5 Amazing Types of Trapping Mechanisms Carnivorous Plants Use to Survive

While all carnivorous plants use the attract, lure and trap method, knowing their trapping mechanisms and the kinds of plants that use such mechanism will help you determine which plant is best for your garden. The information below will be based on the types of plants and which plant use specific mechanisms.

Flypaper trapping mechanism

The use of natural sticky or glue-like trap is common to butterworts and sundews plants. Carnivorous plants that use this kind of trapping mechanism can trap smaller insects like flies, fungus gnats and the like. These plants secrete the very sticky glue through their mucilage glands (sometimes are very short like that of the butterworts and sometimes longer glands like that of the sundews) then trap any smaller insects for them to feed.

Pitfall trap

Popular to these types of traps in carnivorous plants are the pitcher plants. The plants pitchers can trap both smaller and bigger organisms (as big as rats and rodents). This passive carnivorous plant actually traps its preys when these preys slipped through the plants opening down to its chamber. The pitcher plant’s chamber is filled with acid enzymes for digestion purposes.

Snap trap mechanism

Venus flytrap and the waterwheel carnivorous plant are two best examples of this trapping mechanism. These plants, when triggered by the presence of small insects on to their clamp-like leaves, close in a fraction of a second and trap its prey for digestion. Contrary to the other types of traps in carnivorous plants, snap trap is an abrupt response on the part of the plant to trap its prey and keep that prey for days until it’s fully digested.

Lobster Pot trap

Common to aquatic carnivorous plants, lobster pot trapping mechanism allows a prey to easily enter into the plants’ system ie leaf but its exit is very difficult. These plants have roots and leaves that are pointed to a certain direction, allowing their preys trapped easily. Usually, corkscrew plants and the genlisea kinds are using this method.

Borderline Carnivores

The borderline carnivores have almost the same trapping mechanisms like the carnivorous plants but are just benefiting for absorbing the nutrients from the trapped insects but not literally eating these trapped preys. Some of the plants that use such mechanism are the catopsis barteroniana, roridula and Ibicella lutea.

You can easily identify the kind of carnivorous plants according to the types of traps in carnivorous plants. Since there were 5 types of trapping mechanism, each type say clearly about the type of plant you have in your garden.

Trumpet Lesson – Learn to Play Happy Birthday to You

In this trumpet lesson you will learn to play the melody to the song Happy Birthday To You without sheet music. It is a melody that is well worth learning by heart for special occasions!

The most common trumpet is a transposing instrument pitched in Bb. That is the instrument you probably are playing. This means that when you play a melody in C-major on your trumpet it will actually sound as if played in Bb-major.

In this trumpet lesson you will find the lyrics to the song Happy Birthday To You line by line in F-major with the chord symbols written in Eb-major for guitar or piano or some other chord instrument. The chord symbols are placed before the syllable where you are to play it.

Below the lyrics you will find the notes to play on your trumpet. In this lesson we will use the note names supposing that you know how to play the notes on your trumpet. You will also find a system for showing the length of the notes.

In case you need to refresh the notes and how they are played on your trumpet you will find a fingering chart here for the notes we will use:

C4=000, D=101, E=110, F=100, G=000, A=110, Bb=100, C5=000 (1 indicates pressed and 0 not pressed valves)

We shall now start this lesson by learning the melody to the first line of lyrics:

Happy (Eb)birthday to (Bb7)you

C4 C D C F E

The first note has the number 4 after the note name indicating that it is to be played in the lowest octave on your trumpet. The number four indicates that this is the fourth octave on an traditional piano keyboard.

I guess that you can play the rhythm of the melody by heart but we will also use a system for showing you the time value of the notes. The shortest notes are indicated with the number 1. In traditional sheet music notation this would be an eight note.

The number two means that a note has twice the value of the length 1. The value 4 means that the note has four times the value of number 1. Here comes the corresponding rhythms for the previous melody:

1 1 2 2 2 4

Let’s continue with the melody and from now on I notate the rhythms below the notes:

happy (Bb7)birthday to (Eb)you


1 1 2 2 2 4

Happy (Eb) birthday dear (Ab)…

C C C5 A4 F E D

1 1 2 2 2 2 2

The note C5 is the C note in the next octave. After this note you have the note A4 which indicates that you will go back to the lowest octave again playing the following notes the same way.

Happy birthday to you

Bb Bb A F G F

1 1 2 2 2 4

Now you have played the complete melody. I suggest that you learn the melody by heart line by line on your trumpet. You will never know when you have a reason to play the melody for someone!

Building a New House – Initial Steps in Developing Plans in Florida and Other Areas

Building in Miami or any area of South Florida is completely different from building in any other area of the country. While most of the eastern seaboard of the United States, and much of the rest of the country, builds houses with wood framing and a finish of brick or wood siding, South Florida builds with concrete block and concrete.

Quality vs. price

Because of hurricane winds the structures in this area must be very strong. Where the rest of the country looks down on us because they only use concrete block in their basements, for my money, I really like concrete and block construction. Concrete blocks do not get termites and will not rot. Therefore, a concrete block structure will last for 100 years or more with almost no maintenance. Unfortunately, the vast majority of houses in Miami have wood trusses with plywood sheathing for the roof, then roofing paper and either shingles or concrete tiles on top. This type of construction is not particularly good at resisting hurricane wind conditions. Although the Florida Building Code has tried its best at improving the requirements for installing the roof sheathing and the roof finish, it cannot begin to compare to the strength that the roof would have if a concrete slab were used for the roof structure.

So why, if we know this, don’t we build with concrete slab roofs? Cost – the only reason is cost. It is much more expensive both to design and to install a concrete slab roof, especially on a slope to take a concrete tile finish.

So one of the first things the homeowner needs to establish at the beginning of the design process for a new house is how much the owner wants to spend on the construction. There is the cheap way to build a home and the expensive way. This is an issue that will come up many times during the design and construction process.

The program

But in order to determine a budget, the homeowner first needs to establish the square footage of the new house. To establish the total square footage, he will have to generate a program for the house. The program is a list of rooms with their corresponding sizes.

See the sample list as follows:

Living Room 240 square feet
Dining Room 120 square feet
Kitchen 170 square feet
Family Room 240 square feet
Master Bedroom 240 square feet
Master Bath 64 square feet
Bedroom No. 2 216 square feet
Bedroom No. 3 192 square feet
Bath No. 2 36 square feet
Laundry Room 100 square feet
Linen closet 9 square feet
A/C Closet 9 square feet

Total square feet = 1,636

Circulation and walls at 20% = 1,634 square feet = 327 square feet

Total = 1,634 + 327 = 1,961 square feet

So now we have a basic idea of the major spaces of the house and approximately how many square feet total homeowner will need for the house.

Also, this is a good time to decide whether there will be any outdoor spaces, such as covered terraces or pergolas. In Florida these are particularly good additions to the interior spaces. With wonderful temperatures during the winter there is no reason to spend all the time in air-conditioned interior spaces.

The budget

So what will a house that is just under 2000 square feet cost in South Florida? There is no magic formula to determine this. The cost of the house depends on many things that have to do with the design, such as: the type of roof, the ceiling height(s), the complexity of the design, the finishes, whether it is going to be on a septic tank or sewer, and the type of foundations. Then, there are those costs that have nothing to do with the design, like the location of the house, how busy are the contractors in the area, how well-known and reliable the contractor is, etc. Although the price of a house can vary wildly because of all the items discussed above, at this time a range of $150 to $250 per square foot could be used for a house that is not too elaborate with standard construction. So if we go back to the example. A 2,000 square foot house would cost between $300,000 and $500,000 excluding the land.

The design team

The Miami-Dade County Building Department does not require plans for a single-family residence to be signed and sealed by an architect or engineer. This is not true for all municipalities in the area. For example, Coral Gables does require all plans to be signed and sealed by an architect. But for all practical purposes the volume of information that has to be included in a set of plans in any municipality within Miami-Dade County, most of the time, there is a need to hire several professionals: an architect, an MEP engineer, and a structural engineer. MEP stands for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing. The mechanical engineer designs the air-conditioning, the electrical engineer designs the electrical, including the lighting, and the plumbing engineer designs the plumbing. The structural engineer designs the structure and provides the required structural calculations for the building envelope. The architect designs the entire house and coordinates everybody’s work. The coordination of all the disciplines is probably the architect’s most important role as without coordination there could be real conflicts in the construction phase. Although it is legal to produce plans on his own in some parts of the county, it will be an insurmountable task to produce construction drawings for permitting (unless the homeowner has a background in construction with actual experience and the knowledge of the Florida Building Code and the local zoning codes).

What do these design services cost the homeowner? They also vary greatly but there is also a range among good, established professionals. This range would be from 6% to 10% of construction cost for the permit plans for all the disciplines. The services during the construction phase are usually charged separately on an hourly basis or in a separate package.

Style of the house

Another important decision to be made early on is the style of the house. There are basically three styles popular for home design in South Florida – modern, Mediterranean, and Key West.

Once the homeowner decides what styles he wants, it is important to convey the style and the details to the architect. The best way to explain to an architect what he wants is through either images from magazines or actual photographs of other houses.

Choosing an architect

Now that you have the basic items together, the next step is to pick your architect. This is very important as this is the person with whom you will work very closely during the next year.

Take the survey from the existing land from the time you closed on your mortgage. If you have lost it or it’s too old or inaccurate, the architect will arrange for you to get it updated or have a new one done.

Ask to see photos of his/her work. Ask for references. Ask questions. Ask him/her how he would approach the project. Start to sense if this is someone you could work with. Do you like the predominant style of the architect’s work? Does his/her work appeal to you? Ask about the process. Ask what you should expect in the way of his/her services. Ask him to show you the plans for a similar project.

People are individuals and everyone is unique. I remember how many people have hired me because they liked my “Mediterranean” or “Spanish” style or my modern or post-modern style. One person told me that she hired me because I returned her phone calls promptly. Chemistry between people is meaningful. Do not discount your initial impressions.

The construction documents

Normally, construction documents entail several parts: the drawings, the specifications, the instructions to bidders, and the addenda. Normally, when the architect handles the construction bid phase for the owner, he selects the type of contract the owner will have with the contractor. This document is also part of the construction documents.

The drawings are the major part of the work, which along the specifications act as a step-by-step guide for the contractor to use during the construction. Sometimes on large jobs, the specifications are placed in a separate book and called the Project Manual. On most residential projects, the specifications are normally covered as notes right in the drawings. For elaborate interiors a separate package is done by the architect and charged separately.

The construction documents are generated in phases from the general to the detailed. I like to divide my projects into 4 phases: Preliminary design, design development, 50% construction documents, and 100% construction documents. Each phase builds on the previous phase until the architect feels that the drawings are all coordinated among the different disciplines and are ready to submit for permitting.

With careful planning and communication with your architect, his good drawings and coordination and the careful selection of a reputable contractor, your new house project should flow without major problems. Although there are often change orders due to unforeseen conditions or changes the owner wants to implement, most issues should be resolved prior to construction.

For more information on the role of the architect during construction, see my other article on the role of the architect during the construction process posted here.

Bad Credit Score? You Can Still Get Albuquerque Apartments for Rent

Renters with bad credit score looking for Albuquerque apartments need not necessarily panic. Small apartments do not generally ask for a credit report. Even with other apartments, by proving your ability to pay rent on time, you could end up finding a good apartment for rent in Albuquerque.

Albuquerque being the largest city in New Mexico, the population of this city has only been increasing by the day. If you are one of those new residents in Albuquerque, finding Albuquerque apartments for rent may seem like an arduous task. But by knowing where to hunt for Albuquerque New Mexico apartments, you can find the right rental home of your choice.

There are numerous ways by which Albuquerque apartments may be sought, the most common being looking through ads on top news papers like Albuquerque Express, Albuquerque Journal, etc and looking on Albuquerque page on craigslist.com. Most people would even resort to taking the help of a local broker or agent, in which case it is important to check the background of the broker and ensure that there is no history of complaint against him. During your hunt for apartments in Albuquerque, you would come across a number of prospective landlords who has the right to check your credentials which includes a check on your background and a credit check. If the landlord during such investigation finds out that you have a bad credit history he may reject your proposal.

Having a bad credit score shouldn’t prevent you from searching for rental homes in Albuquerque. It definitely does pay to have a good credit score. But if you don’t’ have one, there is nothing really to worry. There is no strict requirement for a minimum credit score but when you have one, it gives the potential landlord the confidence that the rent will be paid month on month without any default. Smaller apartments and single family Albuquerque apartments do not usually ask for a credit history. You should try place like North East Heights, South West Valley and Mesa, some part of downtown to get cheap rental deals.

In situations when a copy of the credit history is called for, you could submit a letter explaining the reasons for bad credit history. You could also convince the landlord of your ability to pay rent on time. Most landlords of Albuquerque apartments for rent around the above mentioned areas and sometimes in Paradise Hills would be satisfied with your explanation but may also ask for a recommendation letter from your previous landlord. By submitting the letter you are indirectly proving your creditworthiness.

But there is something that you could do to rectify your bad credit history. You can get your credit status evaluated from the three major credit bureaus. The report of each of them normally reveals the discrepancies if any in the reports. So, do not unnecessarily worry if you have a low credit score. You will still be able to find Albuquerque New Mexico apartments for rent.

How to Change a Wheel Safely on a Slope

Changing a wheel safely on a slope requires a bit more attention than changing it on a straight road. There are more chances of the car slipping or even sliding without a wheel. Somebody could get hurt in the process. On a slope certain precautions have to be taken to avoid accidents.

First you have to see which tire needs changing, is it the front or the rear. The rears are easier than the fronts. When you are next to the curb and you have to change a rear tire then you steer the car into the curb, so it locks in position and cannot roll. That would be the front of the tire if you are going down or the rear of the front tire if you are going up.

Take the jack and its handle, the wooden blocks, the warning sign, the stepney and the wheel wrench out of the boot. Put the warning sign up for other motorists to see and the wooden blocks on the opposite side of the flat. This precaution further reinforces that you car will not move while you are changing the tire.

Open the wheel cover of the tire in question and loosen the nuts holding it. Then take the jack and attach it where the manufacturer says in the book. If you do not have the book the find a strong place so the jack will not penetrate the body of the car, like an axle. Raise the car up to where you can put the stepney in without problems.

Open the nuts fully and change the wheel to the stepney and hand tight the nuts in place, go criss cross when you do that to ensure the wheel is straight. Then lower the jack and tighten the wheel with a wrench again going criss cross. Remove the jack and put everything back into the dickey.

If a front tire has to be changed then obviously you cannot turn it to the curb, in which case you have to find some big stones to put behind the wheels on the other side. The wooden blocks may not take the weight of your car, and you don’t want it rolling at a vulnerable time. Accidents happen when people are in a hurry and they do not use common sense at the time.

If you have a flat and have to change your wheel always do things methodically and never in any rush. Think of the time you would lose if there is a mishap. Bad things happen and you have to cope with them. Always use the warning sign so others know that something is happening and they steer clear of your car.

Except for the basics there is a lot of common sense to be used in the entire process of changing a tire, putting the wooden blocks in for an example. See where the weight of your car is going to go and counter it accordingly with the blocks.

My Love Affair With The ‘Widow Maker’ TL1000S

You would have thought that a bike that quickly became known as the ‘widow maker’ would put off a young, relatively inexperienced rider like myself, but it didn’t. The scare stories made it more appealing, the rumours of power wheelies made it exciting and the drone of a V-Twin with race pipes on full chat made it sound intoxicating. And so began a love affair with a bike that I can only describe as an Alfa Romeo on two wheels; brilliant when it works and a dog’s dinner when it doesn’t. Yes, it’s the legendary Suzuki TL1000S, or to be more precise TL1000SV, the original head-banging full power model.

My TL ownership began at a service station on the M25 in 2004, following a chat with the owner on eBay. I had placed a listing asking to part-ex my bargain Kawasaki ZX6R J1 that I had bought to get me to and from university for a bargain £2500 for a TL1000S. You read that right, a 4 year old bike with only 20,000 miles for £2500 from a dealer, but that is another story.

The TL had been my dream bike for many years, ever since its launch in 1997. It was the most powerful one litre V-twin of its time, kicking out 125bhp which was far more than its nearest rival the Ducati 916, the most famous motorbike of them all. The press raved about the engine, its effortless power wheelies, its fantastic handling and its revolutionary rotary damper rear suspension that had been inspired by the world of Formula 1. It walked all over Ducati.

Unfortunately the praise didn’t last long. Rumours of massive tankslappers on bumpy uneven roads began to circulate, people were getting hurt and the inevitable happened… a journalist was killed. Blame was attributed to the rotary damper. Only a teaspoon of oil was used, quickly resulting in the shock overheating when the going got tough and turning the bike into a giant pogo stick. It became known as the Widow Maker.

To address the problem Suzuki fitted an un-adjustable steering dampener, which helped the problem but also killed the handling. In later models they also started reducing the power, but there is some debate as to whether this was to give its ‘bigger’ brother the fully faired TL1000R the edge, but in reality the R was heavier and slower.

The problems didn’t stop there however… the fuel tank leaked in warm weather, the frames cracked resulting in a mass recall for a new frame, the fuel injection was jerky, the electrics were next to useless and the chain became too tight over bumps and had to be run slack.

You may now be wondering why the hell I wanted such a bike! Well for me it was a straight forward decision. I like the underdog, I liked the idea of owning a bike that nobody else wanted because it was too dangerous, and the reality was the bikes weren’t the problem. They just weren’t setup properly from the factory and people weren’t respecting its limits. In addition, various aftermarket suspension options from Maxton were available and other problems are easily fixed.

Waiting at the services on the M25 on a beautiful summer’s day, I could hear the bellowing sound of a v-twin with race pipes coming up the slip road towards me. It sounded fantastic! The red TL looked stunning in the sun, with its gold wheels, black menacing engine and polished race pipes. The owner immediately jumped on the ZX6 and squealed with delight, “this is exactly what I want, I hate the TL, I want something easy and modern”.

Alarm bells should have, but didn’t ring. I knew the TL1000S was a marmite bike. I gave it a thorough going over (or so I thought) and carried out the usual checks. The engine purred away, all the electrics were working and it revved freely. No leaks, no cracks, new frame, good chain, good tyres, comfy, sounds top… I never lusted after a bike so much.

We signed the paperwork as quickly as possible and he screamed away on the Kwack. I didn’t even look at him leave, although the ZX6r was a fantastic bike I just couldn’t get attached to it. I kitted up, swung my leg over the TL and fired it up.

It’s not like an inline four, as you sit there idling the whole bike vibrates and pulses with the engine beat, getting faster as you rev it. The riding position is more head down than the ZX6 but comfortable and the whole bike feels very narrow. Good to go I let out the clutch and joined the M25.

I gave it a fistful, the bike jumped forward, the front went light, 100mph came up in seconds and the sweetest sound was emitted from the pipes. The low down torque was sublime, giving it more urgency than the Kwack and it felt stronger at the top. Whether it was faster or not is debatable because of the ZX6’s screaming top end, but overtakes were effortless.

My joy was short lived. The steering felt heavy and the bike didn’t want to change direction. At first I thought this was down to the massive stock steering dampener across the top yoke, but after moving lanes the bike wobbled over the white lines. I pulled in at the next services and checked the tyres. They were both as flat as a pancake. The previous owner complained about the poor handling, I wonder why?

With both tyres pumped up, the bike was transformed and handled reasonably well on the bends once I had left the motorway but as I began to gel with the bike, I noticed the various well known problems. The bike felt rear heavy and pushed the front in fast bends making me run wide, the steering dampener removed any feel from the front end and reduced responsiveness, the rear shock crashed over bumps (combination of too tight a chain and the rotary damper) and when riding through towns the bike was horribly jerky on a part throttle. So jerky in fact it was like riding a bucking bronco! I could feel that if I pushed the bike too hard on a bumpy road, I’d be thrown skywards before I could say “Oh… “. I had some work to do…

My first task was to fix the jerky fuel injection. This was a simple case of setting up the TPS (Throttle Position Sensor) properly, as Suzuki didn’t bother at the factory. It’s literally a 5 minute job and transforms the bike. Within seconds of riding I could feel the bike was smooth as silk, there was still some transmission lash, but that’s v-twin charm.

Next on the list was to sort the handling. I read numerous forums, tech sites and talked to various suspension specialists and quickly realised the bike was just poorly setup from the factory. It didn’t need money throwing at it, it just needed a few tweaks. I immediately dumped the steering dampener (I was told by various bikers I’d die), raised the forks through the yoke 5mm (told by various bikers I’d be even more dead) to put more weight on the front, tweaked the front and rear suspension settings and dumped the 190 rear tyre for a 180 to speed up the steering.

I also adjusted the chain properly, as due to the alignment of the rear swingarm compared to the output shaft, if you adjust the chain as you would on any other bike, it would go bow tight over a bump and potentially lock the wheel or wreck the engine.

One last modification was to fit better brakes from the Hayabusa, Galfer wavy discs and braided hoses to improve the spongy brakes. At low speed they are average, but at higher speeds they are superbly strong and two finger braking is all that’s required.

The first ride after the tweaks was sublime. All the scare stories I had heard and read about the Tl1000S just didn’t apply to the bike I was sat on. It tuned faster than the ZX6r, I could hit any apex I wanted by thought alone and there was no hint of a tankslapper, even if I was ham-fisted and going hell for leather. That ride was one of the best I’ve ever had.

A couple of days later I had it on the dyno, where it was tweaked from an already impressive 119rwbhp to 126rwbhp (later bikes produced around 100bhp), it was now the best bike in the world. Or it was when it worked 100%… On hot sunny days, after every ride I’d come back and find fuel leaking from the tank and dripping slowly down the side of the bike. Despite fitting later model fuel tanks, trying sealants etc, the problem was never fully fixed. I often thought about what would happen if fuel dripped onto the exhaust as I was riding, sending me skywards in a large fireball.

There were also gremlins in the electrics. If it rained the bike wouldn’t work. People often say how unreliable Italian bikes are, but this Japanese bike proved just as bad. Rain would seep in behind the front spark plug lead causing the front cylinder to cut out. You’d find yourself riding along and suddenly being launched out of your seat as it cut out then back in again. My neighbour also literally nearly punched me, because I’d have to sit there revving it after a wet ride until the water evaporated, otherwise the bike wouldn’t start in the morning. Sealant cured it… sometimes.

Other electrics were also problematic, with melting connections being a regular occurrence resulting in short circuits, or if you were really unlucky you’d be riding along a road in the middle of nowhere in the dark, and the headlight would fail.

The straw that broke the camel’s back however was when the out-shaft bearing failed. This was most likely caused by the previous owner having the chain too tight and resulted in an £800 repair bill. Most bikes you can remove the bearing from the outside, but on the TL1000S you have to split the cases then wait two months for parts. Soon after fixing it, I sold it after 2 years and 20,000 miles of ownership.

Do I regret selling it? Well I’m lucky enough to be back with my old bike 8 years later for one last ride. Since selling it I’ve owned a ZX9r and the monster that is the Kawasaki ZX12r (which I crashed on ice 8 months ago, oops!), both are significantly faster than the TL with 140bhp and 175bhp respectively, but did they have the same character? They were more reliable for a start, having covered 75,000 miles and 30,000 miles without a hitch. My biggest regret about selling the TL1000SV though is that they are now worth twice the amount I sold mine for!

Seeing my old bike again certainly gives me goose bumps. It still looks fantastic, despite starting to show its 17 years with flaking engine paint and the odd bit of corrosion, and although the design is now outdated it still looks menacing. It’s also been fitted with the optional lower fairing, which I’m not sure if I like.

Slinging a leg over the bike feels very old school. It feels dense and the riding position isn’t as comfortable as a more modern bike with a narrower seat. The fittings and fixtures look cheaper and don’t fit together as well as the luxurious ZX12r. The clocks are also very ’90s and minimalist, but they tell you everything you need for the ride ahead.

Starting the TL1000S up again, the sound is intoxicating. I will always love the sound of a v-twin, especially on full chat, it offends no-one unlike a screaming four. Sitting there and revving the engine however is when you really start to notice its age, the way it vibrates feels very unrefined, it feels as though the engine is loose in the bike and it’s about to fall apart. It won’t though, it gives it character.

Setting off at low speed, you notice the difference between more modern fuel injection and the TL’s, even though it’s a v-twin. The ride is snatchy, almost cumbersome, you have to think about what you’re doing otherwise you’ll stall easily. But as you wind the engine up, the bike comes alive and it feels just as good as any modern engine. There is relentless torque and power right to the red-line and the noise is sublime. Heading into a bend, the suspension feels rough and ready, crashing at the rear and feeling underdamped at the front. This might just be case of needing to fit the Maxton rear and modern internals on the front to improve things. The handling is still tight though and it holds a good line, tracking the road exactly where you want it. The braking is also still very impressive as the setup hasn’t changed since my ownership.

Riding my old TL1000SV again has been fantastic, but it doesn’t feel like the animal it once was. It is a bike you can grab by the scruff of the neck however and ride to within an inch of its life, while still going at a reasonable and not too illegal speed. The power wheelies don’t happen as easily as I remember (probably because I’m heavier) It’s full of character and is still one of the best sounding bikes on the road and despite the horror stories is also relatively benign by today’s standards.

Would I own one again? Yes, it was the best most enjoyable bike I’ve ever owned, but I would bring it up to date with much more modern suspension and it would have to have all the other problems already ironed out. The engine lives on in other motorcycles, but none have the same presence. It would be the perfect bike for my man shed alongside my next dream project, a Ducati Café Racer, and having a cult status, earlier full power models are going up in value making it a great investment.

What is a Line Cook and the Responsibilities That Come With the Job?

Fire, a term used to get ready to starting an order that the waiter just placed in. The guest have probably been waiting for at least ten minutes from the time that they first sat down at their table, and are now waiting for that meal that the kitchen staff will prepare.

The front line in the kitchen is where most of the food is fired. It is divided and usually consists of a saute section, a broiler, a grill, a deep fryer, a salamander, cold reach-ins or drawers, and hot water wells. One that works on this line, which may consist of 2 to 3 even 4, depending on the size of the restaurant or the menu, are called line cooks. Sometimes the chef likes to get in on the action.

As a line cook you need to be prepared, you need to know the menu, all the different recipes, have all your tools on hand, have all your ingredients in the menu on the line, and of course you need the skills of cooking.

Being mentally prepared, by far, is one of the most important ingredient a line cook should have. One must be able to concentrate on the task at hand over all the hustle and bustle in the kitchen. the chef would be calling out orders, waitstaff are asking all kinds of questions, you maybe working on maybe three or more things at once, and timing is crucial, everyone on the line must be in sync. With all these distractions one must keep his composure. Getting stressed, or angry doesn’t help but it does happen. Waitstaff asking you how much longer, chef telling you to fire one more thing from another order, your saute cook is a little behind, it’s been almost an hour since this chaotic mess started and your wondering when will it end. Temperatures rise on the front line and I don’t mean the burners.

After all is said and done, there are no complaints, no one waiting long for their meal, guests are happy, a few compliments, waitstaff got their tips, line cooks getting ready to clean the line, and making a list of the prep that needs to be done when they return the next day. Everyone gets a pat on the back, job well done. That is the reward and one of the goals of the front line cook.

Guest satisfaction is the priority of the front line cook. The quality of the meal is your number one concern along with presentation. All the ingredients must be fresh, every cook must be on the same page as far as the recipes go, there needs to be consistency making sure that what you cooked today, will taste the same tomorrow or next week. This is what brings in repeat customers, this is what a restaurant focuses on and depends on. The line cook along side the rest of the kitchen staff strive to do this daily. As a line cook you need to take pride in your job, because if you do, that pride will certainly reflect on the meals you prepare.

Read This Before You Buy The Logitech Surround Sound Speakers Z506 Computer Speakers

The Logitech Surround Sound Speakers Z506 To Provide A Surround System?

Are you looking to buy a surround system to play games and watch movies from your computer? If you are, then the Logitech Surround Sound Speakers Z506 from Logitech is the system that you can connect to your computer to give you the sound that you are looking for.

What Is The Logitech Surround Sound Speakers Z506?

However before you get your credit card to buy these speakers, here are some of the things that you may want to know about these speakers first. Officially known as the Logitech Surround Sound Speakers Z506, the Logitech Z506 as it is more popularly known, is a 5.1 surround system. The 5 represents the five satellites and the 1 the subwoofer. The speakers are rated at 75 watts; comes with 2 front, 2 rear satellites, a center speaker and a subwoofer. This 5.1 system with its powerful subwoofer will fill your room with rich sounds that wraps around you; sounds that will transport you into the midst of the actions – be that a jazz concert, an action game or a war movie.

Can I Connect My Xbox To The System?

Well, you can connect more than the Xbox 360. In fact, the Logitech Surround Sound Speakers Z506 system allows you to connect to the TV, PS3, Will, iPod, DVD player and how can we leave out? The personal computer! With your systems connected, you can hear the sound all around you – even from two channel sources.

The system will convert two channel stereo into an immersive surround sound experience that you will have to listen to it yourself to fully appreciate it. Its ported down firing subwoofer is the key to generating the deep bass which brings your music, movies and games to life. You can also change the bass setting so that you can adjust the boom levels to suite your moods.

Should I buy the Logitech Surround Sound Speakers Z506?

OK. Let me tell you what are the pros and cons of this speaker system and then you can decide whether you should buy it or not.

Cons Of This Speaker System

  • No controller/control pad but you can use your multi media keyboard as a controller
  • Length of the wires/cables to the rear speakers are too short. However it is a standard RCA so all you need is a male-to-female extension cable to extend the wire length

What’s Great About This Speaker System?

  • Set up is made very easy, especially if you are a non techie. Just match everything by their colors
  • No distortion from the speakers
  • Able to easily connect to many devices
  • Able to convert two channel stereo into immersive surround sound
  • Super fantastic bass with no distortion at all
  • For those of you who likes it loud, turn it up and it will rattle your window and shake your room

If you are looking for a great computer surround system that cost so little, then there is no better buy than the Logitech Surround Sound Speakers Z506.

How to Finance Seemingly Un-Financeable Properties in Real Estate Investing

Some houses or multi-family properties in real estate can seem un-financeable. This could be for a number of reasons including the perspective buyers or title issues with the properties. Unfortunately, these problems seem to occur after an investor buys a property and then can’t sell it.

Let’s examine the usual reasons that properties cannot be financed and what can be done. The most common issue is likely that the appraisal on a property isn’t sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of a rehab. The investor often only finds this out after he has completed the rehab and has a ready and willing buyer who has to get a conventional bank loan to buy it.

On this same vein, the appraisal may come in but the buyer can’t get financing because of more stringent lender requirements – such as credit scores, time on a job, recent foreclosure history or bankruptcy to mention a few. It may not be as simple as going on to another buyer or just getting another appraisal, especially if this buyer had been declined by FHA in the first place as the investor’s property is “tainted” as to appraisal in the FHA system for at least six months.

The simplest solution to the credit issue and appraisal issues is to get private lenders or portfolio lenders to finance the sale. Private lenders are individuals who are willing to loan money that they would normally have in a bank earning a couple of percent interest. The investor should offer this individual a 10% interest-only loan secured by a first mortgage on a property with a two or three year balloon note. This private lender could also receive 2% to 5% as closing points on the loan and have a pre-payment penalty of three months interest.

The following is an example of what the private lender would get on a $100,000 mortgage: The buyer should be able to put down 20% of the purchase price to secure the mortgage in case of a market decline. A lot of current home buyers have large deposits because they went through foreclosure and haven’t paid mortgage payments for extended periods. 10% interest on $100,000 = $833.33 per month versus perhaps $83.33 in a local bank at a 1% interest on a savings account.

At closing, the lender would get cash of $3,000 to $5,000 as closing points. If the homeowner refinanced during the term of the loan and paid the pre-payment penalty, the private lender would additionally receive $833.33 x 3 months pre-payment penalty = $2,500.

The appraisal should be done by a reputable appraiser and a title policy and insurance should be provided to the private lender. An attorney should draft all the mortgage documents and do the actual closing to protect the investor/seller and the lender.

Using a private lender allows a buyer with blemished credit to purchase a home. It also allows the seller to not have to be dependent on the whims of a local or national bank which may be afraid to lend money in that neighborhood or at that time in the market. The investor should also contact portfolio lenders in his area to see if his buyer(s) qualify. Portfolio lenders are smaller private lenders who do not have the stringent lending requirements of national lenders. Most notably are credit unions.

Another major cause of being unable to finance is because of a title issue and the inability of a buyer to get a conventional loan on the property. If necessary, the investor may have to do what is called a “quiet title action” to do what the courts call quieting any claims. This can take from a few months to a few years but is worth the effort to be able to sell a property at full market value and get conventional financing at that time.

In summary, no matter how impossible it may seem to get funding for a buyer of a property, there are multiple ways to get this done, a couple of which have been mentioned in this article. Looking for properties with defective titles is a great way for investors to get great deals – you just need patience and fortitude.

How to Wallpaper Over a Brick or Cement Block Wall

The problems of concealing grouting and rough surfaces are easily overcome. Lining paper, if properly applied, will stretch over and hide the rough patches and the effect can be completed by using a heavy or embossed wallpaper.

This technique also applies to walls built of cement blocks. If you are building with brick or cement block and know that you want to wallpaper certain walls, ask your builders to apply the mortar so that you have a nice flat surface, rather than raking out the joints. With existing walls, the secret is in preparing the raw surface.

These are the tools you’ll need:-

A long table or bench, a trough, sponge or foam paste applicator, scissors, soft brush for smoothing wallpaper on to wall, a ruler, plumb line, razor for cutting.

A paint sealer is applied to dry any moisture from the wall, then a latex based wallpaper liquid size. A well soaked pre-pasted wallpaper lining will be just sufficient to soften the size and bond the lining firmly to the wall so that when wallpaper is pasted over, it won’t weaken in any way.

The same principle can even be applied if you are papering over rough-caste walls (walls that have been plastered and raked or scrolled upon when wet). If your brick wall has an extremely rough and raised surface it will have to be plastered over prior to wall-papering.

Here is how it’s done:-

1. Prior to start working on an absorbent raw wall, you’re first step is to seal and size the wall. Coat it with a paint sealer and leave to dry overnight. Next apply a latex based wallpaper liquid size; this is especially good on absorbent surfaces. This takes about an hour to dry. If time is short you can apply two coats leaving an hour between coats, instead of the over- night sealer.

2. Apply pre-pasted lining paper. Soak it in a trough to soften and roll out to arm’s length. Fold over and back half-way, forming pleats to the end of the roll.

3. Holding the top piece of paper in one hand, and pleats in the other, stretch the first pleat along the wall and flatten out with sponge. Stretch next fold and flatten and so on to the end of the roll.

4. To paper around a corner, leave 25 mm (one inch) overlap and “butt” the adjacent strip of paper on to it.

5. Repeat soaking and folding procedure and bring next roll of paper lining overlapping approximately 6 mm (quarter of an inch) onto the first. By having paper on paper you will prevent the joins from edging into the grooves between bricks.

6. Leave lining paper to dry overnight. As it does so it will tighten and stretch out over grooves and rough patches on the wall surface.

7. Before applying wallpaper, coat again with the latex based wallpaper liquid size as added insurance that the lining paper has sealed properly and tightened on to the wall

8. The type of wallpaper used is important. It should be embossed or a heavy natural weave to ensure that the imprint of the design is not lost when pasted on.

9. Hang your selected wallpaper vertically in the normal way.

Sit back and admire your masterpiece.

iPhone 3G Or 3GS Cable Number Associations

Have you tried to take apart your iPhone 3G or 3GS for a cracked or broken screen and found yourself wondering what each of the numbered cables inside represent? The following article will describe each of these cable numbers and the common problems associated when each one of them is left disconnected.

The list of cables is as follows:

#1: This cable connects the glass screen/digitzer to the motherboard. Having this cable disconnected causes the touch function to malfunction on the phone. Other causes of touch function problems are a cracked iPhone screen, a defective digitizer, or the worst case is a burnt out motherboard.

#2: This cable connects the LCD to the motherboard. Having this cable disconnected will cause the LCD screen to go black. The other cause of a black/white LCD is dropping the iPhone, causing the liquid crystals to turn white upon electrification.

#3: This cable connects the ear speaker and proximity sensor to the motherboard. Having this disconnected will cause the phone to not recognize when your phone is close to your face (causing you to push buttons while talking), and/or it will cause the earpiece to not function. The small flap that secures this cable is very very fragile and turns the motherboard into a paperweight if it is broken.

#4: This cable connects the speaker, buzzer, microphone, antenna, and charge port to the motherboard. Having this disconnected will cause all of the above to malfunction. Other causes of a poor speaker output is a blown speaker.

#5: This cable connects the iPhone power button, silent/mute switch, headphone jack, and volume control to the motherboard. Having this disconnected will cause all of the above to malfunction.

#6: This cable connects the iPhone Wi-Fi antenna to the motherboard. Having this disconnected is one of the causes of a “no-wifi” message being displayed in the settings.

#7: (3GS ONLY) This cable connects the iPhone antenna to the motherboard. Having this disconnected is one reason for no cell reception. The other reason for no iPhone reception would be a poor SIM connection or a faulty SIM card.

With this guide of the above cable connections it will be much easier to troubleshoot issues when you are not certain what is going on with your phone. It will also help when disassembling your phone.

Chiropractic Adjustment Tool Helps Relieve Pain at Home

Pain is just not fun! When suffering with back and neck pain, fibromyalgia, TMJ, knee problems, carpel tunnel syndrome, cervical spine issues or discomfort with your wrist or ankles, sometimes all you can think about is getting RELIEF! While some will take any medication, regardless of the side effects, just to relieve the misery; others are looking for alternatives for pain relief. It was such a search for a natural back pain relief: in particular, upper back pain relief and a non-invasive treatment for lower back pain that led me to discover chiropractic adjustment tools.

My friend, who suffers greatly with fibromyalgia, finally experienced some relief for her back and neck pain through the regular treatments using chiropractic products. Specifically, through massages and the use of the chiropractic adjustment tool properly and regularly administered, she began to improve. She improved so much that they personally purchased a chiropractic adjustment tool (C.A.T.) and her husband was trained to administer the treatments to his wife. She describes the therapy as taking the stress off the muscle when hurting and taking the edge off the pain of the fibromyalgia.

One night at a small dinner party around the pool, another friend began to describe the relief she was getting from the use of a small device called the chiropractic activator, which she described as a “clicker,” but turned out to be another description for the chiropractic adjustment tool! She suffers with constant back muscle pain as well as neck pain. In the past, she had visited a back pain specialist, but the only back pain remedy he offered was muscle relaxers that would literally put her to sleep and left her feeling groggy the next day.

In her search for back pain cures, she took yoga, which didn’t hurt, but it didn’t help either. Then one day a co-worker described back pain treatments she was receiving from her chiropractor to relieve her back pain which was very effective! She began to describe these gentle, non-invasive treatments, so my friend had to try it. She was glad she did.

Do you ever wonder if someone is trying to tell you something? So I began to investigate. How do these chiropractic adjustment tools work? Will these chiropractic tools hurt me? Will I continue to experience back and neck pain after these treatments?

Treatments using the Chiropractic Adjustment Tool, the Chiropractic Activator or the Activator Gun have been developed, studied and tested for thirty plus years and have been found quite successful. This tool (which fits in the palm of the hand) is a small, well-designed machine used to re-align the bones of the body without painful manipulations. Because it’s neither big nor loud, there is no need for fear, which makes these treatments ideal for children, the elderly or the seriously injured. It does sound like a “click.” The treatments are delivered to specific targets with controlled, measured low-force adjustments.

Chiropractors frequently will have the patients lie on a table and perform a leg length inequality assessment. Different movements are requested during the session after which the chiropractic adjustment tool is administered in specific areas with the final outcome of the session having leg lengths equaled with the goal of the body becoming totally aligned.

While controversy continues about alternative methods and medicines, there is great merit and value in the exploration of non-invasive procedures that might eliminate pain with limited side-effects. Perhaps someone is trying to tell you something?

How Useful is CAD Software to Engineers and Architects?

The emergence of advanced technology has made people today dependent on machines. Using computers and software, for example, is a very common illustration of this. Computer experts are coming up with more and more software to make more and more jobs easier.

A more specific illustration of this can be found in the modern approach towards engineering and architecture. These days, professionals in these fields use CAD computer software which is a program that allows them to create designs faster, easier and with more accurate measurements. Aside from the convenience that CAD software brings, it also helps put architects and engineers ahead of their competitors. CAD, which can render designs that are two-dimensional or three dimensional, stands for Computer Aided Design and has been in use since 1982.

So how does CAD computer software work? And what does it do exactly to help engineers and architects? The program is actually multifaceted in the sense that there are many ways it can help. To make CAD work will require, however, a careful study of its features and the many ways it can be used. It is rather a complex yet flexible and highly functional program.

This article will not be enough to discuss the various ways that CAD works but pinpointing its advantages could give some very good ideas. One great advantage of CAD computer software is its easy-to-use tools in the creation and alteration of designs. Obviously, this is so much better than the old fashioned way of using a pencil and eraser directly on paper. This method of designing is obviously so much easier and engineers and architects simply have more time to finish other tasks. In other words, high productivity is going to be the main end result of using CAD.

Before the design is actually printed on paper, CAD also allows both the design professional and the client to preview what has been finished so far. Any alterations can be made simply by manipulating the drawing through the use of the software. With CAD, it is so much easier to spot errors because the designs can be rendered exactly as they would be in reality. Hence, modifications can be done even before printing, thus, allowing one to save.

With the tough competition that everyone has to face these days, it is wise to take advantage of new technologies that can help put them ahead in the race. While traditional methods hold a significant part in the history of design, advanced tools such as CAD software should only be welcomed as man’s way of furthering development in a field of expertise that he himself has created long ago.

Effective Counseling Skills – The Practical Wording of Therapeutic Statements and Processes

QUALITIES OF THE COUNSELOR: Genuineness, Empathy, Warmth, Unconditional Positive Regard

Genuineness, empathy, warmth, and unconditional positive regard are the core counselor qualities. Some people possess these qualities because of their philosophy and personality. Others can develop them through awareness and practice.


By genuineness I am referring to sincerity, and this is something that is conveyed by means of eye contact and facial expression. I am communicating non-verbally that what my client has to say is of the greatest importance and I am truly interested in it. So I speak of genuineness as opposed to being mechanical; a counselor who uses stock phrases or who uses too much or misplaced humour and does not take the client seriously enough is not going to be able to come across with genuineness and sincerity.

Being real; genuine. Which carries along with it the importance of being one’s self instead of putting on some kind of role. In other words the way you are as a counselor in terms of your overall style and the way you come across needs to be the way you are in any relationship or situation. It is not a role, or a hat that you put on and take off. Insincerity may be communicated when the counselor looks away, being easily distracted, looking at his watch, yawning; showing by these behaviours that he really is not interested in the client’s issues.

Is this sincerity and genuineness a cultural thing? Or is it cross-cultural? In North America there seems to be an emphasis on sincerity in relationships. If someone’s not sincere in a relationship people don’t like it as much, whereas in Europe there’s more give-and-take and they take on roles more easily.

There may be different signals of sincerity. For example, in some cultures the emphasis on eye contact wouldn’t be as great as in the Western culture. In native culture, or black culture, and some other cultures there’s a noticeable lack of eye contact or different eye contact as compared to Western cultures. For example, in some non-white cultures, the person may look at you when talking and look away when listening which you may interpret as not listening if you are not aware of the custom. Eye contact can be different for men and women; women tend not to look men in the eyes, especially in some Eastern cultures which are patriarchal.

seating arrangement

Another point to make here is regarding seating arrangement and body language in counseling. In addition to frequent eye contact, sitting with your legs uncrossed and with your arms uncrossed resting on the arms of the chair, may communicate a relaxed openness to the client.

Also, in terms of the angle of the chairs, about a 100 degree or a little more than a 90 degree angle tends to maximize the comfort of the client because this allows him to look past the counselor without turning his head away. Whereas if chairs are directly facing each other, this tends to set up a sense of confrontation. The distance of the chairs should be no more than three feet and not closer than two feet. This range communicates support, whereas if the chairs are too close, I may communicate intrusiveness or if the chairs are too far apart, I may communicate a lack of support for the client. Non-verbal rapport is important to the counseling relationship.


The next quality is empathy. I am speaking specifically of accurate empathy, the ability to be connected to the feelings, to the emotions of the client. So if the client is feeling sad, the counselor needs to have a sense of that sadness and be able to mirror it in voice tone and facial expression.

For example, I had a client whose little boy was killed by a city utility truck, and as she talked about the incident she was feeling sad and I felt very sad as well. Now I think it was easy for me to connect because I have a little boy, and at the time he was six or so, about the age her little boy was. I found that I was able to feel very sad. In fact it was all I could do to keep from breaking down and crying.

A rule of thumb with your empathy is not to allow your own feelings of sadness to overshadow the expression of your client’s sadness. So if I were to break down and cry and my client is just feeling sad, but not crying, then that may have a particular effect on my client. Can you imagine what that may be? She’d feel like she had to cry. She becomes a caregiver. So the roles get reversed. She could become the caregiver. The focus would be taken away from the client. Also, I may be seen as fragile and as someone who needed to be protected from the client’s pain. So the client may tend to hold back her painful experiences for fear that I may break down and cry. I may appear to be overly sensitive and fragile.

Empathy is conveyed in non-verbal ways such as tearing or a frown if the client’s feeling is sadness. Keep in mind that empathy must also be genuinely felt and genuinely mirrored. Any insincerity from the counselor will erode the client’s feeling of safety.

Essentially I will be mirroring the emotional content or the emotions of my client whether the feeling is anger, sadness, fear, or some other feeling. Some counselors have said that empathy is the most therapeutic counselor quality because it lends support to the client’s pain.

Empathy may also be conveyed verbally in the voice tone. And so I will speak with empathic reflections. This is a statement that reflects back what the client has been saying, accompanied by a feeling word. An empathic reflective statement would be, “So you’re feeling sad because your good friend just moved away, is that what you’re feeling?”

When you as the counselor show tears what does the client perceive? Is the client going to think you don’t really understand or is he going to become defensive? If your tears are an accurate reflection of the client’s feeling, and if your expression of feeling is a little bit less than the client’s expression of feeling, your empathy is likely to be accepted as support. However, something else that may happen is that the client’s own engagement of emotion is scary for him so that he withdraws. This is an issue of the client’s not feeling safe with himself or perhaps with you, which I will speak about in a few minutes.


The next quality is warmth, and here I am talking about non-possessive warmth, as opposed to cool detachment. Warmth is caring that is conveyed in a soft and gentle voice tone and facial expression. Warmth may be conveyed in a non-verbal way and a non-possessive way. Now what would possessive warmth be? Smothering. Too touchy-feely. Smothering in that way. In a physical way, giving too much physical caring. Sometimes a counselor will like to give out hugs or want to hug a client more for the counselor’s own needs than for the client. And so that can become possessive.

A female counselor was mentioning that she would touch and sometimes have it misread. It wasn’t a prolonged contact, just a touch. So the client was interpreting any physical contact as something possessive. I want to talk about touching a little more when we get down to boundaries; touching is a boundary issue.

Verbal warmth can be experienced as possessive if it is excessive in terms of the warm voice tone or in terms of verbal content if it is overstated. This may be perceived as lacking sincerity or as superficial and shallow, or if it is perceived as sincere it is experienced as being too mothering and protective or condescending, treating the client too much as a child.

We can understand warmth by its opposite quality which is to be cold. In this case the voice tone is emotionally flat, detached and mechanical, and verbal content may tend to understate the client’s plight. It is a style which communicates aloofness, distance, and unconcern.

unconditional positive regard

Another important attribute is unconditional positive regard. Some people believe that this is the most curative or therapeutic thing that a counselor can provide. This implies a particular mental attitude: that the client’s problems and feelings are of the greatest importance. This session is the most important session for the client, and the client himself is as valuable as the most highly respected person on earth even if he does not believe that he is.

I am regarding the client’s behaviour, no matter how self-destructive or even destructive of others it may be, as having a story behind it that allows it to make sense, that makes it understandable even though the client is responsible for choosing it.

The belief is that a person will make choices that are best for himself if he is aware of all the possible choices. If I have this ability to convey unconditional positive regard it is going to be possible for me to sincerely validate my client, to bring all my best ability and expertise to the session, to listen and focus on the client, to accept the client’s pace and process of recovery.

That would be like having Charles Manson, the mass-murderer, as a client. Yes, he killed a lot of people, however, he does have the possibility or the potential for change. So he’s here and my task is to help him to be the best person that he can be from what appears to be the worst.

You see the person as having intrinsic value apart from his behaviour, and you see his behaviour as having an understandable story behind it. And that will allow us to be able to remain in a helping position with our client. There may be some types of people, such as Charles Manson, that we would not be able to maintain an unconditional positive regard for. What are some other types of clients that you may have trouble with? Perhaps sexual offenders, serial killers, rapists, child abusers.

Could that perhaps be why they are some of the hardest to cure or change? It’s hard to find people who are able to work with those types of individuals. It’s difficult for a counselor to work in those circumstances and still separate himself to such an extent that he becomes a part of the solution rather than part of the problem. It can be a challenge to keep from reacting judgmentally and lose one’s effectiveness in that way. So what should we do if we cannot maintain unconditional positive regard for a client? Have him seek someone else, perhaps. In this circumstance you might say, “I’m not sure I’ll be able to help you as much as you may need.” Make a referral and own it as your problem that you don’t have the skills to help him.

When you say to the client, “I don’t feel that I have the skills that you need to get the help that you need,” you show you are accepting responsibility for your limitations, rather than blaming the client. Along with that goes the ability to be non-judgmental. I need to be able to regard the client’s behaviour in terms of behaviours which work well and which do not work well for the client’s functioning, rather than in moral terms. So we need to be aware of the range of judgmental terms to bee left out of the counseling relationship and left out of our counseling vocabulary.

Rather than say to a client, “Do you think that’s wise or do you think that’s right?” I’m going to say, “Does that work well for you?”

The question is what works well in relationships and what doesn’t work well, rather than what behaviour is right or what behaviour is wrong. Terms like inconsiderate, or imprudent, or unwise, irresponsible, right or wrong, good or bad, are judgmental terms. Unconditional positive regard goes beyond being non-judgmental and most certainly includes being non-judgmental. The client usually brings too much self-judgment with him, so he does not need ours piled on top of his.

You have unconditional positive regard for the client to the degree you have it for yourself; that same degree for someone else. So I think it’s a matter of degrees… possibly to realize how silly it would be and I’m at 60 or 70 percent of my ability to be non-judgmental and that’s the way it is; and putting aside that and still being as totally open as possible. I mean there’s no 100%.

There is a point where you choose not to be judgmental. I may feel judgmental but a client doesn’t have to know that. I can choose not to express it; I can filter that out. The choice of leaving your stuff behind and going there without your stuff so it doesn’t get in the way of your work with the client.

The client is already self-blaming enough; already bringing enough self-judgment and guilt with him, so he doesn’t need your judgment of him. The dependent client may allow you to judge him and he will return to the session. In any case, judgment tends to erode safety.

The counselor can be viewed similar to a defence lawyer who is appointed by the court to defend and support the client. You can’t make any judgments and you give unconditional support. It’s as if the client tends to be his own prosecutor and presents the negative self-talk, for example.

It has to do with a fundamental view of humanity that everyone is sincere and well-intentioned and that people have problem behaviours for understandable reasons. In other words, a client may not have been responsible for beginning his unhealthy patterns that were adopted as a means of surviving painful life experiences. However, although the person was responsible for starting the patterns and although they seemed to work well during childhood for example, the client is responsible for perpetuating those patterns in adult life, and they do not work well now or he would not be in counseling. Maybe there was an abusive background or there was unhealthy parental modeling, there was a tragic loss of a loved one, for example, and these experiences resulted in some adaptive behaviour that does not work well in adult life and relationships.

There’s always a story there that allows the client’s behaviour or problems to make sense and that allows us to remain non-judgmental of the client and to maintain positive regard. I recently heard a counselor tell a client during the first session, “What are you complaining about? What are you complaining about now?” Well that’s a very judgmental way to approach a client, to assign to her problems the word “complain” or “complaining.”

Some counselors may justify that by saying they are trying to elicit a transference reaction. In my view what they are doing is abusing the client to encourage the expression of feelings the client has been unable to deal with. But the end does not justify the means. It does not justify a non-professional approach; a destructive, abusive approach which could harm the client. If I can not predict a therapeutic outcome of my statement, I am not engaging in professional counseling.

Various Types of Winter Jackets for Women

Every woman needs some warm clothing in her wardrobe to counter the winter chill and jackets help her do that in style. Coming from the French word “jaquet” which literally means a light tunic, this hip or waist length outer-wear garment blends warmth, style and comfort in a single piece. Winter jackets for women come in extensive variety, with different types being suitable for various body types and various occasions. The idea is to fetch all the variety for your wardrobe so that you can beat the chill while looking ravishing all the time. So the next time you are out to pick the new winter jackets for women, here are the variants to consider:

Leather Jacket

Whatever is the age, body type or size of a woman, a leather winter jacket is a staple for her wardrobe. This category includes a huge variety in itself, with fits varying from loose to well-fitted and the tight, figure-hugging fits. There are also plenty of options in colors as well as designs, while the material used can be half-cut or full-cut leather.

Fleece Jacket

As the name suggests, these are the ones which are crafted in warm and winter-appropriate fleece fabric. Not only do these jackets offer insulation, but they look good and feel good too. These come in various colors, cuts and patterns.

Denim Jacket

Denim is one fabric which has timeless charm, yet is known for its great fit and sturdy durability. These are the reasons why denim jackets have been the evergreen favorites for women. And the best part is their versatility that you can wear them practically anywhere and everywhere!


A parka, more commonly known as a wind-cheater, is a lightweight variant in winter jackets which offers protection from the wind and rain. The purpose of parkas is functional, though these are now being designed with aesthetic considerations too.


Blazer is the garment which resembles a suit jacket; though it can be regarded more casual in comparison with a professional suit, a blazer can be worn to the office as well as an evening out. You can find these in various styles and materials.


Coats do not exactly fall in the category of jackets but they are regarded as the key winter wear garment that every woman must essentially stock in her collection. Most of the coats extend to hip length and offer better insulation for harsh winter conditions.