Choosing the Right Snow Tires

“A long drive on a snowy weather” can often gives us the feeling of cruising through milky clouds. However this pleasure has lots to do with the strength of the machine you are steering, as roads full of snow pose all sorts of difficulties to drivers. Snow minimizes friction of the track by making it wet and slippery to drive through. Despite strong engine and transmission systems, a firm grip of the vehicle over the track is indispensable. Thus, if you are planning an excursion to any snowy region, then just have a close look at the tires of your vehicle, as your safety primarily depend on those four wheels during the trip. If you find that the tires are not apt to conquer the damping snow, replace it with suitable set of ‘snow tires’. Just be inquisitive and attentive while doing the snow tire purchase.

We often install all-weather tires on to our vehicles, marked with “M+S”- i.e. mud and snow – which are said to be good enough to handle all types of terrains. But when it comes to chilly cold weather and heavy snow down pouring, these tires usually lose its hold on the track. In this situation, specially designed snow tires are essential by all means. Previously designed snow tires were noisy, and were inept for the dry and plain conditions, but modern snow tires are manufactured from special rubber compounds that are appropriate for all weather conditions. However, snow tires are further categorized according to the intensity of the cold weather. So, simply keep following things in your mind if you are going to purchase snow tires for your vehicle:

o If you are a resident of a highly cold region, where the roads remain covered with, ice and snow, during the entire winter season, then you should go for the RSi tires, as it provides the better results than the other tires of its class. The RSi tires are found to provide least rolling resistance thereby enhances the efficiency of the vehicle to a great extent. However, these are not equally competent on wet or dry tracks.

o If the conditions are not frosty enough, and snowfall isn’t a regular affair in your region, then you can definitely rely on ‘studded’ tires to cruise along. Studded tires also provide good traction over the wet or dry pavements.

o For an efficient grip over the track, check out the tread depth of the tire, and make sure that the tread depth is more than 5mm, to clasp heavier ice particles into it.

o If you own a SUV or any other heavy-duty vehicle, avoid using mix of tires into it, as it would be pretty unsafe for the driver. Always install 4+ deep treaded ice tires on to your SUV.

So, ensure safety for you and your family while driving through the roads covered with snow, and choose the snow tires matching your requirements. Look online for helpful review information.

What Does DVDRip, DVDSCR, CAM, R5, TS and TC Mean

To everyone who once wonder what DVDRip, DVDSCR, CAM, TS, TC, and R5 mean. Those are Video Quality names. When you are going to download a movie is important to know what does mean all this words in the name of the archive, because you dont want to spend time downloading a movie and find out the quality of the movie is not as expected.

DVDRip: Is a copy of a original DVD. The quality is excellent (DVD Quality). DVDRip Quality is ready to download when Original DVD is in the market. DVDrips are released in SVCD and DivX/XviD.

Worth to Download? YES

DVDScr: Or DVD Screener, usually is a copy of a PROMO Dvd. The DVDScr is out before the original DVD is in the market. Video usually comes with water marks in the video, clock counters and legends. Sometimes in some parts of the Movie video turns in black and white.

Quality is good.

Worth to Download? YES

R5: Refers to a specific format of DVD released in DVD Region 5, the former Soviet Union, and bootlegged copies of these releases that are distributed on the Internet. In an effort to compete with movie piracy, the movie industry chose to create a new format for DVD releases that could be produced more quickly and less expensively than traditional DVD releases. Quality is good because video is ripped directly from a DVD.

Worth to Download? YES

CAM: A cam is a theater rip usually done with a digital video camera. A mini tripod is sometimes used, but a lot of the time this wont be possible, so the camera make shake. Also seating placement isn’t always idle, and it might be filmed from an angle. Quality is awful.

Worth to Download? NO

TS: Or Telesync, is the same spec as a CAM except it uses an external audio source. A direct audio source does not ensure a good quality audio source, as a lot of background noise can interfere. Quality is awful.

Worth to Download? NO

TC: A telecine machine copies the film digitally from the reels. Sound and picture should be very good, but due to the equipment involved and cost telecines are fairly uncommon. Quality is regular.

Worth to Download? NO

The First Celebrity Chefs

Bartolomeo Scappi: A Renaissance Italian author and cook (circa 1500 – 1570), his birthplace is debated, as both Italy and France play tug-of-war; but no matter his humble beginnings, Scappi had the distinction of cooking for six popes, serving up dishes in the Vatican kitchens while Michelangelo was laboriously painting the Sistine Chapel (yes, but did he serve lunch to the great painter?). Apparently popes didn’t live too long back then, and Scappi enjoyed a long career in Rome; his cookbook was published in Venice (1581) after his death, in six different installments, but rumor has it he was not very forthcoming with his secret recipes; nevertheless, judging from its lengthy contents, the popes and the Vatican staff ate very well, Michelangelo we’re not sure of.

Procopio Cutò: Italian born but French trained, he opened the first coffeehouse in Paris, in 1686; billing the popular hangout as “modern” he attracted notables from literature, politics and the art world. His grandfather pioneered the ice cream machine, and Procopio introduced world-class gelato to the Parisians; King Louise XIV was especially fond of the Italian ices in a variety of fruit flavors. Eventually, he added a few food items to accompany the coffee and desserts and thus undoubtedly created the first Starbucks, but with ice cream.

Nicolas Appert: While not a chef in the classic sense, he belongs on the list of famous foodies for his invention of preserving food; frequently considered the “Father of Canning” he spent 14 years refining his invention in the early 1800s and helped change the kitchens of the Western world. Appert hailed from France.

James Hemings: Better known as foodie president Thomas Jefferson’s chef, started life as a slave but accompanied Jefferson to Paris, where he trained as a chef and learned the language. Upon returning to palatial Monticello, he was paid as Jefferson’s personal chef and turned out most of the fabulous dinners. Since Jefferson had an enormous garden, one can only imagine the ingredients which were available to Chef Hemings. Tragically he died young after a struggle with alcoholism (all those imported French wines, one might presume).

Ruth Graves Wakefield: Owner and chef of the Toll House Inn restaurant in Massachusetts, she created the famous Toll House cookie back in the 1930s; her restaurant, well-known for home cooking and delicious desserts, was a popular destination for many Massachusetts residents and vacationers. Ruth had a background in home economics, was a perfectionist (as most chefs are) and authored a best-selling cookbook, not to mention putting herself and the Nestle Chocolate Company on the map.

Alessandro Fellippini: Head chef at Delmonico’s in NY City, considered the first fine dining establishment in America, which opened in 1827 and was famous for their signature steaks and vast wine selection. New York’s social elite, politicos, millionaires and even visiting European royalty dined there often. Named for the brothers Delmonico who owned the place, several legendary dishes were created and took center stage, among them Eggs Benedict and Lobster Newberg.

Charles Ranhofer: The Delmonico brothers spared no expense hiring fine chefs, and French born and trained Ranhofer cooked at this fine restaurant in the late 1800s; never modest, he took credit for Baked Alaska, Chicken a la King and Chateaubriand (although all three are probably not originals) and published several popular cookbooks. Adored by commoners and royalty alike, he often traveled to France to learn some new tricks, then came back to New York and served them up at Delmonico’s. He ruled the kitchen for over 30 years, hanging up his apron in 1896.

Marie-Antoine Carême: Considered by most as the founder of haute cuisine, this French chef took food to a higher level, which suited the French just fine. Starting out with rich and beautiful pastries, he graduated to fine cuisine. His talent was recognized early and attracted nobility, namely King George IV, eventually becoming the personal chef for the Rothschild family (who also considered themselves royalty). Sadly, he died at age 48 but made a huge impact on French cuisine, setting the tone for fine dining worldwide. His influence helped create one of the greatest chefs in history, Auguste Escoffier.

Born outside of Nice, France, Escoffier‘s culinary talent was recognized early by his father, who sent him to apprentice in a relative’s restaurant. By his twenties, his prowess was spreading throughout France, and he was hired by the world-class Savoy Hotel in London, where his biggest fan was the Prince of Wales. He frequently trained and hired chefs in some of Europe’s finest kitchens, and he was top dog with the Ritz Hotels. The equally immodest German Kaiser once proclaimed Escoffier as the “Emperor of Chefs”; (seems the Kaiser had a special fondness for his strawberry pudding). He owned a prized restaurant in Cannes, while performing double duty at the Grand Hotel in Monte Carlo, attracting the rich worldwide. Remembered for his exquisite sauces as well as other dishes, including bombe Néro (don’t ask) and Peach Melba, somehow he found time to author several cookbooks and numerous articles on the fine art of cuisine. Fortunately for future generations of foodies, he lived and cooked right up until his death at the age of 88, in 1935.

No list would be complete without two marvelous American chefs who pioneered TV cooking shows in the 60s and 70s, paving the way for today’s Food Network stars: French-trained chef Julia Child and wonderfully entertaining British Graham Kerr, The Galloping Gourmet. Kerr popularized getting sloshed while cooking in full view of his live audiences, and of course who could forget Julia’s high-pitched enthusiasm for her nouveau French dishes.

Whether you’re a fine dining fan, or just a regular foodie, this list is a sample of the many artistic, adventurous and hardworking chefs who raised the bar for great eating. We applaud them posthumously as their legacies live on.

A Breast Lift Can Change Your Life

You may not like the way your chest looks but that does not mean that you are not still beautiful. If you take a look around, you will see that there are many women who have different body shapes. Some may have youthful looking bodies and others may have older looking ones. Even though it is up to the owner of these bodies to try and find the beauty that is within, you do not have to feel as if it is the end of the world if you are not happy with what you have. If you want to bring back the curves to your shape, then you should think about getting a breast lift.

Most women think that the best way for them to solve their chest issues is to get implants. While that may be a great solution for some, it is not always the best solution for everyone. Think about it, if you are over thirty years of age, you may not want to have anything added to give you a bigger chest. You may just want to have something done to give your chest some more definition and to keep it from sagging.

You may not know what has caused your chest to start aging and losing some of its elasticity, but that does not mean that you have to wear padded bras and look for creams and vitamins that claim to help alleviate the problem. Instead of wasting time and waiting a long time to see any type of results, you should start looking for cosmetic surgeons that can give you a more immediate solution. A breast lift can give your chest a new life. You may have become accredited to it looking a certain way and not even know it.

Stop looking at your body and thinking about how much you wish that you had treated it differently, it is time for you to start looking at things differently. Sometimes even the best care in the world can not fight what genetics has in store for you, as you get older. Stop wasting time and start doing some research so you can find out where the breast lift centers are in your area. Start looking at your calendar and making appointments with some of the doctors. You need to learn about them, their practice and what they can do to help you achieve your dream of having a firmer chest.

Keep in mind that just because you have chosen to have a breast lift does not mean that you do not have to worry about your chest sagging or aging later on. Even though this procedure offers you a realistic and immediate improvement, you may or may not want to have it again when you get much older. The effects of the procedure are not permanent and are not meant to be. With the right follow up care and lifestyle, you will be able to enjoy the results for many years to come.

The Basic Apparatus Used In Pilates

Pilates classes were designed to increase focus, remove stress and tension from the mind and the muscles and also make one’s life better through basic exercise by developing controlled movement from a strong core. Joseph Pilates originally developed his method in 1945 as mat exercises and used several pieces of apparatus to help people with improving one’s inner and outer image by feeling and looking great. Each piece of apparatus has its own set of movements and exercises and focuses on certain aspects of one’s body.

A Pilates studio uses a wide range of apparatus which most are for resistance training which allows one to choose how hard they want to work out according to their fitness level and strength. A spring is used to apply the progressive resistance so the further one stretches the spring the more resistance there will be. The most widely used apparatus in called the Reformer and is probably the most important. Pilates classes will also have apparatus such as the Cadillac or Trapeze Table, the High or Electric Chair, the Wunda Chair, the Baby Chair, the Ladder Barrel, the Spine Corrector or Step Barrel and the small barrel.

All these apparatus come with specifically designed exercises and routines which focus on certain aspects of the body which you want to improve and strengthen. In contemporary Pilates other props are used such as small weighted balls, foam Rollers, rotating disks and resistance bands. As technology improves more and more equipment tends to change but the basic principles set out by Joseph Pilates tend to stay the same. There are 2 different types of Pilates today though, the Classical/ Authentic Pilates which tries not to vary from the original teachings on Joseph Pilates and build their equipment according to his exact specifications. The classical instructors training can also usually be traced back to either Joseph Pilates himself or to one of his protégés. The Modern/ Contemporary Pilates are vary their exercises from lesson to lesson and use most modern-day equipment and exercises from around the world with the basic principles.

So whether you chose Classical or Modern Pilates they are both designed to tone one’s body and mind to work more effectively and efficiently, increasing focus, energy and overall well-being. Each Pilates studio has its own methods, classes and apparatus which the instructors have stocked or sometimes built from the teachings of Joe Pilates. Finding the right exercises and places to go are hard today because in today’s life the choices are endless and there are studios and exercise routines from around the world being offered to us with strange apparatus with names that put a smile on one’s face.

My Top 15 Non-Traditional, Muscle Building, Fat Scorching Workouts

If you have been a subscriber to my newsletter for some time, you know that I’m always trying to give you ways to make your workouts more interesting and fun, while also stimulating big-time results. Don’t you agree that your training should be fun? This is what separates the people who jump on and off the “fitness bandwagon” a couple times every year without ever making any real progress from the people that actually adopt a true fitness lifestyle and finally achieve the body they have always wanted. Make it interesting, make it fun, and make your fitness a priority, and you’ll have the body that you want.

What I have noticed over the years is that many people will train regularly for a few months and then will either get bored with the same old weight training and cardio routines, or will get discouraged because their progress comes to a grinding halt after a while. In my opinion, I don’t think your workouts ever need to get boring or stale. You just need to have an open mind to the huge world of various training styles and techniques that are out there. Seriously, there are so many different and fun training styles out there, that there is no reason you should ever get bored with your workouts and give up on that lean ripped body that you’ve been looking for. Also, mixing in various training styles builds stronger joints by reducing repetitive movement pattern overload and varying your training stressors.

Now before I start with some of my favorite non-traditional training styles, I will state that I think one of the best ways to achieve a lean, muscular and healthy body is through a consistent weight training routine with free weights. You can choose to integrate some of these alternative training techniques with your weight training routines on the same day, as alternative workouts on separate days of the week, or even as separate training cycles where you try some of these techniques for several weeks at a time before cycling back to a traditional weight training workout. Try some of these training styles out and you’ll be on your way to never being bored again with your workouts…and your body will thank you with muscles popping out that you never knew existed!

Alright, here are some of my favorite non-traditional training techniques:

1. Staircase Workouts – This is great because stairs are everywhere. You can go to a football field and do stadium stairs, any building that has stairs like a hotel (most people take the elevator, so you will not even have many people looking at you while you’re working out), or even the stairs in your own home. For an awesome full body workout, try mixing stairs sprints with an upper body exercise like pushups or pull-ups. If done with a high enough intensity, stairs workouts help to create changes throughout your entire body due to the muscle building and fat burning hormonal response and metabolism increase that you get through working the biggest muscle groups in your entire body. If you thought that going up and down the stairs was the only way to get a good stairs workout…think again. My fellow trainer and friend, Virgil Aponte, has developed a website that focuses on creative stairs workouts using all kinds of exercises you never would have thought of before. You can find out more info on stairs exercises workouts at my ‘fitness products’ page at truthaboutabs.com at the link below.

2. Wind Sprints and Hill Sprints – Find any open field in a park or athletic field and try 50, 75, and 100-yard all-out wind sprints. After each sprint, rest long enough to catch your breath before the next one (generally 1-2 minutes). Try workouts of anywhere from 6 to 20 wind sprints for a great “cutting” workout. Also, if you have a hill nearby, hill sprints are also great workouts. Sprint up the hill as fast as you can and walk down for your rest interval. Repeat until you’re whooped (a 20-30 minute hill workout is plenty). These sprint workouts are so amazingly effective at changing your entire body for the same reason as stairs exercises…by powerfully working the biggest muscle groups in your entire body, you greatly stimulate your metabolism while simultaneously increasing your fat burning and muscle building hormones.

Just look at any world class 100-meter sprinters and notice how ripped-to-shreds those guys are. Now compare that to the emaciated weakling physiques of many marathoners, and you’ll see that sprinting is where the action is at for a healthy, ripped, powerful body! Now I don’t want to upset all of you distance runners out there. Hey, if distance running is something you enjoy, then go right ahead. But don’t say you’re doing it for the health benefits, because I might just have to disagree. You can read my full story on why I believe variable intensity training is far superior to steady-state endurance training in one of my other ezinearticles.com articles at Cardio-Enthusiasts: Discover a More Effective Training Method for Fat Loss and Heart Health!

3. Kettlebell Training – If you’ve been reading my articles for some time, you’ve probably heard me praise kettlebell training many times before, but I will have to reiterate that it has been one of the best training methods that I’ve ever tried and has taken my physical capabilities to a whole new level. Kettlebells are an alternative type of free-weight training instead of barbells and dumbbells. Their unique construction and weight distribution (basically a cannonball with a handle) allows for a whole different realm of exercises that’s available compared to dumbbells and barbells. Kettlebells have been typically used for training hard-core athletes, military units, martial arts competitors, and other tough individuals, but there is no reason that anybody looking to get stronger, bigger, or more cut can’t learn the exercises and benefit from them.

It’s been a little over a year now since I’ve incorporated kettlebell training into my routines, and I’ll admit that I’m hooked for life! At between $100-$150 per kettlebell, they are definitely not cheap, but they are well worth the money. Just one or two kettlebells and you’ve literally got yourself an entire home gym that you can use for the rest of your life…worth every penny in my book! If you want to give these body-hardening kettlebells a try, you can find more info at my ‘fitness products’ page at truthaboutabs.com at the link below.

4. Bodyweight Workouts – For a change of pace, try adding to your routine one or two workouts a week at home with just bodyweight based exercises. These can be great because you can get a high intensity workout done in only 15-30 minutes without having to go to the gym on days that you might not have time for a trip to the gym. Try alternating bodyweight squats, pushups variations, lunges, and floor abs exercises continuously for 15-30 minutes. Try to take very short rest periods or none at all to really amp up the intensity since this will be a brief workout. If you’re more advanced, you can even incorporate more challenging exercises like handstand pushups, one-arm pushups, and one-legged squats into your bodyweight training routines.

5. Ring Training – This type of training basically uses portable gymnastic rings that you can take anywhere with you. You throw the straps up over any high bar like a pullup bar, the top of a power rack, or even over a football field goal crossbar. Then you can quickly adjust the rings to do exercises like ring dips, ring pushups, ring pull-ups, hanging leg raises, horizontal body rows, L-sits, and more. Dips and pushups on the rings are my favorites and the rings really make them a hell of a lot more difficult, while also incorporating your stabilizer muscles to a much greater degree. The rings allow your joints to move in a more natural pattern and can help you prevent or even recover from shoulder injuries. Personally, when I try dips on a normal dip stand, it hurts my shoulders. However, dips on the training rings feel perfect, and also give me a much better muscle pump. The training rings are one of the best training devices I’ve ever bought. Give them a try…I think you’ll like them if you’re up for a challenge. I found my rings, which you can hang up easily on a power rack, pullup bars, or at a park, at ringtraining.com.

6. Swimming – A great full body workout that stresses the muscles and joints in a much different way than most resistance training. Incorporating swimming workouts once or twice a week into your normal training routines can really enhance your physique. I recommend trying a “sprint” style swimming workout, which will help more for building muscle compared with endurance long distance swimming. For sprint style, swim as hard as you can to the other side of a 25-meter or 50-meter pool (or sprint swim similar distances in a lake or the ocean if you like to swim outdoors). Rest enough to catch your breath between sprint swims (about 20-40 seconds). Try to keep the rest intervals fairly short with swim sprints. You can also mix different strokes (crawl, breaststroke, sidestroke, backstroke, butterfly) on each swim sprint. I’ve found that sprint swimming gives me a great muscle pump (especially in the upper body), without any soreness the next day as is typical with weight training. This is because swimming has no eccentric movement (the negative portion of a lift), which is what causes muscle soreness. Keep in mind that even though swimming works your muscles well and is a nice alternative workout to mix in once or twice a week, it does not strengthen your bones. You still need to do regular weight training to do that.

7. Sandbag Training – This form of training is a nice variation to mix in with your strength training. It works your body with an unstable object, which makes muscles that might normally be neglected get in on the action to perform the movements. I’ve been mixing some sandbag training into my routines for over a year now, and I’ve found it is a very intense method of training that works your muscles in a different way and gets you huffing and puffing like crazy. You can make your own sandbags to train with by filling various sized duffle bags with sand, or you can use those construction type sandbags that come in several shapes. Sandbag exercises can be done as squats, cleans, presses, lunges, shouldering, throws or heaves, carrying up hills, etc. Make no mistake, training intensely with sandbags will get you ripped in no time flat! I’ve actually found an entire book devoted to sandbag training, which gave me some great ideas for doing sandbag based workouts. If you’re interested in this type of training, you can find more info at my ‘fitness products’ page at truthaboutabs.com at the link below.

8. Mountain Biking – As you may have figured by now, I’m not a proponent of steady pace endurance exercise, but rather, highly variable intensity exercise that works with bursts of exertion followed by recovery intervals. Well, mountain biking fits this bill perfectly. You get the leg pumping exertion during the uphill climbs, while also getting the adrenaline rush of the downhill acting as your recovery intervals. Mix it all together and you get a super-fun, high-intensity, leg burning workout that will melt fat off of your entire body and build awesome legs at the same time. The climbs can be tough and will challenge you both physically and mentally as you pump away trying to make it up steep hills without having to resort to getting off of the bike. Then after you make it up the challenging climbs, you get rewarded with the adrenaline rush of flying down steep hills while jumping off of boulders and logs and trying not to stumble or fall off the bike. It’s such an addicting thrill…I love it! See, who says that working out has to be boring!

9. Indoor (or outdoor) Rock Climbing – This is yet another fun way to get in a great workout that will also challenge you both physically and mentally. Indoor rock climbing gyms have starting popping up all over the place in recent years and will be more accessible than outdoor rock climbing to most people. Rock climbing is a great workout for your legs, arms, shoulders, and your entire back. It also really works your grip strength and forearms like crazy. Whenever I go indoor rock climbing (which is only on occasion), my forearms are sore for about 2-3 days afterwards. Give it a try if you’ve never done it…it may be just what you’re looking for to spice up your fitness routine.

10. Stick Wrestling – This is a killer full body workout and can also be a great competition between you and your friends. This is probably more of a guy thing for most people. You could even come up with your own “fight club” and have stick wrestling competitions with your buddies to see who is toughest. There are actually sticks designed specifically for stick wresting, but you can even just use a strong broomstick cut down to about 30-36 inches long and taped up with some athletic tape to prevent splinters. For your stick wrestling workout, stand on a soft mat or carpeted area (or grass if outdoors), match up with a friend or foe. You’ll both grab the same stick toward the ends with your hands on the outsides of your partner’s hands, on the inside, or staggered. Then you simply push, pull, jerk, and thrash your opponent around trying to knock them off balance until they either fall or lose their grip of the stick…and you win that round! Be careful not to get the stick up high and knock each other in the face. Use common sense. You can do this in 1-2 minute rounds or just keep going until someone gives up. Be creative and keep going until you’ve gotten a killer workout. Your forearms and legs will be screaming!

11. Strongman Training – This type of training is a little more hard-core, but it’s a blast for those who are into trying something different. The premise is based on the types of exercises competitors perform in the “worlds strongest man” competitions. If you have a yard, you can even set up some of these exercises in your yard and do some outdoor workouts to have a little fun. Your neighbors will probably give you some funny looks, but it’s fun, so who cares! You can get one of those giant tractor tires and do tire flips (which is basically a deadlift followed by a push-press). You can also try your hand at log lifts, boulder lifts and carries, keg lifts and tosses, weighted sled dragging…anything that involves pulling, pushing, lifting, or heaving any types of odd objects. You don’t need to be a monster to enjoy this type of training…just handle whatever size objects are challenging for your individual strength. Strongman training works your entire body in a very intense fashion and could easily spark some new results. If you’re interested in finding out more ideas for strongman training, check out my ‘fitness products’ page at truthaboutabs.com at the link below.

12. Rope Climbing – This goes back to the old high school days of climbing the rope in gym class. Seriously, if you have access to a rope, either at a gym or somewhere outdoors, rope climbing builds a powerful and ripped upper body like no other exercise. A great way to incorporate rope climbing into intense workouts is to do a climb up, then lower yourself back down. Then while your upper body is recovering for the next climb, you can do a lower body exercise like squats or lunges, or go up and down stairs. Keep alternating the upper body rope climbs with the lower body exercises in between and you’ll get one hell of a full body workout.

13. Bag Boxing – You can use a heavy bag, a speed bag, or even one of those rebound bags to get a great workout. Among the three, the heavy bag is the best all around full body workout, while the speed bag will test your rhythm and timing and give you a great upper body workout. If available at your gym or if you have a bag at home, try mixing these in as a good warm-up or as an intense finish to your strength routine.

14. Rope Skipping – You can’t beat rope jumping as a great full body exercise. I like to use it as a warm-up for my weight training workouts. I prefer to use the really cheap “speed” ropes with a plastic rope instead of a fabric rope. Once you get good, you can jump rope much faster with the plastic ropes than the fabric ones, which will allow you to get a more intense workout. And don’t mess with the weighted handle ropes…they’ll just slow you down. Your goal is speed when rope skipping. Try mixing together two legged jumps, one-legged jumps, arm crossovers, double jumps (rope passes under feet twice for each jump) to keep things interesting and increase the intensity. Also, try alternating 15-20 second high intensity bursts where you jump as fast as you possibly can, followed by 15-20 second recovery intervals where you jump slowly to get ready for your next burst. Keep repeating until you’re whooped, which might happen pretty quick!

15. Jumping exercises – squat jumps, box jumps, lunge jumps, and broad jumps are some of the best ways to incorporate explosive jumping exercises into your routines. The explosive and powerful nature of jumping exercises works your leg muscles in an entirely different way than most normal slow grinding strength training moves. I’ve even seen a university study cited once that found squat jumps to elicit the greatest testosterone response of all exercises studied. That means more muscle and less fat on your entire body, not just your legs. Try super-setting jumping exercises with upper body exercises for some really intense workouts.

Well, I hope you’ve enjoyed all of these ideas for ways to really shake up your workouts and make them fun again. I know some of them may seem a little “out there”, but open your mind to the possibilities and you’ll never be bored again…and your body will respond with new found results!

Why Would A Doctor Need To Re-Break Your Bone?

If you hear your doctor say that he needs to re-break your bones, what would you feel? You may feel confused and scared because in most cases, bones need to be treated and not broken by a physician. However, you did not hear the doctor incorrectly. He is in fact telling you that he needs to break your bones so that he can proceed with the treatment. If you want to know why it has to be done, then you are on the right page! This article will tell you just why this procedure is needed.

Here’s the thing. The term used is “re-break.” This means that the doctor is going to break again a bone that has previously been broken before. In a more technical term, this is referred to as fracture reduction or resetting. It is the procedure that aims to restore and align correctly the broken bones.

The first and main reason why re-breaking is necessary is that the bones heal incorrectly sometimes. When your bones break, they become deformed. When they heal by themselves, they are still deformed and this condition may have some problems. First, bone deformity can affect how you move. You may not be able to move as freely as before if some of your bones are not aligned correctly. Second, bone deformity is not visually pleasing. It does not look good therefore a lot of people undergo resetting of the bones.

There are two types reduction method. The first method is the open reduction. This usually does not involve re-breaking because the fracture is still fresh. This is a condition wherein the broken bones cut the skin and are exposed. It could also mean that the surgeon exposed the bone to better dissect the tissues affected by the fracture. The second type is the closed reduction. In this procedure, the bones are not exposed in the air. The skin may be cut but the bones remain hidden beneath.

After the re-breaking of your bone, your doctor will proceed to aligning the bones so that when they heal, they will heal in the right manner and position. Painkillers and sedatives will be given in order for you not to feel the pain so much. After the whole procedure, your doctor may either use implants or casts. For bone fractures that are quite severe, implants may be necessary to add internally to hold the bones together. However, if the bones were just slightly fractured and can heal by themselves effectively, casts and tractions are enough.

Always listen to your doctor about what is best for your condition. They know exactly what you need. Do not be afraid to ask questions if you have worries about the procedure. For more information about healthy bones, consult your doctor, osteopath or physiotherapist.

Winter Pool Covers: Safety Should Be the No. 1 Concern

Swimming pool covers have become a great trend among pool owners. For safety and energy savings, these protective items are good for all seasons but more specially during winter time. Winter is the season when too much wind blow undesirable materials into your pool. Debris, leaves, twigs, dust and other objects can accumulate and stay in an uncovered pool. This means additional maintenance costs. Many pool owners keep their pool covered every time there is no swimmer around. It is a deterrent tool to avoid any accidental drowning particularly if there are pets, kids and senior people in your place. It can happen in winter where visibility can be a problem.

You can choose between a manual and an automatic cover for your in-ground pool. With just a press of a button, the cover can extend or retracts over your pool automatically. There are many kinds of designs and cover materials. You can opt for a solid, vinyl, laminated or a mesh fabric for your above ground or in ground pool. A sample cover that you may consider for winter is a laminated polyethylene material with high density stitches for better durability and strength. The cover is treated with UV inhibitors to resist the harmful effects of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. It is also resistant to chlorine and other chemical stains, tears and punctures. You can opt for one which has a ratchet and a high-test vinyl coated cable system.

For a good heat retention winter cover and debris blocking, you may pick a solar reel type which ranges in price from $200 up depending on your pool’s size. Many manual covers have a reel at one end of the pool that gets rolled out or rolled in. These covers are perfect for families who have no small children.

The top brands for these are Cover Pools, Latham, Aquamatic Cover Systems, LOOP-LOC, Meyco, Feherguard and Doheny. You can surf the websites of these brands and look at their catalog, videos and photos. One brand for both types of pools is the Loop-Loc Mesh which is highly recommended if your number one consideration is Safety. When your choice is an automatic type, a recommended model is the Hydramatic Automatic Safety Pool Cover which has a 20 year mechanism warranty and 7 year limited fabric warranty deal. For your winter pool cover, you can opt for their AutoGuard Top Track which is excellent for heat retention, debris catch up and safety features. Both these products are for high end target markets with price ranging up to $7,000.

Many manufacturers offer one full year warranty which is extendable proportionately to as long as ten years and above. They also have fast and free ground shipping with delivery of one day up to three days. If you place your order before 1 pm EST, the pool cover can be delivered to your place on the same day.

One popular brand is the Arctic Armor winter pool covers which are woven with sturdy and durable polyethylene tapes to produce one that can withstand the worst winter scenario. For their above ground and in-ground pool covers, the armor covers have an added 4 foot overlap for better protection against excessive wear and tear. The arctic fabric does not allow sunlight to pass through making it impossible for algae to grow.

Their warranties are classified as bronze for an 8 year warranty, silver for a 12 year warranty and gold for a 15 year warranty. They cover from 1 year up to 3 years 100% covered warranty. Their winter pool covers are all in-stock and ready for shipping. They have mesh safety and ultra light solid covers. The solid safety winter pool cover is made of super strong material that can remove dirt effectively. It is 35% stronger and 33% lighter than standard solid pool covers. The straps and stainless steel spring provides the security system. All algae producing sunlight is blocked by the solid material. It meets or exceeds all federal safety standards. Arctic armor pool covers enhance the beauty of pools during the off-season.

To preserve and protect your pool from the harsh effects of winter and its potential danger on the lives of your family, investing in good quality winter pool covers is an appropriate decision. Safety should be your no. 1 concern.

The Benefits of Painted Wall Murals

Wall murals are a creative and fun way to liven cold, bare walls. And the best part: anyone can do them–you don’t have to be an artist. You can design your own wall mural using your imagination, artwork, greeting cards, or picture books. You can purchase a wall mural stencil kit to help you, or you can find a local artist to design and paint the perfect wall mural.

Painting a wall mural is not difficult, but it does take some work. Before you begin, tape off your woodwork and cover your furniture and carpet to protect them from accidental spills. Depending on the condition of your wall, you may want to apply a neutral base coat to the area where your mural will go. Interior latex paint is a good bet, but you should talk to a paint specialist at a home improvement store to make sure it will work for you. You can use interior latex paint in large blocks of color inside the mural, but acrylic paints work best for the mural’s small areas. Acrylic paints are thin and will probably take more than one coat to get the right color.

You will need a variety of brushes for your painted wall mural. Large, broad brushes are best for wide areas of color. Small, rounded brushes are best for small areas. Don’t be afraid of getting messy. Mix the colors with your fingers, sponges, or clothes.

Faux finishes can make a painted wall mural unique. Many are easy for beginners. Experiment with some techniques on extra drywall before you start painting your wall mural. Use joint compound and paint to create a fossil rock look or to make a stencil pop from the wall. Get instructions and other ideas from painted wall mural Web sites, or check out the paint center at your home improvement air. Start with simple techniques, be creative, and have fun.

Want to Become an Electrician?

According a report issued by the U.S. Department of Labor the best way to learn the electrical trades is to complete a three to five year apprenticeship program. By taking part in such a program you will get a sound knowledge of all aspects of the vocation and you are learning mostly on the job, taught by professionals, many of whom have decades of experience. Although this is the most common way to learn to be an electrician some people still learn informally on the job. Some others train to be simply residential electricians in a shorter 3-year program.

Finding the right apprenticeship program for you should be difficult. Programs can be sponsored by joint training committees made up of local unions of the association of electrical contractors, company management committees of individual electrical companies, or even local chapters of any other recognized society or association. Because these programs are so thorough completion qualifies graduates to do both maintenance and construction work.

What is involved in their standard apprenticeship program? Usually they will provide at least 140-150 hours of classroom teaching and thousands of hours of on-the-job training in a year’s duration. Apprentices learn electrical theory, blueprint reading, electronics, electrical code requirements and safety/first aid. Some programs also offer training in welding, communications, cranes and elevators, and fire alarm/security systems. They must prove their expertise in the materials by, at first drilling holes or setting up conduit and later measuring, fabricating and installing conduit, wiring, outlets and switches.

Once and apprentice has finished the program, journeymen usually continue to learn about new or related systems, such as data and video systems, low voltage voice systems and many others. It is common for builders and contractors to want only one electrician who has a mastery of all of the various systems and types of systems they are using or installing.

For the students who don’t enter a formal program they can begin to learn the trade by working as a helper for journeymen electricians. This type of learning is strictly on the job and many students supplement this education with a trade school or correspondence courses.

And of course previous training can be very helpful. Secondary school courses in math, mechanical drawing, science, electricity or shop provide a wealth of knowledge and good background material. The same applies to any special training that would-be electricians learned the armed forces.

Anyone consider the electrical trades as a vocation should be in good health and have at least average strength, agility and dexterity. Good color vision is a must because wiring and components have to sometimes be identified by color. All apprenticeship programs in the U.S. require students to be at least 18 years old and have a high school diploma or GED. If you are seeking a position as a maintenance electrician, knowledge of electronics is ever more important as today´s complex controls are usually solid state. Electricians need to be licensed and although requirements vary from locality to locality, electricians must pass a test to check their knowledge of electrical theory, the National Electrical Code and the local codes.

With a few years experience electricians can rise to become supervisors or even start their own contracting business, although this also requires another license, or become electrical inspectors.

Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) In the ERP Arena

Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are a set of instructions for any particular operation within an organization. These instructions map out all steps and activities of a process or procedure, which, when followed with care, should guarantee a particular expected outcome. In the ERP world SOP is often used alongside or interchangeably with the similar term “best practice approach.”  

The idea behind this is that people have been working with a particular set of guidelines which they have determined to be the best way possible to get a particular job done: filling out a customer receipt for example, or completing a sales order. While each company is different, some of the broader processes and methods can serve as a model for other organizations with similar functions that need to be performed.

There are many benefits to having SOPs in place within an organization. In the first place, in documenting any function within an organization, you commit collective or even individual knowledge into something tangible: a document. Written procedures and practices then become part of the corporate knowledge base, and are no longer limited to one particular individual or group. Routine training of new employees can be based on the SOPs, and tasks across the company can be standardized. Performance of and adherence to set guidelines can be enforced.

In an environment where regulatory compliance is a requirement and spot checking is in place (pharmaceuticals, medical devices, chemical plants, etc.), SOPs are a must. According to some literature, one of the most frequently reported problems identified in regulatory inspections is a lack of written SOPs and/or the failure to follow them. In a manufacturing environment, SOPs are also imperative in order to insure uniform results, effective quality control, and ultimately, traceability. SOPs are not static documents, however, and they need to be reviewed regularly and updated to assure that they are keeping up with any new working procedures, developments and/or regulatory requirements that are put in place. Changes to the SOPs should be documented.

On a corporate level, SOPs are all about improving your business – be it striving towards continuity, or putting into action best practices for the long run. In the process of documenting and putting SOPs in place, companies may even discover better ways to complete tasks.

When deciding on whether to invest in an ERP system, before moving over to a new system, while in the process of implementing or even re-evaluating the way you do business: take the time to think about SOPs. To get real value from your software and your implementation, insist on working with SOPs. Make sure that the system you are having installed can handle the way you do business. And make sure that things are documented. The people that are involved in the work itself OR their direct supervisors should be consulted when preparing SOPs. If your consultant tells you this is not necessary – beware. The people in the trenches of your establishment are the ones responsible for doing the work documented in the SOP. The greater their involvement, the greater their sense of ownership, the greater their investment and ultimately, the greater the likelihood that they will adhere to the SOPs. Where this is impractical, at the very least the SOPs should be “owned” by the supervisor.

SOPs are proven to work. They can help you streamline processes, enhance performance, improve customer service and, ultimately, boost business. Investment of time in creating and maintaining SOPs will be well spent. In today’s economy, companies need to make the most of the resources they have. In creating SOPs you are not only using your resources wisely, but you ensure that hard earned knowledge and experience is shared, becomes tangible and is transformed into a corporate commodity.

Your Ex Boyfriend Wants to Be Friends – Why It’s a Good Sign

Getting dumped by your boyfriend is a difficult thing to go through. Some guys will let you down easy by asking to remain friends, but in reality they don’t mean it. Others however, actually want to keep in touch with you… and very often, you with them. Especially in the case of a long-term relationship, it’s not easy to just let go of someone you see and talk to on a daily basis. For this reason, friendship with an ex boyfriend may seem attractive to you.

The truth though, is that you’re eventually going to get hurt. Either your ex boyfriend will meet someone else, and break your heart… or you’ll meet someone else, and have to ditch the friendship for the sake of your new relationship. No boyfriend you begin seeing is going to understand when you tell him you still hang out and talk with your ex. Likewise, any new girl that your ex boyfriend dates is going to hate you on principal: after all, you’ve been intimate and close with her new man. Neither of these situations is appealing, and there’s no easy solution to them.

Now you may think being friends with your ex is a good way of getting back into a relationship with him, but you couldn’t be more wrong. The reverse is proven to be true: friendship provides your ex with just about everything he needs from a relationship with you, but without the burden of commitment. He has no incentive to date you again, because he’s already got the companionship. And as far as sex goes, your ex can get that elsewhere… or he can even try to initiate sexual contact with you again, especially if he knows you want him. Sleeping with your ex might be comforting for a while, but ultimately it doesn’t work in getting him back.

But wait, there’s some good news too. If your ex suggests staying friends after he ends things, there’s a very good chance he’s still not sure of the breakup. He wants to keep you close while he makes up his mind whether or not he wants to date you again. He might try a new relationship, or he might stay single for a while… but as long as you’re still friends with him he’s going to keep your breakup going strong. As long as you’re on the other end of that phone or keyboard, your ex boyfriend will feel comfortable enough to keep right on looking.

If your ex boyfriend wants to be friends with you, take advantage of it in order to get him back. Push him out of his comfort zone. Instead of agreeing to happily hang out with him on a platonic basis, let him know you don’t think it’s such a good idea. Pull away from him, and leave him alone for a while. This will make him miss you, and think about the relationship.

When you don’t contact your ex, he’ll start worrying that you are the one who’s moving on. And if he loves you, he’ll be extremely upset when that happens. This will lead him back to you, all because you refused his offer and broke contact.

Don’t settle for friendship when you really want your ex back. Too often it will lead to the post-breakup heartache and pain that you’re only delaying. By calling his bluff, you’ll find out whether he truly loves you or not. If he’s still got strong feelings for you, then you’ve got nothing to worry about.

Fire Insurance Under Indian Insurance Law

A contract of Insurance comes into being when a person seeking insurance protection enters into a contract with the insurer to indemnify him against loss of property by or incidental to fire and or lightening, explosion, etc. This is primarily a contract and hence as is governed by the general law of contract. However, it has certain special features as insurance transactions, such as utmost faith, insurable interest, indemnity, subrogation and contribution, etc. these principles are common in all insurance contracts and are governed by special principles of law.

FIRE INSURANCE:

According to S. 2(6A), “fire insurance business” means the business of effecting, otherwise than incidentally to some other class of insurance business, contracts of insurance against loss by or incidental to fire or other occurrence, customarily included among the risks insured against in fire insurance business.

According to Halsbury, it is a contract of insurance by which the insurer agrees for consideration to indemnify the assured up to a certain extent and subject to certain terms and conditions against loss or damage by fire, which may happen to the property of the assured during a specific period.

Thus, fire insurance is a contract whereby the person, seeking insurance protection, enters into a contract with the insurer to indemnify him against loss of property by or incidental to fire or lightning, explosion etc. This policy is designed to insure one’s property and other items from loss occurring due to complete or partial damage by fire.

In its strict sense, a fire insurance contract is one:

1. Whose principle object is insurance against loss or damage occasioned by fire.

2. The extent of insurer’s liability being limited by the sum assured and not necessarily by the extent of loss or damage sustained by the insured: and

3. The insurer having no interest in the safety or destruction of the insured property apart from the liability undertaken under the contract.

LAW GOVERNING FIRE INSURANCE

There is no statutory enactment governing fire insurance, as in the case of marine insurance which is regulated by the Indian Marine Insurance Act, 1963. the Indian Insurance Act, 1938 mainly dealt with regulation of insurance business as such and not with any general or special principles of the law relating fire of other insurance contracts. So also the General Insurance Business (Nationalization) Act, 1872. in the absence of any legislative enactment on the subject , the courts in India have in dealing with the topic of fire insurance have relied so far on judicial decisions of Courts and opinions of English Jurists.

In determining the value of property damaged or destroyed by fire for the purpose of indemnity under a policy of fire insurance, it was the value of the property to the insured, which was to be measured. Prima facie that value was measured by reference of the market value of the property before and after the loss. However such method of assessment was not applicable in cases where the market value did not represent the real value of the property to the insured, as where the property was used by the insured as a home or, for carrying business. In such cases, the measure of indemnity was the cost of reinstatement. In the case of Lucas v. New Zealand Insurance Co. Ltd.[1] where the insured property was purchased and held as an income-producing investment, and therefore the court held that the proper measure of indemnity for damage to the property by fire was the cost of reinstatement.

INSURABLE INTEREST

A person who is so interested in a property as to have benefit from its existence and prejudice by its destruction is said to have insurable interest in that property. Such a person can insure the property against fire.

The interest in the property must exist both at the inception as well as at the time of loss. If it does not exist at the commencement of the contract it cannot be the subject-matter of the insurance and if it does not exist at the time of the loss, he suffers no loss and needs no indemnity. Thus, where he sells the insured property and it is damaged by fire thereafter, he suffers no loss.

RISKS COVERED UNDER FIRE INSURANCE POLICY

The date of conclusion of a contract of insurance is issuance of the policy is different from the acceptance or assumption of risk. Section 64-VB only lays down broadly that the insurer cannot assume risk prior to the date of receipt of premium. Rule 58 of the Insurance Rules, 1939 speaks about advance payment of premiums in view of sub section (!) of Section 64 VB which enables the insurer to assume the risk from the date onwards. If the proposer did not desire a particular date, it was possible for the proposer to negotiate with insurer about that term. Precisely, therefore the Apex Court has said that final acceptance is that of the assured or the insurer depends simply on the way in which negotiations for insurance have progressed. Though the following are risks which seem to have covered Fire Insurance Policy but are not totally covered under the Policy. Some of contentious areas are as follows:

FIRE: Destruction or damage to the property insured by its own fermentation, natural heating or spontaneous combustion or its undergoing any heating or drying process cannot be treated as damage due to fire. For e.g., paints or chemicals in a factory undergoing heat treatment and consequently damaged by fire is not covered. Further, burning of property insured by order of any Public Authority is excluded from the scope of cover.

LIGHTNING : Lightning may result in fire damage or other types of damage, such as a roof broken by a falling chimney struck by lightning or cracks in a building due to a lightning strike. Both fire and other types of damages caused by lightning are covered by the policy.

AIRCRAFT DAMAGE: The loss or damage to property (by fire or otherwise) directly caused by aircraft and other aerial devices and/ or articles dropped there from is covered. However, destruction or damage resulting from pressure waves caused by aircraft traveling at supersonic speed is excluded from the scope of the policy.

RIOTS, STRIKES, MALICIOUS AND TERRORISM DAMAGES: The act of any person taking part along with others in any disturbance of public peace (other than war, invasion, mutiny, civil commotion etc.) is construed to be a riot, strike or a terrorist activity. Unlawful action would not be covered under the policy.

STORM, CYCLONE, TYPHOON, TEMPEST, HURRICANE, TORNADO, FLOOD and INUNDATION: Storm, Cyclone, Typhoon, Tempest, Tornado and Hurricane are all various types of violent natural disturbances that are accompanied by thunder or strong winds or heavy rainfall. Flood or Inundation occurs when the water rises to an abnormal level. Flood or inundation should not only be understood in the common sense of the terms, i.e., flood in river or lakes, but also accumulation of water due to choked drains would be deemed to be flood.

IMPACT DAMAGE: Impact by any Rail/ Road vehicle or animal by direct contact with the insured property is covered. However, such vehicles or animals should not belong to or owned by the insured or any occupier of the premises or their employees while acting in the course of their employment.

SUBSIDENCE AND LANDSLIDE INCULUDING ROCKSIDE: Destruction or damage caused by Subsidence of part of the site on which the property stands or Landslide/ Rockslide is covered. While Subsidence means sinking of land or building to a lower level, Landslide means sliding down of land usually on a hill.

However, normal cracking, settlement or bedding down of new structures; settlement or movement of made up ground; coastal or river erosion; defective design or workmanship or use of defective materials; and demolition, construction, structural alterations or repair of any property or ground-works or excavations, are not covered.

BURSTING AND/OR OVERFLOWING OF WATER TANKS, APPARATUS AND PIPES: Loss or damage to property by water or otherwise on account of bursting or accidental overflowing of water tanks, apparatus and pipes is covered.

MISSILE TESTING OPERATIONS: Destruction or damage, due to impact or otherwise from trajectory/ projectiles in connection with missile testing operations by the Insured or anyone else, is covered.

LEAKAGE FROM AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER INSTALLATIONS: Damage, caused by water accidentally discharged or leaked out from automatic sprinkler installations in the insured’s premises, is covered. However, such destruction or damage caused by repairs or alterations to the buildings or premises; repairs removal or extension of the sprinkler installation; and defects in construction known to the insured, are not covered.

BUSH FIRE: This covers damage caused by burning, whether accidental or otherwise, of bush and jungles and the clearing of lands by fire, but excludes destruction or damage, caused by Forest Fire.

RISKS NOT COVERED BY FIRE INSURANCE POLICY

Claims not maintainable/ covered under this policy are as follows:

o Theft during or after the occurrence of any insured risks

o War or nuclear perils

o Electrical breakdowns

o Ordered burning by a public authority

o Subterranean fire

o Loss or damage to bullion, precious stones, curios (value more than Rs.10000), plans, drawings, money, securities, cheque books, computer records except if they are categorically included.

o Loss or damage to property moved to a different location (except machinery and equipment for cleaning, repairs or renovation for more than 60 days).

CHARACTERICTICS OF FIRE INSURANCE CONTRACT

A fire insurance contract has the following characteristics namely:

(a) Fire insurance is a personal contract

A fire insurance contract does not ensure the safety of the insured property. Its purpose is to see that the insured does not suffer loss by reason of his interest in the insured property. Hence, if his connection with the insured property ceases by being transferred to another person, the contract of insurance also comes to an end. It is not so connected with the subject matter of the insurance as to pass automatically to the new owner to whom the subject is transferred. The contract of fire insurance is thus a mere a personal contract between the insured and the insurer for the payment of money. It can be validly assigned to another only with the consent of the insurer.

(b) It is entire and indivisible contract.

Where the insurance is of a binding and its contents of stock and machinery, the contract is expressly agreed to be divisible. Thus , where the insured is guilty of breach of duty towards the insurer in respect of one subject matters covered by the policy , the insurer can avoid the contract as a whole and not only in respect of that particular subject mater , unless the right is restricted by the terms of the policy.

(c) Cause of fire is immaterial

In insuring against fire, the insured wishes to protect him from any loss or detriment which he may suffer upon the occurrence of a fire, however it may be caused. So long as the loss is due to fire within the meaning of the policy, it is immaterial what the cause of fire is, generally. Thus , whether it was because the fire was lighted improperly or was lighted properly but negligently attended to thereafter or whether the fire was caused on account of the negligence of the insured or his servants or strangers is immaterial and the insurer is liable to indemnify the insured. In the absence of fraud, the proximate cause of the loss only is to be looked to.

The cause of the fire however becomes material to be investigated

(1). Where the fire is occasioned not by the negligence of, but by the willful

(2) Where the fire is due is to cause falling with the exception in the contract.

LIMITATION OF TIME

Indemnity insurance was an agreement by the insurer to confer on the insured a contractual right, which prima facie, came into existence immediately when the loss was suffered by the happening of an event insured against, to be put by the insurer into the same position in which the accused would have had the event not occurred but in no better position. There was a primary liability, i.e. to indemnify, and a secondary liability i.e. to put the insured in his pre-loss position, either by paying him a specifying amount or it might be in some other manner. But the fact that the insurer had an option as to the way in which he would put the insured into pre-loss position did not mean that he was not liable to indemnify him in one way or another, immediately the loss occurred. The primary liability arises on the happening of the event insured against. So, the time ran from the date of the loss and not from the date on which the policy was avoided and any suit filed after that time limit would be barred by limitation.[2]

WHO MAY INSURE AGAINST FIRE?

Only those who have insurable interest in a property can take fire insurance thereon. The following are among the class of persons who have been held to possess insurable interest in, property and can insure such property:

1. Owners of property, whether sole, or joint owner, or partner in the firm owning the property. It is not necessary that they should possession also. Thus a lesser and a lessee can both insure it jointly or severely.

2. The vender and purchaser have both rights to insure. The vendor’s interest continues until the conveyance is completed and even thereafter, if he has an unpaid vendor’s lien over it.

3. The mortgagor and mortgagee have both distinct interests in the mortgaged property and can insure, per Lord Esher M.R.”The mortgagee does not claim his interest through the mortgagor , but by virtue of the mortgage which has given him an interest distinct from that of the mortgagor”[3]

4. Trustees are legal owners and beneficiaries the beneficial owners of trust property and each can insure it.

5. Bailees such as carriers, pawnbrokers or warehouse men are responsible for there safety of the property entrusted to them and so can insure it.

PERSON NOT ENTITLED TO INSURE

One who has no insurable interest in a property cannot insure it. For example:

1. An unsecured creditor cannot insure his debtor’s property, because his right is only against the debtor personally. He can, however, insure the debtor’s life.

2. A shareholder in a company cannot insure the property of the company as he has no insurable interest in any asset of the company even if he is the sole shareholder. As was the case of Macaura v. Northen Assurance Co.[4] Macaura. Because neither as a simple creditor nor as a shareholder had he any insurable interest in it.

CONCEPT OF UTMOST FAITH

As all contracts of insurance are contracts of utmost good faith, the proposer for fire insurance is also under a positive duty to make a full disclosure of all material facts and not to make any misrepresentations or misdescreptions thereof during the negotiations for obtaining the policy. This duty of utmost good faith applies equally to the insurer and the insured. There must be complete good faith on the part of the assured. This duty to observe utmost good faith is ensured b requiring the proposer to declare that the statements in the proposal form are true, that they shall be the basis of the contract and that any incorrect or false statement therein shall avoid the policy. The insurer can then rely on them to assess the risk and to fix appropriate premium and accept the risk or decline it.

The questions in the proposal form for a fire policy are so framed as to get all information which is material to the insurer to know in order to assess the risk and fix the premium, that is, all material facts. Thus the proposer is required too give information relating to:

o The proposer’s name and address and occupation

o The description of the subject matter to be insured sufficient for the purpose of identifying it including,

o A description of the locality where it is situated

o How the property is being used, whether for any manufacturing purpose or hazardous trade.etc

o Whether it has already been insured

o And also ant personal insurance history including the claims if any made buy the proposer, etc.

Apart from questions in the proposal form, the proposer should disclose whether questioned or not-

1. Any information which would indicate the risk of fire to be above normal;

2. Any fact which would indicate that the insurer’s liability may be more than normal can be expected such as existence of valuable manuscripts or documents, etc, and

3. Any information bearing upon the more; hazard involved.

The proposer is not obliged to disclose-

1. Information which the insurer may be presumed to know in the ordinary course of his business as an insurer;

2. Facts which tend to show that the risk is lesser than otherwise;

3. Facts as to which information is waived by the insurer; and

4. Facts which need not disclosed in view of a policy condition.

Thus, assured is under a solemn obligation to make full disclosure of material facts which may be relevant for the insurer to take into account while deciding whether the proposal should be accepted or not. While making a disclosure of the relevant facts, the

DOCTRINE OF PROXIMATE CAUSE

Where more perils than one act simultaneously or successively, it will be difficult to assess the relative effect of each peril or pick out one of these as the actual cause of the loss. In such cases, the doctrine of proximate cause helps to determine the actual cause of the loss.

Proximate cause was defined in Pawsey v. Scottish Union and National Ins. Co.,[5]as “the active, effective cause that sets in motion a train of events which brings about a result without the intervention of any force started and working actively from a new and independent source.” It is dominant and effective cause even though it is not the nearest in time. It is therefore necessary when a loss occurs to investigate and ascertain what is the proximate cause of the loss in order to determine whether the insurer is liable for the loss.

PROXIMATE CAUSE OF DAMAGE

A fire policy covers risks where damage is caused by way of fire. The fire may be caused by lightening, by explosion or implosion. It may be result of riot, strike or on account of any, malicious act. However these factors must ultimately lead to a fire and the fire must be the proximate cause of damage. Therefore, a loss caused by theft of property by militants would not be covered by the fire policy. The view that the loss was covered under the malicious act clause and therefore .the insurer was liable to meet the claim is untenable, because unless and until fire is the proximate cause f damage, no claim under a fire policy would be maintainable.[6]

PROCEDURE FOR TAKING A FIRE INSURANCE POLICY

The steps involved for taking a fire insurance policy are mentioned below:

1. Selection of the Insurance Company:

There are many companies that offer fire insurance against unforeseen events. The individual or the company must take care in the selection of an insurance company. The judgment should rest on factors like goodwill, and long term standing in the market. The insurance companies can either be approached directly or through agents, some of them who are appointed by the company itself.

2. Submission of the Proposal Form:

The individual or the business owner must submit a completed prescribed proposal form with the necessary details to the insurance company for proper consideration and subsequent approval. The information in the Proposal Form should be given in good faith and must be accompanied by documents that verify the actual worth of the property or goods that are to be insured. Most of the companies have their own personalized Proposal Forms wherein the exact information has to be provided.

3. Survey of the Property/ Consideration:

Once the duly filled Proposal Form is submitted to the insurance company, it makes an “on the spot” survey of the property or the goods that are the subject matter of the insurance. This is usually done by the investigators, or the surveyors, who are appointed by the company and they need to report back to them after a thorough research and survey. This is imperative to assess the risk involved and calculate the rate of premium.

4. Acceptance of the Proposal:

Once the detailed and comprehensive report is submitted to the insurance company by the surveyors and related officers, the former makes a thorough perusal of the Proposal Form and the report. If the company is satisfied that their is no lacuna or foul play or fraud involved, it formally “accepts” the Proposal Form and directs the insured to pay the first premium to the company. It is to be noted that the insurance policy commences after the payment and the acceptance of the premium by the insured and the company, respectively. The Insurance Company issues a Cover Note after the acceptance of the first premium.

PROCEDURE ON RECEIPT OF NOTICE OF LOSS

On receipt of the notice of loss, the insurer requires the insured to furnish details pertaining to the loss in a claim from relating to the following information-

1. Circumstances and cause of the fire;

2. Occupancy and situation of the premises in which the fire occurred;

3. Insured’s interest in the insured property; that is capacity in which the insured claims and whether any others are interested in the property;

4. Other insurances on the property;

5. Value of each item of the property at the time of loss together with proofs thereof , and value of the salvage ,if any; and

6. Amount claimed

Furnishing such information relating to the claim is also a condition precedent to the liability of the insurer. The above information will enable the insurer to verify whether-

(1) The policy is in force;

(2) The peril causing the loss is an insured peril;

(3) The property damaged or lost is the insured property.

Rules for calculation of value of property

The value of the insured property is-

1) Its value at the time of loss, and

2) At the place of loss, and

3) Its real or intrinsic value without any regard for its sentimental vale. Loss of prospective profit or other consequential loss is not to be taken into account.

FILING OF CLAIMS

How a claim arises?

After a contract of fire insurance has come into existence, a claim may arise by the operation of one or more insured perils on an unsecured property. There may in addition one or more uninsured perils also operating simultaneously or in succession of the property. In order that the claim should be valid the following conditions must be fulfilled:

1. The occurrence should take place due to the operation of an insured peril or where both insured and other perils operated , the dominant or efficient cause of the loss must have been an insured peril;

2. The operation of the peril must not come within the scope of the policy exceptions;

3. The event must have caused loss or damage of the insured property;

4. The occurrence must be during the currency of the policy;

5. The insured must have fulfilled all the policy conditions and should also comply with requirements to be fulfilled after the claim had arisen.

MATERIAL FACTS IN FIRE INSURANCE: PREVIOUS CONVICTION OF THE ACCUSED

The criminal record of an assured could affect the moral hazard, which insurers had to assess, and the non-disclosure of a serious criminal offence like robbery by the plaintiff would a material non-disclosure.

INSURED’S DUTY ON OUTBREAK OF FIRE, IMPLIED DUTY

On the outbreak of a fire the insured is under an implied duty to observe good faith towards the insurers and the in pursuance of it the insured must do his best to avert or minimize the loss. For this purpose he must (1) take all reasonable measures to put out the fire or prevent its spread, and (2) assist the fire brigade and others in their attempts to do so at any rate not come in their way.

With this object the insured property may be removed to a place of safety. Any loss or damage the insured property may sustain in the course of attempts to combat the fire or during its removal to a place of safety etc., will be deemed to be loss proximately caused by the fire.

If the insured fails in his duty willfully and thereby increases the burden of the insurer, the insured will be deprived of his right to revive any indemnity under the policy.[7]

INSURER’S RIGHTS ON THE OUTBREAK OF FIRE

(A) Implied Rights

Corresponding to the insured’s duties the insurers have rights by the law, in view of the liability they have undertaken to indemnify the insured. Thus the insurers have a right to-

o Take reasonable measures to extinguish the fire and to minimize the loss to property, and

o For that purpose, to enter upon and take possession of the property.

The insurers will be liable to make good all the damage the property may sustain during the steps taken to put out the fire and as long as it in their possession, because all that is considered the natural and direct consequence of the fire; it has therefore been held in the case of Ahmedbhoy Habibhoy v. Bombay Fire Marine Ins. Co [8] that the extent of the damage flowing from the insured peril must be assessed when the insurer gives back and not as at the time when the peril ceased.

(B) Loss caused by steps taken to avert the risk

Damage sustained due to action taken to avoid an insured risk was not a consequence of that risk and was not recoverable unless the insured risk had begun to operate. In the case of Liverpool and London and Globe Insurance Co. Ltd v. Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., [9] the Canadian Supreme Court held that “the loss was caused by the fire fighters’ mistaken belief that their action was necessary to avert an explosion , and the loss was not recoverable under the insurance policy, which covered only damage caused by fire explosion., and the loss was not recoverable under the insurance policy, which covered only damage caused by fire or explosion.”

(C) Express rights

Condition 5- in order to protect their rights well insurers have prescribed for better rights expressly in this condition according to which on the happening of any destruction or damage the insurer and every person authorized by the insurer may enter, take or keep possession of the building or premises where the damage has happened or require it to be delivered to them and deal with it for all reasonable purposes like examining, arranging, removing or sell or dispose off the same for the account of whom it may concern.

When and how a claim is made?

In the event of a fire loss covered under the fire insurance policy, the Insured shall immediately give notice thereof to the insurance company. Within 15 days of the occurrence of such loss, the Insured should submit a claim in writing, giving the details of damages and their estimated values. Details of other insurances on the same property should also be declared.

The Insured should procure and produce, at his own expense, any document like plans, account books, investigation reports etc. on demand by the insurance company.

HOW INSURANCE MAY CEASE?

Insurance under a fire policy may cease in any of the following circumstances, namely:

(1) Insurer avoiding the policy by reason of the insured making misrepresentation, misdescription or non-disclosure of any material particular;

(2) If there is a fall or displacement of any insured building range or structure or part thereof , then on the expiry of seven days wherefrom, except where the fall or displacement was due to the action of any insured peril; notwithstanding this, the insurance may be revived on revised terms if express notice is given to the company as soon as the occurrence takes place;

(3) The insurance may be terminated at any tie at the request of the insured and at the option of the company on 15 days notice to the insured

CONCLUSION

Tangible property is exposed to numerous risks like fire, floods, explosions, earthquake, riot and war, etc. and insurance protection can be had against most of these risks severally or in combination. The form in which the cover is expressed is numerous and varied. Fire insurance in its strict sense is concerned with giving protection against fire and fire only. So while granting a fire insurance policy all the requisites need be fulfilled. The insured are under a moral and legal obligation to be at utmost good faith and should be telling true facts and not just fake grounds only with the greed to recover money. Further all insurance policies help in the development of a Developing nation. Hence insurance companies have a burden to help the insured when the insured are in trouble.

REFERENCE:

1. (1983) VR 698 (Supreme Court of Vienna)

2. Callaghan v. Dominion Insurance Co. Ltd. (1997) 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 541 (QBD)

3. Small v. U.K Marine Insurance Association (1897) 2 QB 311

4. (1925) AC 619

5. (1907) Case.

6. National Insurance Company v. Ashok Kumar Barariio

7. Devlin v. Queen Insurance Co, (1882) 46 UCR 611.

8. (1912) 40 IA 10 PC

9. (1981) 123 DLR (3d) 513 (Supreme Court of Canada)

Books Referred:

1. The Economics of Fire Protection by Ganapathy Ramachandran

2. Modern Insurance Law, by John Birds

3. The Handbook of Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act and Regulations with Allied Laws ,by Nagar

How To Breed Maggots For Fishing

Before I go into the detail it might be worth explaining a bit about what a maggot is. A maggot is simply the larval stage of a fly that is usually found on decaying organic matter, whether it be household waste or a dead animal or similar. As with flies not all maggots are created equal. If you take a look around in summertime you’ll probably find that there are several different types of fly that manage to invade your home but typically, in the UK at least, they’ll come from a shortlist of three and they are the common housefly, the greenbottle, and the bluebottle.

The three different fly types are easily distinguished with the housefly being the smallest with a grey or yellowish abdomen and four dark stripes on the thorax (the bit between the head and the main body). The greenbottle is slightly bigger and is a metallic green colour while the bluebottle is slightly larger again with an overall metallic blue tinge to it.

The larvae (or maggot stage) of each of these different fly types are as distinctly different as the flies are themselves and each type of maggot will be readily available at your local tackle shop. In fishing parlance the housefly maggots are referred to as ‘squats’, greenbottle maggots are called ‘pinkies’, and the bluebottle maggots are known as ‘gozzers’. Unless you specify squats or pinkies you will be given maggots that came from eggs laid by bluebottles if you go to a tackle shop and simply ask for a pint of maggots.

You might be wondering why anyone would want to breed maggots when they are so readily available in the shops. The answer is simple – it’s all down to pricing and quality. If you’re into match fishing or you simply fish a heck of a lot it gets pricey. Breeding your own is far cheaper. On top of that shop bought maggots are nowhere near the quality of the bait you can turn out by yourself. When you’re done your home bred bait will be bigger and fresher than anything you can buy in the shops and that’s guaranteed.

Essentially, to breed maggots you only need a few items; a container with a lid for the maggots to feed and grow in, a couple of chicken breasts (or fresh fish if you prefer) as feed, a maggot sieve (a colander will do), some bran, and finally two washing up bowls or similar containers.

Place the chicken or fish onto a few sheets of newspaper and in turn place that in a lidded container that is filled with an inch deep or so of bran. Leave the container in a quiet spot in the garden with the lid on but not secured tight. Leave a little gap enough so the flies can get in and out of the container. Periodically check the container to see if the flies have ‘blown’ on your feed. It’ll be obvious if they have as you’ll see one or more clusters of tiny white eggs on the meat, typically 30 or more eggs in each cluster. When you think you have enough blows wrap the newspaper around the meat to keep the feed and the eggs contained in a parcel and close the lid to stop any more flies entering the container. Make sure there are a few holes punctured in the lid small enough for air to get in but not big enough for the flies to enter.

Leave your container in a dry airy place so that the eggs can hatch and the maggots can begin feeding but bear in mind after a day or so the meat will start to smell and the smell will intensify as time goes by. Periodically check on the maggots to see how they are progressing and to make sure there is enough feed to support them all. If necessary top up the feed. At somewhere between 5 and 8 days the maggots will drop off the feed, that is to say they will stop eating. They will be big and fat and fresher than anything in the shops.

Next you have to clean them up prior to taking them to fish with as fish are quite picky when it comes to hook baits. Remove the newspaper and allow the maggots to fall into the bran and leave them for at least 12 hours. Sieve the bran off and transfer the maggots to one of your washing up bowls and add a couple of drops of washing up liquid and enough water to cover the maggots and give them a good rinse. Next pour the maggots out over a sieve and transfer them to the other washing up bowl that you will have filled with a one inch layer of bran. Give the maggots a thorough mixing with the dry bran. Clean out the first washing up bowl and refill it with another inch of dry bran and add two or three tablespoons of sugar and the same amount of powdered turmeric. Sieve off the maggots once more from the damp bran and transfer to the bowl containing the dry bran and sugar and turmeric and mix everything together.

Leave the maggots alone for a while and see whether or not they can be transferred to the fridge. You must watch to see if they are still damp enough to be able to climb up the walls of your bowl and escape. If they manage to climb up the walls of the bowl then add some more dry bran until they become too dry to stick to the walls of your bowl. They can now be placed directly in your fridge as is until you are ready to use them (note it’s usually a good idea to have a dedicated maggot fridge for this as for some reason wives and girlfriends object to having maggots in the food fridge).

And that’s it. That’s how to breed maggots. These will keep for at least a month if stored in the fridge before they begin to turn to casters but they’ll be the most productive the earlier you use them.

The Differences Between Commercial Fans and Residential Fans

Commercial fans are useful in industrial settings where efficiency, reliability and power are more important than aesthetics. Some significant differences between the commercial and residential versions are the former operates with less number of blades for faster speed.

Commercial fans are designed to allow greater and efficient airflow. Their curved or sculpted blades deliver an airflow pattern for better air circulation in large areas with higher ceilings. Take a look at some commercial fans that are available on the Internet at such websites as alpinehomeair.com, airdistributor.net and Amazon.

Ventamatic CX30BD2SPDWT Whole House Fan-30″ Belt Drive Fan with Shutter:

This fan is the best replacement for your traditional air conditioner. It works by drawing air in through the window and exhausting it out through the attic. Some of its standard features are joist-out and joist-in installation, thermally protected two-speed PSC motor, steel motor struts, four aluminum fan blades with 30 inches diameter for superior air movement, steel venture for durability, powder-coated white shutter, wall switch and belt-drive type blower. It covers 2,500-square foot area and fits opening dimensions of 29.5 inches by 32 and 1/4 inches. This fan sells for $314.99, a discount of $99.00 from the original price of $413.99.

Model #CP56 BK Black Commercial Ceiling Fan:

This fan series features variable speed motors that are thermally protected with lubricated bearings, painted steel blades that have curved ends for maximum air movement over covered area of 1,450 square feet, reversible motor to provide summer time cooling and winter heat destratification and 16-inch down rod.

Westinghouse Ceiling Fans 78127 56″ Industrial Ceiling Fan:

This white finish industrial fan features 3 56-inch aerodynamically curved steel blades, 5-speed wall switch, ball hanger installation system and 12 inches down rod. The design of this fan is aimed for rooms with high ceiling, no less than 10 feet from the floor. The fan is built to last for a long time and requires little maintenance and repair. It is heat-resistant as well as dirt-resistant. This fan sells under model 78127 for $47.22.

Emerson Fans HF948W 48″ Industrial Heat Contemporary Appliance White Ceiling Fan:

This white finish fan features 188mm spinner motor that comes with a two-year warranty, 3 white metal blades with 48-inch span and 12-degree pitch and 8 inches and 22 inches poles. The fan is indoor rated and has superior cooling performance for a comfortable work environment courtesy of its unique paddle-type blades. You can buy this fan for $124.80, a savings of 32 percent or $57.60 from the list price of $182.40.

TPI Heavy-Duty Industrial-Grade Down Draft Ceiling Fan:

The fan features 60-inch blades, a noiseless motor that operates at 320 RPM for efficient air circulation. It measures 56 inches in diameter and comes with 18-inch down rod, 6-foot 3-wire cord and a mounting kit for easy installation. This fan is perfect for use in garages, shops and other large areas. Prices for this fan vary depending on options. The fan sells under model number HDHR-56.

Commercial Grade Variable Speed Ceiling Fans – Metal Blades:

This fan features a thermally protected motor with variable speed, permanently lubricated bearings, painted steel blades designed with curved ends to deliver superb air movement over wide areas. This 56-inch fan’s reversible motor is designed to provide cooling during summers and warmth during winters.