Micro Reality Racing: What Is All the Excitement About Micro Reality Stock Car Racing?

Have you ever been at a fair, festival, company picnic, or other indoor or outdoor gathering of people and seen a huge racetrack that is about the size of a two car garage? Did this racetrack have a huge crowd of people around it screaming their lungs out with excitement? Perhaps this racetrack was under the canopy of a huge inflatable tent with a checkered flag design on top? When you moved in closer to see what the excitement was all about, did you find four to six 1/10th scale Sprint Cup Replica NASCAR cars being driven by remote control from full-sized steering wheels? If so, then what you have witnessed is Micro Reality Racing action. Micro Reality Stock Car Racing is an attraction that has been around for about 15 years and it has quickly swept the nation as one of the most addictive amusements for kids ages 3 to 83. It was invented in Atlantic, Iowa, by three brothers known as the Namanny Brothers. They took a great money-making idea that they invented and decided to mass produce it so that other entrepreneurs could have the opportunity to create a great part-time or full-time income providing racing excitement to patrons at public and private gatherings of lots of people.

There are different formats that a Micro Reality event may have. The three main options are pay-per-play, private event rental, and fundraiser. A pay-per-play event is one where the Micro Reality Racing business operates as a vendor, sets up the track in a public place, and charges each individual racer to pick a car and race for either a set amount of time or a set amount of laps. A typical race would be between 2 and 3 minutes or 12 to 15 laps. A typical charge to race would be between 3 dollars and 5 dollars, depending on the type of event, the region, and the demographics of the crowd. Sometimes vendors will offer multi-race discounts, such as two races for 5 dollars. Typical venues for pay-per-play events are fairs, festivals, shopping malls, car shows and carnivals. The main drawback to this type of event is that the racing revenue is dependent on several factors, such as weather, location, and crowd turnout. Although the potential is there to make a significant amount of income from events lasting anywhere from 2 to 14 days, there is also the possibility of losing money, in the event that the revenue does not exceed the space rental, fuel, lodging, insurance, payments to helpers, food, and other expenses the business will encounter.

A private rental is when the Micro Reality Stock Car Racing track is hired out by a party planner or event coordinator to appear at a specific time and place to offer the patrons of the event unlimited racing for the duration of the event. Instead of being paid per race by the event patrons, the Micro Reality business is paid by the organizers of the event or by the event coordinator to provide unlimited racing for an agreed upon number of hours. This type of arrangement is better for the Micro Reality Racing business owner, as the money is guaranteed and he is usually paid an up-front deposit of 50%, with the balance being paid at the conclusion of the event. With a satisfied event coordinator, the Micro Reality track is guaranteed repeat business for years, if the event is annual. The event planner will also schedule a well-run operation for other functions they have planned throughout the year. There is also a good potential for referrals to other event coordinators. The types of events that private rentals are used for are birthday parties, corporate hospitality events, company picnics, team building retreats and church outings.

A fund-raiser is similar to a pay-per-play event, but there is usually a revenue share between the Micro Reality Stock Car Racing business and the event coordinators. The revenue share will be anywhere from a 90/10 split up to a 50/50 split. At this type of event, sometimes the track owner and event coordinators will agree to use a ticket system so the revenue can be tracked.

A Micro Reality Racing System consists of 18 modular track sections that are similar to folding tables with only two legs. There are twelve 15 degree Curved sections and six straight sections. The track can be configured up to 9 different layouts, anything from a small 10′ x 10′ circle all the way up to a 25′ by 30′ Indianapolis Brickyard layout. There are also various oval, superspeedway oval, and asymmetric layouts that can be set up. The cars are adorned with replica NASCAR paint schemes, and usually between four and six cars are raced at one time. The drivers operate the vehicles from behind full-sized steering consoles that are wired with radio controls on the inside. Most successful track owners also track laps with a digital lap counter. Some vendors use a computer and lap counting software which displays race statistics on an LCD monitor.

There are many different ways that a Micro Reality Stock Car Racing system can entertain the crowd at your next event. Although there are many variations in events and venues, the one thing that will be consistent among them all, is the high-level excitement in the crowd and the Micro Reality Racing participants.

How to Rent Apartments in Charlotte Even With Bad Credit

Though most of the apartments in Charlotte will require you to have a good credit history but with the help of the right sources you can easily get a good Charlotte apartment even if you have a bad credit record.

The beautiful city of Charlotte is not only the biggest city in the state of North Carolina but also the seat for the chamber of commerce as well. Over the years this particular city has proven itself to be amongst the most ideal places to live in America. the city is already is home to around 700,000 people yet continuously attracting not only tourists but also other people planning to settle in here. This is so because of the city’s economic growth, employment opportunities, and cultural heritage and last but not the least the city includes some of the safest neighborhoods to live in with a family. But buying apartments in Charlotte can be expensive so the best possible means to live in this city is go for the Charlotte apartments for rent.

There are plenty of good apartments in Charlotte that not only gives you job proximity but also are easy to get on rent with all the amenities to make your living a comfortable one. You can easily get Charlotte apartments for rent but it would be easier if you don’t have a bad credit record or record of any broken lease. The landlords of the Charlotte apartments mainly run this type of background checks before choosing the right tenant only to keep a safe neighborhood and also to follow the housing laws for tenancy as well. So if you have any flaws in your credit record or rental history you may be denied by the apartments leasing managers. You can be approved for tenancy only if you go for the no credit check Charlotte apartments for rent.

But you need not to worry even if you have a bad credit history as you will surely get plenty of good Charlotte North Carolina apartments for rent where you will get a chance to explain your situation to the leasing managers or the landlord even after running a background check over you as it is a standard procedure before leasing apartments in Charlotte city. But it can tricky as well and apartments like these or apartments with no credit check can be difficult to find too. But there are certainly a few places where you can look for if you are looking for a good apartment. They are:

• Cotswold

• The Aboretum,

• Parkdale

• Sedgefield

Usually apartments with no credit checks are a bit difficult to find only for one reason and that is they are not advertised properly in order to avoid drawing the attention of the wrong kind of people. So the best way to find suitable apartments in Charlotte is to seek help of your trusted sources such as family, friends or co-workers. You can also go for the good apartment finders or real estate agents in your area as well.

Another way is to go online to search for apartments in Charlotte that match up your criteria. Though the apartments that you find over the internet may also require you to provide credit records and pass the standard criteria as well. The only way to secure a tenancy is to show your landlord that you not only have a secured source of income but also you are able to pay your rents and bills on time. So if you convince your landlord the validity of your claim and also get out clean of your background checks for criminal records then you can easily get a suitable Charlotte North Carolina apartment for rent.

Get Ripped Arms and Forearms – Add Inches to Your Biceps and Triceps in a Few Weeks!

There is no body part that screams “fit, strong, and capable” like your arms and forearms. Whether you are a student looking to get pumped or an adult who is about to take the plunge into fitness, everyone wants bigger arms and the increased strength gains that come with them.

One of the first things to realize is that to get bigger arms and forearms, you need to work your biceps, triceps, and your forearms. Too many people make the mistake of concentrating on the bicep, and they’re missing out on 2/3 of the potential results!

Here are three exercises that will increase your forearm size if performed properly three times a week for three weeks.

Triceps – Skull Crushers

Don’t be intimidated by the name, skull crushers are safe and easy to perform.

Find a bench pressing bench and lay down. Grab the bar and hold it at the top of the bench press position. Bend your elbows slightly and then lower the weight down by bending your elbows until it is right above your head. The movement should make an arc, with your forearms moving downward and the bar approaching your forehead. Push the bar back up by contracting your triceps hard until the bar is in the upright position.

Biceps – Barbell Curls

Barbell curls are the king of bicep workouts. They are easy to perform and effective.

Start by grabbing the barbell just outside shoulder width. Hold the bar with your palms facing away from your body. Keep your elbows tucked into your core. Tighten your abs and, without pulling backwards, use your arms to raise the barbell to shoulder-level. Use only your bicep muscles. Slowly lower the weight back down. As you get more fatigued, you will begin to use your body, but try to keep your biceps as the primary mover.

Forearms – Wrist Curls

An strong, firm grip not only helps you in the gym, but in life as well. People with strong, powerful handshakes leave a lasting impression on those they meet.

Sitting on a bench with your elbows resting on your legs, hold the barbell with your palms facing downward. Keep your arms pointing forward and simply raise and lower your hands in a slow, deliberate manner. Repeat this exercise with your palms facing the ceiling.


Do these exercises in sets of 2 or 3, for 10 – 15 reps per set. Work your arms 3 times per week for maximum results. You will see gains!


While implementing your new arm workout, keep in mind that working out is only half the equation to building a stronger body. The other depends completely on your diet. You are trying to add slabs of lean, strong muscle and your body needs plenty of food, amino acids, sugars, and protein to build this new muscle tissue.

Consider increasing the amount of food you eat. Stick to high protein foods like nuts, red meat, chicken, and tuna. Try to eat significantly more (about 500 calories) food each day.

If you are serious about gaining muscle and building strong arms, then consider taking a supplement such as nitric oxide. Not only will it boost your performance in the gym by allowing you to lift more and recover faster, but nitric oxide also increases the amount of essential components that get to your muscles and helps your body naturally augment muscle growth.

With nearly 70,000 studies on nitric oxide and its health benefits, including its essential role in providing dramatic improvements in muscular mass and strength, this supplement is becoming an essential part of every aspiring athlete’s nutrition plan.

How to Get Your Wife to Give You Blow Jobs More Often

Hey man,

My name is Jack, and I never had a problem with getting a woman to give me blow jobs. I know exactly what makes women ( your wife included ) motivated to get down on their knees and give you an oral. Not only that, there’s also a way to get her to practice more often and improve her blow job skills, so that she doesn’t only give you more, but also better head. Now listen up if you want me to sprinkle some of my wisdom on you.

If you want to get your wife to give you head more often you have to change how you behave. The problem isn’t in HER, it’s in You. If you behaved in a way that triggers her natural instinct to bow down for you and blow you all day, you’ll never have to ask for an oral again – she’ll do it on her own initiative, for her own pleasure! Men that are more self-confident, powerful, determined and know what they want in life and how to get it always get more blow jobs than guys that don’t. So get yourself together and figure out what you want. Then go for it.

In case your wife was giving you blow jobs before you got married, now she isn’t because you became BORING. If it’s not fun to blow you, she won’t. Currently, for her, giving you a blow job seems more like a chore, a “job,” then something enjoyable. There’s a way to “convert” her into being addicted to giving you blow jobs. How? Stop being boring.

This might sound stupid and simple, but the truth is that it’s the truth. If you were more of a challenge to your wife, if there was still something to “discover” about you, something “to solve” or “to figure out” she’d be ready to get down on her knees every single day of the week, and giving you a blow job wouldn’t be considered as “work.” You don’t believe me? Go bungee jumping, or sky diving and see how your wife reacts. Sure, she might tell you that you are an idiot – but that’s just what she’s saying, wait a few days and see how she’ll react. Save up money and go to Africa on Safari, do something different that the husbands of her girlfriend’s.

Next, you got LAZY. When’s the last time you ate her out like there’s no tomorrow? Or bought her lingerie?

Power gets women on their knees (your wife included), the more you get of it (power), the more head your wife will give you. I could write an entire book about this (and I did), telling you about WHY women give blow jobs and how to brainwash them into loving Your penis more than life itself.

For now, I’ll just give you 3 quick tips that will get you more head from your wife. I don’t have time to explain you WHY this will get you more blow jobs now, try it for yourself and you’ll see, just stick to it. Here are the 3 things.

1. Join a gym and work out 3-4 times per week for 3 months.

2. Take more control of your marriage by keeping your finances to yourself and by cutting spending on stuff you don’t need to a minimum. Save up money for a trip. Start planning it out now. Find an exotic place you always wanted to visit but never did. Figure out how to get there and get there no matter what. You can do it. This sound ridiculous, but it WILL get you more blow jobs for a lifetime. Not only will you have what to talk about when you come back from the trip, you’ll also learn a lot and be a more interesting person to be around. Not just for your wife – but, more importantly, for OTHER women. When other women want to get on their knees and please you, your wife will INSTANTLY have an URGE to give you a blow job ( better than her potential competitors ).

3. Last but not least – get in touch with old friends and work on your social life. The more friends you have that you can depend on, the more blow jobs your wife will give you. I know this sounds crazy too, but there’s a complicated reason behind why this works. Make a list of 10 people you didn’t see for ages and go see them. If you have no friends, since you’re working all day and all you hear is your wife nagging about the dishes and other crap, then you get caught up in daily life and get lazy and stop seeing your friends. After days, weeks, months and years of this, you end up having nobody other than your wife e.g. you become a loser. Loser don’t get blow jobs. Make your wife and, more importantly, yourself a favor and develop a low tolerance for BS. Go out with your friends, have a life of your own. Your wife may complain at first, but, in the long run, she’ll love you for it.

Sinusitis – Are You Tired and Ache All Over? – It Could Be a Sinus Infection! – Nurse’s Guide

If you have a lot of aches and pains and feel unusually tired lately you may not have considered it could be caused by a sinus problem or an acute sinus infection. A sinus infection could be slowly brewing and you may not have been aware of it. It could sneak up on you or you may not recognize the signs.

Acute sinus infections and chromic sinus infections can wreak havoc in your body. They are systemic and can affect your whole body in various ways. You may notice in particular pain in your shoulders, neck and/or hips. You may be aware of some pain in your cheeks, or one or both sides of your face, forehead or even have had sinus headaches and not made the connection.

Fatigue can also accompany a sinus infection or sinusitis. You can feel tired or unusually tired as your body fights the sinus infection. You can just feel tired all over and not ever even think about a sinus infection as being the culprit.

It is thought by medical experts that even arthritis, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome nay have been misdiagnosed in some people and they are actually suffering from a full blown sinus infection. If you’ve been diagnosed and also suffer from sinus infections, it may be worth another look to see if you’ve actually been diagnosed correctly.

If you’re having pain in any of your teeth or having tooth sensitivity or feel like you have a toothache but are sure you are not having a toothache, then that could also is a sinus infection brewing. Some of the sinus cavities lie close to the roots of your teeth and it may be hard to tell which problems you are having. Also there could be some swelling in the sinus area affecting you also.

If you suspect this is the case, you should look for other sinus symptoms that might be an indicator of sinusitis or a sinus infection. These would include a yellowish phlegm or mucous that you would cough up, a vague or full-blown sinus headache, toothaches, a minor or irritated sore throat, runny nose, discharge from your eyes, coughing, sneezing, excessive sinus drainage in your throat and hard plugs of mucus in your throat.

So sinusitis and sinus infections are something to think about as a cause of your tiredness, fatigue or aches and pains or generalized aches. They can be viral, bacterial or fungal although fungal are the most common. This could be the culprit and taking care of the sinus infections properly with the best and natural sinus treatments and solutions, (preferably no antibiotics – they don’t work for sinus problems) could give you back your energy again.

3 Guaranteed Proven Treatments For Treating Sinus Infections

Their are many ways to treat a sinus infection that you can do all on your own. Sure their is nothing wrong with going to the doctor, but I have discovered 3 effective treatments for treating sinus infection that works very well.

The treatments that I am about to share with you, will clear up the worst of you sinus infection symptoms such as:

– headaches

– fever

– nasal discharges(that think greenish yellowish stuff)

– pain and pressure around your eyes and nose

If you have been to the doctor and are still suffering with these symptoms, I have the solutions for you. I too used to suffer with them constantly for what seemed like forever.

Today I happy to share with you some of the most effective treatments that I used for help with treating sinus infection.

1. Stay away from foods that when eaten stimulate the production of mucus. To cure your sinus infection you have to get rid of that mucus. Their for you should follow a proper diet and avoid foods such as:

– milk, ice cream, alcohol, and foods that are high in sugar

2. Take a hot shower everyday. If you inhale the steam it should relieve your congestion and reduce the swelling of your sinuses. The steam will also thin mucus.. Also you can apply a war hot compress on the site of the infection to help drain mucus.

3. Avoid sodas and iced drinks. Diet sodas are okay because they have less sugar. Instead grab yourself a bottle of water, Gatorade, or Powerade. These will thin mucus and keep you and your sinuses hydrated and moist at the same time.

– your sinuses will be much less aggravated drinking these types of liquids

If you have been to the doctor, taken antibiotics, and just about tried everything these are great alternatives for treating sinus infection.

Have you been suffering forever ever with the same symptoms? The treatments here really work.

They worked for me and a few other people that I know, their is no reason that it should not work for you.

Tips to Build Homemade Coin Sorter

Do you have a lot of coin? It may be irritating to count it. Having your own coin sorter will be a good idea. You can also make it by yourself easily. You can get the material for your need by utilizing the plastic boxes. You can get them from the office supply store or house ware stores.

Your homemade coin sorter will be able to sort your mixed coin for you. You only need to put your mixed coins in and shake the boxes. The coin sorter will directly sort your coins between the boxes based on denomination. Then, it will put the coins into the wrappers so that you can easily take it to the bank. Then, what do you have to do for making it?

Step one: choose the drill bits

You have to make the drill bit which is a little bit larger than the dime, one which is a little bit larger than the penny, one which is larger than a nickel and another one which is a little bit larger than a quarter.

Step two: separate the boxes

You have to separate the boxes and then drill them to be three long rows with six holes for each row into the bottom of one box by utilizing the dime drill bit. Then, place the box on the top of one undrilled plastic box.

Step three: drill another box

Take another box and drill it to be three long rows with six holes in every row into the bottom of the box by utilizing penny drill bit. Then, mount it in the dime box. Meanwhile, for the penny and the quarter, you can repeat this step. Yet, for the nickel drill bit, you have to mount the box in the penny box.

Step four: add coins to the top of the boxes

You can now try your coin sorter to work by adding your coins to the top of the boxes and shake them from side to side. You will see that the smaller coins can fall through the holes of the top box. While you shake the box, each coin will sorted through the holes into each box.

How a BBC TV Series About Farming in the 17th Century Was Made

Why make a TV series about life on a 400 year old farm? That was my first question, when I was asked to direct and produce a 12-part BBC series about five specialists working a Welsh hill farm as it would have been in the 17th century. I have to admit I was rather sceptical of the idea. Not only did it mean uprooting my family and moving to Wales for a year, but more than that, I was concerned that it might turn into just another low grade reality show, in which the historical concept would be relegated to a back seat.

There’s been a slew of programmes where an average family or group of people are dropped into an alien environment – the past – wrapped in period clothing, and shorn of modern luxuries and facilities. Occasionally they are insightful, but much of their time dwells on the personal, the arguments between ‘contestants’ and above all the sensational. I wanted to try and make something very different – a series that was beautiful to watch, and most important of all, informative.

Instead of using just people off the street, we wanted our team of period farmers to be experts, specialists in differing fields. The aim was to take their learned knowledge and apply it, to try and turn theory into practice. So we assembled our experts – Stuart Peachey, a farming and food historian, Ruth Goodman, a social historian and clothing specialist, Alex Langlands and Peter Fonz Ginn, two young, strong, and above all practical archaeologists, and Chloe Spencer, an archaeologist experienced at working with animals. We launched into filming in September, the start of the agricultural calendar, with twelve months of farming on the horizon.

But what to film? For much of the year this question was answered for me, because the schedule of farm activities is almost pre-ordained. The farmer’s yearly, monthly, and near enough daily tasks are virtually set in stone, dictated by the weather, the soil, and the basic cycle of life. From the outset this was one of the most significant lessons that hit home to our specialists. Of course they had some room to choose what to do and when. Some months, like January in the depth of winter, are relatively quiet times, with no urgent tasks to grapple with. A time like this is a welcome respite for the farmer allowing him to catch up on repairs, maintenance, and take a breather before the onslaught of spring. The rest of the time, big events are laid out like a series of milestones: from the September ploughing and sowing, and fruit harvest in October, to sheep shearing in June, and making hay while the sun shines in July.

As I planned our filming schedule, the main agricultural tasks were pretty obvious, but one area I hadn’t particularly considered in terms of farming activities was construction. In fact a number of building projects came up during the year, from putting up a hovel (a wood store), to replacing the privy damaged by February storms. One of the first major tasks the experts had to deal with, was to put up a cowshed using only tools, technology, and materials available in the year 1620. To put things in context, this was a time when the pilgrims were setting sail for America, and James I was sitting on the throne, just a few decades before the civil war tore England apart.

It was a real delight seeing the cowshed rise slowly but surely from the ground. First Alex and Fonz got to grips with a wattle and daub wall, made from wooden rods smothered in a mix of cow dung, clay, and straw. Then the whole team set to work on the roof, from cutting the beams to laying the thatch. It was probably the first time I fully appreciated the deep and manifold qualities of a farmer from the time. Yes, he might occasionally call in outside craftsmen and specialists, but these would have been expensive and certainly not just a phone call away. It was vital to be able to do things himself. He had to be resourceful, inventive, and above all a jack of all trades who could turn his hand to almost any practical job.

Not only that, but the farmer needed to be steeped in his local environment. While most of us today travel through the countryside simply admiring its rural beauty and charms, the period farmer saw it through very different glasses. To him the surrounding landscape was like a giant larder and tool-box full of valuable resources, all with their own qualities and uses, from different woods to plants with medical properties. From father to son, such inherent ‘bush craft’ knowledge was passed on and learned – what could be useful, how it should be managed, and when it should be collected.

I remember the time when Alex was working on the cowshed roof. He’d excavated similar buildings from the period, but it was only when handling the materials, slotting bendy hazel rods through the roof beams to create a mesh for the thatch, that he gradually appreciated the various properties and so potential of his tool-kit.

Back in the 17th century, wood was a resource of paramount importance. It was used to such a degree, from making charcoal to shipbuilding, that it’s reckoned there was half as much tree coverage then in Britain as there is today. Faced with such an appetite, timber itself was cultivated, with most farms of any size having their own coppice, an area of woodland meticulously managed with an outlook stretching decades if not centuries into the future. When we harvested wood from the farm’s coppice, it was like walking through a giant DIY store, ready prepared, and easily labelled if you knew what you were looking at. Different species of tree, of varying sizes from young saplings to giant oaks, were grown to provide rods and beams in a range of thicknesses and lengths. Whatever type of wood was required, from making pegs, building a table, or replacing a roof timber, they were all ready at hand. It was an area of farming I hadn’t even thought of before I set to work on directing the series.

Needless to say a farm’s ultimate reason for being is food. Four hundred years ago, devoid of electricity, people had to find other ways of preserving food as long as possible without refrigeration. Of course it’s still done in traditional ways today, in many places out of necessity and in other cases because the curing process adds to the taste – like Parma hams hung for years at a time, smoked kippers, or vegetables pickled in vinegar. But it’s one thing to relish your favourite salami, another thing altogether to actually see how it’s made.

From the moment we killed one of the farm’s pigs, a food clock was ticking. First, the blood had to be drained and used, next the offal had to be consumed, only then could attention turn to the rest of the pig. It was commonly said, that the only part of a pig not devoured was its squeak. Certainly nothing went to waste. Back then food squeamishness was an unheard of luxury. But it’s not a simple and straightforward job processing a whole animal from start to finish, especially for people used to buying their bacon ready-sliced and wrapped in cling film. It’s a time consuming but in many ways fun and celebratory task, as it remains in many countries, where whole families gather to kill and process one of their beasts. It really is all hands to the pump. Just getting the bristles off Arthur the pig, a wild boar-tamworth cross, about the closest we can get to the breed of the time, was a major undertaking. These pigs are incredibly docile and friendly, but they’re also incredibly hairy, as they needed to be, living out in the woods a significant amount of time.

Today, the thin bristles on our almost bald pigs are boiled off in great vats, but back then farmers put another technique into play – a pig bonfire. They couldn’t burn it too long or it would start to cook the carcass, but it had to be just enough to singe off the hairs. De-haired, the soot then had to be scrubbed off, only then was the skin clean enough so salt could be applied in liberal quantities to cure it. In our modern world, where processed food is all around, it’s refreshing to take a step back, remember where food really comes from, and appreciate the sheer amount of time needed to make things ready for eating by hand, from plucking a chicken and winnowing wheat, to podding peas.

The proof of the pudding is in the eating, and I have to say that Arthur’s pork chops were perhaps the most succulent and tasty I’ve ever tried. One other highlight on the food front were the apples. These days when we check out the fruit section of a supermarket we might come across half a dozen varieties, bred to look pretty and last well. The orchards on our reconstructed 400 year old farm, were laden with apples I’d heard of but never seen, from Cornish Aromatics to Costards for cooking. The autumn glut couldn’t all be consumed at once so they were stored upstairs in the farmhouse, in an ‘apple loft’, where it was cool and airy. They had to be turned on a regular basis, and checked for any that had gone bad, but the vast majority survived in excellent crisp condition for six months – a good source of vitamins through the winter until spring arrived. While shop bought apples often seem to go off in just a few weeks these days, it was rather shocking to eat apples in March that we had picked the previous September, without a refrigerator in sight.

Standing behind the camera it was fascinating to see the experts adjust so easily to a very different pace of life, and immerse themselves in tasks not seen in Britain for centuries. Throughout the year they were joined by a whole host of traditional craftsmen, bringing in additional skills, many of them on the point of disappearing in this country. Until a professional candle maker came to help the team I had no idea that the majority of candles in a farm at the time would have been made from sheep fat. Before a master thatcher arrived on set with a 400 year old length of straw rope and a ‘wimble’ that was used for turning it, I would never have believed you could make strong rope out of something as lightweight as straw. Until a charcoal burner came to assist the team, I would never have guessed how slow and complicated is the process of turning timber into something as vital as charcoal.

It’s easy to look back at such a rural idyll with rose tinted glasses. In our busy, forever switched on lives, it’s easy to dream of a way of life that seems uncomplicated, slower, and more down to earth. It’s all too simple to forget the terrible diseases and low life expectancy, the physical exhaustion of manual labour, or the desperation and hunger when a farm was in trouble.

Making this documentary series was one long learning curve for me. No longer do I have any illusions about how much better it was in ‘the good old days’. I do quite like the idea of drinking just beer, up to eight pints a day apparently, since most people didn’t have access to clean water, and fermented beer is safe to drink. I do fancy the almost spiritual satisfaction that comes from spending a whole day working out in the fields, and coming in exhausted to find a hearty dinner on the table. But having seen Ruth and Chloe doing the laundry 17th century style, making their own washing liquid ‘lye’ from ashes in the fire, using stored up urine to remove stubborn stains, and then bashing the lot out on the rocks in a stream, I certainly wouldn’t want to turn back the clock and give up my washing machine.

Building A Storage Shed Ramp

Storage shed ramps are a part of life that people don’t think about until they need to use them. Kind of like a toilet but not quite as serious. Not being able to use the toilet results in certain catastrophic implications whereas not being able to use a shed ramp means rolling your lawn mower into the garage where its biggest crime will be to compete with the car for valuable storage space.

Shed ramps are built by running boards on edge from the shed wall under the door, down to the ground. These boards are called stringers. I don’t know why they are called stringers, they just are. I know string is not very strong, surely not strong enough to hold a lawn mower, so it does not come from string. But when you put a board on its edge and use it to support a ramp or stairs, it’s called a stringer. Anyways, after running the stringers from the shed floor level to the ground level and then putting deck boards on them you will have a shed ramp. It’s that simple. The only hard part is figuring out the shed ramp slope and the resulting cuts on the wood stringers.

A good shed ramp has the perfect slope. Not so steep that you need to check and see if you are pushing the lawnmower up a cliff and not so shallow that it sticks out into the yard far enough to set up lawn chairs and have a barbecue on. The perfect slope is about 3 inches of rise for every foot of run. What this means is that a shed floor that is 12 inches from the ground would have a ramp that is 4 feet long. Of course this slope is purely personal. I have had good luck with it and so I am preaching it as the “law of the shed ramp slope”. So after you get the slope of your shed ramp determined you can then start to figure out how to cut all those angles to get the ramp’s stringers to sit flat on the ground and to get the upper end of the stringers to sit flush against the shed wall.

The trick to getting these cuts right is to have someone else do the math for you and then use their knowledge to build your ramp. Using a chart that has all the ramp slopes figured out is one of the simplest ways to get a perfectly sloping shed ram. You simply figure out your floor to ground height and then follow the diagram to learn the lengths of the stringer cuts. Then mark the cuts on your 2×6 board and cut away.

After you have cut out the first stringer you need to test it by setting it up against the shed wall and checking the cuts to see if they lay flat on the ground and against the shed wall. Remember to make sure that the ground where the shed ramp stringer touches the ground is flat and level, otherwise the ramp will not sit flat on the ground. Once you are happy with the first ramp stringer you will take it and trace its outline on the other stringer boards and then cut those out.

Once the ramp stringers are cut out you are ready to screw them to the ledger board that will hold the stringers to the wall of the shed. They are screwed together before attaching the whole thing to the shed wall so that the connection between the ledger and stringers is stronger than if you screwed them to the ledger after attaching the ledger to the shed wall. Once the ledger and stringers are screwed together you are ready to use 3″ long lag screws to screw the ledger board to the shed wall. Use 1 lag screw about every 12 inches and start them 4 inches from the end of the ledger. This will give you 4 bolts in a 4′ wide shed ramp.

The final step is to attach the deck boards. I would recommend using the 2×6 lumber for the deck boards, just like a deck in the yard. Simply attach them to the stringers using 2 – 3 inch long screws at each stringer. The decking boards should be spaced with at least 1/8″ space between the boards so water can run off the ramp and also so the boards can expand and contract with the weather.

When the deck boards are all installed you are ready to use the new shed ramp. As simple as it is there is a certain satisfaction of rolling your lawn mower up a ramp that you built. I would recommend only testing the ramp a few times because taking the lawn mower in and out of the shed more than 4 times in one day constitutes the need for a bathroom break.

Custom Designed Surfboards – Tom Morey’s Latest Designs

For the past fifty years plus, surfing legend Tom Morey has been designing custom surfboards and is known as one of the world’s foremost designers of surfboards and surfboard types. Some of his more famous designs are known as the Blue Machine, the Camel, the Peck Penetrator, the WaterSkate, the Morey Boogie, the Morey Doyle soft surfboard, and his latest design types the Swizzle, the SUP Blazer and the Heater.

I am sure that most all of you have heard of the Morey Boogie Board, which to date has sold over 100 million of these little bodyboards and made it possible for millions of kids and adults to say that they have “surfed” a wave.

Not only has Morey designed and made the above mentioned surfboard types, but he has modified many surfboards of other designers and has never given them a name. He invented the first wakeboard, which was designed for surfing behind a boat while under tow. He co-designed the first soft surfboard with Mike Doyle another legend of surfing. He has created many more surfing product designs, equipment, and accessories, e.g. the removable and interchangeable fin system, a traction product called Slip Check later named El Gripo, a rolling fin system, air-lubricated surfboards, Afterburners, Heaters, and many, many, more.

The point is that Tom Morey is a legend in the surfboard design field along with being an internationally renowned inventor of surfing products and one of the early surfers at Malibu. Over the past 50 years, it seems that just about everything that he has created has been a leading edge product, way ahead of the times. Most of them never got to market. This is because the regular guy or gal can’t see into the future like Tom can and are not willing to experiment with his new and innovative custom surfboard or product designs. It’s time for the surfers to wake up and realize that innovation is a wonderful thing, especially Tom Morey Surfboard design types.

Tom’s latest surfboard design types are a longboard called the Swizzle, a shortboard called the Heater and a SUP called the Blazer. Tom has incorporated the best parts of his past designs into these three surfboards.

The longboard he calls the parabolic shaped Swizzle is quite different from what most surfers classify a conventional surfboard design. The Swizzle has incorporated the down turned nose of the Peck Penetrator, which exemplifies the leading edge of an airplane wing. The reason for this shape is that the down turned leading edge of an airplane creates lift and caused the nose of the airplane to elevate. The same is true for the nose of the Swizzle. When the nose goes under water, the flow of water over the nose causes the nose to rise and thus eliminates “pearling” where the nose bites into the water and causes the tail to rise and the rider to be thrown off the surfboard. Very ingenious wouldn’t you say?

The Swizzle also has some other very beneficial features. It has a parabolic shape where the center third of the surfboard is just inside of parallel making the board more narrow in the center, wider in the hip and shoulder area of the surfboard, kind of like a coke bottle. The advantage of this parabolic shape is that it makes the board easier to carry, easier to paddle since the surfer is paddling in this narrower center section of the surfboard, cutting down the drag of the surfboard going through the water when being paddled and tracking down line. The result of this narrow center section makes the Swizzle faster.

The wider hip area and shoulder area give the Swizzle four points of greater control and also make the surfboard more stable. When a surfer stands back on the board to turn it, the wide part in the hip area gives the surfer an edge, which bites into the water and makes the turn easier to make. The wide area in the shoulder section forward of center makes it easier for the surfer to turn the surfboard when he is up forward on the board. Most boards cannot be turned from the nose area, but the Swizzle with its unique shape can be controlled and turned from the nose.

There is another very unique part of the Swizzle design. It is the rear rails called Afterburners that Tom has incorporated into the surfboard design. These rails are vacuum rails and a carryover from the Boogie Board rails. These rails act to cause the water to flow much faster over the rear section of the surfboard by reducing the suction and drag when the board is being paddled and when it is tracking in a straight direction down the line of a wave. However, when the surfer makes a turn, the Afterburner vacuum rail engages the water and acts to pull the board in the direction of the turn, thus making it easier to turn. The rails were named Afterburners because they give the board a boost and make the board faster.

Combine all of these innovations into the Swizzle and you have one very nice custom designed surfboard made into the size that fits your physical stature and condition.

Another of Tom Morey’s new custom surfboards is called the Heater. The Heater is a shortboard ranging in size from 5′ 0″ up to 7′ 0″. There are several very innovative designs in this little surfboard. Once again Tom incorporated the Peck Penetrator turned down nose to prevent pearling.

Most shortboards these days have a sharp pointed nose, are very thin and also quite narrow. There is not much foam in these surfboards, which results in a surfboard with little float that is difficult to paddle. The Heater stresses Tom’s theory that “foam is your friend”. The Heater is wider at the longitudinal center and this width is carried up to the nose area which gives the surfboard more float and makes it easier to paddle and also makes it easier to catch waves much earlier than the thin “chips”. You don’t have to rely on making late takeoffs to catch the wave. This is a difficult maneuver, which the Heater eliminates.

The extra foam in the Heater also allows the surfer to make sections and not stall out in the lulls when the wave diminishes before it reforms again. This ability and advantage gives the rider the chance to have a longer ride, not having to cut it short when he or she reaches the lull. The extra float also makes it possible to ride the Heater through the white water until the wave reforms again.

Probably the most distinguishing design feature of the Heater is the “heater” rear rail. This design feature is where the name of the surfboard originated. The heater rear rail is the opposite of the Afterburner rear rail of the Swizzle. It is a rail that is cut away on the top surface on an angle of approximately 50 degrees to the bottom outside edge of the surfboard. This rail gives the board a hard bottom outside edge increasing performance and allowing the board to bite into the water for abrupt turns and maneuvers. The angled rail allows the water to break away from the rounded center section and greatly reduces the suction while increasing the speed of the board. The Heater is one fast surfboard!

The Tom Morey SUP Blazer is a custom designed standup paddleboard. The design of this board was inspired by the Swizzle parabolic shape, the air lubricated surfboards designed by Tom in the past, and his most recent design the Heater. By combining these elements from prior designs, Tom has come up with a custom designed SUP that is unique and very functional.

The Swizzle parabolic shape with the narrow center section allows the SUP Blazer rider to paddle the board much more easily without hitting the paddle on what is normally the wide part of the SUP. This makes paddling much more efficient and adds smoothness and speed as the board moves through the water.

The wider chest and hip area are moved much further toward the nose and tail because the SUP boards are generally much longer than a regular longboard. These wider points give the SUP four point stability. The Blazer is more stable because of these four wide points rather than two wide pendulum points on a standard SUP design.

Another advantage of the Blazer design is the deep double concave bottom in the nose underside which allows air to get under the board and break the suction between the water and the bottom surface of the SUP. By breaking the suction, the board can move through the water easier and faster making it easier for the rider to paddle. The air lubrication also helps when the SUP rider surfs a wave. He gains a lot more speed, making surfing much more efficient and fun.

The double concave nose area results in the board having a center prow allowing the paddler to track on a straighter line as he or she paddles. If you can picture a trimaran, the prow is like the center hull of the board.

The rear rails on the Blazer SUP are a carry forward of the Heater shortboard’s heater rear rails. These breakaway rails break the suction of the water flowing over the tail section of the board and make the board faster as it moves through the water. The hard down edge gives the surfer bite and better turning ability when on a wave or on smooth water when making a fast reversal of course.

In summary, the Blazer SUP design makes the Tom Morey SUP faster, more stable, and a very efficient fun board.

So my friends, find yourself a custom surfboard designed by surfing legend Tom Morey and go Surf Life! Have a blast!

Valentines Are Healing In So Many Ways

As a child it was loads of fun to make Valentines for each member of my class. Valentines are healing in so many ways. I felt the good feeling of making something for someone else.

Looking back on the time, I realize now, Mom was probably just finding projects to keep me and my three sisters busy for a couple of afternoons. We cut and pasted, trimmed and folded. I loved the color pink, so it didn’t surprise anyone when all my valentines had more pink on them and that I kinda’ dominated the pink crayon out of the set of crayons us sisters shared.

Mom was careful to have us take a break with hot chocolate and marshmallows out on the porch so we didn’t muss up our Valentines and, so we wouldn’t get too weary before our mission was accomplished. It was an exciting time of the school year.

Being the youngest of the four, Mom helped my valentines “just a little” so they would be presentable. We lived on a simple budget, so the one package of store bought Valentines purchased had to be shared out between us. Also bought was a box of Valentine candies and we carefully put one candy in each Valentine. I had four store Valentines and twenty-two homemade Valentines when I set out for school the morning of Valentine’s Day.

Of course, my teacher would get a store bought Valentine and I had made the biggest homemade one for her too. Then there was my two best friends, Elaine and Joanna. I had made them a homemade Valentine plus a store Valentine. I had one store Valentine left and I couldn’t think of one more person to give it to. It was so special.

My teacher had set aside the afternoon for exchanging Valentines. It was difficult for us all to think of school work when so much was going to happen that day. All morning I looked around the room to see someone who would get my last special store Valentine. I talked it over with my two friends and they made suggestions too, but the ones they suggested were more their friends and I was a “tag-along.”

Then exchange time came and the energy level of the classroom escalated to a high roar. Notes flying around the room and everyone smiling. I got twenty-four Valentines. Most my Valentines had a candy in them too, so I thought I had a pretty good trade around. Valentines are healing in so many ways and I knew I had many friends.

Through all the excitement, I clear forgot about my last special store Valentine. As I walked from the bus to home, I remembered it. As I rounded the last corner, there was Daddy’s car parked in the driveway. The love swelled inside me and I had such a good idea. I ran into the house, got the crayons and paper out.

I made one more Valentine. A big one with lots of pink on it because I knew Mom liked pink too. That was probably where I got the idea to have it be my color. I wrote “I Love You” on the back of both Valentines. Then I gave the one store Valentine to Daddy and the homemade Valentine to Mom.

They were so surprised and Daddy grabbed me up into his arms and told me he never had such a sweet little “Milly” in his life. I knew I was special. It was the first dawning on my little heart that I was born to my “Best Friends.”

Now I am older, I still remember the good times we had around Valentine’s Day. My friends from first grade I have lost track of, but the memories of the love I felt from my parents will last forever. Valentines are healing in so many ways. Valentine’s Day is one more opportunity to heal a heart by saying the three words, “I Love You.”

Are There Dangers When Taking Colloidal Gold Supplements

As with any supplement or substance that you may begin to consider taking, it is natural to have questions before you introduce something such as colloidal gold or any other colloidal minerals into your diet. After all, the absolute last thing that you would want is to think that you are taking something to help increase your health, only to find that you are ingesting something that you are having interactions with. Luckily, there are many studies out there on colloidal minerals such as gold and silver that you can look into before making a part of your regular diet. Additionally, it never hurts to consult a professional such as your physician, dietician or a homeopathic specialist to help you understand just what colloidal gold is and what it can do for you.

Generally speaking, since gold is actually very well known as one of the most pure and natural minerals to be found on the planet, it doesn’t interact at all with any of the substances in the body. Because no chemical compounds are formed from body enzymes and gold during treatments, colloidal gold is very safe to use. The non-existent toxicity level from colloidal gold makes it so that it can be used for just about anyone. Patients can range from small children to fully grown adults or even women who are pregnant or nursing. Many patients find that colloidal gold as well as colloidal silver are a wonderful way to fight against any variety of health conditions.

When you do decide to begin taking colloidal gold, it is very important that you look to a homeopathic specialist to point you in the right direction in terms of dosage and administration. Even though your body is able to process colloidal gold with ease without interactions, it is a smart idea to find out the proper amount that you should take for your body type and lifestyle to ensure that you will have the absolute best results coming your way. Before you know it, you will end up seeing optimal results and an overall glow and healthy feeling all around.

In terms of any potential dangers when it comes to taking gold colloidal, a specialist will tell you that it is never a good idea to administer it if you happen to have a history of allergies to metal. If you happen to have any sort of reaction or skin irritations that form when you come into contact with gold pieces or jewelry, it will be a good indication that you are allergic to gold as a whole. In which case, taking colloidal gold could have adverse side effects. When you speak to your physician or homeopathic specialist, he or she will be able to take any potential gold allergy into consideration before prescribing any sort of colloidal mineral.

While speaking with your homeopathic specialist or physician, be sure that you disclose all of the information that you can think of regarding your current health or any previous diagnosis. Some studies have shown that individuals who suffer from bi-polar disorder may have adverse reactions when taking a colloidal gold supplement. Talking with your specialist about any of your concerns will help the both of you to work out the proper dosage, if any, of colloidal minerals such as gold or silver.

As with any supplement or drug, when you find that colloidal gold is right for you, it is always important that you follow dosing instructions properly. Taking the proper dose will help to protect you against potential colloidal gold overdose. Look at the recommendations of your homeopathic specialist and be careful to read the gold concentration listed in any product that you are considering. The concentration of gold will vary from suspension to suspension, so keeping an eye on the numbers will help you to stay within your recommended dosage. Staying within a safe range in terms of concentration and dosage will help you to maintain a healthy feeling and increase in your overall well-being as you start taking colloidal gold.

Grow Taller Quickly – How To Start and Speed ​​Up The Growing Process

Many people look for methods that can help them grow taller quickly and normally in their search they are blinded by the shiny expensive methods such machines, creams and leg lengthening surgery for those that are desperate. What they do not understand however is that there are simpler methods which are highly effective when the time and effort is put in and they can in fact prove a lot more effective than some of the shiny methods that may not even help you on your way up the height ladder. So how do you grow taller quickly?

A good way to start is to start off by doing some stretches in the morning when you wake up and before you go to bed in the evening. These stretches will help you straighten the posture in your spine which will help give you a bit of extra height. Your spine will not be perfect due to the fact that you are going to be sitting and lying down in positions that may feel comfortable when you are in them but they are in fact bad for your body. Also other things such as carrying heavy objects and slouching can cause bad post which makes it all easier for you to improve and add extra inches on to your height.

A stretch that you can do while still in bed is to just stretch out fully and extending your arms up above your head and then still stretching roll onto your left side, hold and then repeat on your right side.

This stretch is very simple to do when you wake up in the morning and before you go to sleep.

Another thing that you can do if you're an active person is to start with some simple exercises to grow taller.

There are many sports such as running, cycling, skipping, jumping, kicking and swimming which are all very effective.

The reason that these are effective is that they break down small micro-fibers in the shin (apart from swimming) from the pressure and these heel back longer and stronger. This is why there are basketball players that are amazingly tall, because they sprint up and down the court and break their micro-fibers repeatedly.

Sleep is also a method that needs to be considered. Of course you need to get about 8 hours of sleep so that you human growth hormone (HGH) can fully kick in but you also need to be sleeping in the correct position so that your body is able to grow.

The best position to sleep is on your back with your head slightly raised by a pillow or not at all. This may seem awkward especially if you normally sleep in some weird positions but it is very effective.

Diet is the final thing you want to consider. You have the correct things to grow taller quickly all you need is the fuel. This includes minerals such as calcium and foods that are high in protein which is a must for growth.

What is Distressed Wood Finishing?

There are many different ways that you can change the appearance of the furniture that you have, or of any other object. One of the ways is to do distressed wood finishing. When you do distressed wood finishing, you are really giving yourself a chance to have an amazing piece of furniture come to life before your very eyes. Distressing is a way of making something that is made out of wood, or out of almost any other material, look like it is older and more aged. It is usually considered to be a decorative art, because you are changing the way that the item looks, in order to make it more pleasing to your own eye. Also, distressed wood finishing is looked at as a finishing technique, because it is something that you do that leads to the final design of the piece of furniture. Even though it is called distressed wood finishing, it is really the opposite of finishing, because you are taking a final product that looks brand new, and doing things to it to make it look older and more distressed.

When you distress a piece of wood, you are deliberately making it look older. This might mean that you destroy or manipulate the current finishing on the object, in order to make it look less than perfect. You can do this with sandpaper, and also with something like a paint stripper. Sometimes, you might take off some of the layers of paint, but not all of it, so there might still be layers of paint that are visible over a wood grain that is underneath. After you have distressed the item, you will have a finished product.

In many ways, distressing has become an art form, and a way to decorate furniture and other items in a popular and stylish way. Distressing is meant to give an item a vintage or one-of-a-kind look, which is usually supposed to be old and rustic.

Antiquing is another type of distressing for wood furniture. When someone does antiquing, they are not only trying to make a piece look older, but they are also trying to make the piece look like it is an antique. There are several different ways that this can be done. First of all, the finish is often distressed, meaning that sanders are used to take off some of the paint and to make the entire thing look like it is older. Secondly, the artisan often applies historically accurate paint colors, and puts on an antique-like faux finish. Sometimes, crackle varnishes are used. Sometimes, in order to complete the antiquing method of distressing, the artisan applies accent details that were only found in that particular period of time, like knobs on dresser drawers, or other details that would make the piece appear to be an antique. Sometimes, glazes are used. With glazing, after distressing, the colors blend into the crevices, and give it an older or antique appearance. Many times, if a person wants to continue the distressing in order to achieve the antique look, it is a process that is going to take a long time, and one that might end up being a lot of work.

Another aspect of distressing is putting in things that are made to look natural. For instance, distressing often includes putting in fake woodworm holes. These are holes in the piece that look like they were made by woodworms.

There are many ways to actually distress an item, whether the artisan is doing antiquing or just distressing. First of all, they might sand the finish off of the actual wood item. They might do this by hand or with an electric sander. Also, they might purposefully dent and scrape the object, in order to make it look like it has a lengthy history and has been moved around a lot.

Sometimes, wood is hammered in order to make it softer, and sometimes it is hammered to give it a dimpled appearance. It can also be bleached, stained, pickled, or repainted with paints and varnishes that crackle. These will then crack after drying, making it appear that the paint or varnish has cracked due to age.

Sometimes, antique paints and varnishes are used, which also add to the appearance of an older, wooden item. Another technique includes watering down regular paint, so that it appears to be faded and thinner than it would new. This allows other layers of paint, or the wood itself, to show through the paint layer. Another distressing technique calls for the pain or varnish to be layered on using sponges, which will create an uneven pattern. When an area is painted, the corners and edges are often painted lighter, or sanded down, so that the item appears to be worn.

The goal of all of these different methods of distressing is the same – for the object to appear as if it is older than it is, and for the object to appear as if it has been worn down and is not in as great of shape as a newer item. Distressed wood furniture is often preferred because it appears to have more character and to look like it has a story and history behind it. Therefore, distressed wood furniture is actually quite popular – even if it is something that a person makes for themselves. One can take a regular piece of furniture and distress it so that it looks even better.

Insurance Required During Construction Or Conversion of Vessels Or Rigs

1. Builder’s All Risk Insurance:

Usually during the contract negotiation stage, when it is as yet unclear as to which party will be accepting which liabilities, which party will be responsible for procuring the insurance and absorbing the deductibles, etc., both parties look more deeply into the breadth of available BAR coverage.

We can say that Builder’s Risk Insurance for the energy class of business provides coverage under three different forms:

  1. London Institute Builder’s Risk Clauses 1.6.88 (CL 351) – or American equivalent
  2. WELCAR form
  3. Custom forms tailor-made to specific risks or Owners or shipyards.

Is the protection provided under all BAR policies the same? No! For a comparison between wordings please contact a trusted insurance broker of your choice.

2. War Risks and Strikes, Riots, Civil Commotions (SRCC):

a. Institute War Clauses Builder’s Risks 1/6/88 (CL 349) –

Coverage incepts once the vessel is launched (or wet) and provides coverage for loss of or damage to the insured vessel / rig caused by:

  • war, civil war, revolution, rebellion insurrection, or civil strife arising therefrom, or any hostile act by or against a belligerent power
  • capture seizure arrest restraint or detainment, arising from perils covered above, and the consequences thereof or any attempt thereat
  • derelict mines torpedoes bombs or other derelict weapons of war.

b. Institute Strikes Clauses Builders’ Risks 1/6/88 (CL 350) –

Provides coverage for loss of or damage to the insured vessel / rig caused by:

  • strikers, locked-out workmen, or persons taking part in labor disturbances, riots or civil commotions
  • any terrorist or any person acting maliciously or from a political motive.

We recommend that this coverage be amended to include Vandalism and Malicious Mischief.

Please also review if the terrorism coverage provided under this clause is either restricted or broadened, or if there are any other applicable clauses such as Sabotage & Terrorism Endorsements. In any case, be sure that the coverage afforded is adequate for your Client so your Client makes an informed decision.

3. Liability – Insurance coverage that protects an insured against claims made by third parties for damage or injury to their property or person. These losses usually come about as a result of negligence of the insured. In marine construction, this policy is referred to an MGL, marine general liability policy. In non-marine circumstances, the policy is referred to as a CGL, commercial general liability policy. The construction contract should determine which parties are liable in which instances for losses of Third Party Liability nature.

Insurance policies can be divided into three broad categories:

  1. Product Liability – Protection against a Manufacturer’s liability for injuries or property damage after a manufactured product has been sold. Extraordinary liability accompanies the manufacture of a product.
  2. Completed Operations – Protection against a Contractor’s liability for injuries or property damage suffered by Third Parties as a result of the Contractor completing an operation.
  3. “Trips & falls & damage” – Protection against injuries or property damage on premises or hulls within care, custody, control of a party.

4. Umbrella Liability – This type of liability insurance provides excess liability protection. Your business needs this coverage for the following reasons:

  • It provides excess coverage over all the “underlying” liability insurance carried.
  • Instead of purchasing a large limit on all of an insured’s policies, this structure allows an insured to purchase the coverage once to sit atop various policies, thereby increasing the limit for many policies.
  • We recommend that this coverage provide automatic replacement coverage for underlying policies that have been reduced or exhausted by loss.

5. Additional coverages available for consideration during the construction phase:

  1. Cargo / Transit Insurance – to protect against All Risks of loss of or damage to the shipments of material, equipment, etc. that will form part of the construction (i.e., the topsides from Russia to the UK)
  2. Marine Delay in Start-Up – to protect against lost profit plus extra expenses due to the delay in arrival of critical components; for instance, due to thrusters being dropped into the water during loading of vessel – causing a 3-month delay in project (due to back-order of specific thrusters required per specifications)
  3. Hull & Machinery & Protection & Indemnity Insurance – to protect against All Risks of loss of or damage to the vessel / rig – and liabilities resulting from the vessel / rig – during transport after completion at Yard (for instance, if delivery is not ex-Yard, but rather at final drilling Site)
  4. Hull & Machinery & Protection & Indemnity Insurance – to protect against All Risks of loss of or damage to any vessels / crane barges that might be used to assist in the construction of the vessel / rig
  5. Liquidated Damages Insurance – to protect against penalties for failure to satisfy an agreement; for instance, for late delivery of unit due to losses of a BAR nature
  6. Political Risk Insurance – to protect a foreign entity against loss suffered due to political risk nature (including Confiscation, Nationalization, Expropriation, Selective Discrimination, Contract Frustration, Inconvertibility & Non-Transfer of funds, etc.)
  7. Professional Indemnity (PI) Insurance – to protect against legal liability arising from any professional negligent act, error or omission in rendering or failing to render professional services by an Assured. We recommend that you look into the design and engineering work and contractual requirements and track records involved in the rig, and see what protections are already in place.

The standard requirements of both Owners and Shipyard:

  1. Workmen’s Compensation / Employers’ Liability as required by applicable statute
  2. Auto Liability as required by applicable statute

6. Coverages available for the shipyard post-delivery (relating to the construction phase):

  1. Following delivery of a unit to an Owner, usually Maintenance & Discovery coverage is purchased.
  2. Warranty coverage is also possible.

What is the difference between Maintenance Coverage of a Builder’s Risk Policy and Warranty Coverage?

The Maintenance Cover is simply an extension of the Builder’s Risk policy, which in this case survives delivery of the vessel to the owner, with coverage being no broader than that contained elsewhere in the policy, subject to all of the conditions and exclusions of that policy.

The Warranty Coverage is “back-to-back” protection of the Assured’s contractual Warranty Clause to Owner. This means that the Warranty Clause from the contract actually becomes the insuring condition of the Warranty Policy.