On Studies: A Review

The essay ‘On studies’, by Samuel Johnson was first published in The Adventurer in 1753. It was an effort by the author to introduce to his audience the importance of reading, writing and conversation in the make up of an individual’s personality. The main argument focused on the reference from Bacon which states that: “reading makes a full man, conversation a ready man, and writing an exact man.”

The structure of the essay is simple and organized, with mostly small paragraphs often starting with a topic sentence. However, the sentence structure remains complex throughout the essay. The sentences are very long, with extensive use of strong vocabulary. This not only depicts that the author is very learned, but also that he is trying to create an impression upon the readers. The steady flow of ideas is evident in the writing, as the author talks about reading, writing and conversation, one after the other. This helps the reader into a better understanding of the point of view of the author. The tone of the essay is serious, and also critical at some points, as the writer criticizes the behavior of the intellects and learned people. The author adopts a very evocative way of writing the essay. The overall impact of rhetoric in the essay is persuasive and convincing to the readers.

From the very first paragraph of the essay it is quite evident that the author is being critical of his contemporaries. He does regard them as ‘ingenious’, but suggests them to be considerate about the significance of reading, and the value of considering others opinions and ideas. He is in a way advising his contemporaries to acknowledge the work of earlier people and learn from it, rather than having a stiff approach towards them. An interesting phenomenon to be noticed here is that the author provides a self-example, of following the work of predecessors, as he is referring to Francis Bacon. It can also be interpreted that Samuel Johnson considers Bacon as his role model, as in the essay he justifies the need of reading, writing and conversation among the people, as stated by Bacon. As indicated by the essay text the target audience of the author are his contemporaries, and the people who are in some way or the other related to the work of reading and writing, as well as teachers. It can also be established that the author has targeted learned audience as in a number of places he refers to famous people like; Persius and Boerhaave, about whom the general people must unaware.

There is no general conflict to be observed in the essay, it has a simple orientation that goes about the main theme; of considering general opinions. There is a touch a mild irony when the author talks about the assumed state of libraries; “…filled only with useless lumber…” He suggests that this idea is somehow propagated, and tells about the situation of people who are far from the need of libraries and books. In the very next paragraph the author intelligibly argues that learning from the former generations is essential. He talks about people who tend to say that they learned nothing from the writings of their predecessors. The author considers them prejudiced, and says that such people are unlikely to excel themselves as they can’t ever evaluate their own work, when they never consider any other.

Further in text the author signifies that there are very few people granted with knowledge, and that these people should consider it their responsibility to impart, share and transfer this knowledge, or at least a part of it, to the rest of the mankind. The author becomes critical when he says that people who keep knowledge just stuffed in their heads are useless, “…and he is by no means to be accounted useless or idle who has stored his mind with acquired knowledge…” The author argues that anyone who has accumulated learning should next consider ways to impart it. The author has also with very clear examples, explained the state of people who have reclined to solitude in order to study, learn and write. He thinks these people no matter how intellectual have deprived themselves of the art of conversation. Giving the example of the chemistry teacher who considers his students as clear in mind about chemistry as his own, he tells that actually the teacher himself has forgotten the difference of sate of minds and abilities to learn of different age groups. In another interesting illustration he narrates one of his experiences of attending a lecture of a renowned philosopher, who though well learned, only with much hesitation was able to distinguish two terms.

As the writer says, “Such was the dexterity with which this learned reader facilitated to his auditors the intricacies of science; and so true is it that a man may know what he cannot teach.” The author with much concern is trying to draw attention of his readers to the fact that not only learning, but the ability of expressing one’s knowledge is very important.

Towards the end of the essay the author reconciles the significance of writing and conversation attained through reading. He tells that writing helps determining thoughts, while conversation helps elaborate and diversify them, and this is only achievable through rigorous reading.

The essay by Samuel Johnson with much clarity indulges the readers into considering that success in literary fields largely depends, on reading, writing, conversing and most of all upon being considerate of the opinions and ideas of others. The writer concludes the essay by saying that it should be the aim of every person to attain command over the abilities of reading, writing and conversing, even though it might be bit difficult, but one should keep striving for perfection.

Plastic Molding Services Are For Sale Everywhere and You Should Be Able to Get Things That You Like

Many companies overlook plastic molding services but it's certainly an option if you have a manufacturing company that regularly creates large numbers of plastic products. This process is very simple but can speed up your production line, you'll certainly see an improvement.

If you're interested in the services available then you'll need to think about a few things first. To start with, you'll need to have a good idea of ​​what's currently available on today's market. Most of the services available are very low in price but there are the occasional placed that'll rip you off if you're not careful.

The next thing you'll need to look into is what sort of plastic molding machine or service you need. If you are looking for a one off production then you could hire a machine or simply hire a facility that already has a machine to get your job done.

However, if you're looking to invest in a machine that'll last you for years of manufacturing then you'll need to think about buying a whole set of plastic injection molding machines yourself. These can be very expensive, but they will last a long time and are generally easy to maintain.

You will then need to decide on a budget for your purchases. Most of the time this will be reliably obvious – ie supplies, stock, materials and labor costs etc. However, if you need help with this you can usually find an advisor of sorts to help you work it all out.

It is a very simple process but you may find that you need some help to get everything sorted. This is where plastic molding services come in. A lot of people use these services to help them find the best way to produce their products and items.

There are a few places where you can find services that'll help you – firstly, you should look around your area for some manufacturing companies that already use molding as a form of manufacturing. You can always ask their advice in terms of purchases and companies that were of help.

If you do not live anywhere near any production companies then you can have a look online to try and find some services that'll be appropriate for your needs. There are plenty of plastic molding services available, both online and offline so you should not have too much trouble finding what you need.

Just make sure that you do a lot of research before you commit to anything because it can sometimes be a bit confusing and you do not want to end up with things you do not need. Also it's important to know what you're looking for so that you do not get ripped off.

In conclusion, it's no surprise that plastic molding machines are a popular choice for manufacturing companies. They can greatly improve production lines and are certainly a great way to ensure accuracy and speed on your production lines.

Tornado Preparedness – The Six Keys to Safety

The US has more tornadoes than any other area on the globe. We get them in the spring, as weather changes in the fall, when summer storm hits, and as byproducts of hurricanes. Although the Midwest is known as "tornado alley," there's really no place in the country that's immune. Add to this the fact that hurricanes and severe thunderstorms can produce directional winds nearly as destructive as the vortex of a twister, and it's easy to see that we need additional preparedness info beyond "duck and cover."

We're going to cover the six main areas of tornado preparedness that will help you before, during, and after a tornado or heavy storm strikes. Appropriately, we'll use the acronym STORMS :

S helter – Strengthen your home and know where to find expedient shelter.

T ime – Increase your chances of getting the early warning.

O thers – Safety and protection involves the whole family and communicating with others.

R esources – You'll need everything from immediate supply to good insurance.

M edical – Help yourself now to save the injured later.

S weeping Up – Tips and tricks for dealing with the aftermath.

S helter

Severe storms with driving rain, possible hail, and projectiles hurled by strong winds offer extreme dangers from which we need to protect ourselves. The best protection would be a steel-reinforced concrete safe room located in the basement of a structurally sound building. Lacking that, let's look at a few things you should do now :

  1. Reinforce your house. There are simple things we can do to greatly strengthen our homes. Ask your local home-supply store rep about angle brackets, strapping, and techniques to install them to make your roof, walls, and connection to the foundation stronger. Also, do an internet search for "hurricane retrofit" (including quotes) to find additional instruction.
  2. Create a safe room or area within your home. The general rule of thumb is to pick an area near the center of your house and below ground if possible or at least on the lowest floor. Consider these points:

– Turn your walk-in closet into a safe area. Remove the sheetrock from walls and ceiling, add extra wall studs held in place with screws, strapping, and angle brackets, and then replace the sheetrock with one or two layers of "" marine plywood held in place with structural adhesive and screws. paint the walls and you'll never know it was retrofitted. (We have plans and schematics in our preparedness manual.)

– If you live in a mobile home, your best bet for safety would be a storm cellar. One simple and reliably inexpensive way to make a storm cellar is to have a septic tank company install a clean new unit in your yard, but leave about a foot above the ground. You can build a strong cover over that and use it as an outdoor deck, or as the foundation for a storage shed.

– Some locations may reburb you for building a safe room. Check with your tax assessor, county extension office, insurance provider, insurance commissioner, or local emergency management office.

  1. Learn the "safe points." When a tornado strikes you might be at home, but it's more likely you'll be at work, out running errands, or on a trip. Learn to recognize all the locations that will provide protection. Does the building you're in have shelters? For example, in the Denver Airport, the restrooms are designated tornado shelters. Does the building have a basement? Are you on the road? How far are you from a known safe building, or from a deep ditch?

T ime In emergencies, our most important asset is time. The two best ways to gain extra time in weather emergencies are to prepare now, and to get as early a warning as possible that severe weather is heading your way. If you wait for your community's alert sirens, you've waited too long.

  1. Buy a Weather Alert Radio. Not only do they warn you of inclement weather, but the system is now being tied in to the regular EAS system to warn you of other emergencies.
  2. Sign up for an alternate alert service such as the Weather Channel's "Notify" which can be found on their website. Hint: When you get the warning, take action! Do not do dumb things like videotaping the tornado.
  3. Learn the indicators of severe weather. The Weather Channel and others such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have educational information that will teach you how to spot incoming severe weather. Some "symptoms" may include:

– A large anvil-shaped thunderhead cloud or a thick, very dark, cloud cover with a pea-soup consistency. – Hail or, in some cases, unseasonable snow.

– Green lighting (as lighting flashes behind clouds heavily laden with water).

– A sudden change in humidity, wind direction or wind speed, rain volume, or rain direction.

– A sudden change in air pressure (your ears may pop).

  1. Network with others. Sometimes our friends and coworkers are our best early warning system. Develop a phone tree or at least a general agreement among friends and relatives that you'll warn each other about dangers in the area.

O thers There are two sets of "others" you might deal with in concert with a severe storm. One is your family and the other is first responders. Communicate with your family both now – to prepare for a tornado – and later in the event a tornado watch or warning is given. You also may need to communicate with first responders if you experience injury or certain types of property damage that requires official assistance. Consider:

  1. Tornado drills. Emergency reactions are worth practicing. Have your family practice getting into the safe room and into a safe position ("duck and cover") within 30 seconds or less.
  2. Protect your pets. On warning of severe weather, round up your pets, put them on leads or in carriers, and take them to your safe area. If your house is damaged in the storm your pets are more protected and easier to care for afterwards. Hint: You can train your pets to head to the safe room on command. Your vet can give you some training pointers.
  3. Communication and signaling may be vitally important if your home is damaged and / or someone sustains injury during a tornado. For example, though everyone might be uninjured, you may be trapped in the debris that was once your home and need someone to dig you out. In addition to your house phone and cell phone, have backup options like a hand-held two-way radio, and something that can make a loud noise such as an air-horn. Also, make sure your neighbors know you have a safe room in the house, or storm cellar in your yard. They can tell permissions where to look if no one has heard from you.

R esources In a disaster, you'll need goods, gear, or services to help you deal with the event and then recover afterwards. Make sure you have neatly covered each of the following areas:

  1. Make sure your insurance policy covers all types of natural disaster including water damage from rain or flood since many policies have strict exclusions. Also, make sure your policy will provide for the costs of temporary lodging and the full replacement value for your property and possessions.
  2. Keep your isolation and evacuation supplies together in a protected spot where you can access them immediately, or where they'll be protected if your home is damaged while you're away.
  3. Make a list of services you might need after a tornado, such as cleanup and repair services or temporary lodging. Look through your phone book to find services like tree-cutting and debris removals, structural home repairs, automated repairs, lodging, etc. Write their contact information down and keep it with your emergency kits so you can call these services immediately after a disaster to get your name on their lists.

M edical We're hiring that all the advice above has kept you safe in the event of a tornado. However, we know things do happen and people get hurt. Cover the following, just in case:

  1. First aid training is important for every family regardless of the threat, so learn the basics of general first aid and CPR. Next, talk with your doctor about first aid measures for specific ailments. For example, if someone in your family has Asthma and they have an attack, what are some things you can do to care for them if you can not immediately get to their inhaler or medication?
  2. First aid kits are a must and families should have several and not just one. The main kit should be kept in the home, but smaller kits should be kept in each vehicle and at your workplace.
  3. Copies of medical information should be kept at home. After a devastating event there's no guarantee your family doctor will be available or that the hospital's computers will be functional. In case of injury, medical practitioners will need to know a general medical history of the injured. Keep a list of ailments, conditions, special medical needs, and current medicines of each family member (including pets). Remember, even though you're the head of household and you know all that information, you may be injured and unable to communicate.

S weeping Up All destructive events have at least one thing in common; they're going to create quite a mess. Here are a few tips to help you stay safe while cleaning up:

  1. Although you might think the power is completely out, stay away from downed power lines.
  2. Stay alert to the hissing sound of a broken gas line or the smell of gas.
  3. Dress for the weather, but still dress to protect. Wear sturdy shoes or boots (and watch out for boards with nails), a hat and sunscreen, insect repellant, and heavy work gloves. The hospitals will be too full of major injuries to deal with the minor injuries you could have prevented.
  4. Physical labor after a stressful event can be quite taxing. Drink plenty of fluids, eat regularly, and take periodic breaks.
  5. Here is where you've needed your list of professional cleanup services. Call as soon as possible.
  6. In the case of total destruction, your property itself will be a trash pile. Therefore, use your main trashcan as a receptacle for the items you want to salvage. Label it accordingly so no one throws away its contents. Hint: Take photographs or video of all the damage for insurance purposes.
  7. It's possible that your valuable possessions might be strewn about the neighborhood. It'll be easier to have things returned if your name is written or engraved on them. If you do not want to use your name, use a unique identifier such as the first phone number you can remember from childhood. Hint: Never use your Social Security Number.

Although this article is longer than average, there is still no way we can pass along all the helpful hints and tips that will keep you safe in an emergency and help you recover afterwards. Do what you can with the information presented, and continue your education on your own. The steps you take to protect yourself against tornadoes will help protect you and yours during any number of other disaster preparednessness scenarios. Stay safe!

The Internet Marketing Structure We Lean On

A total body structure.

How come can we see? So why can we hear? For what reason can we speak? How come can certainly we stand, walk, jump, and sit? Quite simply, how do we live in this world? As a result of science and technology, we know today. We can see simply because we possess a two of eyes. People can hear as we have a couple of ears. We can easily speak out mainly because we have actually a mouth and vocal chords. We all can easily stand and perform locomotive functions mainly because we own our body. We are capable live in this globe since we have a full human framework. Even though we may not see it, nonetheless the structure of the human body provides us life, aside from the external components, just like air, food, water, and others, that all of us want to have each day. Without a total body structure, we are not able to live routinely in this world.

A simple structure to carry out a goal.

Structures are not merely crucial and helpful to the human body. Actually, the office building that you are occupying, the home exactly where you and your spouse and children lives, the automobile that you drive from your home to work, the retail center exactly where you buy your basic and several other personal requirements, and different issues in the natural environment possess a basic structure to accomplish not simply their physical presence but also their goal too. Is right now there a home with out doors and roofs? Is presently there an automobile with out engine and wheels? Structure is an essential part of their being-without it, their being and intent is not complete. If you believe that the structure is only for physical characteristics alone, then simply you require to presume once again. In fact, abstract items also need to have structure in order to endure. And Internet marketing does require a particular structure. In what way?

Website marketing structure is created of many aspects.

Affiliate marketing is recognized from other different kinds of business ventures, including the brick and mortar marketing, throughout its structures. Online marketing structure is constructed of different factors which include long and short-term advertising tactics, direct and indirect branding market, traffic evaluation, product sales volume analysis, and other important components. There is certainly a need for every single Online marketer, if a neophyte or a skilled one, to understand the structure of Affiliate marketing to obtain the suitable procedure and be good in their particular careers.

Learn the fundamental structure of Website marketing.

One of the secrets in gaining successful marketing methods is to learn and figure out the fundamental structure of Online marketing. For example, you need to understand that there is a large variation among short-term and so long-term advertising tactics by which the previous is a short-term strategy and the second option is a long-term methodology. Most likely you will ask, Is generally there a considerably better Affiliate marketing structure? Even though the structure is viewed as to be as the standard outline, there are situations in which because of changing market circumstances and other additional factors, there is a need to change a few parts of the structure, possibly to eradicate or put more than a few aspects.

Among the best Website marketing structures.

The present framework of Website marketing is right now one of the better if not the greatest structures amongst all existing opportunities. Presently there are extra factors that are nowadays considered to be the greatest lifeline of the business online market.

THE FOUNDER: you are one of the essential components of an Online marketing structure. The organization will not be effective if you will not fully stand up and lead your organization to the proper path. Keep in mind that the Cyberspace has its personal dungeons and it is exactly where you require to sparkle and destroy the darkness to turn into powerful on your Affiliate marketing career.

THE PRODUCT: in the event that you do not have a product to offer, do you think that you will be able to get a cut of the Website marketing income pie? Secondly, it is not merely offering a particular product to online consumers. It is even more of selling an exclusive product that will provide you larger product sales as you complement your Online marketing business. This contains effective advertising of products on the Word wide web and numerous internet based advertising packages.

THE DATABASE: it is the list of people who provides you authorization to get in touch with them throughout emails and newsletters. It is significant to the presence of your web business since you will need to build a faithful clientele base that will never simply make purchase yet will even make regular purchase of your solutions.

THE AFFILIATES: no person is an island. You equally will need affiliates that will certainly help you publicize and market your goods. They are not only assisting you to earn nevertheless as well helping them to generate for themselves.

Due to the smart minds of online marketing innovators and professionals, we possess an enhanced Affiliate marketing structure to lean on.

Build a Storage Shed With Steel Framing

Build your own storage shed! The price of them has gone out of my price range, so I built my own. If you want one made of steel framing, there are some things you must consider. First, you will need a method to cut the steel studs and track. I used a Chop Saw that is made for cutting steel. If you are using a lighter gauge steel, you can cut it with a good pair of aviation snips. Next, you must have a place to put your building that is out of the way. You should have some idea of how big a shed it will take to satisfy your needs. You should sit down and draw out a rough picture of what you want. It doesn’t have to be a blueprint. A simple drawing will do. The reason for that is so you can figure out how much material to buy to build one. A basic knowledge of framing is required, but you can find books about that subject at those big retail Building Supply stores. It’s pretty simple, though.

Next, you must decide what kind of roof you would like to have. If you want a plywood covered roof with shingles, you’ll have to make the walls a little sturdier, because that kind of roof is heavier. If you go with a steel panel roof, there is less of a load on the walls and they can be built with a thinner gauge steel product(cheaper). Next, you must choose a door style. I built mine with only one opening. The door was wide and the shed was fairly small, so it works for me. You’re not building a house, so don’t go overboard here. The last thing to consider is what kind of floor you would like in the building. There are two main options. Many people like a solid concrete pad to build on. I made an above ground floor system in mine. If you are going to store something like an ATV or other heavy rolling object like a garden tractor, you should probably use the concrete slab. If you choose an above ground system, put it on blocks or some other way to support the floor. I poured concrete corner pads to hold up my building. OK, let’s get started.

Build your floor support system, first. If you want a concrete pad, pour it now. When it has set up at least one full day, you can start to build on it. When I poured the corner pads of my building, I had to build a floor system on top of it. Simple, really. Steel framing comes it two basic styles. Metal studs are the vertical pieces and metal track is the horizontal part that the metal studs fit into. I made a framework of studs and track that was the size of the floor of the shed. I placed studs every 24 inches in the track. Because it was a floor system, I put double studs in, back to back. this increased the strength of the floor system. Next, I covered them with 3/4 inch plywood to make a solid floor. At this point, you will be at the same place that the person who chose a concrete slab is.

Now that you have a floor, it’s time to build the walls. It’s a good idea to lay out the walls on your floor. Draw the metal stud wall thickness around the edge of the floor, keeping in mind where your door will go. Then draw that on the wall outline. Your door opening should be a rough opening size and not the finished size of your door. For a basic, four wall building, two of the walls should be the whole length of your building. the other two will be inside the marks you made on the floor. Once you have these dimensions, you are ready to start construction of the walls. Start with a wall that doesn’t have the door. Place one of the horizontal track pieces on the marks you made for the wall. If it’s longer than the floor, cut it to the right length. Now cut another the same size. these are the upper and lower pieces of the wall. Put them side by side and make a mark every 24 inches starting from the end of the track on both pieces. These are the locations of the vertical stud placements. Take your studs, the vertical pieces, and insert them in the two track pieces to complete the wall section. Now take the fastener screws and secure the studs in position on both sides of the track. It’s easier if you do one side first, then turn it over and do the other side.

When complete, take a scrap piece of metal or wood, anything that can be used as a brace, and attach it to one of the vertical studs about two feet down from the top of the wall. This will be used to brace the wall section when you stand it up. If you have a wooden floor, it’s easy to screw the wall to the floor system. If you use a concrete slab floor, you’ll need a method to attach the wall to the concrete. You can shoot it down with a powder actuated tool, drive a nail in with an impact tool and hammer or you can pre-drill holes and use a masonry screw like the “Tapcom” system. Whatever method you use, go ahead and stand the wall section up and brace it well. You will begin to feel a sense of accomplishment for all your work when you see a wall standing. Use that excitement to help you finish the other three walls. When you come to the wall section that has the door, place the studs on either side of the rough opening and put a horizontal header piece of track over the rough opening hole. Measure the remaining distance to the top track and install the cut-down stud pieces over the door hole in the door header track. Maintain the same 24 inch spacing as the rest of the studs in the wall. At this point, you should have the four walls standing and are ready for the next step. Before we go on, I must mention the importance of keeping every thing level , square, straight and plumb. It’s best to check these things as you go along. Another thing to remember is to always wear safety glasses when working with any power tools, not just these. It’s also helpful to wear gloves when handling steel studs and track. There are many sharp edges to watch out for, so use caution.

The roof is the next step. Get yourself a ladder and make layout marks on the top of the wall track pieces. If your plan calls for a roof with no overhangs, things will go faster. The pieces of stud you have made into trusses will be attached to the track where you made the marks. Once again, 24 inches on center will be adequate. These trusses are made by you to fit your roof design. However you design it, it should have at least one foot of rise to every four feet of run. This means that if your shed was eight feet wide, the height at the peak of the roof will be at least one foot high. A sixteen foot wide building would be two feet, and so on. This is so that if it snows in your area, your roof will let it fall off before it gets too thick and collapses your building. Now let’s discuss making the trusses. On your work table, lay out a piece of stud that will span from wall to wall. this is the bottom of the truss. Find the center and put an upright piece there that will give you the ratio I discussed earlier. You will screw it to the bottom piece at the center mark you made. Now, from the top of it, measure the distance to the end of the stud. It should be the same for both sides. Cut those pieces of stud and attach them.

When you’re finished, you should have a triangular framework with an upright piece in the middle. Unless you are making a long span, this structure will be enough to handle the roof load for your shed. Make one of these for every mark you made on top of the top track of your walls. These trusses will be screwed to the top track every 24 inches. It will be easier to put up the first one in the front and the last one in the back. This will allow you to stretch a string across at the peak of the trusses. Use this to align the other trusses into a straight line. When you have to screw down the ends of the trusses to the top of the wall track, cut a scrap of either stud or track into a 90 degree angle piece that you can screw to the side of the truss and the top of the wall track to hold it in place. once you have the trusses screwed in place, you should put a scrap of stud or track across the trusses and screw it down temporarily. This holds the tops of the trusses in place while you put the permanent cross pieces in place. I used a 7/8 inch hat channel to cross the trusses. Hat channel is called that because it looks like a hat in cross section. The two flat sides (The brim of the hat) are screwed to the truss every 24 inches down from the peak of the truss. The top of the hat has a flat spot where you will screw the roof panel down onto the hat channel.

Now, in review, you will have a hat channel screwed down to every truss and down from the peak of the trusses every 24 inches. That way, when you lay a roof panel down on this framework, you will be able to screw it down every 24 inches, making a very strong steel roof that’s not too heavy. At this point, after you complete the installation of the roof panels, it will become obvious that you need something to cover the ridge at the top of your roof. This will be a product called a ridge cap. It is screwed down over the join area between the roof panels. At this point you should have a shedding roof over your building. There are some details to discuss here. If you want an overhanging roof, calculate how far out you want it to go and measure up to the peak of your trusses. That measurement will be how long to cut your panels. Put the cut part of your panel at the top. It will be hidden by the ridge cap. If you want a flush roof, the measurement will be from the edge of the truss at the top of the wall to the peak of the roof. If you want a flush roof, be sure to calculate the thickness of a hat channel and the steel panel that covers it for the wall covering. Your roof should extend at least 1/4 inch past that point.

Now we’re ready to start covering the walls. Mark off a 24 inch mark from the top of your wall to the bottom on all four corners. Use that mark to install a hat channel horizontally 24 inches apart all around your building. If you have planned carefully, a 26 inch wide steel panel will wrap around the corner of your building. Put half on one side and wrap the other side around the corner. I did mine this way because I couldn’t find a dealer that had any corner trim pieces. None-the-less, it works well and when you wrap the panels around the corner, there are no drafty corners. When you install the panels, screw them to the hat channels installed every 24 inches. This increases the strength of the walls. Continue to wrap the panels around until you reach the door. There you can cut the panel to fit and lap over the other panel to complete the wrap of the building. The basic structure is complete. The only things left to do are to install your door and a few trim pieces around your new building. There is a 3 inch trim piece made for flashing a roof. that will work well for closing the gap between the wall panels and the roof panels.

To install them, undo the bottom screw of your roof panels on the side that you’re trimming out. Slide the trim piece under the roof panel and over the wall panel. Re-install the screws you removed. When you wrap it all around the building, your building will shed rain and you are ready to drive in the tractor.

A final thought and some info. Please don’t work alone. You could be injured easily if a wall section broke loose and fell on you. Besides, it’s easier when you have someone to help hold things. The other thing was that you will need some specific tools to do this job. It can be done without most of them but they make the job easier. First, you need a good screwgun or a drill with a screwdriving tip. Go for the magnetic bit holder that holds screws well. I have had many evil thoughts after dropping lots of screws. You’ll also find one or two of those Vise-Grip type C-clamps handy. Use them to hold the stud and track together on your mark when you screw them together. For special cuts, I used a mini-grinder to make the angle cuts of the roof trusses. You’ll need a good level and a framing sized square. And one more thing. When you purchase screws for the framing, get the kind that have a drill point on the tip. It saves a lot of pushing. Always keep safety in mind and then go brag to your neighbors!

Kids Coloring Books

Coloring is a great activity for kids. It offers them a chance to express their creativity while mastering fine motor skills, hand eye coordination, and a host of other things. So, purchasing coloring books can be one of the best things you can do for your child. The following is a look at some of the things to consider when buying kids’ coloring books:

1. The theme: Coloring books generally have a theme of sorts. It might be that they are based on a Disney movie, or it is about animals, or vehicles, or something else. When selecting books for your children, remember that they will want to express their creativity, and will have a lot of fun with any coloring book, but will be more interested in a coloring booklet with a theme that appeals to them. Choose a color book that features their favorite characters, or the item of interest in their life. For example, if your little boy just loves trains, get a Thomas the Train coloring book. If your little girl is as girly as they come, look for the Disney Princess coloring book, or possibly Strawberry Shortcake.

2. The complexity. Determine your child’s level when it comes to coloring. Some color books provide large coloring spaces making it easier for children to color the page, stay in the lines, etc. As the child gets older, their skill level for coloring increases as well, and the difficulty of the book may as well. Some coloring books come with written instructions, and other games, such as a dot to dot, or a maze. If you want to keep your child happy, and still challenge them, choose coloring or activity books in their range or level, and do not frustrate them with books that have too small of pictures, or too many spaces to color, or written instructions.

3. The material. Some coloring books offer the ability for the child to simply run over the surface with the pens or crayons provided, and it will turn out to be the right color regardless. Some are more like paint books, and some have magic marker surfaces and come with markers that will not show up on any surface but the specially prepared book pages. Choose the book that best suits you and your child. If you are worried about markings on the walls, then don’t select a pack of basic crayons, get something that uses special crayons. If you want your child to exercise their own creativity and not have to fit in the lines or color schemes planned, get basic pages. It is up to you.

If you do not want to select coloring books, you can go online and choose free printable coloring pages. This way you are sure to get pages your child is interested in, will want to color, and that fit their age and ability level.

Fabric Painting for Beginners

So you want to learn how to paint on fabric? That’s really cool and a great decision. There is so much you can do with fabric painting as a craft whether it’s for fun or profit. There was a time when this craft was considered a skill only for the schooled artist or the creative person. Not so, or should I say, not so anymore. It is certainly a craft that can easily be developed and in a very short time frame.

There are so many people becoming involved in fabric painting in general but regardless of how many folks enter the field you can develop your own style; it’s like having a fingerprint, it’s completely yours no matter where you go your style will reflect you. You can and should put your unique twist to your work. Folks will begin to identify a certain look or style as your distinct signature piece.

Painting on fabrics can reflect realism such as land or seascapes, floral or plant creations, geometric patterns, cartoon characters or a selection of beautiful colors and textures. You can basically apply the paint in any form you like to create artistically pleasing designs.

Once you have practiced and feel comfortable with your new painting skills you may want to try various mediums to paint on. Many people choose tee shirts, but did you know that you can paint on your sweats, bags, purses, dance wear, sneakers, hats, jeans, ribbons, scarves, wall hangings, upholstery, bedding and anything else that would sit still long enough for you to paint it.

Great Benefits

The benefits to fabric painting are also gi-normous (new word- a combination of gigantic and enormous). Consider the benefits of creating a whole new wardrobe for you. Gift giving also becomes more personalized with a signed work of art from you; you may begin to see an increase in friends when word gets out of your new found talent and generosity. Decorating the home and dressing your family really becomes more fun too, for you and the kids. Now you can create the painted outfits with the coordinating sneakers and hats to match.

An important consideration you should keep in mind when painting is the type of fabric you choose to paint on. If it is 100% cotton, then you can count on it shrinking and your design seizing up it. But there is a solution for just about every challenge you will encounter. The solution for this one is to simply pre-wash your fabrics without using softeners or starches and allow the fabric to dry completely. You will need to iron all ridges and creases out of the fabric to have a smooth surface to work on. The easier option is to paint on a pre-shrunk fabric or a cotton blend; you will avoid the shrinking altogether by doing this.

As a beginner, you would also want to paint on light or white fabrics. Your colors come out closer to what is represented in your paint container that way. To be effective with painting on colors take a little more practice and may require a totally different set of paints. For instance if you are painting on black or dark fabrics, you will need to use opaque paints for this to be effective.

The bottom line in painting on fabrics is to have fun, gather all the necessary information and get going. So what are you waiting for? There are many masterpieces inside of you just waiting for the opportunity to come out. Go for it and enjoy!

Hercules – What is the Measure of a True Hero?

‘Long ago, in the faraway land of ancient Greece, there was a golden age of powerful gods and extraordinary heroes. And the greatest and strongest of all these heroes was the mighty Hercules. But what is the measure of a true hero? Ah, that is what our story is…’

Fables are fashionable, no doubt about it. On film, the world in the 21st century is saved by super-heroes a few times a day because they have either futuristic technology or astonishing powers.

For me, however, Disney’s ‘Hercules’ is the best movie in this genre ever made : it is their only film based on Greek mythology – these timeless tales about a world of complex interrelations between gods and humans explored the mysteries of life on earth, conveying important lessons to struggling mortals.

The conduct of the royal society on Mount Olympus in those days seems to have been as fallible as today’s jet set and in the absence of TV, the stories about their lives and adventures, weaknesses and misdemeanors in ancient Greece apparently were the talk of the town.

As an animated movie first released in 1997, the ancient characters in Walt Disney’s ‘Hercules’ speak a very modern language – Charlton Heston (Narrator), Rip Torn (Zeus, leader of the gods), James Woods (Hades, ruler of the underworld) and Danny DeVito (Phil the Satyr) amongst others have given their voices to a fast-paced, wildly funny and very entertaining film for kids and adults alike.

What is often overlooked though is that the story of Hercules is also a brilliant parable about the human cycle of life on earth – for me, that is he most interesting aspect of the movie. It all starts at the party on Mount Olympus, where right of admission is reserved for Gods, to celebrate the birth of Hercules, son of Zeus and Hera. The host welcomes a new guest:

“Hades, you finally made it. How are things in the underworld?” “Well, they’re just fine. You know, a little dark, a little gloomy. And, as always, hey, full of dead people. What are you gonna do?”

The evil Hades plans to overthrow Zeus as chief of the gods in what he calls a ‘hostile takeover bid’, however, and shortly after the party sends his helpers Pain and Panic to abduct Hercules down to Earth because the Fates predict that he might thwart the coup in 18 years time.

Although pain and fear are still the most effective allies of dark forces today, good help was difficult to find even in those days, and Pain and Panic don’t quite manage to infuse the magic potion into Hercules that would make him forget his divine origin.

As a result, Hercules retains super-human strength for his spell on earth – but that doesn’t make him very popular: as an impetuous teenager, he breaks whatever he touches and he isn’t allowed anywhere near the local pottery store. ‘Jerkules’ is his nickname at that time and he yearns to be normal, like everyone else.

He just wants to fit in somehow and know where he belongs, setting the scene for the archetypal hero’s quest – this is beautifully highlighted in his captivating song ‘Go the Distance’ : ‘I will find my way, I can go the distance; I’ll be there some day if I can be strong; I know every mile will be worth my while.’

So when he leaves the home of his foster parents to find his place in the world, his first stop is at the temple of Zeus, a quiet place for reflection, to ask for guidance. There he learns that he has a famous father – and Zeus tells him that he has to prove himself a true hero on earth to restore his status as a god.

How do you become a true hero?

You learn from an expert.

On Zeus’ advice, and with the help of Pegasus the flying horse, Hercules seeks out Philictetus, the trainer of heroes. Phil is disillusioned because previous clients like Perseus and Achilles couldn’t go the full distance, but he takes Hercules on and shows him all the tricks of the hero-trade. Both make mistakes and get hurt a few times in the process, of course – you teach what you need to learn, and the lines between teacher and student get blurred after a while.

Along the way Hercules also has to rescue Megara, a damsel in distress, and they fall in love – he doesn’t know that she has sold her soul to Hades, however, and is committed to help him rearrange the cosmos to take over Mount Olympus. Despite their efforts to get Hercules out of the way before he spoils the loot, he becomes a famous superstar ‘From Zero to Hero’ in the big city with his own merchandised brand on consumer goods, all the royalties that go with it, and the high life that everyone envies.

But being rich and famous, strong and powerful is not being a true hero, Zeus tells him at another visit to the temple – before Hercules can rejoin the gods he must still do something that he has to discover for himself, something that he can only find by looking inside.

Hades in the meantime is furious and very frustrated with his lack of progress until he finds the only weakness Hercules has – his love for Meg. Hercules eventually agrees to give up his enormous strength for 24 hours to win back Meg’s freedom from the clutches of Hades – who immediately launches his attack on the world by unleashing the Titans.

But Meg, Pegasus and Phil are not giving up on Hercules’ shattered dreams and help him in his darkest hour. Together with the gods on Mount Olympus, they defeat Hades and his Titans and liberate planet Earth from the underworld’s tyranny and oppression – but not without casualties: Meg is dying!

In a desperate attempt to change the course of events, Hercules rushes to see Hades and strikes a deal with him: ‘Take me in Meg’s place’. He dives after Meg into the River of Death, selflessly offering his life in return for hers, but the Fates cannot cut his thread so that they both emerge alive – the underworld has no power over gods!

Meg and the mighty Hercules are whisked off to Mount Olympus – now he can return home to be reunited with his family. The overjoyed Zeus explains : ‘A true hero isn’t measured by the size of his strength – but by the strength of his heart!’

This is the moment Hercules has always dreamed of, but he realizes that a life without love, even an immortal life, would be empty – and chooses to stay on earth with Meg and his friends: ‘I finally know where I belong.’

I just love it!

What if we all remembered that we are powerful beyond measure and have a connection to our divine origin with unlimited support?

What if we knew that we are always exactly where we belong, wherever we are and whatever we do?

Who Invented The First Compaction Roller?

A compaction roller is an item of construction equipment used to compact surfaces such as concrete, soil, gravel or macadam during the construction of foundations and roads. They are also used for landfill compaction, typically with a sheepsfoot roller pattern with the aim to achieve a compacted surface over and above a smooth one.

Compaction rollers operate by using the weight of the vehicle to compress the surface they are driven over. Generally, initial compaction is performed by a roller with air filled tyres, which is better suited to the slightly un-even terrain of a newly laid road. The compaction roller with its smooth metal drum provides the final smooth finish.

The very first compaction rollers were likely to have been horse-drawn and it’s possible that they could have been in use by the Romans who were prolific road builders in the 2nd century BC.

In more modern history mechanised rollers were in use from the time of the invention of the steam roller, approximately 1859 and continued to be in use in the UK until almost a century later when, in the 1960s, they were superseded by internal combustion powered rollers. Some sections of the present M1 motorway were built with the help of steam rollers.

The first motor powered rollers were designed in the early 1900s. Hamm AG, which is now part of the Wirtgen Group GmbH, produced the first diesel powered rollers in 1911. Hamm AG was founded in 1878 by brothers Anton and Franz Hamm, who were both gunsmiths, to build agricultural equipment. In 1928 they took the brave step of abandoning all other product lines to focus solely on compaction rollers.

The gamble paid off and Hamm AG went from strength-to-strength, consistently providing innovative products to meet global demand such as the development of a tandem, all-wheel-drive compaction roller in 1951.

As motor powered rollers became more widely used the challenge was how to improve upon them. On November 5th, 1948 US patent 2677995 was filed by inventor W. W. Wood. The patent described using vibration to increase the mass per metre output of the current generation of compaction rollers.

But it was a newly formed Swedish company, AB Vibro-Betong, which took the initiative in 1953 with the launch of the first vibratory roller. The new compaction roller was quickly joined by similar offerings from competitors including Bomag, who launched their BW60 vibratory roller in 1957. AB Vibro-Betong still exists to this day but is now known as Dynapac and has been part of parent company Atlas Copco since 2007.

The compaction roller continues to be improved and a broad range of products are now available, from small compaction plates and remote walk-behind trench rollers right through to massive ride-on road rollers weighing 20 tonnes and costing more than 150,000 USD. Landfill units can be even bigger weighing up to a colossal 54 tonnes.

Causes of Swollen Hands and Feet During Pregnancy

During pregnancy, everything about a woman’s body changes. No doubt you’re well aware that weight gain and back pain are two givens but are you aware that your extremities and limbs – both arms and legs, hands and feet – are bound to swell? Some women find they can no longer wear their wedding ring and have to buy a bigger size of shoes due to edema (swelling). Here’s the reasons why this might happen to you, too.

Causes of Swelling

Swelling occurs when there is fluid build-up in the affected body part. For most people, swelling in the hands and feet is often due to injury or another type of physical trauma, either directly in the body parts affected or in the joint. Arthritis, heart disease, blood disorders and infections are all culprits. Sometimes overuse, such as repetitive tasks or certain types of exercise, will cause fluid to build up in the fingers and toes. And women who are not pregnant often retain water during menstruation, another cause of edema.

But for the pregnant woman, the buildup of fluid in hands and feet is due to different causes. Your baby is growing and it needs fluids to develop. Your body needs more fluids than normal, too, because they are key in helping your joints expand and soften to accommodate your baby passing through the birth canal. Your blood chemistry changes, too, and this causes more fluids to migrate to the body’s tissues.

As your uterus expands, it naturally puts pressure on the surrounding organs. The veins of your pelvis and your vena cava (the vein carrying blood from your legs to your heart) are often affected by this additional pressure, which constricts the flow of blood, thus causing it to pool in your feet.

There are some conditions that exacerbate edema during pregnancy. If you were overweight before getting pregnant, chances are you were already experiencing poor circulation due to a slowing down of the lymphatic system that will only get worse as your pregnancy advances.

Your diet could be the culprit, too. Excessive amounts of salt or caffeine are known to cause swelling. Deficits of nutrients or not drinking enough water could have the same effect. In either instance, your body retains extra fluids and this causes swelling.

Why Your Hands and Feet Swell

Why are your hands and feet the most affected by pregnancy edema? They are called “extremities” for a reason – because these parts of your body are located at the extreme ends. Fluids pool here because it’s the end of the line, so to speak.

The problem is usually worse during the third trimester of pregnancy, as your body ramps up its preparation efforts, and in the summer, when swelling due to heat is typically a problem for anyone.

You may also find swelling occurs overnight. Depending on what position you sleep in, it could adversely affect circulation and you might find yourself waking up with swollen hands and feet.

There are several ways you can combat pregnancy edema but one of the most effective is wearing compression gloves and socks. These garments can be worn with anything all day and all night. Non-invasive treatment without side effects is best when you’re expecting a baby and compression garments fit the bill perfectly.

Don’t put up with swelling of hands and feet during pregnancy. It’s a natural condition with various causes but you don’t have to buy a larger size shoe or ditch your wedding ring if you wear compression gloves and stockings.

Mobile Car Wash Sample Contracts

Many mobile car wash owners believe that when they get started they need lots of contracts with companies, buildings and property managers to get exclusivity to wash cars. And it would be smart to have several such contracts drawn up when they are asked for. More importantly you will need a copy of your Liability Insurance Policy. Here is a re-occurring question I keep getting from those who wish to start their own mobile car wash business; “Do you have a sample agreement or contract with office buildings to provide your car washing service there?”

The answer to this question is yes all large mobile car wash companies have many different types of agreements but not necessarily with office buildings. If you are looking to service large parking structures, often you will be making the deal is with the parking garage service, not the building although you must keep the building maintenance and security folks happy too.

Generally a parking service company has the right to run the parking garage and is in charge and you would be put under their control. Thus in a large office building you will find this more often than not. In the case of large office complexes you most likely will be dealing with the property management company and need their permission and thus you will need to have a meeting with them, show them you insurance and perhaps do a couple sample washes. Do not be surprised if someone is already servicing the building weekly, as mobile car washing is a highly competitive business. If you stay in touch you may eventually get the account if the current mobile washers mess up, go off to college or have employee problems as they expand because they bit off more than they could chew. Think on this.

A Few Facts About Tin Collectables

For ages, food suppliers and other commercial enterprises have used packaging to market themselves. In yesteryear, food processors sold their edibles in tin containers to guarantee the consumer a fresh product. These containers were colorfully designed and featured the company brand. Tins like these were used for various types of food products, such as cookies, crackers, candies and soup. Soon after, many industries followed suit, and it wasn’t long before you could buy almost any type of goods in a tin container. Over the years, these tins became popular collectibles.

Top quality antique tins can cost a good deal of money. However, for a person keen on starting a tin collection, it doesn’t have to be expensive. The amateur collector should seek out tin containers made in the 1950’s. Something that was made at that time is already halfway to “antique” status, and therefore is a good choice. To be considered an actual antique tin however, it has to be at least 100 years old or earlier.

When it comes to pricing tins, 3 factors are taken into consideration: branding, condition and availability. For example, top soda pop makes have always been expensive, with some of their antique trays costing hundreds of dollars. This is because of the famous name, and the fact that they were made in limited quantities. Tins that were mass-produced, like some of the old coffee cans, are not expensive and are easy to find. You can pretty much get them at any garage sale or flea market.

If you are serious about tin collecting, then you first need to decide whether you wish to focus on one product or many. Also, do you want to collect vintage tins or will a nice reproduction suffice? Once you make your decision, it’s a good idea to pick up a guide that lists a variety of well-established tins and their present market price. This way, you can assess the value of any tin collectable that might interest you. Let’s briefly review some of the main guidelines for tin collecting.

Condition

To be worth the purchase, an aged tin shouldn’t be dented; the pictures should be clear and any writing legible. The paint should not be chipped or scratched. A dirty container can be cleaned by letting it soak in warm water with a bit of soap. It is not wise to scrub an aged tin or use anything rough like a scouring pad to clean it. Furthermore, do not use bleach!

Branding

This is where your guide pays off. Analyze it and learn the various brand names. For instance, Uneeda Biscuit was the forerunner to Nabisco, one of the world’s largest cookie manufacturers. A tin acquisition like this could be quite valuable. Also, tins that were sold as a seasonal promotion or in celebration of a company’s anniversary are worth buying.

Availability

Basically, the rule of thumb in this case is that if a tin can was mass-produced, then it won’t have as much value. While a tin that was sold in limited quantities and had a brand name, might sell for quite a bit of money.

Is it Real or a Reproduction?

Back when the tin craze first began, copies of collectible tins began to spring up everywhere. The number one soda pop company, of course was the first to be copied; and since the quality was very good, some individuals were duped into purchasing them for the cost of an original. Once again, this is where your research or guide can be put to good use.

Collecting aged or antique tins is an enjoyable activity and can add an interesting touch to your home decor. As long as you familiarize yourself with the guidelines, it should be easy for you to find some great bargains. For more information on the subject we welcome you to visit our online store, Fine Tin Collectables.

Is Life Better For Us Than It Was For Our Forefathers?

In many ways I would say that living in this modern world is better but in many ways too it seems that our forefathers had a better life.

Today we have radio, television, telephone, computers and hundreds of gadgets that our ancestors never had nor could imagine possible. So we enjoy these things enormously. However our ancestors never had to put up with mindless talk-shows on television and too loud pop music on the radio. I suppose our ancestors had more time to talk with one another too instead of being like us who spend so much time just staring at the ‘idiot box’.

On hot days I really appreciate that we have the air-conditioner to cool us down. Our forefathers probably had to put up with the heat or at best fan themselves with a leaf or something. However, we have become too dependent on the air-conditioner, especially the one in the car. On rare occasions when it malfunctioned I realized how uncomfortable it can be to sit in a car without air-conditioning.

Talking about cars, we are also so dependent on them. It is great to whiz along the highway eating up the kilometers and arriving at our destination in a short time. It seems everyone has the same idea too. So now, on our highways, it is virtually impossible to whiz along. It is more like crawling bumper-to-bumper in a traffic jam, breathing foul fumes and arriving late. Our ancestors of just a hundred years ago never had to undergo such infuriating jams. They probably trudged along on their feed or rode horses. Come to think of it, they probably had to put up with sore feet and horse dung. Which is better, fumes or dung?

Medical care has improved by leaps and bounds. We are no longer plagued by many diseases that killed our forefathers. Tuberculosis, smallpox and leprosy, the scourges of yesterdays, do not bother us anymore. However AIDS never bothered our forefathers. We face a new threat.

It is said that modern men and women have longer life spans. Does living longer necessarily mean a better life? I do not know. Long ago there were no hospitals and people died. No one paid anything to have their illness treated then. We pay huge sums nowadays but eventually we still have to die. Also a longer life span means we have to put up with more pollution, over-population, unemployment and other modern ills. My great-great-grandfather could probably pick a mango from a tree and eat it without giving it a second thought. I do not have a tree to pick a mango from. I have to buy one which may be loaded with pesticides and who knows what other poisons they put in it.

By looking at the few examples above, I cannot decide which era is better. Modern living has its good parts as well as bad. Similarly it was so for living in bygone ages. Actually we have no choice but to live in our modern world whether we like it or not. How things will turn out will only be known when they happen. We just have a live as best as we can.

Low Pressure Vs. High Pressure Paintball Tanks

Should I get a high pressure or low pressure N2 or HPA tank for my paintball gun?

That’s a good question. Let’s get a few things straight first. The terms “nitrogen tank” and “high pressure air” (HPA) tank mean the same thing. Fields and stores use compressed air to fill the tanks because air is more easily accessible. In the past, nitrogen was more readily available to fields than more expensive compressors. Today if you walk into a store and ask for a nitro tank or a nitro fill they will know what you mean.

Second, “high pressure” or “low pressure” refers to the actual output pressure of the regulator on your tank. The regulator controls the pressure that your tank will use in your gun. High pressure tanks usually output 800 to 850 PSI. Low Pressure tanks usually output 450 PSI. Preset tanks have a fixed output pressure from the factory which cannot be adjusted. Both HP and LP tanks have preset outputs. Adjustable tanks like the Nitroduck X-stream or the Empire Adjustable don’t have a fixed output pressure and can be adjusted by the player to any output pressure they need. This article will focus on preset tanks because you can use adjustable tanks for any gun.

Now is HP or LP right for your gun? There are a few things to keep in mind when considering this. First, what pressure does your gun need to cycle and shoot a paintball? (This is called the operating pressure.) Tippmanns, Spyders and other entry level guns need 800 PSI or higher to operate, so you would need an HP tank with these guns to generate enough pressure to allow the gun to operate. So if you have a gun that needs 800 PSI to work and you hook up a 400 PSI LP tank to it, you are not putting in enough pressure to allow the gun to work. This is why you would need a high pressure tank.

Mid- to higher-end guns typically operate with less than 300 PSI input pressure and come with a high pressure regulator. High pressure regulators go inline (in between) the tank and the gun. These regulators can accept an input pressure of up too 850 PSI and regulate it down to a user-adjustable setting to meet the markers’ LP needs. LP guns can use LP tanks. Using an LP Tank with an LP gun will result in better shot consistency over the chrono because you are not putting as much stress on the inline high pressure regulator. Having an LP tank with an LP gun will also prevent or minimize hot shots if your inline regulator fails. It will minimize the high pressure air spike going into the gun which will typically cause your velocity to spike up as well.

So in short, if you have an HP gun or an LP gun with an HP regulator, you can use an HP tank. LP guns can also use an LP tank. Some guns, like the Angel Speed 05, come with a built-in, inline LP regulator so they can only use LP tanks. As technology advances we are seeing more and more entry level guns becoming LP, so it’s always best to check with the manufacturer of your marker for their tank recommendations. And never buy a new tank before you buy a new gun.

The Spirit of the Blackthorn Tree

From the earliest times our Celtic and Druid ancestors from Iron Age times and probably before, the countryside in which they lived was the centre of their universe. It was full of meaning and wisdom. The trees were particularly important in the role each should play in their lives. We can once again use this ancient wisdom, along the part the trees played in the seasons of the year, and the time of birth and death in their lunar months. One of the trees that had great powers in their world was the Blackthorn.

It was firstly symbolic of its bright white blossom in the early spring. A coming out into the white pure light, shown by the brightness of its flowers appearing out of the darkness of the winter, like our ancestors we can see this time of blossom as time of coming out of a black period, a time of darkness, of death, and a new awakening. A time of a stirring of positivity within one’s self and a time of emergence from the long dark times of winter, a dark place, time of difficulty, a depressing time. Let the blossom be your light at the end of the dark tunnel.

As the first green shoots of the early leaves start to appear, so our first creative signs will start to appear, nourish them and let them open out as the leaves of the Blackthorn open out in nature.

The Black thorn is the Tree of Strength and Perseverance, so strong and resilient is its wood to the weather, the cutting of its branches for staffs and also for the shillelagh, it is hard wood and, grows back very quickly and stronger, and can grow where many other trees cannot. Let the Blackthorn be your strength, your perseverance, use it as your staff, as did Joseph of Arimathea when he arrived in Glastonbury and planted his staff which took root and blossomed. Let your creative thoughts planted blossom and come forth in positivity.

On your path there will still be trials and tribulations, but new growth of your strength will see you through, with the help of you staff and perseverance. The Blackthorn as it name implies, is a thorny tree, this is for its protection and it also protect all who use this protection for the safety of their nests, their homes, and in caterpillars, their metamorphosis into beautiful butterflies, and in this way the Blackthorn will protect you in your infancy of your new found creativity, and during your metamorphosis into the wonderful being you are, so that you may bask in the warm rays of the sun in harmony with mother nature.

The Celtic other use for the Staff or walking stick or Shillelagh was as a Cudgel combining supportiveness and a way of fending off people in self defence, this you can remember when anybody tries to beat you down or suppress those new creative thoughts and aspirations, a the Blackthorn also is sin ominous with standing up for ones rights, assertiveness and obstinacy, which is not a bad thing in rebuilding ones life.

The Celtic People also believed that the thorns on the tree provided protection for Ghosts, particularly in Ireland, so the tree can also protect you for your ghosts, and lay them to rest.

In Irish stories Blackthorn could be used in spells of protection, heroes were aided, if they threw a twig of Blackthorn afternoon, it would take root and form an impenetrable hedge or woods, thwarting the pursuing giant, in the same way the blackthorn can protect you by putting an impenetrable barrier between your new beginnings and that was behind you.

In England Witches would carve the Norse Rune Thorn on a Blackthorn Stave for protection. Traditionally, Blackthorn is used in protection against evil, creating boundaries, purifying, confronting our own dark side. Black thorn dispels negativity, toxins, old wounds and impurities. It is used in exorcisms, and associated with chthonic and protective deities. All these assosciations will help you reinforce and protect your way forward along your path toward your aims and self belief. 

Blackthorn Trees and Shrubs are said to be held sacred by fairies. The Luantishees are the Blackthorn Fairies, who guard the trees, November 11th is their festival. All thorny trees and shrubs are said to serve as meeting places for fairies. Kindling a fire of thorn wood atop a fairy mound is also said to force a fae to return a stolen child.Let this be your sacred and the meeting place of your thoughts to decide which path to follow to achieve everything have ever wished for.

A Blackthorn Stave in the creation of a Sprite or Spirit Trap, it is used in combination with copper wire, which must not have been used for the carrying of electricity. The copper wire is bound to the stave with red thread and the stave is marked with a Dag or Rune. The procedure is carried out mainly for its symbolic value in religious tradition. The single traps are used at night, when the trap is set at the entrance to a home, church, graveyard or other location were sprite disturbances are taking place. To attract the troublesome entity, a cleft Blackthorn Stave with a lighted candle is place in front of the trap.

After the Sprite has been captured, it is removed from the location, and the red thread is cut with a consecrated knife, the thread is then placed into a prepared witch bottle. If the bottle has been prepared to imprison the sprite or spirit, a spell is recited while the thread is placed into it. Finally the bottle is corked and sealed with red wax before being buried. A Blackthorn or Thorn Bush or Tree is planted on the site. The witch bottle is a very old spell device that has stood the test of time. The spell is a magical act intended to cause an effect on reality using supernatural means of liturgical or ritual nature.

In this same way if your sprite or spirit comes back to bother you,simply wind some red cotton or material around your door handle before retiring to bed and in the morning cut the tie and put in a pot and bury it, if you are not able to bury the item, caste it far away.If you believe your sprite is within you loosely tie a wrist or ankle band of red material before going to bed, and in the morning draw off, do not cut the cloth whole and either put it in securely fastened pot, or if you have a fire, cast it into the fire and the sprite will disappear.

It is said that if a witch’s bottle is ever found and opened, a very angry sprite or spirit will escape.

The Blackthorn being a tree is an iconic image of heraldry and of symbolic significance in various cultures throughout the world. It represents many things, including the Great Mother in her nourishing, sheltering and caring form, as well as a sacred spot of attainment and Spiritual Enlightenment.If you are in the countyside of find a Blackthorn Tree or Bush, you may have one in your hedge, park, just take a few moments to draw in the energy given off from the Blackthorn. PLease take care not to be be spiked by the thorns. Thet are best viewed in flower or with there slow berries.

Being deeply rooted into the evolutionary psychology of our race as well as earth’s powers, it draws water from the soil and stretches up to the heavens and eternity, acting as a world axis. In occult or Gnostic circles, it is seen as being emblematic of the axis mundi, the world pillar, and the centre of the earth itself. It is closely linked to the symbolism of the pillar and the mountain, as well as connotations of a phallic representation, best signified by the ancient usage of obelisks for ritual and ceremonial purposes. It serves as an intermediary icon of the mysterious dimensions between the realm of the Gods and men. A common Shamanic concept has the seeker or healer using the tree in order to transverse the physical realm and bring back secrets from hidden dimensions. Use this power to follow your Spiritual Path, and seek the power and energy to sustain and grow your spirituallity and let it become firmly rooted and grow strong inside you, let it be you staff, your help and guidance and your link to spiritual guidance and reassurance whenever called upon.Let your spirituality lead you to a better and enriched way of living.

Such is the Power of the Blackthorn Tree, I hope you will find it useful if ever the need arises, or if you find yourself or have a friend or relation who can gain some assistance from any part of this article. You may wish to print off the article.

If you ever have a problem, and you need assistance on a spiritual level or just need a good listener do not hesitate to contact me and I shall give you my email address, so it will be confidential on a one to one basis only.