4Ps & 6Ps – Marketing Mix

Marketing mix is one of the major concepts of marketing. According to the traditional base, there are 4Ps of marketing. These are referred to as the marketing mix. But in the modern use of the term, many more Ps have been coined. People have found six, seven even eleven Ps of marketing. In this article we will talk about the 4Ps and 6Ps.

Four Ps

The four Ps of marketing mix consist of Product, Price, Place and Promotion. Product means the thing that you are selling. It can also be a service like the tourism industry.

Price means the rate at which the product is being sold. A number of factors are involved in determining the price of a product. These include competition, market share, product identity, material costs and the value customers perceive of a product. In fact prices are also determined by competitor’s products. If the competitors have the same product, then the price of a product will go down.

Place refers to the real or virtual place from where a product can be bought by a consumer. Another name used for place is called “distribution channel”. Promotion is the way that a product will be communicated to the general public. There are four distinct ways in which this might be done- ‘point of sale’, ‘word of mouth’, public relations and advertising.

Somewhere down the line people felt that four Ps were not enough for marketing mix. It had to face a lot of criticism mainly on the grounds that it was extremely product focused. This was not enough for the economy which is based a lot on services as well nowadays.

Another criticism that marketing mix has to face is that it does not have a ‘purpose’. So it should be looked upon as a tool that sets marketing strategy. Another criticism of marketing mix is that it does not discuss customers. This is why the concept of Six Ps of Marketing mix has achieved relevance.

Six Ps

The six Ps contain all the four Ps of marketing – product, price, place and promotion. In addition, it contains, two new Ps, namely People and Performance.

People include the potential and current customers of the business and how they make their purchase decisions. Market segmentation is also a part of this. It contains the features of market segmentation and the most attractive segments of this market.

The next P is Performance. This implies the performance of the business. The financial and strategic objectives of the business are dealt with here. It is also seen whether these objectives are achievable and realistic or not. The metrics of financial performance are also seen and appropriated in this division.

The six Ps of marketing mix help to overcome the criticisms of the four Ps. Hence the 6Ps serve to be a better alternative as compared to the 4Ps of marketing mix.

Her Most Famous Painting (Oriental Poppies) – Georgia O’Keeffe

The American painter Georgia O’Keeffe (November 1887-March 1986) was a pioneering ‘Modernist.’ Her unique approach defied all the accepted norms of painting and gave a new definition to the ‘American Modern Art.’ Owing to her competence, American Art attained fame and recognition in creatively competent Europe. Flowers fascinated Georgia and they were her favorite subject on canvas. O’Keeffe painted “Oriental Poppies” in 1928. This stunning work was declared a groundbreaking, art masterpiece.

Georgia O’Keeffe described her painting as a product of what she perceived in her mind and felt in her heart. In “Oriental Poppies,” she depicts two giant poppy flowers. Measuring 30″ x 40″, this oil painting is an explosion of brilliant colors on a vast canvas, lending a mesmerizing effect. O’Keefe used dazzling red and orange as the main color of the petals. The hollowed centre and the inner contours of the flowers are painted in deep purple. The skillful shading and velvety finish of the petals accentuates the vibrancy of the flowers. “Oriental Poppies” almost looks like a close up photograph. O’Keeffe did not give any background to the painting, to artfully draw focus onto the flowers. The absence of context in the painting presents them in a new light as pure abstracts. “Oriental Poppies” exudes a startling pull, as if casting a hypnotic spell on the viewer.

Georgia O’Keeffe believed that due to the fast-paced lives people live, they merely glance at flowers, but never really observed their exquisiteness. She wished to give such rushing people experience and the feel of the true beauty of flowers. In her words, “If I could paint the flower exactly as I see it no one would see what I see because I would paint it small like the flower is small. So I said to myself – I’ll paint what I see – what the flower is to me but I’ll paint it big and they will be surprised into taking time to look at it – I will make even busy New Yorkers take time to see what I see of flowers.” O’Keeffe chose to paint on a huge canvas with an outburst of bold colors, to astonish the viewers and to introduce them to the wonder of nature. In her bid, she managed to capture the essence of poppies with eloquence.

Many art researchers believed that O’Keeffe’s “Oriental Poppies” was an answer to the zoomed in technique adapted by Alfred Stieglitz in ‘Modern Photography.’ The magnificent painting speaks volumes of O’Keefe’s talent and artistic vision. Georgia’s delightful representation of two ordinary flowers generated widespread admiration and was considered as one of her most memorable works. It is now a part of a collection at the University of Minnesota Art Museum, Minneapolis.

Things to Do With Remote Control Helicopter

Times are changing faster than they ever did before and so are toys. Thanks to the technological advancements that we have seen in just a few years, today’s toys are things that are not only for children. Many adults today are enjoying passing times with these ‘toys’. One trend that has caught on very well with both the young kids and the adults is having fun flying a rc helicopter. A long time ago they were very small simple toys but today they are bigger, faster and better. Some of them are so sophisticated that they are practically the same as the life-size choppers. Here are some of the things that you can do with them today.

• Run battle simulations – This is one of the best ways to pass time with your friends if you all have toy choppers. You can come up with different situations in which you all go into battle with each other. Those who have more skill in handling their models will usually come out on top but there is also the intelligence factor. There are numerous situations that you can create to make sure that you do not get bored. One thing you have to do however is to make sure that you keep it safe. You do not want to hurt yourself or those around you. Do not damage your toy birds either.

• Race with friends – This is one of the most traditional ways to have fun with your remote control helicopter. Gather up friends and you can create a great obstacle course for you guys to race in. you can have prizes for winners and other fun things that come along with having a competition.

• Carry out construction simulations – Depending on the type of heli you bought, you can have great fun constructing various buildings or setups. You may have to buy a few things like the cranes to attach to your bird but it is all worth the hours of fun that you will get out of it.

• Shoot a movie/video – Today, sharing of movies has become such a great fad. In reaction to this, cameras are getting better and better yet smaller than they ever were. Depending on the size of camera and remote control helicopter that you have, you can today shoot a movie or just simple great videos for fun. Nowadays, even serious Hollywood professionals are taking advantage of this option when making their blockbusters. They can go in tiny spaces or at angles and heights that would be impractical with the life-size models.

• Run assembly competitions – Due to the fact that more and more people have become enthusiasts of these toy birds, another trend that is catching on is assembling them on your own. There are now competitions where you can bring and compete with other people on who can assemble a remote control helicopter the fastest. These are great events that churn out lots of cash and enjoyment for entire families.

• Go boat flying – Go onto a boat and fly your remote control helicopter over the water. The rocking of the boat creates a different situation to fly in. you also cannot just land anywhere so it improves your landing skills.

Kasubi Tombs Uganda – A Home Of Great Traditional Culture

The Kasubi tombs, traditionally known as Muzibu-Azaala-Mpanga, a religious place in the Buganda kingdom is located on a hill within Kampala-Uganda. The tombs are a burial place for the four previous Kings of Buganda known traditionally as Kabakas, and are situated five kilometers away from Kampala city center on Kasubi hill. Historically, Buganda Kabaka's have always built their palaces on strategic hills inorder to find easy ways to escape during an invasion and to control the major roads to the palace.

The Baganda belong to the Bantu speaking people, one of Uganda's ethnic groups. According to tradition, the first Kabaka of Buganda was Kintu who is said to have come with his wife Nambi. Kabaka Kintu is said not to have died but to have disappeared into a forest at Magonga.

The Kasubi tombs are one of the burial grounds / royal tombs of the Kabakas of Buganda, and the site is an example of traditional Ganda Architecture and living traditions. The palace was built by Kabaka Mutesa 1 in 1882 and according to culture, each king was supposedly to be buried at a separate site when he died and a royal shrine to house his jawbone which was believed to contain his spirit was to be established at another site. Mutesa 1 was the 35th King of Buganda (1856-1884) and the first king to be buried in his former palace (the Tombs) at Kasubi without removing his jawbone. Mwanga II who succeeded his father Mutesa in 1884 was the second king to be buried at the Tombs after his remains were brought back from exile (seychelles islands) in 1910. His son Daudi Chwa II succeeded him at the age of one year in 1896 and rule until his death in 1939. He too was buried in the Tombs. Daudi Chwa II was succeeded by his son Edward Mutesa II and the then governor of the Uganda protectorate. He died in 1966 in exile (London) and his remains were brought back and buried in the Tombs in 1971.

The Kasubi Tombs is an important Burial site for the Kabakas of Buganda because old traditions where broken at the site when the Kabakas were buried together. Each prince and princess who is a descendant of the four Kabakas is also buried at Kasubi behind the main shrine. The site is important as a cemetery of the royalty of the Buganda kingdom.

The tombs corporation of the Bujjabukula (Gatehouse) is a beautiful built gate, which is the entrance of the site. Its constructed with wooden columns and a wall made of wooden woven reeds.The gate leads to a small courtyard with a circular house-House of Royal drums (Ndoga-obukaba) where the drums are kept. In the main courtyard, there are several houses built for the widows of the kabakas and other ritual purposes.

At Kasubi and all other royal tombs, there is an area behind a back-cloth curtain known as kibira (forest) where the real Tombs of the kabakas are and where certain royal ceremonies are performed like the new moon ceremony and the consultations of the mediums . In front of the curtain, there are raised platforms corresponding to the position of each kabakas tomb behind the curtain.Entrance to the "Secret forest" is anly limited to the widows of the Kabakas, the royal family, the Buganda Prime-minister ( katikkiro) and the Nalinya (kabakas official sister).

The Kasubi Tombs are adorned with royal regalia like spears, drums, medals, photographs and shields of the kabakas buried there.The structure is supported by wooden poles wrapped in backcloth and the floor covered with grass and palm leaves mats. Backcloth traditionally popular for clothing is a fabric made from the soft back of a fig tree (Ficus natalensis) and has a strong ritual importance to the people of Uganda. Thatching of the roof is flown out by members of the Ngeye clan (colobus monkey clan) The ant decorators of the poles are from the Leopard clan, who are the only people allowed to do this work.Pregnant women and widows are not allowed to enter the building during its being thatched since this is believed to cause leakage. Similarly, the thatchers are not supposed to haver sexual intercourse during the thatching period.The great roof is supported by 52 rings, which represent the 52 clans in the Ganda culture.

The Baganda cultures can also be experienced at sites like Katereke prison where the king imprisoned his brothers in a trench. Naggalabi coronation site, Buddo where the kabakas of Buganda have been crowned for the past 700 years. Wamala Tomb the secret burial place of Kabaka Suuna II (1836-1856) who had 148 wives and 218 Children. Namasole Kanyange Tombs where the mother to Kabaka Suuna II was buried. Ssezibwa falls a spiritual place for the kings and Baagalayaze Nnamasole Tombs where the mother of Kabaka Mwanga II was buried.

The magnificent features of the Kasubi tombs represent the rich traditions and heritage of the Baganda people. People believe that every persons death has a spiritual origin and there is interaction between the living and the dead. The cultures of the Baganda lie in the Magnificent Tombs, where the bodies and spirits of their fore fathers, rulers and traditions lie to date.

If You Are a Bad Boy, You Can Date Hot Women

This is a common question, why is it that nice guys always finish last, while those jerks just got hooked up with many hot babes? Do you find that it is not fair?

Well, first of all, you need to understand how women feel. Women just love the excitement of a bad boy, and not that of a nice guy. The first reason is of course, women are not sure of themselves when they enter a relationship. Thus, they do not want to hurt a nice guy. This is why nice guys will always end up as a friend, or a best friend.

To a woman, when a guy is being considered as a friend, he will always be a friend, and can never upgrade to a boyfriend! That is just how women think, which is why women are sometimes emotional.

It is quite silly to see women crying their hearts over a jerk, but just ignore the nice guy whom is always there for her. The jerk just continues to flirt with women, while the nice guy simply sits alone at the bar, or if not, at home, feeling lonely and desperate.

And you need to know why a guy wants to be a bad guy, or why he becomes a bad guy.

And there is perhaps only one word to describe, self esteem.

Many books will tell you that self esteem is very important to a guy. This is definitely true in real life relationships!

You need to know why guys become jerks. Well, it is true that some guys are just born with that character, but most guys are not. Most guys just suffer from heart breaks time after time, and want to change their life.

As they look ahead, they see jerks being very popular with women, and that is the easy way out! Yes, that is the real reason why many guys become jerks. They simply do not want to be the same anymore, and do not like to bury themselves in the past poor relationships.

Thus, in fact, many men have lost their faith in love that they turn into bad guys.

Of course, there is a certain category of men who simply has low self-esteem. And they act like a jerk simply to cover up their emptiness. He is actually a man of no confidence, and acts like a bad guy so as to cover up his inferior self. As you know him over time, you will uncover his true self. He just uses his bad boy image as a weapon against all the women who turned him down.

And now, why do women go for bad boys?

Well, women just like to play the role of relationship therapists. By nature, women like to understand people, and like to disintegrate people to see their true self. And most women like to be known as the one who can change a bad boy into a nice guy.

Ultimately, women still go for nice guys, but they want to change a bad boy into a nice guy. Sounds complex right? That is perhaps why it is so difficult to understand why women go for guys who treat them badly.

Nice guys are just too predictable and too perfect. To a woman, there is nothing more to change, and being with a nice guy is just like drinking plain water, dull and boring. Eventually, women will be so bored that they look for other exciting bad boys.

So, can you see why guys want to be bad guys?

Anyway, a guy cannot be a bad guy forever, as women will find them useless, and ditch them anyway in the long run. For a guy to be attractive, he needs to be sweet and caring, and yet excludes a sense of mystery. If a woman sees everything of you, then she will not find you interesting anymore.

How to Become a Home Based Medical Coder

Home based medical coders are often self employed as independent contractors. This type of work falls somewhere between being an hourly employee and owning your own business.

An independent contractor is an individual who has contracted with a larger organization that provides work to the home based coder for an agreed upon payment. These independent contractors benefit by working from home, having a flexible schedule, and having a steady and reliable income without assuming the large overhead costs and liability that accompany small entrepreneurships.

The contract agreement entered by the home based medical coder and the organization should specify items like:

Number of Chart Provided/Coded


Accuracy Standards

Hardware and Software Responsibilities

The number of charts a coder can contract for may depend upon their coding specialty, experience, desired income, and time commitment.

Since rates vary by specialty it is important to know the industry standard for your specific specialty and if you fall within that specialty’s average.

The following is a loose projection home based medical coders can use when negotiating a rate in their contract:

Coding Specialist I:

45 inpatient records daily

2 min/chart or 250/day outpatient and ER records

3.5 min/chart or 130/day ambulatory surgery records

Coding Specialist II:

32 inpatient records daily

2 min/chart or 250/day outpatient and ER records

4 min/chart or 120/day ambulatory surgery records

Coder II:

23 inpatient records daily

3 min/chart or 160/day outpatient and ER records

6 min/chart or 80/day ambulatory surgery records

Coder I:

15 inpatient records daily

4 min/chart or 120/day outpatient and ER records

8 min/chart or 60/day ambulatory surgery records

Home based medical coders who choose to be independent contractors will also need to negotiate their rate of pay. Usually this is a flat rate that is agreed upon in the contract. This rate is then paid on a per chart basis.

Rates of pay are strongly influenced by things like geographical location, coding specialty, experience, and current economic variables. A home based medical coder can use the following as a loose guide to help them in their contract negotiations regarding rates of pay.

Professional Coding/Outpatient:.60 -.75 per chart

Facility Coding/Inpatient:.70 -.85 per. chart

Combination Coding/Both In and Outpatient:.90 – 1.50 per. chart

The rate of charts coded and the rate of pay are the two main influences affecting a home based medical coder’s income. It is important to properly calculate the chart commitment and pay rate and balance it with the amount of time needed to perform the task.

For instance, a medical coder who codes out patient charts may contract for 875 charts each week at a rate of.65 cent per chart. If the week’s commitment is divided by the standard rate of 25 chart per hour the medical coder will need to allot for 35 hours of work time each week (875/25=35). If the medical coder is paid.65 per chart then their weekly income will be $568.75 (875 x.65) and their “hourly” average will be $16.25 ($ 568.75 / 35 hrs).

To hold a profitable home based medical coding job speed and accuracy are of upmost importance. Speed will enable the medical coder to increase their pay and decrease their time commitment. It is possible to achieve “full time pay” working only 20 hours a week, but this takes time to achieve and it is important to remember to maintain accuracy as well.

Most organizations that contract with home based medical coders specify in the contract that the coder must maintain a specific accuracy standard. This standard is usually between 94% – 98% accuracy. Charts that are coded and submitted by the independent contractor are periodically audited to ensure they are being coded correctly. This audit is what produced the accuracy percentage. If accuracy is not maintained the organization may terminate the contract.

Benefits and taxes are other items a home based medical coder must consider prior to becoming an independent contractor.

Benefits such as medical, dental, 401K contributions, vacation, and paid time off are usually not provided since you are considered self employed. Contracting organizations usually do allow for their coder’s to take vacations and sick days, however, since these are usually unpaid they should be budgeted for in advance.

Taxes are also different for the independent contractor. The organization that the medical coder contracts with will usually send their payments out similar to a scheduled paycheck. These checks are paid in gross earning though.

It is the responsibility of the home based medical coder to withhold taxes from each check and set the money aside for payment to the government at the end of the year. When the end of the year arrives the organization will send the coder a 10-99 instead of a W-2 and when filing taxes the independent contractor should file a schedule 1040.

A schedule 1040 allows the home based medical coder to itemize and subtract some items such as medical coding books, computers, internet connections, office supplies, etc. as deductions. Keeping track of work related expenses is important and beneficial come tax time.

Items that are provided by the contracting organization may not be counted as a deduction though. What is provided by an organization and what the home based medical coder is responsible for varies from one organization to another.

Some organizations may provide the medical coding books while other organizations hold the medical coder responsible for their purchase. The most common practice among organization regarding independent medical coders though is to provide them with the medical coding software, a firewall, e-mail, and some technical support.

It is usually the responsibility of the home based medical coder to provide an adequate computer system, medical coding books, an internet connection, and day to day work supplies (paper, pens, etc.)

Technical support is usually limited to the organization’s software, firewall, and e-mail. Hardware failures, internet service interruptions, and items of that nature are usually the responsibility of the independent contractor.

Once a medical coder has informed themselves regarding all of the facts and they are prepared for the specific obligations that accompany home based medical coding and independent contracting they are ready to locate an organization that offers such opportunities.

If searching online avoid searching for phrases such as: “work at home medical coding jobs” and try searching for phrases like “remote medical coding jobs” and “independent contractor medical coding jobs”.

Companies like Avia Code, Med Data, and The Coding Network are just a few that hire home based medical coders as well.

Creative Ideas for Dried Flower Arrangements

Anybody can easily acquire the basic skills to do their own dry flower arrangement.

You do not have to be a professional florist to make your own beautiful dried floral arrangements.

Beautiful flowers are the central theme for almost every type of occasion that you can think of. They are beautiful in any situation, which includes fresh flowers as well, and properly dried flowers can last much longer as well. Nothing comes close to brightening up a bland room as placing a dried flower arrangement in it whether it is your home or office. Live fresh flowers can be decorated in any form, whereas dried flowers are a little more flexible since they can be made into table arrangements, swags, holiday wreaths and miscellaneous craft ideas. Furthermore, dried floral arrangements cost much less to buy as opposed to freshly cut flowers.

Think of a theme for the approach of your creation and you can easily create your own dried flowers masterpiece with a professional touch. For example, dried flower arrangements for wedding occasions call for more of the traditional centerpiece design as opposed to a wreath creation. A similar example is with silk flower arrangements.

You can begin by purchasing the appropriate dried flowers from your florist or create them yourself. This initial step is a crucial part of your overall floral arrangement project. You really need to pick flowers that dry properly such as marigold, globe amaranth, larkspur and roses. In regards to filler flowers, the most ideal choices are lavender, straw, yarrow, baby’s breath, and poppy pods. In regards to the types of leaves you can use, dried fern or eucalyptus at the best. The combination of all these components really depends on your own creative and personal decisions. However, be aware of the different color combinations to make sure everything matches in a proper manner.

Dried flower arrangements can be created by utilizing numerous techniques and forms. You just need to explore the depths of your imagination to come up with a magnificent and gorgeous piece of dried arrangements. Before you begin there are a few things you need to be aware of.

a) Dried flowers are very light so the container holding them should always be weighed down with gravel, sand or pebbles to provide stability.

b) When possible use wire cutters to shorten stems. They can also be lengthened by using long wooden picks.

c) Do not use bare stub wire in a type of arrangement.

d) Arrange the dried flowers in a natural looking manner.

e) If you are using clear or opaque containers try placing marbles, various pebbles, colourful shells, or layers of moss to hide the foam.

f) Pay attention to the size of the space in which the arrangement has to be placed so that you can pick the proper size and shape of the container to display it.

g) Use dried flowers and foliage of varying shapes, colors and textures for a more visually appealing creation.

h) Try to allow adequate space between the flowers to avoid a crowded effect.

i) Check to see if the different colors of the flowers are balanced in an even manner.

j) If you are planning to display it for a long period of time, dip the dried flower stems in a strong adhesive before inserting them into the foam for greater stability and permanence.

Now we can begin. Some great ideas for dried floral arrangements are as follows:

Dried Potpourri Arrangements

1) To produce a unique fragrance try adding a few drops of essential oil to the arrangement.

2) For the fixative you can use either ground or powdered but keep in mind that the ground is more suitable and powders tend to leave behind a film on the glass.

Dried Bouquet Arrangements

1) Stretch and lengthen the dried stems by attaching wires to each of the ends.

2) When choosing colors do not forget that dried flower colors will fade over time.

3) Choose simple, rather than complicated, color schemes.

4) Select container colors that are not overly bright and, if possible, try not to utilize containers with tiny openings.

5) The use of too many dominant flowers will be a detriment to your display so try to pick more filling material that is less distinct in shape and color than the central flower.

6) Put smaller dried flowers that are lighter near the top of the dried flower arrangement.

Dried Swag Arrangements

1) Cover the finished end with a ribbon or bow.

2) If a longer swag is required then try wiring 2 finished swags together.

3) A great tip for keeping swag looking fresh for a long period of time is to simply spray it with some strong hairspray.

Dried Wreath Arrangements

1) After the foliage dries try spraying the completed wreath with strong hairspray.

2) Tie a colorful bow over the area where you started and ended the wreath to cover the connection.

Dried Sachet Arrangements

1) Make sure the glue that you are using is hot.

2) When using the lace and the felt they need to be glued attractively from edge to edge.

3) The opening needs to be large enough to insert your chosen dried flowers.

Dried Flowers Table Arrangements

1) Add a piece of floral foam into the bottom of the container.

2) Cut the stems of the fillers, leaves and main centerpiece flowers.

3) Then add everything from top to bottom beginning with the leaves and then the fillers so that they are evenly distributed.

4) In the front of the arrangement the main flowers can be added.

5) To hold the dried flowers properly add beads and/or decorative stones.

Dried Blossoming Tree Arrangements

1) Insert a piece of floral foam into the container and use some adhesive to secure it to the base.   

2) Sort the branches based on length and insert them 1 by 1.

3) After completing the initial arrangement, pour some quick setting plaster into the container.

4) Wait until the plaster dries completely and then spread moss over it.

5) Simple glue can be used to stick small budding twigs into the sides of the larger main branches.

6) Keep inserting dried flowers until the whole arrangement has the appearance of a blossoming tree.

Regardless of which idea you choose, keep in mind that when placing the dried flower arrangements you need to look for an area that does not receive direct sunlight. Furthermore, ensure that the dry flower arrangement is not placed near a heated vent. Otherwise, your fabulous creation will have its colors begin to fade quickly and excess drying of the flowers within no time at all. As for maintenance of your dried floral arrangements, regular dusting with a feather duster is enough to keep them gorgeous for a long time.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Gas Air Compressors

Just like electric compressors, gas air compressors provide users the ability to use pneumatic tools at their work or at their home. The work is done very efficiently and instantly with both these highly able compressors. But, there are some apparent differences in both of them if one is thinking over which compressor to be bought.

Following are some pros and cons of a gas air compressor:

• A gas air compressor is similar to other compressors. It contains a place to attach air pipe/hose, has a gauge and valve to check and control the amount of pressure building in the tank and a tank for keeping the compressed air inside it. This shows the firs advantage of using a gas air compressor that there isn’t anything new or particularly difficulty in using it. So, if anyone has been using an electric one before then adjusting to gas air is easy.

• The second advantage is that using a gas air compressor provides portability. It is a very important factor for people who don’t have the luxury of electricity or generators to produce some at their sites. Gas compressor becomes vital for getting the work done in these sorts of places.

The disadvantages of using a gas air compressor include the requirement of gasoline to power the compressor.

Gas is highly combustible, is smelly and expensive. The people involved on the site have to take extreme caution with high quantity of gasoline present. But these cons can be covered by keeping a proper container for gasoline storage. Also, transfer of gas to compressor should be done through funnel and rag or cloth should be kept to clean any unnecessary spills. So, a gas compressor has more ups than downs and it’s a must when one requires work done without use of electricity.

Gas air compressors mechanically decrease the volume of a gas which in turn puts it under more pressure. They have many applications such as industrial, in the automobile industry and commercial uses. Two stage compressors are generally more reliable but portable ones can obviously be much more practical, especially where electricity is not available. There are many manufacturers catering to the air compressor market such as Ingersoll Rand who also make electric compressor. Whichever one suits you best, you are sure to find the best deals by searching online for the make and model you are interested in. Once you become familiar with your purchase you will find maintenance headache free.

What is That Noise? Automotive Sounds and How to Locate Them

Picture yourself riding through the desert and suddenly you hear a noise emanating from your car you never heard before. “What the heck is that noise?” you ask yourself over and over, or “Am I hearing it or imagining it?” Then you grapple with whether or not you should continue on to the nearest service station or stop the car to prevent any further damage. Without the proper knowledge to make this important decision, drivers may find themselves taking on a lot of stress at a very inconvenient time.

One of the things most car owners don’t realize is that cars, like people, can have many types of issues with them. As well, they make many different types of sounds, running well or not so well! The informed car owner can make a better decision on whether to seek the help of an automotive expert with simple diagnostic tests, using simple tools (or even no tools) and a bit of knowledge to assist them with this decision, lending them peace of mind along the way. In this article, I hope to offer you insight to some of this knowledge. After reading, you may find yourself thinking on a more simple level when dealing with your car’s issues.

Cars have the potential to make a wide range of sounds: clicks, ticks, pings, bangs and pops. Some are more serious than others. If that noise is driving you batty and you aren’t near a mechanic, pull the car safely to the side, taking all safety precautions into account. While still in the car and the car running, listen to see if your car is still making the noise. If it is, the sound is most likely related to the engine in some way. If not, then it is more likely the rest of the car. Either way, we have isolated the noise into two areas of importance, moving or not moving.

Let’s assume we can still hear the noise with the car running but motionless. We can further isolate the noise by simply walking around the vehicle once or twice listening for the sound and where you can hear it the loudest or most frequently.

Even though, in most cars, the engine is located in the front of the car, the engine’s exhaust travels the length of the vehicle so anywhere along that system, noises can be created through defect or vibration. The further to the rear you find the noise, the less serious the problem. A general rule of thumb for today’s front-wheel drive vehicles is any noise from the driver’s door to the back of the car (while the car is motionless) would not hinder you from driving to a service station, or home.

The noises you could expect to hear coming from an exhaust that has a hole or crack leaking exhaust somewhere throughout the system would sound both low-pitched and high pitched simultaneously, sounding similar to a snare-drum with a bit of a thump at the same time in a repetitive pulse (due to the opening and closing of the exhaust valves in the engine). If you looked under the car where the leak was emanating from it would be more pronounced. You can drive home, but get it fixed. Leaky exhausts only get worse and can diminish your vehicle’s fuel efficiency and performance, depending on the location of the leak.

If the noise is still in this area but is more of an occasional noise with a pinging, clang, or pop, then it might not be a leak. Clangs and pings are often related to cool or cooling tins that run along the exhaust system and between it and the floor of the car to keep those areas of the car from getting hot. They can ping just from the increase/decrease in temperature but a loose tin will also ping and/or bang. Again, this is not an emergency but not something that should not be left to further deterioration if you can help it. A popping sound coming from your car’s tailpipe is a signal that something isn’t exactly right with the engine. It could mean the car needs a tune-up; a sensor might not be working properly, and so on. Most of this is negligible and you can survive the drive to a service station but again, nothing to ignore. Allowing your engine to burn fuel improperly over a long period can cause damage to your engine’s components which can lead to significant repair expenditures.

So, let’s say that behind the front doors the sound diminishes and it seems most apparent toward the front. You’d move around and try to determine what side of the car as well as whether the noise came from the very front of the car or more toward the windshield. Most front-wheel drive cars have the engine belts and pulleys on the passenger side of the car with the transmission/transaxle on the driver’s side. Knowing this, you should hear more noise on the passenger side even in a new car, but it is a peculiar sound that you seek.

With all that noise coming from such a crowded area, what can you do to pin it down? First, be safe and absolutely certain you don’t have hair, jewelry, or clothing dangling into the engine compartment while it is running, the dangers are real when dealing with the belts and pulleys which usually are not covered very well! Once you have made sure you are clear to peer in, do so listening closely as you move along the engine compartment.

Still having trouble pinning it down? Do you have a newspaper handy, a folder; maybe you have a funnel in your trunk? Maybe you are getting the idea…something you can roll up to make a cone or megaphone shape. This will make a great listening device in a pinch. By pointing the wide opening toward the area of the sound and listening at the small end your ear will lead you into a rough area of the sound. Once you have found it you can flip the megaphone around and trace the entirety of the roughly defined area, with the small opening, to pin-point the offending component or location. This will give you great satisfaction, if nothing else that you have a rough idea what is going on with your car. This would also greatly aid a mechanic in confirming the problem, so you could save yourself a big repair bill and, give you peace of mind.

A variety of sounds can come from under the hood, some of which are listed below. Keep a list with you in your glove box so you can reference them:

-Ticking – Typically, low oil can result in a constant tick, tick, tick in rapid succession – Location: This noise is normally on the top of the engine unless your engine is a V-6 or V8 in which case, on front-wheel drive vehicles, it would be front or back of the engine. Trucks and rear-drive cars with V-type engines would have the noise on the left and right sides. Diagnosis & Prognosis: Check oil level and replace what is lost, if it is low. If it persists, consult your service professional. The actual ticking sound is from a lack of lubricant at the lifter/valve stem, rocker arm, push-rods (if equipped) and camshaft causing a slight delay in the spring return or the actual pushing movement resulting in a slight gap in the contact of a few of these components causing them to tap (or tick) against each other. Other sources of “tick”: Normal operation of A/C compressor (occasional tick or clack); Debris in electric fan, clear debris with engine and fan off (allow to cool prior to cleaning); Exhaust leak at engine, seek professional help but you are OK to drive.

-Squealing – Engine belts are considered a wear item. This is because they are attached to moving components (pulleys) and suffer a fair amount of friction over time. They also dry out and crack under heavy use or being left to the elements, particularly in dry states like Arizona. Location: Passenger side of engine compartment on FWD cars and Front of engine compartment on RWD cars and trucks. Diagnosis & Prognosis: Harder to pin-point to a small point with a makeshift megaphone. Shut off car and look to see if there are indeed cracks on the belt(s)…you can check by depressing the belt and looking for cracks as it flexes. If you can see cracks with or without this action then you should plan for a replacement immediately. Once confirmed, make an appointment with your service professional. An unusually dry belt can squeal for no other reason, for this you can buy a spray can of Belt Dressing to mitigate the noise. It helps to condition the belt for better grip. Other sources of a squeal: Or squelching would be low power steering pump fluid level, check and fill as needed, PS pumps can fail and cause a great deal of squelching. Seek a professional if you believe this is the cause; Water pumps have a bearing that can get worn and squeal, seek a professional; Idler pulley or wheel bearing, seek professional.

-Pinging and knocking – This can have a few sources but usually have to do with your ignition and fuel system. It could be as simple as the quality of fuel you pumped in the tank or an engine in need of a tune-up which is sometimes referred to as pre-ignition. This can happen from poor maintenance schedules or filling up at the wrong fuel station. Diagnosis & Prognosis: Start by fueling at another location. If the problem persists make an appointment for a tune-up (new spark plugs, air filters, etc.) and run a fuel injection cleaner fuel additive through your engine. In most cases, this will clear it up. Other sources of pinging and/or knocking: Poorly functioning EGR or computer sensors, seek a professional. Sometimes a clanging sound in the engine cannot be pin-pointed and this could be connecting rod bearings. This is significant and should be seen by a professional before serious damage to your engine occurs.

-Gurgling – 99 times out of 100 this is due to the cooling system not doing its job. Boiling coolant could be heard from the coolant reservoir and even through the hoses. Diagnosis & Prognosis: Be safe; NEVER remove the radiator cap or reservoir cap when the engine is hot. Allow engine to cool and check the reservoir’s level indicator to give you an idea if you need coolant. Add as needed. If there appears to be plenty, then there is a high likelihood that your thermostat is not operating as it should. One obvious indication of this is that your heater may not heat like it used to or maybe not at all. An inoperable electric fan while in heavy traffic can also cause the temperature to soar. Seek a professional for any of these repairs as needed.

Are there other areas of odd noises? Absolutely, maybe you hear noises when you turn on your heater fan. A mouse could have stashed some debris in your auto’s vent ducts. You may hear a squelch which may be the blower belt slipping due possibly to a bad bearing attached to the blower/electric motor. And while we are in the car, maybe you hear a noise as you drive, it could be something as simple as a door slightly ajar or a window open just a touch.

If the noises are heard only while the car or truck is in motion then you could be dealing with suspension or steering abnormalities (clunks, banks and pops) or possibly drive train issues such as bearings (grinding and vibration). Brakes will also make plenty of noise when they are going bad (screeching = built-in pad wear indicator), already bad (grinding when brakes applied = pad level significant with metal to metal contact) but also if brand new (slight squeak or squeal when vehicle is in motion = metallic/semi-metallic brake pads are guilty of this and is a result of a small burr or fragment hanging away from pads rubbing on the brake rotor. This is a defect of the design, not of the pads and is normal and not considered alarming. However, as with any noise you have any doubt about, check with a professional for advice, especially when it comes to brakes, steering and suspension.

Although there are many noises a car can make over its lifetime, hopefully this will give you an idea of some of them, and help you decide whether you should continue your journey of a trip to the store or a day away business commute.

The Windshield Replacement Survival Guide – Consumer Auto Glass Education

Replacing Your Vehicle’s Windshield? Here is Your Windshield Replacement Survival Guide.

Safety First

A vehicles windshield provides the occupants a barrier from road debris and the outside elements. But most people don’t know a windshield is designed for structural safety in case of an accident, especially a rollover. A windshield is a vehicles third most important safety feature behind the seat belts, and air bags.

Windshields are like basketball backboards for air bags. So if you have a damaged windshield your air bag may not function correctly. It actually may inflate out the windshield cavity, rather than towards you. Or it won’t adsorb any pressure because your windshield simply pushes out.

Most consumers are not aware that when technicians replace your windshield, there is significant scratching to the “pinchweld” where the glass bonds to the car. These scratches must be prepped using paint and rust prevention steps. They should not simply leave exposed scratches where moisture from the exterior side can cause rust to develop.

Here are some questions you should ask your auto glass company:

  • Is the new glass OEM?
  • Did they remove the brand label on the windshield?
  • Does the new glass have a shade band that matches your old glass?
  • Is the new windshield the same color glass? (glass is actually colored, not clear)
  • Does your windshield have a rain sensor?
  • Is your windshield heated? (companies will install non-heated and charge for heated)
  • Does the windshield have the right bracket for your rear view mirror?
  • Does the new windshield have the same third visor as your old glass? (the painted black design which you can see around the rear view mirror on most cars)
  • Are they using a universal trim molding, or the actual trim molding part for your vehicle?
  • Does the company pay to fix paint scratches, if made by the auto glass technician?

Always inspect a piece of glass for scratches and distortion before it’s installed.

Types of Automotive Glass

A windshield is actually two layers of glass with a laminate material between the layers, what is called “laminated glass”. Laminated glass is extremely hard to puncture or break apart. That’s why a large object like a stunt man, can impact the windshield without breaking through. The strength of laminated glass combined with proper adhesion of the windshield to the body of the car provides massive strength against the roof collapsing in a rollover.

All of the other windows in your vehicle are “tempered glass”, which means they break into tiny fragments to reduce injury to the occupants. (a small fraction of vehicles have laminated side and rear windows also)

Windshield Urethane

Today’s vehicles use urethane as the adhesive to bond the windshield to the vehicle, like a glue. Some urethane after complete hardening which can take 2-4 weeks, can hold 500 pounds per square inch of pressure. That’s one reason why you could never simply push your windshield out. Impossible! Some urethane allows you to drive away within one hour after installing the windshield, hardening just enough to withstand vehicle accidents. When your replacement has been completed, make sure to inspect the inside of your vehicle around the edge of the glass. Make sure no urethane has oozed out into view or onto your vehicles interior. This is more common then people realize and needs to be fixed immediately before the glue hardens!

The urethane is normally heated, then applied to the glass or car body at the raised temperature. Depending on where you live or the application, they can use different kinds of urethane, even a cold temperature apply that is not heated. Temperature has a huge impact on the adhesion qualities of the windshield. I would recommend never getting your windshield replaced in temperatures lower than 55 degrees, or higher than 105 for the best results if possible. This is easy if you have the glass replaced inside of a shop or in a shaded area. Direct sunlight can heat the windshield to over 125 degrees!

Urethane does have an expiration date, so make sure you ask about this before a technician begins replacing your vehicle glass. Using expired urethane means minimal bonding power and the windshield has a chance of coming out during an impact. All urethane is made with an expiration date printed on the tubes, and if they don’t call someone else!

Paint Scratches, Rust, and Proper Windshield Installation

Deep vehicle scratches can turn into major problems later. Moisture will enter through a scratch and attack your vehicles body causing rust later. For people who live by the ocean, this can be disastrous for the structural integrity of your vehicle down the road near the windshield. If you are buying a used vehicle, make sure you check around the edge of the glass and under the trim molding for evidence of rust. Rust will spread under your paint, it is amazingly aggressive.

If the rust spreads to the “pinch weld” which is where the urethane is placed, the urethane will not bond and a windshield will leak or can even be pushed out. This can cause thousands of dollars in damage from water leaks or can even can cause death in an accident! If the rust moves into this area the technician must remove it before applying the urethane, or the vehicle must be sent to a body shop for repair.

Make sure the technician takes steps to prep and repair scratches to the pichweld. There is primer paints, metal rust prep chemicals, and other ways to cover scratches to reduce the appearance or spread of rust. The most important areas are where water will contact your vehicles body, especially under the exterior trim molding. That trim is not water sealed between the body and glass. The water seal comes from the urethane bead.

It is very important that you watch the installation of your vehicle glass if possible, DO NOT just walk away. If a professional technician can not perform the job while you watch, they shouldn’t be working on your vehicle and call someone else. A technician can cause significant paint scratching to your exterior paint job with improper techniques. Some even use nail polish or paint to hide the damage. Some even rub dirt into the scratch to make it look old! Ensure that the technician is using vehicle protective equipment like seat covers, floor mats, tape on the car body where it’s close to the glass, and a protective mat over your hood.

Make sure the technician removes body parts like windshield wiper arms and the cowling (located beneath the wipers) are removed, if the glass edge is covered by these parts. Most technicians will simply shoot a ton of urethane under the cowling area and “stuff” the glass, sliding it into the glue and under the cowling. This is extremely unsafe! A technician doesn’t even know if the urethane has created a proper seal, or if it is bonded safely. A proper windshield installation requires that the glass be place straight down onto the urethane bead. Also this ensures the urethane is not shot all over parts beneath the cowling like wiper assemblies and wiring.

OEM Windshields and OEM Equivalents

OEM means, original equipment manufacturer. So if your vehicle is a Honda Civic, OEM glass would be purchased from a Honda Vehicle Dealer. Auto glass installers can simply order OEM glass from the dealer. Make sure the glass has the OEM label. The windshield label which is about a square inch in size, normally is located in the lower corners of the glass. Sometimes OEM glass says the actual glass manufacturer rather than the Car Dealer name. Call your local dealer on what to look for.

A lot of auto glass companies will tell you they are installing the “OEM Equivalent” part. Because consumers don’t know what to look for, most times a glass with no label or an aftermarket part is used. Do not buy a glass when the label has been etched or removed. No one knows where it came from! Always check the label.

The only scenario in which you may find an equivalent glass, is purchasing a windshield produced by the same manufacturer which produced the OEM glass. It may even be from the same production line and mold from the OEM manufacturing!

Aftermarket Automotive Windshields

Do not be fooled into thinking an aftermarket windshield is the same as an OEM glass. Aftermarket windshields are made using reverse engineering instead of the original OEM mold and production line.

Aftermarket glass tends to have more visible light distortion when viewing the glass at an angle, and the dimensions are not exactly the same as an OEM. All glass that is bent has some level distortion yes, but it is considerably worse with aftermarket manufacturing. You may even see distortion when looking straight through aftermarket glass.

Aftermarket glass is transported through different processes than OEM glass from a dealer. A lot of OEM glass is transported covered by plastic wrapping and using strict shipping techniques, and the windshield’s edges are protected by foam wrapping. But Aftermarket glass is transported by much different practices. Most auto glass companies use no protection covering all surfaces of the glass for transport. And sometimes pieces of glass have been taken to customers locations and returned to the distributor or shop. So aftermarket glass has been handled many times!

Now I’m not saying aftermarket glass is unsafe or unfit to use at all. I’m simply stating the facts about the truth, for your education and insight. I feel you should be educated about this part of your vehicle which essentially protects your family on a regular basis.

Rain Sensors and Other Accessory Plugs Such as Heated Glass

If your vehicle has a rain sensor it should be located near the rear view mirror. A lot of times it looks like a circle, square or triangle. This option allows the windshield wipers to speed up or slow down depending on the amount of rain automatically. Make sure you get the same designed glass. If the rain sensor involves a gel patch, make sure the technician does not leave lots of air bubbles when installing it. Those air bubbles can cause the sensor to malfunction.

Some vehicles like a Land Rover, have plugs located under the interior a-pillar trim. On some convertibles like a newer Ford Thunderbird, a large portion of the interior may need to be diss-assembled to remove the interior a-pillar trim. On the Honda Ridgeline, the heater plug is located behind the glove box. Some new vehicles also have Lane Departure sensors located near the rear view mirror.

You can always find out what you need by calling your local dealer and giving them your VIN Identification number from your vehicle. If your car is important to you and you want to maintain the investment, always call your local dealer and ask for advice about your specific vehicle.

Windshield Shade Bands and Windshield Color

All auto glass has a shaded color. No windshields are completely clear. Typical shading colors are blue, green, bronze, and grey. Be sure sure to get the same color. You will see that all pieces of glass in your vehicle are the same color, excluding privacy glass and tinting.

A windshield may have a shade band across the top near the roof of the vehicle. This area is preferential. You should decide if you like it or not. It does tend to hide the edge of the interiors headliner when looking at the vehicle from the exterior. Shade bands do come in different colors but not all windshields

Most windshields can be ordered without a shade band at all. But you may find the part is actually more expensive because less people order it. Having a shade band does provide some shading in between your sun visors but it does little to drastically shade the sun. Take note the shade band will be darker at night.

Exterior Trim and Moldings

Your vehicle may have exterior trim or moldings cover the edge of the glass and/or covering the edge the car body. If the trim molding is just rubber, make sure you know what the technician is using to replace it. Some companies are now requiring that technicians use only a universal type aftermarket molding, rather than one that is specifically designed for your car. There should also be an OEM molding part available which is exactly the same as your original molding. Do note that cost for OEM is always more.

You may see plastic and/or metal trim moldings covering the edge of your windshield on the exterior. Normally these have some type of plastic or metal clips that attach them to the glass or vehicles body. Make sure the company replaces any broken clips or parts from removal of these parts. If your vehicle is older than 3 years, these parts become very brittle and damage easy. You may be warned about parts that always break, in which the company may request you also purchase that part ahead of time. You may find a lot of companies simply glue those parts back into place, rather than replacing the broken parts.

Vehicle Windshield Logo and VIN Window

On vehicles like a Ford Mustang and Ford F150, you may have a logo in the third visor above the rear view mirror. These windshields can be ordered with out the logo and are cheaper that way. Make sure you ask about your options.

Most windshields have a small narrow window for viewing of the VIN identification number near the lower drivers side portion of the glass. Make sure this window is in the right location on the glass. When the job is completed, make sure that glue has not covered the VIN, the VIN number plate has not been cut off, or that it has not been badly damaged. Police or the DMV will give you a hard time if the number is not legible or is completely missing from that location.

Create a Joomla Hidden Page – A How to Guide

There are many reasons why you would want to create a hidden page in Joomla but unfortunately within the Joomla administration there are no simple ways of figuring it out. Learn why you may want to create a hidden page in Joomla and how to easily create links to those pages.

The main reason you may wish to create a hidden page in Joomla is for subscriber thank you pages that work along your mailing list provider software. When you set up your mailing list, whether it is with Aweber, Constant Contact, GetResponse or any other mailing list provider, you will want to customize certain pages with the look and feel of your website rather that using the mailing list default pages. This will give your mailing list sign up process a more professional and streamline look and feel to it.

Another reason may be that you are holding a special event just for your subscribers or are offering extra discounts for your joint venture partners and want to create a hidden page that your normal website visitors can not find. Having a hidden page, so long as you do not link to it from any other source apart from an email, will mean that the search engines will not pick up the hidden page either.

No matter what the reason, creating a hidden page in Joomla is very simple to set up.

The first thing you need to do when creating your hidden page is to create a new article in your Joomla Article Manager. Put whatever information you want those who land on your page to see and once you are finished, save it. Once you have saved it and your screen should now be showing a list of all the articles you have written. Find your newly written article and check the article id number which will appear on the far right hand side column under the column heading ID. Take a note of this number.

Next you need to go to your menu manager and create a new menu called "hidden". It is easier to set it up like this so that you can keep track of all your hidden pages. Once you have set up your hidden menu, you need to link the article you have just written to a new menu item within this newly created hidden menu. After attaching the article to a menu item, take down the id number of the menu item as you will need this later. It will appear on the far right hand column under the column heading ItemID.

Finally, the piece of code that you need to help your visitors find this page is:


Replace the xx of the article & id with the id number of the article you have written (ID) and replace the yy of the Itemid with the menu id number (ItemID). It is always a good idea to test that it has worked by placing the completed code into your browser.

Remember to keep this piece of code in a safe place for the next time you want to create a hidden page.

How Has Mythology Shaped Society?

From the dawn of time, people from all countries have invented their own deities and myths. These legends were often handed down from one generation to the next, until the invention of the written word. Once the written word was invented, it was far easier for people to keep record of their deities and the many heroes that went on quests, and mythology involved into something far more interesting and personal for all societies. Gods gained their own personalities and agendas, heroes went off on epic quests, and from the mind of the authors, entire worlds were invented. Myth and legend had been tied in to life back in the days of yore, and to this day, it still plays a very important role in society.

The days of the week are in fact named after the Norse gods, each of whom had a day dedicated to them, even though there are not many people today who are aware of it. The creatures that modern society has come to love, such as dragons, werewolves, faeries and even vampires all originated from multiple legends and myths. Mythology has also played a role in politics and even some of the spoken phrases that we use. Many video games and movies owe their back stories to creatures or figures that have come straight out of ancient texts.

Religion even sprang forth from legends. People needed to believe that there was someone, some omnipotent beings, that created the world and everything within it. Therefore, the gods were born. Our modern religions all have very close similarities to the deities invented by ancient cultures. Though it has evolved in the same manner that all thoughts and dreams do, our religions all contain somewhat modern twists on ancient mythology.

We have even named our vehicles, some of our cities, planets, plants, animals and a few bodies of water after mythological creatures or deities. Pets are commonly named after mythological gods, and that trend has also began to affect how we name our children. Even some of our more commonly used words such as “satire” are simply re-spellings of words taken out of mythological texts. Some musicians include mythological references in their song lyrics or titles, and we still teach ancient religion in school. Though most people probably do not realize it, society is actually very heavily influenced by ancient society and the legends that were created and passed down for thousands of years.

The Definition of Green

The word “Green” is not the omni-term for anything environmental although there is the tendency to substitute the word “Green” for “Environmental.” Environmentalism is to grand topic that has several subdivisions. Under this grand topic o environmentalism, we will find Green, Sustainable, Pollution, and Conservation. Each one of these subdivisions are immense subject on their own.

In the mash-up of words and concepts, we have lost the fundamental meaning of Green. Environmental, Green, or Sustainable now blur into that ugly green color that we made in kindergarten when we slurred all the colors into one big blob. We cannot progress when confusion reigns, and every science starts out with a definition of terms.

The best definition of Green refers to the health impact of what we do on living things. So Green is primarily a health-related issue. This is seen in the fact that cleaning products were the early Green issues. In fact, indoor air quality is a big factor in Green buildings. Sick building syndrome was the result of poor indoor air quality, which is the antithesis of Green.

Sustainability is also badly morphed into many applications, but essentially deals with the management of our resources. This is a complimentary issue to Green, so it a Green and Sustainable business means that the company considers the health of the workplace as well as the material demands of the business.

The health of the workplace can be impacted by cleaning products, building materials, furniture, as well as paint and carpeting. “Outgassing” is a well documented concern. The installation of new carpet, new furniture, new paint, and new wood leave residual fumes as these items continue to dry out. Your senses will betray you because we think that anything new is clean and healthy, but that is a huge mistake. The varnishes and additives to paint, carpet glue, and wood fall under the category of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) that are not good for you. If your health is comprised, these fumes can worsen your condition and hasten disease. If you are healthy, the long term exposure will wear you down in time.

Think of the dust that is recirculated that contains bacteria, virus, dust mite feces and scales, carbon from the copies, and so much more. It is a wonder that we aren’t sick all the time except that we are generally healthy and able to live in hostile environments for a long time.

The people who are supposed to help clean our facilities and protect our health through sanitizing processes are the janitors, but clean does not mean healthy. The ammonia in the window spray is harmful, the zinc in the floor finish is bad for humans, the numerous chemicals in the cleansers add to a worsening situation.

Mold is a persistent problem for many buildings. The mold spores are never good for the workers, and can become a crisis concern if untreated. Latent issues remain the in the HVAC system as well. It is fair to say that the air of any building is a kind of “Ground Zero” for any office or business. If the employees are negatively impacted, productivity will fall. Afternoon headache, occasional nausea, and lethargy can be signs of an unhealthy indoor air quality. So, while your building may be energy efficient, and you may be conserving water as well as recycling your trash (sustainability issues), the building may be very un-Green because it is unhealthy.

The Green Business League believes that a Green office starts with an understanding of the healthy office and a serious look at the components that compromise indoor air quality. Consider using a Green certified janitorial service that also uses Green cleaning products, microfiber cloths, and HEPA vacuums. Do not let mold go untreated. Be mindful of all paint, carpet, and furniture used in the facility because they introduce a large volume of gases into the air.

Green is a primarily a health-related issue that blends into the other topics of sustainability, pollution control, and conservation. By dividing out the topics properly, the plan of attack seem much more clear. To attack the issue in a methodic manner, businesses should considering “Going Green” first then moving into the sustainable issues. The early disdain for the word Green comes from the anti-business attitudes of ultra-conservationists that needed a target for their vitriol. Green is not an anti-business concept when properly understood. A Green business is one that is a good place for living things in the workplace, in the community, and in the world.

Handcrafted Vs Handmade

No matter how hard I searched I could not find a definitive answer to the never ending debate "Handmade vs. Handcrafted". If you're into any aspect of art or crafting I can almost guarantee you've had this discussion before one form or another. So what do the experts say?

The American Heritage Dictionary defines "Handmade" as; made or prepared by hand rather than machine. It's definition of "Handcrafted"; to fashion or make by hand.

Merriam Webster:

Handmade; made by hand or by a hand process. Handcrafted; to fashion by handicraft. Handicraft;

1: a: manual skill b: an occupation requiring skill with the hands

2: the articles fashioned by those engaged in handicraft.


Handmade; made by hand or a hand process

Handcrafted; A work produced by hand labor

Almost every definition was identical. For fun I got out my old dusty Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary published in 1963 to see what they had to say 45 years ago. I was not surprised to see there was not much of a difference. Handmade; made by hand or a hand process. Handcraft; to fashion by handicraft. Handicraft; 1a: manual skill. b: an occupation requiring a skill with the hands.

Lastly I tried to find a more modern definition so I tried Wikipedia. Handmade; means something made by hand, rather than by a machine.
Much to my surprise the word handcrafted came up with "No article title matches". Tried "What is handcrafted" only to come up with a ton of ad's for people describing handcrafted (as they see it) items for sale.

After several hours of research I gave up. I guess I'm going to have to give you my narrative of handcrafted vs. handmade and let you decide which classification to choose.

Since most agree that "handmade" is a process of making something by hand, does it mean entirely by hand or the process of putting something together using your hands? Reading the definitions I found, it means just about the same thing.

So you receive a jigsaw puzzle for your birthday and put it together using your hands. Did you handcraft the puzzle or was the puzzle handmade by you? What if you actually drew out a picture, cut it up into hundreds of pieces then put it back together again, is it handmade or handcrafted? You actually made the puzzle did not you?

In an article I wrote Art vs. Crafts I mentioned the definition for "Artisan"; "also called a" craftsman; skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. "An interesting interpretation on the subject.

If you were presented with a kit to make a bracelet and did, I believe your bracelet would fall under the category "handcrafted". You used your skills and put together something that was pre-fabricated.

Using the same analogy if you were to use the same kit and produce something other than a bracelet, or enhanced the bracelet using the parts in a different manner than described or instructed, then you still have "handcrafted". If you were to actually make and add additional parts or assemble the kit in a different manner, then I would say it's still "handcrafted".

I believe this because I purchase and use prefabricated items for the creation of the items I design jewelry or otherwise. I may purchase jewelry findings or artisan-made beads to enhance or complete a piece of jewelry I design and make. How I used the finds, where I put them, and the ability to design the jewelry around the findings I use, I call handcrafted. Is this bad, no. Either way, I used my hands and my mind (what matters most) in the creation of a particular item. And yes, I use a variety of tools to help me in the process.

As much as I'd hate to admit it, I think "handmade" should refer to items which are exclusively made from wholly raw materials. If you raise the sheep, process the wool, then weave it by hand into a rug, I'd consider that "handmade". But wait, you need tools to weave a rug do not you? So does that knock it out of the handmade category? What if you use a machine in the process? But what if you built that machine yourself? Is your rug handmade or handcrafted? Oh my gosh, this is too much informational overload to process.

I work with natural materials in a different art medium; gourds They are a natural material. I grow them, dry them, clean them, sand, carve, inlay, embellish, paint and finish them in different manners. I still consider them handcrafted rather than handmade because I did not make the gourd itself. I simply used something and added to it using my hands and imaginative ability. I use my ability to craft something out of an existing item.

Is there an answer to the difference between handcrafted and handmade? I've considered which classification to add my own work to several times as I wrote this article. Which sounds better, handcrafted or handmade? Would it make a difference to you if you were given the opportunity to purchase an exact duplicate item; one marked handcrafted and the other handmade? Would you care so long as you knew someone used their hands to create the item? Does it boil down to keywords used in searching Google or Yahoo as to which you buy? Or are you going to purchase something you like? That's the ultimate question.

The line I have to draw between handcrafted and handmade is the mass produced machine made items being classified as handmade only because someone had to turn the switch from on to off to start the process.

This debate will go on for years well beyond our time. It truly does not matter. You'll do a search for "handmade" first then proceed to "handcrafted" thinking you'll get a better result or the exact opposite. Either way, what you'll get is items which are made by someone using their hands. Someone who has put their heart and soul into the product hiring someone out there will appreciate their work and purchase the item.

Do not limit yourself because of what I or anyone else says. Handcrafted, handmade is the same. If you like it, appreciate it, and it makes you happy, by all means purchase it. After all, it was made by hand for someone special; you.

Best Chigger Treatment For Houses and Yards

Chigger treatment for home and yards may not be a thing most folks give much thought to. But fact of the matter is, many homes and yards are have a chigger problem.

The sad fact is if a house is a dive for chiggers it is probably the occupants very own fault. Not to point fingers. But who lives there?

Maybe before we go to finding a chigger treatment for the house, we should find how chiggers got there in the first place. If the source is not uncovered it will do little good to find a treatment.

Chiggers find their way into the house primarily because someone or something invited them in. That would be you and/or your indoor/outdoor pet.

The last time you came in from the woods did you just come into the house and plunk down that nice comfy couch or the big easy chair? What were you worried about all the time you were out there? Chiggers. Right.

Chiggers get knocked off onto furniture and the carpet when outside travelers go indoors.

If there are house plants chiggers may migrate to them and set up camp in them.

Now there are chiggers on the easy chair, on the couch, on the bed, in the carpet and headed for the all of those lovely house plants.

The best chigger treatment for the home is:

#1. Dogs and cats stay out doors unless they have been decontaminated

#2. All clothing is removed in the bathroom immediately if not sooner

#3. All exposed clothing is immediately put into the washing machine to be washed in hot, soapy water

#4. Any furniture or carpeting exposed must be steam cleaned

#5. Any house plants must be moved outdoors for a minimum of three weeks

#7. House plants must be treated with an insect killer or sprayed with a combination of diluted dish soap and vegetable oil(4 tablespoons of dish soap and 4 teaspoons of vegetable oil per gallon of water)or diluted Safe Solutions, Inc. Enzyme Cleaner with Peppermint(1 – 2 oz. per gallon of water).

Repeat every week for 3 weeks and before returning plants to house.

#6. All bedding must be laundered in hot soapy water if it has been exposed

The best chigger treatment for the yard.

Keep all grass mowed and the weeds and bushes or brush trimmed back from any pathways. All brush and leave piles must be disposed of.

To help keep chiggers at bay spray the use areas with an insect repellent or spray with the plant spray for three weeks the same as the house plants.

Chiggers may come


Chiggers may go

Chigger bites from hell

Chigger bites go on and on

Chigger treatment come fast

Chigger treatment relieve the itch

Chiggers will never die out