, this has served as the means of communication between the different tribes that are in Nigeria.

Of all the heritage left behind in Nigeria by the British at the end of colonial administration, probably, none is more important than the English language. It is now the language of government, business and commerce, education, the mass media, literature, and much internal as well as external communications. Bamgbose (1971)

As a Language of Wider Communication (LWC), English is used for phatic communion, ceremonial purpose, and instrument of keeping records, information dissemination, self-experiment and embodiment of thought among the various linguistic groups of Nigeria. The common linguistic basis that constitutes a requisite for the existence of any nation is provided by English. So with English as the common tongue to all the ethnic groups, the collective sentiment of belonging together despite the individual or ethnic differences is forged.

It is obvious from that the language that has held Nigeria together up to date to a great extent has been English language which was passed on to us by our colonial masters and so far it has played that role well. In our official day to day communication it has greatly enhanced the relationship that existed between he various ethnic groups we have here in Nigeria. An Igbo man who has never been to the western part of the country nor has any understanding of Yoruba will definitely see English and the best means to express his emotion, thought or whatever he has to say in such a situation.

Another area that language has been helpful in keeping us together in Nigeria is in the area of academics, this is because it has to a great extent helped to bridge the gap between the rich and poor, the privileged and the less privileged. Hence we have English as the link between the high-class and the low-class in Nigeria.

In religion the important role played by language can never be overemphasized, in various religious gathering; English has served as the medium of communication hence bringing the people together under the same umbrella. Many religious gathering in Nigeria either makes use of English in carrying out proceedings and his of course has contributed significantly to the peaceful co-existence in our beloved country. Although, we have had various religious disputes and have had one conflict at one time or the other.

As we have earlier pointed out the various roles English in the attainment and sustenance of national unity however, I believe it would have been better if the role(s) played so far by English had been played by an indigenous language, this is no intension or attempt to disrespect English language, it has greatly contributed to Nigeria’s national unity. But I am convinced within that the situation would have been better if that position had been occupied by a language that is truly ours; if the language had been home-made.

Misrepresentation of ideas and expression is one of the major reason for conflict that we have around the world today originated from the use of words/utterances, where ideas intended have been wrongly presented. You can never attain the level of proficiency a native speaker would in his language and this has caused a lot of people what they never bargained for, it has sent many to their untimely grave. A man’s language is seen as the tool that helps him express his thoughts unfortunately for a man by using another man’s language which is said to be his L2; he succeeds in misrepresenting his ideas. In such a situation he uses a word out of context and some people could be so sensitive to the use of word. Many of the conflicts and ethnic dispute we have had in the past could have been averted if our official language had been an indigenous language. The reason is that many people have orally misrepresented their ideas, views and intentions due to their low level of proficiency, they have chosen the wrong word at the wrong time and this has led to unhappy testimonies. We have chosen English as our ‘official language of day to day” operation and activities and this has led to a situation whereby our indigenous languages occupy the back seat. English language is the key to any important door, no one who cannot communicate in English language is expected to occupy an important position in any organization.

The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of The English Language (Encyclopedic edition), defines language as, the expression and communication of emotions or ideas between human beings by means of speech and hearing, the sounds spoken or heard being systematized and confirmed by usage among a given people over a given period of time.” From the above view, it suggests that a language is supposed to communicate the internal (original) idea and express what a particular speaker has within. But this is not always so in a case where a particular speaker is not proficient in the language he is using as a medium of communication at a point in time for instance, an Hausa man who wants to communicate with a Yoruba or an Igbo man will have to use English where his level of proficiency is low compared to his L1 there is likely possibility that such a person is very likely to misrepresent some of his intensions during communication and such may not be taken likely by the other party and could lead to conflict between them. In such case would one say that language has been able to play it role well? This has definitely not justified the meaning of language and the essence of communication.

The way a particular thought is conveyed is very important during communication; hence the essence of any communication is to present accurately the internal idea a speaker. Many Nigerians think in their MT and try to communicate their intentions in English and in some cases ideas have been misrepresented, they don’t have the correct word to represent their thoughts. The situation is not the same when interlocutors from the same ethnic background and where they both have proper knowledge of the language.

Where there is a similar language background and better understanding (and decoding of ideas is accurate), there will be reduction in the level of conflict we have in Nigeria. We could make us of our version of the English language, the Pidgin English. I believe this will go a long way in reducing the level of the reoccurring conflict in our beloved country, Nigeria. Since the source of most of these conflicts have been the way and manner our various ideas have been wrongly expressed or interpreted, we should seek a better way of communication and this is the reason I believe everyone has a role to play. We should begin to seek a better way of expressing ourselves and avoid unnecessary conflict by using a language that we are not attain an encouraging level of proficiency, and work on our communication skills.

To this end, let the federal government seek the advice of language expert on how to attain this goal and give total attention to this course. Let all well meaning Nigerian come together and see how we can explore and exploit the wealth in our language as we drive towards national unity. And make every Nigerian realize that language can play more that the role of communication. Let us review our language policy in other too avoid the death of our language, which is our symbol.

It is urgent for us to begin to see language as a vital agent of unity in our beloved country, Nigeria and begin to see how we can use this tool as an agent of unity to make Nigeria a more unified country and push aside all ethnic and tribal differences. Language is a tool that can be in our quest for national unity and should be handled with total commitment and seriousness. Every Nigerian should begin to think and see how language can contribute to the growth of the giant of Africa.

Our culture is embedded in our language. Let us embrace our language with enthusiasm and pride and promote what we have together and then our differences will become a thing of the past. This is a call to national unity but this time around it is coming through an unpopular medium, let us use this valuable tool of ours towards one Nigeria. Language has a very vital role to play in our quest for national unity. Let us embrace it just as we have done to football. Language has a vital role to play in our quest for national unity.

Avionics Jobs May Be The Smartest Career Choice In Aviation

So you’re possibly considering going down a path in the avionics jobs field? Well, I will tell you straight away that a career in avionics is an extremely smart choice for many reasons, which I will cover in a moment.

But first I want you to consider this:

Rising unemployment. Nationwide foreclosure crisis. Banking failures. Higher taxes.

Four crises in the global economy and as I write this article not one of these issues looks to get any better anytime soon.

Now I don’t want to sound too negative here but I want to be realistic. Jobs are hard enough to come by now, and from the looks of things, it’s only going to get worse. It will be vital for people who are looking for jobs and/or a career to find work that is not only in demand, but will also pay well, have good benefits and have job staying power.

After all, what good is it to bust your tail finding a good job only to have that position disappear in a year, or even sooner than that?

Why A Career In The Avionics Jobs Field Is A Really Good Move

First of all, what exactly is Avionics? For the sake of not getting too technical, a simple definition would be:

‘Avionics, a term derived by combining aviation and electronics, describes all of the electronic navigational, communications, and flight management aids with which airplanes are equipped today.’

A person in the Avionics field is responsible for anything electronic within an aircraft. Some related disciplines in the avionics jobs field would be:

Avionics (or Aviation) Technician: They are responsible for examining and inspecting airplane computer and electronic systems as well as the maintenance of these systems.

Aerospace Engineer: They will test aircraft components as it applies to flight. They will work on navigational systems, research of those and related systems and work extensively on commercial aircraft research.

Electrical Engineer: They test and develop motors, propulsion and like power systems.

Qualifications and pay in this field start where an entry level Avionics Technician will typically start making around $18 an hour and can increase their pay (with experience in the work field) up to $30 an hour.

Avionics engineers can make up to $100,000 a year for top technicians in their field.

Educational requirements start at 3-4 years for a technician, and a 4-year bachelors degree (and sometimes a Masters degree) for an engineer.

Another very important facet in the Avionics Jobs sector is job security. Sure, there are layoffs in aviation, and we read about them all the time. However, the aviation industry is a very fluid one with re-hires occurring literally all the time.

Add in the fact that the avionics and airline industry is one that must continue to operate even in bad times, even if that means that the government must step in to give financial assistance to keep it going.

Yet another important reason to consider aviation jobs is the military component. Aviation is one of the biggest arms of the military and they must have a huge fleet of aircraft which must be maintained to the highest of standards. The military hires new aviation workers constantly.

Diabetes – A Degenerative Disease

Diabetes Disease:

In normal individuals food is broken down to glucose in the presence of insulin the glucose present in blood is utilized by body cells with the aid of insulin secreted by pancreas for getting energy to maintain optimal health. Diabetes is a condition which is signified by a higher concentration of glucose levels in the blood because person cannot utilize glucose due to deficiency of insulin secretion by the pancreas of the body.

Types of Diabetes:

Type 1 Diabetes: The Cells of Pancreas responsible for secretion of Insulin do not function properly or are completely damaged. This type of diabetes is found in children and young persons, hence it is also known as Juvenile Diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes: In this type of Diabetes the pancreas cells do make some insulin but the body prevents the insulin to perform it’s function. This type is usually found in elderly obese patientsonly but now a days it is encountered in children and young persons also.

Diabetes is found in the pregnant women also, if it is not treated properly the mother and child can also develop many health disorders.

Diabetes Symptoms:

Diabetes is characterized by:

1. Feeling of exhaustion all the times.

2. Sensation of great thirst (Polydipsia)

3. frequent urination.

4. Blurring of the eyesight.

5. Felling of hunger all the times.

6. Sudden fall of body weight.

7. Non-healing of wounds.

8. Numbness of hands and feet.

Causes of Diabetes:

Definite causes of Diabetes are not known, possibly body lacks a gene which can provide protection at the time of onset of disease. Diabetic patients are usually obese with a sedentary life style, hiving higher levels of triglycerides in thir blood or suffering from hypertension and also having a diabetic hereditary family history

Diabetes a Warning Signal:

The health of the Diabetic patient is on the thresh hold of rapid worsening of the status of his health if not properly taken care of initially and maintaining of care through out his life.

Diabetes affects both rich and poor alike and for a considerable peiod remains undiagnosed, because for minor symptoms the patients donot take medical advise and the disease progresses to a stage when the symptoms become uncomfortable for the patient to bear. Because of this trend of accessing delayed medical advice, India has become the Diabetes World capital with more than 33 million people suffering from type 2 Diabetes representing about 20 % of World Diabetic Population. With the present progression rate it is estimated that by the year 2030, about 80 million Indian population shall be diabetic. A similar progression trend has been noticed in other Asian Countries also.

Diabetes a life long association:

Diabetes patients are destined to live their rest of their life with Diabetes with lot of care to keep the disease under control by regularly taking the advised medication and adjusting their food and lifestyle habits. Patients have to remain regularly under medical care

Diabetes & Future Onset of Serious Complications:

Diabetic patients carry a high risk of exposure to other serious complications, like hypertension, coronary heart disease, Degenerative vascular system and tissues of lower limbs. When there is continued high blood sugar level, the blood sugar generates certain substances, which are potentially harmful to the body cells, which damage delicate organs like heart, Blood Vessels, Kidneys, Nerves, Teeth and lower limbs. If with the passage of time treatment is not initiated serious complications start setting in.

Diabetic Disease Education to patients:

The Diabetic patients need to be educated about their disease and the necessary care and precautions they have to religiously follow in the true sense particularly about the lower limbs. The Diabetic patients are carrying a higher risk of degenerative vascular system of lower limbs resulting in Nerves and Tissues damage progression of which requires amputation of Toe, Foot depending upon the severity of the affected part. Thus they have to lead a life of dependency.

Diabetes & Heart Disease:

Diabetic Patients are 2 to 4 times more prone to suffer from heart attack as compared to normal persons. In the obstructructions developed in the arteries of heart and in the entire circulatory system there is slowing of blood supply resulting in pain in the Chest,difficulty in breathing, swelling of Heels, thickening of the blood vessels all these quickly lead to a Heart Attack

Protection of Heart & Blood Vessels:

The quick onset of serious complications can be reduced by:

1. Bringing down high blood glucose levels to normal.

2. Reducing intake of foods containing high quantities of Saturated fats, Trans Fats and High

Cholesterol foods.

3. Reduction in intake of Common Salt.

4. Keeping blood Pressure and blood Lipids in control.

5. No smoking and no consumption of tobacco.

6. Moderate Exercise.

Kidney Disease:

The filtration membrane gets thickened. The Protein metabolites excretion is reduced, which damages the kidney. The incidence of Renal failure due to Diabetes is in 45 % of the Renal failure cases. Special kidney function tests are performed to ascertain early involvement of kidney complications because no specific symptoms are witnessed in early stages of kidney complications.

Complications of Eyes:

Diabetes can damage the smaller capillaries of the eye. Diabetes can precipitate Glaucoma because of increase of internal pressure in the eye ball. There can be eyesight complication or even complete blindness due to the damage to retinal blood vessels and detachment of Retina.

Amputations of affected foot:

The complication of the foot can be loss of touch sensation, Pain or swelling of foot, Delayed or non-healing of foot, Change in the colour of skin to redness. As a precaution the foot should be protected from any cut, scratch or from any other injury. Wounds because of faulty blood circulation in the feet the Nerves and Tissues get damaged resulting ultimately gangrene development resulting into amputation of toe or foot in diabetic foot damage progression.

Gateway optimal health is with you on your journey to Disease free Healthy Life Styles

The 7 Macrominerals – Essential Nutrients For All Round Health

The macrominerals are the seven main minerals that your body needs to function properly. They support your body with a wide range of functions including maintaining fluid balance, promoting metabolism and regulating blood pressure. In this article I will be covering each of the seven in more detail.


Calcium was discovered by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808. Approximately 1.5% of an average adult’s bodyweight is made up of this nutrient. The main role of calcium in the body is to promote strong bones and teeth. It also helps control blood pressure, muscle contractions and nerve transmission.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for calcium increases with age. Children aged 0-6 months require just 210mg per day whilst adults aged 51 years and older require a much higher 1200mg per day. Dairy products are often the best source of this macromineral with cheese (721mg per 100g), milk (114mg per 100ml) and yoghurt (200mg per 100g) containing very high levels.

Overdosing on calcium by consuming 3000mg per day or more can lead to dehydration, diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain and vomiting. Failing to consume the RDA can be just as bad and may cause high blood pressure, muscle cramps and osteoporosis (reduced bone density).


Chloride was discovered as a compound by Carl Whilhelm Scheele in 1774. It was later isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1807. Around 0.15% of an average adult’s bodyweight is chloride. This macromineral has a number of roles in the body which include assisting with the production of glandular hormones, maintaining blood pressure, maintaining fluid balance, removing waste materials from the body and supporting metabolism.

The RDA for chloride increases with age. Children aged 0-6 years require around 180mg per day whilst adults require 750mg per day. The best food sources of this nutrient include butter (1300mg per 100g), olives (300mg per 100g) and whole grain bread (860mg per 100g).

Whilst there is no recommended upper limit (UL) for chloride some people have experienced breathing difficulties, fluid retention and high blood pressure if they eat extremely large amounts. Not consuming enough of this nutrient can also have adverse effects on your body leading to muscles spasms and weakness.


Magnesium was initially discovered by Henry Wicker in 1618 in the form of ‘Epsom Salts’. It was later isolated in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy. Approximately 0.05% of an average adult’s bodyweight is magnesium. It is responsible for over 300 biochemical reactions in the human body which include promoting metabolism, helping the muscles and nerves relax and supporting healthy bone growth.

The RDA for magnesium increases with age. Children aged 0-6 months need just 30mg per day of this macromineral whilst adults aged 31 years and older require considerably more (men need 420mg per day, women need 320mg per day and pregnant women need 360mg per day). The richest food sources of this nutrient are quite varied with almonds (279mg per 100g), brazil nuts (229mg per 100g) and spinach (87mg per 100g) all containing high levels.

Consuming 1000mg or more of magnesium per day can lead to a number of negative symptoms including diarrhea, fatigue and stomach cramps. Failing to get enough of this nutrient can also have negative effects and cause muscle cramps, nausea, numbness and vomiting.


Phosphorus was discovered by accident in 1669 during an experiment where the German alchemist Henning Brand tried to convert metals into gold. It represents around 1% of an average adult’s bodyweight. The main role of phosphorus is to work in conjunction with calcium and promote the development of strong bones and teeth. It also activates the B-complex vitamins and assists in the production of the genetic information carriers – deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

The RDA for this macromineral varies with age. Children aged 0-6 months need to consume just 100mg per day of this nutrient. This requirement increases to 1250mg per day for children aged 9-18 years old but then drops to 700mg per day for adults aged 19 years and older. High protein foods are the best way to get your daily phosphorus with beef fillet steak (265mg per 100g), cheddar cheese (520mg per 100g) and chicken (190mg per 100g) all very rich sources.

Excess phosphorus in the body is very rare and often only develops as the result of kidney disease which then leads to calcification of the soft tissues (a condition where calcium is deposited on the soft tissues which causes them to harden). Not having enough phosphorus in the body is also very rare and usually only develops as a side effect of certain diseases. When a deficiency does develop it can lead to anemia (a low red blood cell count), osteomalacia (softening of the bones) and weakness.


Early humans were aware of potassium compounds but it was not isolated until 1807 when Sir Humphry Davy managed to extract this nutrient from vegetable alkali. Approximately 0.35% of an average person’s bodyweight is potassium. It has multiple roles in the body which include maintaining fluid balance, promoting muscle growth, regulating blood pressure and supporting healthy metabolism.

The RDA for potassium increases with age. Children aged 0-6 months need to consume 400mg per day whilst adults aged 19 years and over need to consume a much larger 4.7g per day. Plant based foods are very rich in this macromineral with bananas (350mg per 100g), dried apricots (1880mg per 100g) and spinach (490mg per 100g) being particularly good sources.

Your body controls blood levels of this nutrient very tightly so overdoses are rare and normally only occur as the result of disease or infection. The symptoms of potassium overdose include diarrhea, nausea and ulcers. Deficiencies are also uncommon and normally only develop as the result of digestive problems. The symptoms of being deficient in this nutrient include confusion, dry skin and muscle cramps.


Awareness of sodium compounds dates back to ancient times but it was not isolated until 1807 when Sir Humphy Davy made the breakthrough. Around 0.15% of an average adult’s bodyweight is sodium. It has a number of roles in the body which include keeping minerals soluble in the blood, maintaining joint flexibility, promoting healthy metabolism and supporting the body’s vital organs.

The RDA for this macromineral is 1600mg for both men and women although individual suffering from high blood pressure are advised to keep their intake below 1500mg per day. The richest food source of sodium is table salt which contains 38850mg of this nutrient. However, cheddar cheese (610mg per 100g), olives (1800mg per 100g) and prawns (1590mg per 100g) are also good food sources.

Eating too much sodium is a very common problem and can lead to fluid retention, high blood pressure, heart disease and kidney disease. Contrastingly, not eating enough sodium is rare and is usually caused by other conditions removing this nutrient from the body. When deficiencies do occur it can cause confusion, headaches and nausea.


Awareness of sulphur dates back to Biblical times but it was not recognised as an element until 1777. At this time French chemist Antoine Lavoisier proved to the scientific community that it should be classed as one. Approximately 0.25% of an average person’s bodyweight is sulphur. The main function of this macromineral is to treat joint and skin conditions. It also helps keep the hair, nails and skin healthy and supports proper metabolism.

There is no official RDA for sulphur although most sources suggest you should try to consume between 800mg and 1000mg per day. Protein rich foods contain high levels of this nutrient with brazil nuts (290mg per 100g), chicken (300mg per 100g) and eggs (180mg per 100g) all being very good sources.

Consuming too much or too little sulphur rarely has adverse effects. In fact there are no reported overdose symptoms and deficiencies only affect people who consume a very low protein diet. When people do become deficient in sulphur it can lead to arthritis, circulatory problems, inflammation and skin problems.

Coral Calcium: The Preferred Source of Absorbable Calcium

Coral Calcium is an excellent source of readily accessible and absorbable calcium in the body. Superior 100% pure fossilized, coral calcium is harvested from above ground, meaning that no harm is done to any living coral.

This unique formula contains a form of calcium, which is alkaline, and supports the body's pH (potential hydrogen) balance to promote tissue health. Coral calcium promotes healthy oxygen levels in the body and helps to maintain immune system function as well as promote waste removal.

The Importance of Alkalinity

Maintaining an alkaline pH is critical to cellular health, and if your body's pH is unbalanced, you will have problems effectively assimilating vitamins and minerals. According to Bob L. Owen, Ph.D., D.Sc., author of "Why Calcium?", "When coral calcium is added to water it raises and balances the body's pH levels. Consumption of this alkalinized water also balances the body's acid / alkaline levels, thus bringing about many health benefits. "

The Importance of Oxygen in the Body

Scientists have discovered that a low level of oxygen can disrupt the body's natural functioning ability and can cause harm to the immune system. Coral calcium promotes healthy oxygen levels, and helps to process and remove toxic wastes that may build up in the body.

Why Fossilized Coral Calcium is Superior

This advanced formula contains an organic composition very similar to that of the human skeleton, and contains calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and other trace minerals essential to good health.

Please click here [http://www.immunewellness.com/product/17.htm] for more information about Coral Calcium.

Lamb from Muzbi to Modern

What is your favorite lamb recipe? Chops? Shoulder? Leg? Steaks? Grilled? Baked? Marinated? Rubbed?

Most of us run out of ways to prepare lamb before our mint jelly is finished. If young mutton ranks high on your list of preferences, you'll be interested to know the Royal Cooks for the Mughal Empire in India were able to create a different preparation of lamb for each day of the year. That's well over three hundred dishes – far more today today's cooks would be able, or inclined, to create.

Although other meat showed up in the Mughal cuisine, lamb was their meat of choice for both religious and geographical reasons. As Muslims they did not eat pork. Large quantities of beef were unavailable in the predominately Hindu country (India) they governed. Fish and other seafood were unfamiliar and not easily available in their landlocked empire.

These wealthy Mughals, builders of the memorable Taj Mahal, lived a life of luxury, drama, and complexity – an opulence which was reflected in their food. Any ingredient they wanted could be summoned to their table. Gold and silver foil garnished tops of food. Fifty different dishes would have been prepared for a banquet. Multitudes of spices were daily ground for their meals.

A favorite Mughal lamb appetizer was muzbi. Its preparation began with a lamb breast. A marinade of garlic, onion, ginger, green chili, turmeric, red chili and garam masala was ground together then mixed with yogurt. Fatty cubes were cut from the marinated breast and dipped into a thin paste of crushed almonds, poppy seeds, and sesame seeds. Then the muzbi was quickly sizzled on hot stones. Several pieces would be served to each person on plates garnished with sliced ​​onion, green chutney, and a wedge of lime.

You might not want – nor have the facilities – to prepare a whole fatted sheep and platter it on its back with its legs in the air, but the Mughal cooks did. First they liberally slashed the animal and filled each incision with spices. Then it was roasted on a spit. After the meat was cooked, the carcass was stuffed with flavored rice, whole roasted chickens, and hard-boiled eggs. The entire concoction was baked in a cauldron with butter, water, vegetables, rice, and more spices. The graphic shape was not always attractive, but the taste was a tantalizing combination of strong lamb, bland chicken and eggs combined with the snappy combination of spices, vegetables and rice. Large feasts required several of these platted animals.

Mughal kitchens are gone but many of their recipes, some of them adaptations, are still favorites in many parts of the world. The preparations below use lamb without the complexity and over-the-top- richness so frequently found in Mughal food.

One is biryani which is a rice and lamb combination. Spices such as cumin, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, peppercorns, cardamom, mace, nutmeg, and saffron are used in various combinations. Biryani is garnished with small sheets of edible silver leaf.

Another, ground lamb meatballs filled with hard-cooked eggs, is a visually stunning dish we can thank the Mughals for. When Nargesi Kofta is sliced, the egg in the middle is sunnily exposed, reminiscent of the narcissus reflected in its name.

A third is kababs, season ground lamb shaped into elongated "sausages" around skewers. They are grilled or broiled and served with a sprinkle of masala and sometimes a sauce made from pistachios, almonds, cardamom and cream.

Lamb can be prepared with a variety of masalas, each changing the flavor of the finished product. Masala is a combination of spices, herbs and others seasonings ground or pound together and is used as the base for Indian curry sauces. They are fresh daily, and adjusted to the current ingredients. Coconut, coriander, hot chilies, ginger root, garlic, and onions are enjoyed in addition to the powdered ingredients.

Complex lamb dishes incorporating spacious preparations, significant staff and unusually large platters are limited to royalty and the very wealthy. For the rest of us, cookbooks provide a wide range of ingredients and methods that present lamb as a worthy entrée.

A basic, home-style lamb curry for today's cooks is accomplished by creating a sauce and cooking it with the meat. Sauté 2 chopped onions, four cloves of garlic, "" chopped fresh ginger, 1 t t coriander powder, a pinch of turmeric, t t cumin powder, t t garam masala, 1 t chili powder. 10 minutes Add two chopped tomatoes and cook another five minutes Now the curry sauce is ready for the 10 ounces of lamb cubes and 2 c cups of water.

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Homeowners Insurance Options – What is Good Neighbor Property Damage?

There is a certain type of coverage option that is often included in a standard homeowners insurance policy that many people are not aware of. It is called the good neighbor property damage coverage. For people who have it, and many do, it will provide you terrific protection for damage caused to your neighbors home that you would be considered liable for.

How does it work? Simple. Coverage is provided for damage caused to a neighbors home by you cutting down a tree and having it smash in their fence. Or, coverage is provided if your kids are playing ball in the front yard and a ball goes through a neighbors window. Surprisingly, coverage is provided even if your neighbor can prove that your kids did damage to their home intentionally.

Damage caused to your neighbors house by pets is also covered with this good neighbor property coverage. If your dog chews a hole in their fence or gets into your neighbors home and destroys their carpet or furniture, you are covered.

The amount of coverage provided varies from insurance company to insurance company but most coverage limits are between one thousand dollars and two thousand dollars. The best part about it is there is no deductible that needs to be paid when making a claim. Simply contact your insurance company and explain what happened. Sometimes you will have to come out of pocket to repair the damage, then wait for reimbursement. Other times, the check will be sent out immediately once the damage to your neighbor’s home is assessed.

Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Labiaplasty

Why Consider Labiaplasty?

More and more women are interested in reduction of the labia minora, the inner lips on the outside the vagina, and to a lesser extent reduction of the larger labia majora and clitoral hood. Reasons for this trend are many: awareness and desire to address swelling of the labia and discomfort that occurs with exercise and sports, inability to wear form fitting clothes or bathing suits, interference during sexual activity, embarrassment, humiliation and sometimes even difficulty maintaining basic hygiene. The fact is, there are innumerable variations in size, shape, color and thickness of vaginal tissues, and like most structures found on the human body they are all variations of NORMAL. Many women are very much aware of the prominent size and shape of their labia yet they are unconcerned about their appearance or interference with everyday activities. What has changed however, is that women who do suffer symptoms or are upset by diminished self image can nowdo something about it. Just as the woman who desires larger breasts has the option of augmentation, or the woman who is extremely uncomfortable with her sizable breasts can choose to have a reduction, labiaplasty offers you a real opportunity to take control of your body. No one, not your spouse, sexual partner or physician can take away your right to reshape these structures if you choose to do so.

Getting Started

So where do you begin? Unlike having cosmetic breast surgery or a tummy tuck, most women find it hard to speak with their friends or physician about labiaplasty. It’s just so very private. Younger women may find it impossible to discuss this with unsympathetic parents when in fact they need their emotional and financial support. How many women have been humiliated by a sexual partner who made an insensitive remark about the size or shape of their labia? How many women spend months gathering up the courage to speak with their gynecologist about vaginal rejuvenation, only to be quickly dismissed and humiliated? Fortunately, you have a wonderful informational alternative, the Internet. The web is not judgmental. In fact, when you go from website to website you will find professionals actually sympathetic to your needs. It is also confidential. You don’t have to discuss your feelings with anyone and yet you can see Before and After photographs and share the testimonials of women who traveled down this path before you.

Searching the Internet

So you decide to take your first step by doing a search on the web. You need to visit many websites not only to learn about vaginal surgeries but to get a feel for the surgeon you will ultimately be placing your trust with. You will discover there are several different surgical techniques, all of which have their advantages and disadvantages. Most importantly, since there is no certification process for physicians you’ve really got to do a lot of digging into the surgeon’s credentials, type and quality of training and length of experience with all types of vaginal rejuvenation. You need to view many Before and After photographs and video clips to get a feel for your surgeon’s ability and artistic sense to ultimately determine if he or she can deliver what you envision. You can’t rush this part of the process. And don’t be limited by geography. You should be willing to travel great distances to get the procedure done the way you want it by the most experienced physician.

Contacting A Surgeon

The next step is to contact your future surgeon. After a thorough review of his website you should call the office for a brief chat with the patient care coordinator to answer your general questions. Many of our patients find this to be a comfortable, non- threatening initial step and most women are at ease with this approach. You will also get a feel for the tone of the office and a sense of how you will be treated. If you wish the coordinator can schedule an office consultation and examination with the physician, at which time you will be able to describe the outcome you envision and learn how the physician will do the surgery.

Some women may feel more comfortable making their initial contact by email. The office’s response should express empathy and understanding and be highly comprehensive. The email should include information about the doctor’s credentials, training, experience, location and costs. Travel and lodging assistance for out of town patients should be available as well. If you choose to schedule a consultation after reading the doctor’s email you will be far better prepared when you come into the office.

Yet a third option is to schedule a complimentary telephone or Skype telephone consultation directly with the surgeon, especially if you are unable to come to the office or live a great distance away. I love to use Skype for my long distance and overseas patients since it costs nothing and you get to interact visually as well as verbally.

The Challenge: Making Your Decision

So let’s say you’ve interviewed or researched several surgeons and now you are about to make your decision. You’ve done your diligence, learned as much as you can about his medical training, board certification and credentials. The real issue now is, what formal training and experience does the surgeon have performing labiaplasty, majoraplasty or clitoral hood reduction? What kind of anesthesia is used and what is the accreditation of the surgical facility? Do other doctors refer patients to repair poorly healed vaginal plastic procedures? The bottom line is, how do you determine your doctor’s qualifications and experience when there is no specialty certification process to answer these questions? I have addressed these incredibly important questions on my website under How to Decide upon a Surgeon and I urge you to read it in detail. It applies to every specialist you may ultimately choose to do your surgery.

You may be aware there are several different labiaplasty techniques. I prefer the vertically sculptured or linear technique, which anatomically approximates the reshaped labia. In contrast there is the wedge or pie technique which in my opinion has several drawbacks. If you have an interest in reading about these surgical procedures you can learn about them at Labiaplasty Details. No matter what the procedure you choose you should be able to return to work within 5-7 days.

What To Expect Afterwards

Remember, it is important to have realistic expectations. All specialists strive for the best anatomical outcome, but patients can heal differently. Lack of post-operative compliance such as failure to use medications or starting exercises too soon can have a negative impact on the final outcome. The vast majority of women experience excellent healing. I have not seen infection, scarring or changes in sensation after surgery, and there is no adverse effect on sexual arousal or sensation.

Following your doctor’s post-operative instructions impacts the final result. Conscientious application of mediations, sexual abstinence and restriction of physical activities such as running, spinning, and treadmill use will all promote rapid healing and prevent separation of the edges of the healing labia.

Cost, Financing and Insurance

Finally, you have to consider the cost. The expense of all vaginal rejuvenation procedures is an extremely important factor, but it is not the only factor. The training and experience of your surgeon should be your paramount concern. You only want to go through your surgery once, so your selection of a physician needs to be your first priority. Never make your decision on the basis of cost alone and never feel rushed into a decision. Take your time. You are paying for your surgeon’s expertise, as well as for qualified anesthesia, an accredited surgery center that meets high standards and the professionalism of the entire surgical team. Fees will vary depending upon the complexity of the surgery and length of operating time.

Welding Certification Tests For Boilermakers

A very common welding certification test for boilermakers is a 2 inch schedule 120 tube welded in a 6G position using Tig for the root and second pass, and stick welding for the filler passes and cover passes.

Sound Simple? If you think it’s simple, you are wrong.

A 2″ pipe done in a 6G position means that the pipe is placed with the axis of the pipe running 45 degrees from parallel. Once the test begins, it cannot be rolled, raised, or lowered.

That means you have to be able to position yourself in a way that allows you to move as you weld to move from the bottom, up the side, and to the top. That sometimes means starting out in the kneeling position, moving to a halfway standing bent over position, and then standing. All while trying to maintain a consistent arc length while moving at a steady even speed. This is the kind of welding that separates the men from the boys.

Whoever selected the 6g position for welding certification tests was either totally incompetent or an evil genius.

6G welding certification tests for boilermakers are used because they test the welders skill and because a 6g weld test qualifies for all other positions.

Its impractical to test a welder in the field doing the exact job that will be done once the welder is certified.

The 6G test is often considered the best way to cull the not so great welders and hire the best ones.

(although a 2G along with a 5G might be better)

Another reason 2 inch pipe is used for a weld test is that boiler tubes are often the same diameter as the test and they are also often welded while installed and next to other boiler tubes. Welding a 2 inch tube is hard enough with nothing in your way. Put another boiler tube just inches away on each side and the weld is much harder to do.

Testing using a 6G test gives some indication that a welder can weld from both sides of a joint.

I took a 6g test once and then welded a whole bunch of 2g and 5g tube joints in a fab shop. Never did a 6G for the whole year I worked there. So in my case, a 2g and a 5g test would have been more representative of the work done.

Vaginal Milking Exposed! Squeeze Your Man’s Penis With Your Vagina & Make Him Go Insane!

Ladies, many of you, I’m sure, have bought countless sex toys to help spice up your sex life. Unfortunately, no matter how wonder a new toy is, it eventually bores you. There is a simple technique that produces awesome pleasure that 99.9% of women overlook- the vaginal squeeze- and it will make every man in your life bow down to you!

Want Control Over Your Man? Here’s Absolute Control!

Forget the expensive sex toys, when you develop your vaginal muscles and make them strong, you will be able to milk your man with your vagina and make his eyes roll into the back of his head each and every night. So how is it done?

Well, the amount of pleasure you are able to produce for your man is directly correlated to the strength of your vaginal muscles. Most women have average to weak vaginal muscles, and will thus be able to produce average to weak amounts of pleasure for their man. The key is strengthening and tightening your vagina with simple yet extremely effective exercises. Not only will you be able to milk your man’s penis without him even moving in and out of you, but you yourself will experience not only more orgasms, but more powerful orgasms as well.

When your vaginal muscles are stronger, they will contract more powerfully when you have an orgasms. Not just that, but bigger, stronger muscles require more blood to operate, so the body will respond accordingly and begin sending higher volumes of blood to your vagina. What does this mean? It’s means that you will be extremely sensitive, which will result in incredible orgasms night after night, day after day.

Strengthening your vaginal muscles is simply the best way to not only make your sex better, but to make your lover’s sex better as well. The sex is just not a little better, it’s ten times better! That’s how powerful a stronger and tighter vagina truly is.

3 Common Causes of Septic Tank Odor In The Home

If you live in a rural area, there's a good chance your house is equipped with a septic tank. The septic tank will normally go unnoticed during day-to-day living, but it sometimes makes it odorous presence well known.

If you are experiencing an odor from your septic tank, it is usually caused by one of three things.

1. Dry Drains

A dry drain is probably the most common cause of septic tank odor in the home.

Nearly all drains include what is called a "trap" somewhere along the pipe. This is a U-shaped segment of pipe filled with water which causes gases from traveling through.

If the water should dry up, however, the gases are able to leak into your house. This most often occurs in places such as guest bathrooms or other places where the drain is used infrequently.

The solution to this common problem is to simply run water through the drain. This will refill the trap and stop the gases from reaching your house.

To avoid future dry drains, you should use them periodically to prevent them from drying up.

2. Problems With The Vent Stack

Septic tank odors can also be allowed to enter your house because of a problem with what is known as the vent stack.

The gases produced by the tank are released via a pipe that extends through your roof. This is the vent stack.

If this pipe should become clogged with leaves or other debris, the gases will not be able to travel through and will be forced back down into your house.

Leaves covering the opening of the vent stack may need to be manually removed.

Even if the gases are allowed to pass through the vent stack, a strong wind with some down force may blow the gases back down to your house again. This is typically fixed by raising the height of the stack.

3. Faulty Seals / Gaskets

Yet another possible cause of septic tank odors within the home is a broken seal or gasket along one of the pipes.

This commonly occurs near the base of the toilet, and you should be able to detect it by smelling around the area.

Unless you are a handyman, it is probably best to call a plumber or other professional to repair the seal. It should be a reliably simple job, and not too expensive.

How to Winterize Your Outdoor Power Equipment

As a landscape professional I often get asked what I do in the winter. My quick response is “I work on equipment.”

I don’t know about you, but I always have trouble finding time to maintain equipment during the growing season. Early winter presents the perfect time to clean, inspect, perform routine maintenance and prepare outdoor power equipment for the spring.

Winterizing your gas-powered tools will extend their life and guarantee hassle-free spring start-up. The most important winterizing step is to drain or stabilize the fuel. Gasoline left in the fuel system over the winter will degrade leaving gum deposits and varnish build-up that will plug up the fuel system — the #1 reason mowers, string trimmers, leaf blowers, and chain saws won’t start in the spring.

Tip: I only use ethanol free gas in my landscape equipment. Even a 10% blend of ethanol can ruin a small engine. The ethanol/fuel mixture attracts moisture into the gasoline. If you buy gas and let it sit around it will attract water, so treat stored gasoline with a fuel stabilizer.

Supplies Need

  1. Fuel Stabilizer
  2. New Spark Plugs
  3. Filters – Air, Oil and Gas
  4. Lubricating Oil
  5. Funnel and Gas Can

Simple Steps to Prepare Power Equipment for Winter Storage

  1. Add fuel stabilizer to a full tank and then run it a few minutes to make sure the stabilized fuel gets into the carburetor. Drain the fuel from two-cycle engines and run until dry.
  2. Clean and dry. Pay attention to areas such as mower decks where grass and dirt builds up. Treat metal surfaces with a light of coat of lubricating oil.
  3. Change the engine oil and filter.
  4. Sharpen blades — lawn mower, chain saw, etc.
  5. Inspect and clean the air filter. Replace extremely dirty or damaged filters.
  6. Remove the spark plug and pour about a half ounce of motor oil into the spark plug port. Inspect the old spark plug, clean it and check the gap or install a new one. I prefer to install new plugs because they only cost a couple of dollars.
  7. Check fuel lines and replace the fuel filter.
  8. Lubricate throttle cables.
  9. Inspect for worn or missing parts and hardware.

Store your tools where they are protected from the weather. No garage or shed? Protect your equipment with a tarp. Check on your stored tools, mice will nest in machines and chew on wires.

Kick back and enjoy the holidays. Come spring, your mower, leaf blower and string trimmer will fire up and you’ll be glad you invested a little time and money winterizing your lawn and landscape equipment.

Simple and Easy British Bulldog Soccer Warm Up Game

Soccer British Bulldog

A simple game of Britist Bulldog using footballs as a warm-up exercise.You need between 10 and 20 players for this game

  1. Mark out a pitch size of 20 yards square.
  2. Divide the players, with 15 at one end of the square, all with a football leach and 5 in the middle of the square without a football.
  3. Each player with the ball has to advance from their side of the square to the opposite side, dribble the ball at their feet as they run towards the other end.
  4. The players without a ball in the middle of the square have to tackle the players with the ball and kick the ball out of the square.
  5. A player who loses his ball then becomes a player in the middle who now has to tackle the ball from the players with the balls.
  6. When a player gets to the end of the square successfully with the ball he has to wait until instructed to run again.
  7. As more and more players are tackled, then there are more and more tacklers.
  8. The winner is the last player with the ball at his feet.

This exercise is used as a warm-up game before the session starts. It promotes tackling and also close ball control and skill. The players also benefit from closing down the opponent with the ball and using their strength to hold the opponent up.

All the players love playing this game as it pits their skills against their opponents. In traditional British Bulldog, there is always a concern that a child could get hurt, but because this is soccer and the players are practicing the discipline of football, they are much less likely to suffer and injury, even less so than during a match.

We use this game in our club on a regular basis, not every session, but every 2 or 3 sessions and it goes down really well with the players.