Are You In Love With A Crazy Maker? Recognizing The Traits of a Manipulative Partner

“Love comes when manipulation stops; when you think more about the other person than about his or her reactions to you. When you dare to reveal yourself fully. When you dare to be vulnerable.”

~Joyce Brothers

Manipulation can take many forms. Some are aggressive and others are subtle. Manipulation basically means I can’t get what I want directly so I’m going to get it indirectly. You can be involved with a manipulative partner and be unaware of it because that is the nature of manipulation. Here are some of the common behaviors to look for:

1) The “Who Me?” Scam. Does your partner refuse to admit that they have done something wrong or hurtful? They act all innocent when the truth is, they were inappropriate in what they did. By denying that they’ve done something wrong they usually get you to back down and perhaps even make you feel guilty for accusing them of something in the first place.

2) The Stories Don’t Match Up. Manipulative people are notorious for telling half truths or omitting the whole truth. Watch out for subtle changes in the wording or versions of what happened or was said. You’ll usually catch on to this when you notice a friend or family member telling you something your partner said but your partner told you something different.

3) Straight Out Lies. Manipulative people will stop at nothing to get their way. Their motto is often, “Why tell the truth when a good lie will do.”

4) All Of A Sudden It’s Your Fault. Does your partner make you feel guilty for doing or not doing something? Typically you didn’t even know they wanted you to do or not do it in the first place. You apologize til you’re blue in the face but your partner refuses to accept it. Instead they hold a position that you don’t care enough and you are selfish. If you tend to be a people pleaser, this is a powerful weapon to manipulate you.

5) Power Plays. Manipulative partners are great at pulling you into an argument with the use of confrontational attacks. These attacks typically start with:

“I can’t believe you would… “

“Why do you always… “

“How could you… “

“I thought we agreed… “

You end up giving into them because you just want the argument to be over and for them to shut up.

6) The Silent Treatment. This may follow a confrontational attack. Your partner shuts down in a fuming pout to see how long it takes you to crack. They gain control because you eventually confess everything was your fault just so you can make up and end this trench warfare. All the while you are thinking that what you did wasn’t deserving of what just happened.

7) Tension Fills The Room. Are your family and friends worried about your involvement with this partner. You should pay attention if these loved ones cringe when your partner’s name comes up. Especially if you have always trusted what these loved ones have had to say in the past.

8) Severing Your Ties. Is it easier to not spend time with your family and friends? Manipulative partners may push you to make a choice between them or these loved ones. If they can get you to drop your family and friends then your partner can assume the role as the center of your universe. Now he or she can have all of your attention and control will be much easier.

9) Rude Behaviors. Do you feel the need to apologize for how your partner acts around your friends and family? Do they interrupt? Are they dismissive?

10) Do You Get Defensive? If you catch yourself getting defensive if someone questions your relationship then you may be blind to potential red flags.

11) Hiding Behind Someone Else. Does your partner make statements but pretend someone else said it? They start their statements with “Everyone thinks you… ” “They said you… ” If you get upset they can simply reply “Don’t get mad at me. I didn’t say it.”

12) Plans Are Overturned. You might be involved with a manipulative partner if your plans are regularly overturned into doing what they want.

13) Are You Possessed? Protection is noble; control isn’t. Is your partner excessively jealous and possessive? Are you interrogated about how long it took you to go to the store and back? Are you questioned intensely when you spend time with your friends?

14) Here We Go Again. Do you recognize repeat offenses of the same behavior? Perhaps they blow up in a frightening rage and call you all kinds of bad names. They later apologize and say they will never do it again. But they do.

15) Playing Dumb. This is a hard one to spot because everybody occasionally forgets or misunderstands. A manipulative person will be more routine with their superficial apologies of “I forgot.” or “I didn’t realize.” “Oh, are you mad at me?” “I didn’t mean it.” And “I was just kidding.”

16) Distraction and Diversion Techniques. A moving target is hard to hit. If you try to pin down a manipulative person they will often change the subject and before long you’ll forget what your initial complaint was. Once you’re off track, they switch to their own agenda.

17) Use of Putdowns. Putdowns and sarcastic statements increase feelings of shame and self doubt. These feelings help the manipulative person establish their sense of dominance. They tell you things like, “No one else will ever love you or put up with you.” Over time you’ll believe it and you stop resisting their behaviors.

18) Does your partner bring out the worse in you? A true, loving partner will help you become your best.

Be careful. These behaviors seep in a little at a time. All of the above are warning signs. Do not lose your sense of individuality and strength. Your relationship should be building you up, not breaking you down.

Microsoft Lync – The Pros And Cons For Business Explained

Deploying a solid BYOD strategy is turning into an ever increasing pressing challenge for businesses.

Employees currently expect to be ready to use their own device for work, no matter whether or not it has been sanctioned by their IT department or not. In fact, a third of Smartphone owners utilise their device at work right behind their IT department’s back.

Part of the explanation behind staff preferring to use their own devices at work is that they feel more productive sourcing their own apps. As an example, the favoured VoIP app, Skype, is the 5thmost downloaded free app globally on Google Play. however may investing in enterprise-wide universal communications (UC) apps enable staff even larger productivity gains whereas keeping information safer and more secure?

Enter Microsoft Lync

Microsoft retired their office Communications Server (OCS) software system with the launch of Lync in December 2010. This software system amalgamates individual tools like video conferencing and instant messaging into one server-side platform, creating a simple to install and manage BYOD solution as well as being cheaper in many circumstances.

Benefits of Microsoft Lync

Lync provides some key advantages over OCS, specifically:

– Seamless integration of software -Switching between the use of instant messaging or document sharing and VoIP has never been this smooth

and seamless.

– Better bandwidth management -With OCS an infinite quantity of users can be active on your network at an equivalent time, using up bandwidth and deteriorating quality. Lync permits network managers to allot bandwidth, limit users and even split audio and video streams across each WAN and internet at the same time, limiting the impact on bandwidth.

– Cheaper than different solutions -Although the complete Lync package prices are $245 per user, this can still be still cheaper than its major rivals.

– Enables workplace communication on the move -In terms of BYOD, Lync provides the perfect answer for businesses who would love a lot of management over their app portfolio whereas still permitting staff to work flexibly on their own devices.

Drawbacks of Microsoft Lync

Despite the key advantages of Lync, it still suffers from some drawbacks:

Higher bandwidth use overall -You might have higher management of bandwidth allocation, however thanks to the upper technical needs of Lync it will eat up a lot of bandwidth overall.

Encouraging adoption -By now several of your staff are going to be accustomed to operating with applications like Skype to fulfil their communication desires. Encouraging them to ditch what they have already installed on their device in favour of MS Lync can be tough, though with enough preparation and consultation it ought to be simple enough.

Guaranteeing productivity gains -Lync is supposed to increase productivity by providing staff with a universal communications platform, even once they are on the move. However this level of communication can be distracting instead of helpful, particularly once staff feel they have to see all communications on the move.

Microsoft Lync is, of course, just one answer to universal communication needs, and one part of a gigantic BYOD puzzle. If you are curious about enabling BYOD for your business, several companies firms exist within the market to assist you on your way.

The Many Ways to Be Relieved of Your Timeshare Obligations

While it is true that a timeshare contract is a binding legal document, it is often mistakenly thought that such a contract cannot only be cancelled. In fact, most timeshare companies maintain that their contracts are not capable of being cancelled.

This misconception is perpetuated by timeshare companies and user groups that are funded, maintained and controlled by the timeshare industry.

The truth of the matter is, that under the law, contracts are subject to being cancelled for a variety of reasons, including fraud and mistake.

Moreover, a person who is burdened by the obligations of a contract may “terminate” it and no longer be bound by the contract for reasons other than breach.

“Cancellation” occurs when either party puts an end to the contract for breach by the other and its effect is the same as that of ‘termination’ except that the canceling party also retains any remedy for breach of the whole contract or any unperformed balance.” Uniform Commercial Code 2106(4); see 13 Corbin (Rev. ed.), ยง73.2; 13 Am.Jur.2d (2000 ed.)

“Termination” occurs when either party, pursuant to a power created by agreement or by law, puts an end to the contract otherwise than for its breach. Uniform Commercial Code sec. 2106 (3)

Since it is the law of the land, that a breach of contract by a party to the contract may result in the other party being released from their obligations under the contract, the notion that one is forever bound by a timeshare contract is erroneous as a matter of law.

The purpose of this article is to provide a ray of hope to those timeshare owners who are no longer interested in being tied to their timeshare and its lifetime of financial obligations.

To start, when you first purchase your timeshare, most states have a rescission, or “cooling off,” period during which timeshare buyers may cancel their contracts and have their deposit returned. This is know as the “right of rescission.”

Once this period expires, however, most timeshare companies will have you believe that their contract is not capable of being cancelled and you are thereafter bound in perpetuity to pay the ever increasing maintenance fees that go along with timeshare ownership.

Moreover, the proponents of timeshare ownership would have you believe that once the initial “right of rescission” expires the only legal way to end timeshare contracts involve a transfer of ownership whether by selling, donating or giving it away.

In fact, most timeshare user groups and virtually all timeshare companies want you to believe that under no circumstances will a timeshare company voluntarily take back their timeshare. This again, is not true.

What is true is that most timeshare companies will not willingly take back their timeshare. As will be seen below, when faced with litigation or the potential of litigation, many timeshare companies will in fact either take back their timeshare or simply agree to release the timeshare owner from any future liability in connection with the timeshare contract.

Before I discuss the latest developments in cancelling a timeshare, I’d like to devote a little time to the more traditional means of cancelling or getting rid of an unwanted timeshare.

As mentioned above, the traditional means of ridding oneself of an unwanted timeshare is through a sale, donation or transfer.

On the subject of selling a timeshare, many unwary timeshare owners seeking to rid themselves of their timeshare fall pray to listing companies that propose to list their timeshare for sale. Such companies have been under investigation by state Attorney General’s for fraudulent and deceptive practices and a proposed timeshare seller wishing to sell his or her timeshare obligation should first consider selling their timeshare by listing it on sites like eBay or Craigslist.

Other options are to list it through the developer, if the developer handles re-sales, or through a timeshare resale broker. One thing the proposed timeshare seller should not do is pay an advance fee for the sale of their timeshare. It is these advance fee practices that have fallen under the scrutiny of state Attorney Generals.

Another frequently discussed solution to the problem of how to be released from your timeshare’s financial burdens, is to donate the timeshare. Where there once were a number of organizations that accept deeded-timeshare donations, with the ever increasing burden of maintenance fees which seem to go up every year, such organizations are a vanishing breed.

Transferring ownership to a third party who will merely take over the yearly maintenance obligations is another “exit strategy.” These persons, however, won’t pay you for the timeshare and in many cases the timeshare company will simply refuse to recognize the transfer or alternatively impose onerous resort transfer fees making the transfer to a third party prohibitive for those faced with financial difficulties.

In recent years, however, new techniques pioneered by real estate attorney’s who specialize in timeshare litigation have emerged. These techniques reached their ultimate fruition in a series of lawsuits filed in California which resulted in each and every plaintiff being released from their timeshare contracts.

Other similar actions have followed, all seeking damages for the type of fraudulent and deceptive conduct that is frequently utilized by timeshare sales people to induce unwitting potential owners to sign on the dotted line.

Such conduct includes the following representations, typically made at the time the timeshare was sold:

a. That the timeshare interest purchased would appreciate and increase resale price and value over time.

b. That the timeshare interest purchased could be freely exchanged, transferred and sold.

c. That the timeshare interest purchased was a financial investment.

d. That the timeshare interest purchased would result in the purchaser receiving booking priority over non – purchasing vacationers wishing to stay at one or more of the properties owned and/or maintained by the defendant, timeshare.

As a result of the filing of such actions, timeshare companies have become much more amenable to releasing timeshare owners from their timeshare obligations even without resort to litigation.

In order to avail yourself of such a solution, you should retain an attorney familiar with timeshare laws and the various techniques for terminating a timeshare contract.

In sum, do not believe the naysayers who tell you that it is impossible to get out of a timeshare contract. Should you be the victim of one or more of the foregoing misrepresentations, you too may be able to cancel your timeshare contract.

Make a Retirement Survival Kit

A retirement survival kit is a funny twist on a wedding survival kit. The great part about a retirement survival kit is that you can put it all together yourself! This can be a really great gift to give during a retirement party because it can be sure to garner a few laughs.

Here are some tips on creating a memorable retirement survival kit:

Retirement Survival Kit Container

One of the first things you will need for a kit is a container to put all the goodies in. This can be a way to think of something creative related to your retiree. For instance, if you all live near the beach and the retiree plans on spending more afternoons there, then consider using a beach pail as a container. Or if your retiree had a job that required him to carry a briefcase or laptop bag everyday, then consider getting him a tacky travel bag or even a real piece of luggage so that he can actually use it.

Survival Kit Goodies

Finding the best and funniest goodies to put into a retirement kit can be a lot of fun. If you are working with co-workers on putting together a gift, then ask each of them to contribute their own ideas of what is necessary in a retirement survival kit. For instance, you can do a beach theme and include suntan lotion, funny sunglasses, a beach towel, and some sandals. Or you can do a traveling theme if your soon-to-be retiree has already booked a trip. A travel themed kit can include passport holders, a travel pillow, maps, a funny fanny pack, and other little travel related trinkets.

Sentimental Items

Survival kits can also include some sentimental items, so the retiree will remember those great working years and will know how much you all appreciated him or her. A personalized plaque or coffee mug might be a fun gift to include. Or an engraved pocket or watch can be a great gift to slip in among all the other funny goodies.

Extra Treats

Survival kits usually have some treats, too. So if you want to include some treats into your retirement kit, consider some of his or her favorite candy bars or snacks. Or maybe some homemade cookies. If your office has a vending machine, then you might want to get a few of the vending machine snacks which would be a fun and funny way for him or her to remember the workplace.

A retirement kit can be wrapped in cellophane or you can just tie a great big ribbon around it and present it to the retiree that way.

31 Items to Put in Your Lease Addenda Rental Form

The Lease Addenda is a very, very important form for landlords. This lease addenda spells out in plain English all the key things that we’ve learned over the years that our renters really need to be informed about. This document includes but is not limited to (there are actually 31 items covered in this document) items like:

  1. Deposits and last month rent (not to be used for).
  2. Due dates and late fees for rent.
  3. Smoke Alarm Batteries Reminder
  4. Air Conditioning Filter Reminder
  5. Landscaping Responsibilities
  6. Unauthorized Repairs / Improvements
  7. 30 Days Notice Reminder
  8. Criminal Activity
  9. Move-in Inspection (Rental Property Condition) Reminder
  10. Subletting

You’ll want to copy and paste these items as well as others items that you can think of that make sense for your specific property into the body of the document at the bottom of this post (which is just a sample header and footer for ease of use). So, with out further ado, here are the 31 items that we put in every lease addenda for every rental agreement that we sign with a tenant:

  1. Tenant understands that the Security/Cleaning/Redecorating Deposit is NOT to be used toward the last month’s rent.
  2. Rents are due on the 1st of each month and are delinquent on the 2nd. 5-day notices will be served; there is a service fee for each notice, and this is charged to the tenant. Late fee is $35.00 per day retroactive from the 5th day of the month.
  3. Tenant shall take responsibility for checking batteries in the Smoke Alarm at least once a month and replacing when needed. If the smoke alarm is not functioning, the Tenant should notify Owner/Landlord immediately.
  4. Tenants are to change air conditioner filters every 30 days. Tenant’s failure to change filters may cause the Tenant to be billed for damages. Tenant to maintain the home interior in a neat, orderly and “maid serviced” manner. Failure to do so may be a cause for excess wear and tear, and may be considered a material breach of the lease terms.
  5. The Tenant is responsible for maintaining the lawns, desert landscaping, shrubs, trees and other landscaping including mowing and trimming. Failure to maintain the exterior of the premises is justification to withhold deposits to restore the property to pre-rental condition.
  6. Repairs caused by resident neglect or negligence will be charged to the Tenant (i.e. a child’s toy causes blockage in a toilet or sewer line, or excess hair stops up sink or shower line). Such charges must be paid within ten (10) days of written notice from the Landlord/Owner.
  7. The Property Owner/Landlord will NOT pay for unauthorized repairs.
  8. Tenants will not work on/repair vehicles at the premises; there should be no unregistered, non-functioning or commercial vehicles parked on, in front of or adjacent to the property that is visibly in sight from the street.
  9. The Owner/Landlord only warrants serviceability on the following appliances: air conditioner, heater, conventional water heaters, range/oven, refrigerator and dishwasher, if provided, and all other major electrical and plumbing systems. Owner/Landlord does not warrant or repair washer(s) and dryer(s).
  10. It is the responsibility of the Tenant to acquire and maintain liability insurance if the Tenant has a waterbed and/or pet. As noted in lease, written permission must be obtained from the Owner/Landlord to install a waterbed or have a pet at the property.
  11. The Owner/Landlord is not responsible for the Tenants personal belongings. Tenant understands that they may choose to obtain Renters/Tenants Insurance.
  12. Tenant must give written notice thirty (30) days prior to the expiration of this agreement to vacate or renew. On a month-to-month basis, the termination of this lease can only coincide with the end of a calendar month, unless agreed to by all parties.
  13. Tenant is to allow Landlord/Owner/Real Estate Agents to show the property for lease or sale during the last thirty (30) days of tenancy with proper notice. Tenant will allow placement of a Lockbox with property key the last 30 days of tenancy. Failure to comply may result in forfeiture of deposits.
  14. Tenant may obtain a free copy of the AZ Residential Landlord/Tenant Act from the Secretary of State office.
  15. Non-refundable fees will be applied to the following: cleaning/carpet cleaning/re-keying property.
  16. Tenant acknowledges receipt of a move-in inspection form. It is the Tenant’s responsibility to return to Owner/Landlord within ten (10) days of occupancy.
  17. Criminal Activity: Tenant(s) or members of Tenant’s household will not permit the dwelling to be used for, or to facilitate criminal activity, including drug related activity, regardless of whether the individual engaging in such activity is a member of the household or a guest. Violation of this provision shall be a material and irreparable violation of the lease and good cause for immediate termination of tenancy. Proof of violation shall not require criminal conviction, but shall be by preponderance of the evidence.
  18. Indemnity: Tenant(s) shall indemnify and hold Owner harmless from and against any and all claims, liability, penalties, damages, expenses and judgements for injuries or accidents to people or property of any nature however caused, occurring on or about the leased premises during the lease term and any other period of occupancy, including costs, expenses, attorney’s fee incurred by Owner in defense of any such claims, whether or not such claims are adequately covered by insurance.
  19. Waiver: Either party’s waiver of any breach of this lease shall not be deemed to be a waiver of any such breach on subsequent occasion, and failure of either party to insist on performance of the terms, agreements and conditions of this lease shall not constitute a relinquishment of such party’s right thereafter to enforce such term, agreement or condition but the same shall remain in full force and effect. Should any provision or any part thereof in this lease agreement be determined unenforceable or illegal, the remaining terms shall remain in full force and effect.
  20. Utilities: Tenant(s) are responsible for having all utilities placed in their own name(s) prior to move in. Tenant further agrees to pay any and all deposits (if any) as required by utility companies.
  21. Assignment and Subletting: The Tenant may not assign or sublet the premises without the express written permission of the Landlord/Owner. An application fee will be charged by the Landlord/Owner to cover the cost of credit and background checks.
  22. Alterations: The Tenant shall make no alteration, addition or improvement to the property, either inside or outside, without the written consent of the Owner/Landlord.
  23. If property has an electric garage door opener, remotes will be operable upon move-in. Remotes are not warranted beyond move-in.
  24. Tenant agrees to return all house keys, mailbox keys, garage door openers and any other keys at time of move out. A $75.00 re-keying fee will be charged if all keys are not returned and $35.00 for each garage door remote.
  25. Tenant agrees to conduct a final walk-through inspection with Landlord/Owner at the end of the lease term. Tenant agrees to have all personal property removed from the premises at the time of final walk-through inspection. Owner/Landlord has no obligation to conduct a joint move-out inspection with the Tenant if A.R.S. 33-1321C shall apply.
  26. FIRSTNAME LASTNAME and FIRSTNAME LASTNAME are owners of said property.
  27. Tenant understands that smoking is not permitted inside the home or garage.
  28. Tenant agrees to notify Landlord/Owner immediately of any water leaks that occur (i.e. leaks at sinks/vanities/tubs/showers/laundry spigots/appliances, ceiling stains or any water penetrations observed).
  29. Tenants are responsible for carpets being professionally cleaned prior to lease expiring; proof of cleaning is by receipt.
  30. If property is located in a homeowners association, Tenant is responsible for any fines assessed to property for violations caused by the Tenant. The two most common violations are garbage cans being left out on non-pick-up days and weed control. Homeowner’s rules and regulations are available upon written request only.
  31. In the event that the property is sold the lease / rental agreement between landlord and tenant is cancelled on the date the new owner takes possession of the property. Tenant has 30 days to vacate the property or sign a new lease with the new owner at the owner’s option.

Actual.pdf and word documents are available on the post of this article I made on my blog. Located here:

How to Grow Your Penis At Home – Natural Techniques to Enlarge Your Penis Exposed Here!

You really want to learn how to grow your penis at home? Well let’s just start by saying that there is nothing wrong desiring for a bigger penis even if you have an average size. Ensure that you ward off some unsafe penis enlargement techniques and some products that can prove fatal for your penis health…

My aim here is to tell you exactly what you need to do to make your penis bigger by 2-4, so that whenever you find yourself in bed with a woman, you will blow her mind and take her to heights of pleasure she never thought possible. Does this sound cool? Well, read on.

We are going to talk about how you can make your penis grow bigger by means of penis exercises. In olden days there were not many options for penis growth. Men were doing penis exercises to increase their size. Various penis growth exercises were performed by them making use of some equipment or just their hands. The enlargement exercise equipments they used were not particularly meant for penis exercise, but there were some other household stuff like small stones tied with just any rope, penis tied up with leg near knee etc. Their hands were usually the tools they were using for penis growth.

Learning how to grow your penis at home using penis exercises could be easy, but to get the detailed information is where the problem lies. The exercises we are talking about are those activities which are used particularly for changing penis looks in both conditions, erect and relaxed. The reason why most men want to have bigger penis differs, it might be self show off, impressing women, feeling proud for having big tool, better satisfaction for self and partner or whatever. But the truth is that men always desire to have bigger penis, better sexual performance.

Common Penis Enlargement Exercise Types:

The exercise involves holding of blood inside penis in attempt to push more and more blood into penis tissues during erection. This stimulates the growth of new cells and increases both the length and girth.

=Jelqing Exercises: Jelqing exercises are generally known as natural penis enlargement exercises because it does not call for using any device just your two hands. The way to do this exercise is by pushing blood inside penis. Make use of your one hand to push the blood towards end of penis, and make use of your other hand to block the blood inside penis by holding penis in its base (near public bone). There are many version of this exercise like dry Jelq, mini Jelq, V- Jelq, side Jelq etc.

=Kegel Exercises: Kegel exercise, named after Dr. Arnold Kegel, consists of contracting and relaxing the muscles that form part of the pelvic floor. Kegel is a popular prescribed exercise for pregnant women to get ready the pelvic floor for physiological stresses of the later stages of pregnancy and vaginal childbirth. The good news is that you as a man can as well make use of Kegel to make your penis grow larger. This exercise can help men get stronger erections and gain greater control over ejaculation.

=Girth exercises: These exercises are mainly for increasing the penis girth. It might interest you to know that women really give more importance to girth then length. It is because girth is what gives wider opening (more stretched) experience to women. Penis girth exercises are also many in counts. Some of them are Compressor, Penis Clamping 101, Erect Bend, Horse Squeeze, Flaccid Bend, Traction Wrapping 101 etc.

There are lots of programs online that teaches how to grow your penis naturally, but a good one like penis advantage should be highly illustrative and descriptive and helps you do jelqs well with the help of videos and photos so that there is almost no room for error. You can also make use of natural pills with these exercises to enhance their effect.

Penis growth exercises have some difficulties with them. Some of the common difficulties are:

*Need to do penis exercise for some months to get some good results.

*Many times, men hurt their penis in absence of proper guidance.

*Wrong results could be seen in absence of proper guidance, or in attempt to get results faster.

*Need to spare some good time every day for penis exercise.

What Are the Different Types of Symbols and Colors Used in Muslim Wedding Cards?

In Muslim culture, marriage invitations are known as Nikah or Walima cards and denote the spiritual significance and rituals observed in this community. These cards are sent out to announce the wedding ceremony and form an integral part of the whole event. Muslim wedding cards are famous worldwide for their unique symbols, designs and colors. The presence of these features makes Nikah cards appropriate for the wedding ceremony, and without them the event is incomplete.

Below are the various types of symbols and colors used in Muslim wedding cards.


Star and Crescent-

The star and crescent are an internationally recognized symbol of Islam and represents faith in God. This religious symbol includes an image of a crescent moon and a star. In Muslim culture, star and moon are seen as the valid symbol of believing in almighty God. It features prominently on the marriage invitation cards as a holy symbol and denotes the faith in God to make the ceremony successful.


The Bismillah symbol contains the true essence of the holy Quran and denotes the name of Allah. The symbol reflects the blessing, adoration and support from god. This beautiful symbol is a magnificent reminder of our relationship with the creator and all its creation. Due to this characteristic, Bismillah symbol is printed on Muslim wedding cards to seek the blessing and support of god.


The Allah symbol means God, and it is used by Muslims for referring to God in Islam. It represents faith, blessing and purity. This symbol is printed on the Muslim wedding cards to make the ceremony holy and divine. It is also believed that Allah symbol on the card will guide the marriage to the best of understanding, happiness and love between the bride and groom.


Shahadah symbol means testimony of faith in god. It is the first pillar of the 5 pillars of Islam and means there is one God (Allah). The symbol of the Shahadah is printed on the Muslim wedding cards to bring oneness among the guests attending the marriage. It symbolizes the sanctity, harmony and union with God.



In Muslim culture, green color is considered as a traditional color of Islam, and it has a special mention in their holy book (Quran). It was first used by the prophet and represents cleanliness, purity and nature. To Muslims, green color denotes the freshness of Islam and brings unity among them. The Green colored marriage invitation is a universal symbol of peace, love and harmony. It highlights the rites of a wedding and enhances the grace of the ceremony. The green color depicts the true happiness of Muslim wedding.


In Muslim culture, white color is regarded as ideal and perfect. It represents truth, kindness and positivity. It portrays the sense of being complete and happy. Due to this characteristic, white colored marriage invitations are printed to bring peace, purity and simplicity to the wedding ceremony.

Diaspora Literature – A Testimony of Realism

Diaspora Literature involves an idea of a homeland, a place from where the displacement occurs and narratives of harsh journeys undertaken on account of economic compulsions. Basically Diaspora is a minority community living in exile. The Oxford English Dictionary 1989 Edition (second) traces the etymology of the word ‘Diaspora’ back to its Greek root and to its appearance in the Old Testament (Deut: 28:25) as such it references. God’s intentions for the people of Israel to be dispersed across the world. The Oxford English Dictionary here commences with the Judic History, mentioning only two types of dispersal: The “Jews living dispersed among the gentiles after the captivity” and The Jewish Christians residing outside the Palestine. The dispersal (initially) signifies the location of a fluid human autonomous space involving a complex set of negotiation and exchange between the nostalgia and desire for the Homeland and the making of a new home, adapting to the power, relationships between the minority and majority, being spokes persons for minority rights and their people back home and significantly transacting the Contact Zone – a space changed with the possibility of multiple challenges.

People migrating to another country in exile home

Living peacefully immaterially but losing home

Birth of Diaspora Literature

However, the 1993 Edition of Shorter Oxford’s definition of Diaspora can be found. While still insisting on capitalization of the first letter, ‘Diaspora’ now also refers to ‘anybody of people living outside their traditional homeland.

In the tradition of indo-Christian the fall of Satan from the heaven and humankind’s separation from the Garden of Eden, metaphorically the separation from God constitute diasporic situations. Etymologically, ‘Diaspora’ with its connotative political weight is drawn from Greek meaning to disperse and signifies a voluntary or forcible movement of the people from the homeland into new regions.” (Pp.68-69)

Under Colonialism, ‘Diaspora’ is a multifarious movement which involves-

oThe temporary of permanent movement of Europeans all over the world, leading to Colonial settlement. Consequen’s, consequently the ensuing economic exploitation of the settled areas necessitated large amount of labor that could not be fulfilled by local populace. This leads to:

oThe Diaspora resulting from the enslavement of Africans and their relocation to places like the British colonies. After slavery was out lawed the continued demand for workers created indenturement labor. This produces:

oLarge bodies of the people from poor areas of India, China and other to the West Indies, Malaya Fiji. Eastern and Southern Africa, etc. (see-

William Sarfan points out that the term Diaspora can be applied to expatriate minority communities whose members share some of the common characteristics given hereunder:

1.They or their ancestor have been dispersed from a special original ‘centre’ or two or more ‘peripheral’ of foreign regions;

2.They retain a collective memory, vision or myth about their original homeland-its physical location, history and achievements;

3.They believe they are not- and perhaps cannot be- fully accepted by their lost society and therefore feel partly alienated and insulted from it;

4.They regard their ancestral homeland as their, true, ideal home and as the place to which they or their descendents would (or should) eventually return- when conditions are appropriate;

5.They believe they should collectively, be committed to the maintenance or restoration of their homeland and its safety and prosperity; and

6.They continue to relate, personally and vicariously, to that homeland in one way or another, and their ethno- communal consciousness and solidarity are importantly defined by the existence of such a relationship ;( Safren Willam cited in Satendra Nandan: ‘Diasporic Consciousness’ Interrogative Post-Colonial: Column Theory, Text and Context, Editors: Harish Trivedi and Meenakshi Mukherjee; Indian Institute of Advanced Studies 1996, p.53)

There lies a difficulty in coming to terms with diaspora, and as such it introduces conceptual categories to display the variety of meanings the word invokes. Robin Cohen classifies Diaspora as:

1. Victim Diasporas

2. Labour Diasporas

3. Imperial Diasporas

4. Trade Diasporas

5. Homeland Diasporas

6. Cultural Diasporas

The author finds a common element in all forms of Diaspora; these are people who live outside their ‘natal (or imagined natal) territories’ (ix) and recognize that their traditional homelands are reflected deeply in the languages they speak, religion they adopt, and cultures they produce. Each of the categories of Diasporas underline a particular cause of migration usually associated with particular groups of people. So for example, the Africans through their experience of slavery have been noted to be victims of extremely aggressive transmigrational policies. (Cohen)

Though in the age of technological advancement which has made the traveling easier and the distance shorter so the term Diaspora has lost its original connotation, yet simultaneously it has also emerged in another form healthier than the former. At first, it is concerned with human beings attached to the homelands. Their sense of yearning for the homeland, a curious attachment to its traditions, religions and languages give birth to diasporic literature which is primarily concerned with the individual’s or community’s attachment to the homeland. The migrant arrives ‘unstuck from more than land’ (Rushdie). he runs from pillar to post crossing the boundries of time, memory and History carrying ‘bundles and boxes’ always with them with the vision and dreams of returning homeland as and when likes and finds fit to return. Although, it is an axiomatic truth that his dreams are futile and it wouldn’t be possible to return to the homeland is ‘metaphorical’ (Hall). the longing for the homeland is countered by the desire to belong to the new home, so the migrant remains a creature of the edge, ‘the peripheral man’ (Rushdie). According to Naipaul the Indians are well aware that their journey to Trinidad ‘had been final’ (Andse Dentseh,) but these tensions and throes remain a recurring theme in the Diasporic Literature.


1.Forced 2.Voluntary

Indian Diaspora can be classified into two kinds:

1. Forced Migration to Africa, Fiji or the Caribbean on account of slavery or indentured labour in the 18th or 19th century.

2.Voluntary Migration to U.S.A., U.K., Germany, France or other European countries for the sake of professional or academic purposes.

According to Amitava Ghose-‘the Indian Diaspora is one of the most important demographic dislocation of Modern Times'(Ghosh,) and each day is growing and assuming the form of representative of a significant force in global culture. If we take the Markand Paranjpe, we will find two distinct phases of Diaspora, these are called the visitor Diaspora and Settler Diaspora much similar to Maxwell’s ‘Invader’ and ‘Settler’ Colonialist.

The first Diaspora consisted of dispriveledged and subaltern classes forced alienation was a one way ticket to a distant diasporic settlement. As, in the days of yore, the return to Homeland was next to impossible due to lack of proper means of transportation, economic deficiency, and vast distances so the physical distance became a psychological alienation, and the homeland became the sacred icon in the diasporic imagination of the authors also.

But the second Diaspora was the result of man’s choice and inclination towards the material gains, professional and business interests. It is particularly the representation of privilege and access to contemporary advanced technology and communication. Here, no dearth of money or means is visible rather economic and life style advantages are facilitated by the multiple visas and frequent flyer utilities. Therefore, Vijay Mishra is correct when he finds V S Naipaul as the founding father of old diaspora but it is also not wrong to see Salman Rushdie as the representative of Modern (second) Diaspora V S Naipaul remarkably portrays the search for the roots in his ‘A House for Mr. Biswas:

“to have lived without even attempting to lay claim to one’s portion of the earth; to have lived and died as one has been born, unnecessary and accommodated.(Naipaul,14) similarly Mohan Biswas’s peregrination over the next 35 years, he was to be a wanderer with no place to call his own'(ibid. 40)

In the same manner, Rushdie’s Midnight Children and Shame are the novels of leave taking… from the country of his birth (India) and from that second country (Pakistan) where he tried, half-heartedly to settle and couldn’t.” (Aizaz Ahmad, 135)

Here the critique of Paranjape generates the debate of competing forms of writing: Diaspora or domiciled -those who stayed back home and importantly a competitive space for the right to construct the homeland, so he points out the possibility of harm by ‘usurping the space which native self- representations are striving to find in the International Literary Market place and that they may ‘contribute to the Colonization of the Indian psyche by pondering to Western tastes which prefer to see India in a negative light.’ The works of various authors like Kuketu Mehta, Amitava Ghosh, Tabish, Khair, Agha Shahid Ali, Sonali Bose, Salman Rushdie confirm a hybridity between diasporic and domiciled consciousness. They are National, not Nationalistic inclusive not parochial, respecting the local while being ecumenical, celebrating human values and Indian pluralism as a vital ‘worldliness’. (Ashcraft, 31-56)

The diasporian authors engage in cultural transmission that is equitably exchanged in the manner of translating a map of reality for multiple readerships. Besides, they are equipped with bundles of memories and articulate an amalgam of global and national strands that embody real and imagined experience. Suketu Mehta is advocate of idea of home is not a consumable entity. He says:

You cannot go home by eating certain foods, by replaying its films on your T.V. screens. At some point you have to live there again.”(Mehta, 13)

So his novel Maximum City is the delineation of real lives, habits, cares, customs, traditions, dreams and gloominess of Metro life on the edge, in an act of morphing Mumbai through the unmaking of Bombay. It is also true, therefore, that diasporic writing is full of feelings of alienation, loving for homeland dispersed and dejection, a double identification with original homeland and adopted country, crisis of identity, mythnic memory and the protest against discrimination is the adopted country. An Autonomous space becomes permanent which non- Diasporas fail to fill. M K Gandhi, the first one to realize the value of syncretic solutions’ hence he never asked for a pure homeland for Indians in South Socio-cultural space and so Sudhir Kumar confirms Gandhi as the first practitioner of diasporic hybridity. Gandhi considered all discriminations of high and low, small or great, Hindu or Muslim or Christian or Sikh but found them ‘All were alike the children of Mother India.’

Diasporic writings are to some extent about the business of finding new Angles to enter reality; the distance, geographical and cultural enables new structures of feeling. The hybridity is subversive. It resists cultural authoritarianism and challenges official truths.”(Ahmad Aizaz, In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures; OUP, 1992,p.126) one of the most relevant aspect of diasporic writing is that it forces, interrogates and challenges the authoritative voices of time (History). The Shadow Line of Amitav Ghosh has the impulse when the Indian States were complicit in the programmes after Indira Gandhi’s assassination. The author elaborates the truth in the book when he says:

“In India there is a drill associated with civil disturbances, a curfew is declared, paramilitary units are deployed; in extreme cares, the army monarchs to the stricken areas. No city in India is better equipped to perform this drill than New Delhi, with its high security apparatus.”(Amitava Ghosh, 51)

The writers of Diaspora are the global paradigm shift, since the challenges of Postmodernism to overreaching narratives of power relations to silence the voices of the dispossessed; these marginal voices have gained ascendance and even found a current status of privilege. These shifts suggest:

“That it is from those who have suffered the sentence of history-subjugation, domination, Diaspora, displacement- that we learn our most enduring lessons for living and thinking.”(Bhabha, 172)

The novels of Amitav Ghosh especially the hungry tide in which the character Kanai Dutt is cast together “with chance circumstance with a Cetologist from the US, Priya Roy studying fresh water Dalphines, The Oracaella Brebirostris. The multiple histories of the Sunderbans became alive when the diaries of Marxist school teacher Nirmal came to light. He withdraws from the romance of political activism and came to settle with his wife Nilima in Lucibari and the relation between them is exemplified in the pragmatism of Nilima:

“You live in a dream world- a haze of poetry

Such passages of the novel points towards the metaphorical distinctions between the centre and margins, made narrative and little histories the well knows gods and the gods of small things. In the novels of Ghosh an assault of unarmed settlers Morich Jhapi, in order to evict them forcively is carried out by gangsters hired by states. They had been “assembling around the island… they burnt the settlers, hearts, they sank their boats, they lay waste their fields.”(ibid)

Similarly there are a number of novels by South Asian and British Writers on the theme of partition a blatant reality in the global history. Partition was the most traumatic experience of division of hearts and communities. Similarly, Ice Candy Man comprises 32 chapters and provides a peep into the cataclysmic events in turmoil on the sub continent during partition, the spread of communal riots between the Hindu and Sikhs on the one side and the Muslim on the other. The Muslims were attached at a village Pirpindo and the Hindus were massacred at Lahore. It was partition only that became the cause of the biggest bloodshed and brutal holocaust in annals of mankind. Lenny on eight years child narrates the chain of events on the basis of her memory. How she learns from her elders and how she beholds the picture of divided India by her own eyes in the warp and woof of the novel. There is a fine blend of longing and belonging of multiplicity of perspectives and pointed nostalgia of mirth and sadness and of Sufism and Bhakti is epitomized in the work of Aga Shahid Ali. Similarly the novels of Rahi Masoom Raja (in Hindi) narrate woeful tale of partition, the foul play of politicians, the devastated form of the nation and its people after partition and longing for the home that has been:

“Jinse hum choot gaye Aab vo jahan kaise hai

Shakh-e-gulkaise hai, khushbu ke mahak kaise hai

Ay saba too to udhar hi se gujarti hai

Pattaron vale vo insane, vo behis dar-o-bam

Vo makee kaise hai, sheeshe ke makan kaise hai.

(Sheeshe Ke Maka Vale ,173)

(“To which we hav’een left adrift how are those worlds

How the branch of flower is, how the mansion of fragrance is.

O,wind! You do pass from there

How are my foot-prints in that lane

Those stony people, those tedious houses

How are those residents and how are those glass houses.)

Most of the major novels of South Asia are replete with the diasporic consciousness which is nothing but the witness of the all the happenings of social realities, longings and feeling of belonging. Train To Pakistan, The Dark Dancer, Azadi, Ice Candy Man, A Bend In The Ganges, Twice Born, Midnight’s Children, Sunlight on A Broken Column, Twice Dead, The Rope and Ashes and Petals all these novels abound in the same tragic tale of woe and strife from different angles. Most of the fictions of South Asian Countries are written in the background of post- colonial times and the same South Asian countries were under the colonial rules of the English. After a long battle of independence when those countries were liberated, other bolt from the blue of partition happened. This theme became whys and wherefores of the most of South Asian novels and the popularity of it will prognosticate its golden future.


1.(Cohen Robin, Global Diasporas- An Introduction. London: UC L Press, 1997)

2.Rushdie: Picador, Rupa, 1983.

3.Safren Willam cited in Satendra Nandan: ‘Diasporic Consciousness’ Interrogative Post-Colonial: Column Theory, Text and Context, Editors: Harish Trivedi and Meenakshi Mukherjee; Indian Institute of Advanced Studies 1996, p.53)

4.Stuart Hall, ‘Cultural Identity and Diaspora in Patric White and Laura Christmas, eds, Colonial Discourses and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader, New York: Columbia University Press, 1994,p.401)

5.(Rushdie: Shame Picader, Rupa, 1983, p.283).

6.(An Area of Darkness London: Andse Dentseh, 1964,p. 31)

7.(Ghosh, Amitava : ‘The Diaspora in Indian Culture’ in The Imam and The Indian Ravi Dayal and Permanent Books, Delhi : 2002,p.243)

8.(Naipaul, V S, A House for Mr. Biswas Penguin, 1969,p.14)

9.Aizaz Ahmad ‘In Theory: Classes Nations, Literatures, O.U.P.1992, and p.135)

10.(Ashcraft. Bill. And Pal Ahluwalia, Edward Said: The Paradox of Identity Routledge,London & New York 1999,p.31-56 )

11.(Mehta, Suketu, Maximum City Viking, Penguin, 2004, p. 13)

12.(Amitava Ghosh, The Ghost of Mrs. Gandhi in The Imam and The Indian , Ravi Dayal, New Delhi, 2002,p.51

13.(Bhabha, Homi, The Location of Culture, Lodon, 1994,)

14.(Ghosh, Amitav,The Hungry Tide Delhi:Ravi Dayal Pub.2004)

15.Dr. Rahi Masoom Raza, Sheeshe Ke Maka Vale. ed. Kunvar Pal Singh, Delhi: Vani Pub.2001,)

Back & Shoulder Waxing Guide

Male waxing is becoming much more acceptable and popular now with more salons offering it, and more clients requesting it. A lot of waxing training concentrates on areas of the body for women, who are still by a big majority the highest proportion of waxing clients. Back and shoulders is probably the most commonly requested male waxing treatment and if you have never waxed one before it can be quite daunting.


When the client makes their appointment ask them to bring a clean t-shirt or shirt to wear after the waxing treatment. Some men with particularly hairy backs will often trim or shave the area around the base of the neck to avoid hairs sticking over the neck line of clothes, and for comfort. This can lead to those hairs being too short for us to wax, so when the client makes an appointment you may wish to advise them to let that hair grow a little before their appointment.

Start with the client in the prone (face down) position on your treatment table. You can now asses the direction of hair growth, there is usually a line from the base of the neck that grows down toward the waist, and then inwards from either side towards the middle.

If the hairs are over approximately 1cm in length they should be trimmed down using a suitable set of barbers clippers. Grade 2 (6mm) is a perfect length for waxing; this gives a good length for the wax to adhere to and for client comfort. If the hairs are left too long they can break off rather than being removed and it will be more painful for the client.

Wipe and cleanse the area to be waxed with a suitable Pre-Wax cleansing product. Blue Lotion or Lotion Eau de Cristal from Perron Rigot are both excellent products for this, and can also be used post waxing for removing any wax residue.

Ensure the skin is dry, wipe over with some couch roll or a disposable towel, and then apply a very small amount of light oil to the area to be waxed. The oil should be used instead of talcum powder; it is easier to use, is a lot less messy and really makes for a much more comfortable client experience. The oil provides a lipid barrier between the wax and skin, so that wax only sticks to the hairs and not the skin which makes it a lot less painful. Perron Rigot or Berins Jasmin Oil are both excellent products for this. It is important to remember you only need a small amount of oil! If you apply to much and you find the wax slips off then just wipe down with a wax strip or couch roll.


Start by removing the central line of hair that grows down the spine towards the waist. Some therapists find it easier to do this using hot / non-strip wax – use whichever you are most comfortable and confident in.

This will give you a nice straight line to wax against now for the sides, remember not to wax around corners. So I do each side in two or three sections, depending on the size of the client. Starting about 10 – 15cm from the nearest edge of the waxed line apply a thin layer of wax towards the middle line. Start from just above the waist and move up to the scapula (shoulder bone).

Remember to apply the wax with the direction of the hair growth. Then using paper strips remove the wax and hair, remembering to keep the skin stretched and taught throughout. Then do another section, again about 10 – 15cm in length up the back and continue this until the nearest side has been complete. Now move around to the other side of the client and repeat for this side. When getting to the outside of the back, it is often easier to ask the client to lie on one side and lift their arm over their head.

If you find the skin dries out as you wax, apply a little more of the oil as you start each section.

It is important to take the hair line below where the client wears their trousers. Ask the client to lower their trousers and pants slightly, explain why, and then follow the same procedure above. Begin by waxing down the middle section first, and then in from the sides. This usually goes down to the top of the buttock cleavage.

Once done, this is a good time to apply your after wax products to cool and sooth the waxed area. I usually use a good quality Tea Tree based moisturiser, using a product that you can also retail afterwards is very useful.

Ask the client to now sit on the end of the table so that you can complete the waxing of the top of the back, base of neck and shoulders.

When waxing the shoulders ensure you go over the top and down to the clavical as this gives a natural line. For the outside of the shoulder always ask the client how far down they would like it to be waxed, I usually follow the deltoid muscle line. If the arms have a bit of hair on, it is usually better to ensure the waxed area does not extend down past the t-shirt line.


As you complete the treatment introduce the aftercare procedure to your client. Give them your aftercare advice both verbally and in written form. Also ask them if they would like any aftercare products to take away with them.

Men are quite lazy, so products such as Tea Tree based skin washes work very well.

Owner’s Guide to Impaction in Iguanas

Impaction in iguanas occurs when the intestine becomes blocked with indigestible material.  It is a very serious condition.  Your lizard will die if not treated promptly.  So, what exactly causes it?


Iguanas become impacted when it eats something that its system can’t digest.  Sometimes, they do this accidentally while tongue-flicking to gather information about their environment.  This is why certain substrates can be hazardous for iggies.  Leaving small objects lying around can also be hazardous.


An impacted iguana usually displays signs much like one that’s constipated.  You will notice that he stops passing stool on a regular basis.  When he does, he will strain to do so.  Any feces that he does pass will be small and narrow.


If you suspect that your iguana is suffering from impaction, you need to take him to a vet immediately.  He will probably take an x-ray to determine if this is indeed the case.  Sometimes, the vet can tell if your iguana is impacted just by performing a physical exam. 


The only method of treatment for impaction is surgery.  All surgery has risks due to using anesthesia in reptiles.  However, as stated earlier, your iguana will die if this condition isn’t treated as soon as possible.


It’s vital that you monitor your lizard closely whenever he’s out for exercise.  Curiosity may get the best of him and he may try to eat any small object he comes across.  Also, you should never use fine or particulate substrates for iguanas.  If you use carpeting, make sure there are no loose threads.

How to Keep Your Futon Mattress From Sliding Down the Full Futon Frame!

Everyone who owns a futon can relate to all of these situations. You’re always pulling your mattress up so it sits up straight on the frame! Every time you flip and turn your mattress your pretty sure it has a mind of it’s own because it always wants to jump off the futon frame! Your mattress slides forward off the frame till it’s halfway on the floor! You know – your sitting on your futon watching some TV and before you realize it you have slid half way down the futon frame! How many of these have happened to you?

The only question anyone who owns a futon has ever asked is “how do I keep my mattress from slipping off my futon frame?” Let’s take a look at a few reasons why this might happen and then what can be done about it.

You just bought a new mattress and they tend to be stiff till they break in or you just flipped and turned your mattress and when you do that the mattress has a tendency to want to pop off the futon frame. Another reason could be that the soft cloth material of your futon mattress cover and the futon frame just makes a nice slippery combination. One person put it best when she said, “my kid loves it because he thinks it’s a ride”.

There are a few products on the market that claim to combat this problem and one that claims to be the solution – lets take a look at them.

The first product is called gripper strips, the bottom side of the strip has an adhesive that you stick onto the front edge of your futon frame seat and as well as the top edge of the back deck of your futon frame. The top side of the strip is made with a foam material, when it comes in contact with your futon mattress cover material it creates a resistance and is suppose to help hold your futon mattress in place.

Product number two is a rug pad, you can find them at furniture store, department store, or you could check your local futon store. You just lay the rug pad on the futon frame seat and set your mattress on top of the rug stopper material and hope it stops it from sliding.

Last but not least we have the futon mattress strap. The futon mattress strap eliminates the need to ever pull your mattress up off the floor again! The Futon Mattress Strap is made of rugged 1 inch wide nylon webbing along with durable plastic buckles. You can install the strap across the full futon mattress in about 10 minutes and your mattress is secured. The futon mattress strap tucks neatly in the crease of your mattress, you never see it!

The History of Egyptian Rugs

Looking for an Egyptian Rug?

Finding an authentic Egyptian rug can be a more complicated task than many consumers expect when rug shopping. In the current market, a majority of Egyptian rugs resemble Persian rugs, and very few designs actually depict the recognizable “Egyptian look” that consumers hope to find.

Each year there are only a few rugs and carpets that make it over to the American Oriental rug market featuring the traditional Egyptian style. For this reason, Egypt is unfortunately not described as a rug and carpet producer.

Despite the low quantity of rugs produced, they are viewed as some of the most intricately designed and highest quality rugs on the market.

Why are Traditional They so Rare?

Ancient Egypt artifact recovery digs have found hand looms that date back to 2400 B.C. However, contemporary Egypt weaving styles stem from a much more recent design era.

The most recent style of Cairo rug weaving actually dates back to the 16th century. The rugs woven in Cairo provide beautiful, entrancing color palettes in addition to their unique, ancient design motifs. However, by the middle of the 17th century, Egyptian carpet production seemed to cease all together, and it was nearly impossible to find traditional them anywhere on the market.

Current Markets

Then, post WWII, authentic rug production started up again in Egypt in 1952 as several companies refocused on creating authentic Egypt styled carpets. These companies currently employ thousands of weavers who want to learn the beautiful art of Egyptian rug and carpet weaving.

Still, only a small percentage of the rugs and carpets produced by them actually make it to America.

The Beauty of Egyptian Rugs

Typically, Egyptian or Merino wool or silk is used in authentic weaving patterns. This material is then dyed using synthetic dyes and machine-spun pile. Although the styles include Persian knot-tying and weaving techniques, the graphic design and layout associated with these styles differs from other Oriental rug styles on the market.

Typically, Egyptian designs and motifs feature geometric patterns and intricate floral designs. These designs are very complex and feature a wide variety of colors that can complement any living space.

Are they Worth It?

Egyptian carpets are difficult to find, and they can be rather expensive. However, a rug of this quality and beauty is a great asset to any living space. Though Egypt is not typically well-known for its rugs, the rugs are beautifully well-crafted and depict the best qualities of rug weaving that every carpet producing country has to offer.

Have You Tried This Severe Acne Treatment?

If you have severe acne condition then I highly recommend you treat it with this vegetable…


Why radish?

Simply because radishes contain natural bleaching agents and powerful antioxidant properties that will help:

  • Reduce the swelling of pimples thus, reducing pimple sizes and minimize the appearance of pimples on your skin.
  • Also does a great job at removing blemishes and blackheads.
  • Contains the largest concentration of vitamin C. This vitamin will do two things for you when consume…

First, it will help remove acne causing toxins and other pollutants from within your body.

Second, it will help reduce skin damage caused by toxins.

Exfoliates the skin. This will remove damaged and dead skin cells from the outer layers of your skin so you will get clear healthy looking skin.

Instructions To Treat Severe Acne Externally:

The first thing to need to do is make a face wash out of radish. This wash is to cleanse and exfoliate your skin to remove any dirt and oil that may get in the way of the treatment.

You make the wash by mixing radish paste with water. Just make sure to add a little more water.

Then you apply it onto your skin and gently rub it with the tips of your finger. Once done, rinse it off with warm water, gently pat your skin dry with a towel and wait 5 minutes until your skin completely dries.

Now you are going to make a mask. To do this you simply mix radish paste with water again but this time you add a little less water.

Now you apply onto your face as a mask and leave it on for 20 minutes, rinse off and pat dry with a towel.

Instructions To Treat Severe Acne Internally:

To treat acne internally, you just simply consume it as a juice or smoothie. But you should never consume radish juice by itself as it may cause unwanted reactions.

Anyways, all you do is add small pack of red round radishes, two apples, a carrot, and a turnip into a blender or a juicer. Blend it and drink it.

That’s all there is to it. Now you just apply both internal and external treatment once a day.

Types of Underpads Used in Hospitals and Homes

The two primary types of underpad used in hospitals are disposable underpads and washable or reusable underpads. In this article, we will discuss the features of these two types of underpads in more detail. Here, it must be mentioned that although the biggest consumers of these products are hospitals and nursing homes, individuals with bed-ridden patients, disabled or elderly individuals or even those with babies at home can and do use these pads.

The disposable underpads as their name suggests, are meant for one time use. They are available in a range of construction types and sizes. They usually contain a waterproof plastic material for the bottom, a middle layer designed to absorb liquid and a top layer made from a soft and comfortable fabric. The middle layer usually houses multiple layers of tissue to absorb fluids. The topmost layer of these units come in contact with the patient’s body, therefore manufacturers use materials such as cotton that will make patients are comfortable while using their disposable underpads. You will also come across pieces in which the top sheets are made up of tissues or a tear-resistant spun-bond material that allows for movement without fear of ripping the pad.

There are some disposable underpads carrying top sheets attached to the plastic layer at the bottom by means of an adhesive. Then, there are others with two sides rolled and glued to ensure that the liquid comes out only from the side in case the pad overfills. Experts refer to this process as channeling. The pads adopting this process are known to be more absorbent compared to the other underpads available on the market. You can get all these disposable underpads in a range of sizes; so, purchasing pads that match your body, bed or chair size will be simple.

Now, we will be talking about the washable or reusable underpads. These pieces are classified based on factors such as absorbency, materials, and size. The term absorbency refers to the volume of urine or bodily fluid that an underpad is capable of holding. The material used for crafting the absorbent layer is a kind of absorbing polymer.

The quantity of polymer used and the material’s density are two factors that decide how much liquid the underpad is capable of absorbing; basically, the underpad’s urine holding capacity. Here, it must be noted that one should never confuse an underpad’s absorbency level with its size. A pad that’s large in length and width might not absorb the most urine.

After absorbing the urine, reusable underpads need to secure it in a liquid-proof barrier. This is essential to prevent the urine from soaking through the bedding. These liquid proof barriers are made either of urethane or of vinyl. The vinyl structures, although more cost-effective, are not breathable; additionally; they can take a lot of time to fully dry. The urethane structures are more expensive, but don’t have the issues we generally associate with vinyl underpads.

Now, let’s discuss the appropriate size of underpads. When buying an underpad, you must ensure that you have at least 6 to 10 inches around your waist i.e. the target zone. This stands true for both underpad types, disposable and reusable and allows enough coverage to adequately contain fluids. Smaller sized pads are designed for use in chairs and make excellent absorbers in baby cribs or on diaper changing tables. Many hospitals use small pads in bassinets for easy clean up.

How to Make a Warhammer 40k Building

"One day I can make a cool piece of warhammer terrain" thats always come to ones mind when looking on the beautiful terrain maid by other people. Stop wiping and prepare your materials caused today you will create your own terrain. Creating a flocked hills and rocky formations for Warhammer is not just complicated compared in making buildings and towers. Although building buildings is more commendable and needs more creativity but as long as you are willing and have the heart to let it all out in creating a Warhammer terrain you can make anything. Almost anything you can make such as towers, houses, churches, castles, bunkers, factories and and pretty much anything part of Warhammer gaming. That all for the introduction and its time to gather all the materials needed for its time to stop the talking and start working.

Materials list

o 20? x30? foam board

o pencil

o ruler

o utility knife

o paint brush (medium sized one will do)

o white glue

o black paint

o gray paint

o white paint

o Popsicle sticks

And one karma from Astronomican (it's like food for the soul)

Step 1 Outline and cut your windows and entrance ways

Use a space marine cadet to size up the doors on your foam board they should fit through the doors. They're actually able to fit through the windows too but that's not entirely necessary if you choose to make the windows a different size. Lets not include what is the measurement of the foam board that we will be using for the height and length of the walls for we have our own design and size of the building to be made. Just buy a sheet of foam board with a size of 20 inches x 30 inches will serve for a good sized mini building.

So, we draw and trace the desired design the cut out the doors and windows. To save some of your time you can cut out a template and trace the template for future use.
Next, creating the side wall of the building. To absorb the wreckage you can roughed the side walls.

Step 2 Installing Popsicle sticks for added support

This next step is the critical and important because you are going to add extra support to your structure so that it will not easily be break down. But this step will not give you a hard time, first begin by slicing out Popsicle length strips in each level or story of the front side of the building. Next is glue the Popsicle sticks in the slots you have just created.

(Note: slicing too deep in the foam board will cause you to deface the front side of your wall.)

Step 3 Cut and glue down your floors and walls together

This step is the craftiest and needs an extra patience because it takes a little concentration and hands that are not shaky. Line up your three wall together to measure the size of your floors. You will then see what will fit in as a floor for each level or story. You can choose to roughed up also the edges of the floor to indicate wreckage same as what you've done for the side walls. to give some give some variety and design on the floors you can add up some wooden sub-flooring made from Popsicle sticks.

Step 4 Scuff and add rebar

This will be the most unique part of creating a terrain for you will destroy some part of the building you made in order to embody the damaged parts of the building. It's the best part actually. Do not be afraid and leave go ahead and try and you will see the result. But do not destroy all, randomly create explosion holes and bullet hole marks across the front sides.
And going in for a closeup to see some added rebar which is glued in place.

Step 5 Prime building

Acrylic black paint is what to be use in priming the whole building. You can add some fine sand to texture your paint this will add a rough concrete like texture to the structure and will give a different look and result when its time to dry brush later.

Step 6 Paint building

Next step is paint the building with gray paint. Make sure not to put a lot of paint on the brush. Creating a dry brushed look with the gray paint exposing about 5 percent of the black is best. Otherwise priming it in black would be meaningless. After painting it with gray dry brush it with white paint but this time make sure it's a very light dry brushing. And finally add a light green to accent the building. Otherwise it would be gray only and dull. Also add variety on the floors by painting it with yellow and brown colors.

Alas, there you have it! A simple multiplevel building wrecked and blown up to give it character and unique look. We hope this inspires some nice terrain ideas. Feel free to tell us what you think of this project. Any ideas or suggestions are welcome and encouraged.