Mack E7 Engine History and Technical Information

The Mack e7 engine is the backbone of the almighty Mack Bulldog fleet. The history of the engine is steeped in technology, tradition and good old American gumption one would expect from Mack. The e7 mack engine was first conceptualized in 1988 by the Mack Corporation engineers and introduced in 1989. The Mack E7 Engine replaced the longstanding Mack e6 model and was produced for over 20 years. The same year Mack also introduced the CH Series for on-highway heavy duty applications. The engine is 6 cylinder, heavy duty rated and in use both for on-highway and off highway industrial applications.

Mack engines are known for their per foot pound of torque output. They are workhorses in industrial applications meaning most Mack enthusiasts measure “power to the ground” over high horsepower capabilities of other diesel engines. Comparing a 400 hp CAT to a 400 hp Mack is like comparing cats to dogs. Competitors will compare the engine strength at the flywheel whereas Mack’s competitive advantage comes into play with the differentials and transmissions. This allows power down low where you need it during pulling situations. Mack engines are not built for speed unlike Cummins, CAT or Detroit but for long-term durability; perfect for service applications like Public Bus Fleets, Fire Engines, Dump Trucks and Refuse Vehicles. The Mack e7 engine’s optimal running rate is at 1400-1800 rpms but isn’t designed for high running rates. It is not unlikely to have a Mack Engine put 1,500,000 miles hauling full loads and not need a major overhaul. Mack E7 engines are found in mining, oil and gas, agriculture, construction, pumps and compressors and power generation.

Mack E7 Engine Technology

Typical horsepower rating for the mack e7 is between 250-400 hp. At the lowest rating of 250 hp the mack e7 engine will put out 975 foot pounds of torque. Consequently, at the highest hp rating a Mack e7 engine will put out was 454 hp at an impressive 1,660 foot pounds of torque. The vast majority of mack e7 engines still on the road are later models which are all water cooled. The original design up until 1990, featured a turbocharged air mounted cooling system. After 1990 Mack engineers developed their patented Econovance variable injection timing system which increased fuel efficiency greatly and cut emissions. Many speculate Mack redesigned the engine to meet the Environmental Protection Agency’s emissions standards. Since 1990 more redesigns have been implemented to meet EPA regulations. The Econovance system was used exclusively on the E7 engine but not adopted by other production lines at Mack. In addition to the Ecconovance technology Mack also introduced another modification to its E7 line which improved the efficiency of the air/fuel mixing ratio through a high injection pressure combustion system known as “swirl technology” which increased airflow greatly. The higher pressure injection system improved fuel economy and combustion productivity all while optimizing proper oil viscosity and reducing engine emissions. Due to the increased air flow a byproduct is less pressure on the injectors. Customers are happy to find that injector failure is quite uncommon with Mack E7 models.

Mack E-Tech Engine Introduction

The Mack E7 Engine ended up being one the most popular industrial diesel engines of all time. Both large scale and small scale operations flocked to the Mack E7 Engine because of its reliability and fuel efficiency. Up until 1999 Mack ended up producing 16 different varieties of the E7. 1999 ended up becoming a landmark year for Mack when once again it hit a home run with its Mack E-Tech series. Mack E-Tech engines are still being produced and are still known for their outstanding horsepower to weight ratio. Mack E-Tech engines are 6 cylinder multi-system cooled and range from 360 to 500 hp. The fuel injection system uses an upgrade to the Econovance technology of the E7 called the Mack V-Mac III electronic fuel control system which utilized electronic unit pumps. The E Tech engine also uses high swirl combustion for increased fuel efficiency and emissions production. Like the E7 the E-Tech features dual flow paint on oil lubrication system with a 34 quart capacity. The E-Tech has upgraded high rated steel crest articulated pistons and both wet and dry liners for long standing resilience.

Mack E7 Engine Rebuild Process

Typical machine shop crews should be fairly knowledgeable at rebuilding and remanufacturing Mack E7 and E-Tech engines as it was a popular engine. Most machine shops specialize in Mack Longblocks which are ¾ of an engine vs, a full rebuild. Make sure the machine shop remanufactures the mack e7 engine to your specific serial number and is built to original engine manufacturer specifications. A typical remanufactured mack e7consists of:

• Remanufactured Cylinder Block

• Remanufactured Cylinder Head

• Remanufactured Connecting Rods

• Remanufactured Crankshaft (std/std or oversized)

• Remanufactured Oil Pump

• Remanufactured Camshaft

• Remanufactured Rocker Arms Assemblies

• New Water Pump

• New Cylinder Liners

• New Pistons

• New Piston Rings

• New Gaskets

• New Main and Rod Bearings

• New Thrust Washers

• New Camshaft Bushings

• New Tappets and Cam Followers

• OEM or Aftermarket Internal Parts

Most machine shops can typically can remanufacture an existing core or rebuild and return an engine in approximately 16 days.

How to Choose Between Your Wife or Mistress

It is an open secret that millions of married men have affairs, which can be frowned upon in some societies. At some point an innocent affair could become serious, as your feelings for your lover, become deeper. And then you may have to choose to continue your relationship with one of your partners.

In a traditional society a wife is the pillar of stability at home, whilst a mistress is someone who brings excitement to an often business-like marriage. Both partners do bring something good to your life,- a wife stability, and a lover, pleasure.

This paradox usually comes to a head when you start having deep feelings for your lover, and start withdrawing from your marriage partner emotionally. At this point you may be forced to decide which partner to remain with.

How do you choose which partner to remain with?

Determine who do you really love?

Is it your wife or lover? Answering these questions could determine which partner you choose. Are you willing to go with your heart or settle for stability in a loveless marriage?

Compromise

Does your wife and lover accept the fact you have a relationship with both of them? If the answer is yes, an “open marriage,” may be the solution with an agreement between both partners.

Legal Consequences

Governments can interfere and determine relationship rules in more traditional societies. Perhaps your wife decides to go for a divorce, unfaithfulness is a valid ground for ending a marriage. Access the legal consequences of your decision, and the long term affects of any decision you make.

Love is a complex feeling, and it is natural to fall -in and out of love with a partner. Some partners may simply accept you have a lover, others could end a relationship. Realizing your own feelings towards someone could be the first step in deciding which partner you should remain with.

The K-W-L-H Learning Strategy

The K-W-L-H learning strategy is one of the most popular strategies that have been used by the learning community to read and understand texts as well as work on different school projects. This strategy was developed by the researcher Donna Ogle in 1986 and was originally developed for studying literature. K-W-L-H is an acronym.

K stands for what I “Know.”

W stands for what I “Want” to learn.

L stands for what I am learning/have “Learnt.”

H stands for “How” can I learn more about the topic.

This is normally represented in a table format. It is a comprehensive learning strategy based on the constructivist theory of learning. The first column “K” takes into account the need for looking at each student’s prior knowledge in order to make connections with the topic to be studied. In this way, the student will be more involved in the learning process as he/she will be “constructing meaning” out of any new information gleaned and linking it to the prior knowledge base. No topic can be entirely new as learning normally happens in graded levels. However, in the rare instance of the students having very limited exposure to a new topic, some pre-project or pre-reading exercises can be done. This can come under their prior knowledge base. Certain misconceptions about a topic can also be cleared in case students make such entries in the prior knowledge column. Better understanding and clarity can be achieved as the students embark on learning the topic. “W” prompts students to articulate and write down what they would like to learn about a particular topic in order to bring the topic into focus and encourage their curiosity. “L” prompts students to note down what they are learning as they read more or the project progresses in a systematic manner. They are clearly able to see how their knowledge base on the topic is building up. In the end, they will be able to articulate what they have learnt from the topic.

Finally, “H” which was a later addition ensures that students can progress further in their learning journey on the particular topic by making them articulate ways for them to learn more about the topic or how they can further innovate on the outcome of a project. For example, if the topic to be studied is Shakespeare’s As You Like It, the prior knowledge may include other Shakespeare plays that the students may have read like Macbeth. By reflecting and reviewing on their prior knowledge, students will be able to critically read the “new” play and compare and contrast it with their prior knowledge. An entry in “W” could be that a student would like to know how a comedy by Shakespeare compares with a tragedy like Macbeth. “L” will help them critically analyse the play and be more involved and engaged in the reading of the play. “H” will encourage students to read more comedy plays written by Shakespeare and study and analyse them. Thus, a complete learning cycle can be tracked using the K-W-L-H learning strategy.

Gymnastics Level 1-10 Balance Beam Times

· Gymnastics level 1, 2 and 3 balance beam routine has a time limit of 30 seconds.

· Gymnastics level 4 beam routine has a time limit of 50 seconds.

· Gymnastics level 5 balance beam routine has a time limit of 1 minute and 5 seconds.

· Gymnastics level 6 beam routine has a time limit of 1 minute and 10 seconds.

· Gymnastics level seven balance beam routine must be a minimum of 30 seconds and a maximum of 1 minute 20 (80 seconds).

· Gymnastics level 8, 9 and 10 minimum of 30 seconds maximum of 1 minute and 30 seconds (90 seconds).

Ten seconds before your time is up the person timing will either ring a bell or say “warning.” Once your time is up you will either hear a bell ring again or the person timing say “time.” If you go over time you will receive a 0.10 deduction from your average score. If you are a level 7-10 and your routine is shorter than 30 seconds you will receive a 2.00 point deduction from your final score plus a deduction for whatever is missing in your routine. The time for a beam routine will began as soon as the gymnast takes off from the mat or springboard. And the time ends as soon as the gymnast lands on the mat after her dismount. If the gymnast falls during her routine the person timing will stop the time once the gymnast makes contact with the floor. The time will restart as soon as the gymnast makes her first move to continue her routine. The gymnast only has 30 seconds to remount the balance beam after she falls off. This time will be timed separately; this means there must be two stop watches. The person timing will notify the gymnast when she has 20 seconds and also 10 seconds remaining to remount the beam. If she doesn’t remount the beam within the time limit the balance beam routine will be terminated. Within the 30 second fall time a gymnastics coach is allowed to coach and talk to the gymnast without receiving any deduction. During the fall time the gymnast may perform a skill on the mat but will receive a 0.20 deduction.

Why Groundhogs Are Terrible House Pets

Thinking about a groundhog as a pet? Please read this article before trapping or charming one into your home. They are demanding animals and quite honestly belong in the wild. Is there any upside? Absolutely. Similar to a dog, my groundhog will lovingly greet me when I come home, but then he hastily scurries back into the crawl space and starts digging. If I had to do it over again, I would have chosen goldfish.

1. Hibernation. My groundhog hibernates in my basement all winter long. This may sound like a good thing, but when he wakes up in the spring, it’s a different story. Each year, right around March Madness, this little whistle pig comes climbing up from the basement. Not only is he very hungry, but he’s also looking for a new mate. Having to deal with a hungry groundhog in heat in an urban environment is rough to say the least.

2. Digging. These animals absolutely LOVE to dig. I usually have to replace the carpeting in my townhouse twice a year. Last July he dug right through the dry wall and wedged himself in between the walls. I had to call a contractor to help me remove him AND he bit me during the process. I had to get yet another tetanus shot.

3. Veterinarian Care. Not many vets will even agree to see a “pet” groundhog, let alone have experience in dealing with one. I only brought my little guy to the vet once and it was not a pleasant experience. The vet told me I shouldn’t try to domesticate a wild animal and she threatened to call animal control.

4. Not good with kids. When I first got my groundhog, I tried to get him comfortable around children. I assume he perceived the children as threats, which is why he started snarling so viciously. Thankfully no one was hurt. For safety measures, I always put him on a leash when we go out and I usually tie a piece of string around his snout so he doesn’t snap at anyone.

5. Special dietary needs. The pet stores don’t carry groundhog food, so I just feed him table scraps which may be why he weighs about 45 pounds and is very lethargic. His favorite snack is Bugles and I sometimes let him eat taffy and pretend he is trying to talk.

(No groundhogs were injured during the writing of this article)

Living Alone with Hemiparesis

Safety would be the primary concern of course when people with hemiparesis live alone or are alone for extended amounts of time. Of course your first references are your doctor, physical therapist and occupational therapists especially. This being stated, I can offer insights on some important items to consider in practical aspects of living alone after a traumatic brain injury or a stroke that result in a severe muscle weakness along the left or right side of the body and is sometimes exhibited in slight nerve damage as with me. Perhaps instead of living by them selves, it would be better to consider us living independently. At this writing, I will have reached almost thirty years of living with hemiparesis. Most of this time I was living alone and working as an engineer and writer, author.

For us, the detrimental effects of hemiparesis are still prevalent even after initial rehabilitation and limited recovery. The effects can change with extreme variation.

Effects When Tired or Awoken

When the body is tired, effects can be worse and certainly more dangerous when living alone. An example is if awoken in the night, maybe by thirst, a call, or other concern. Even a healthy person could possibly stumble on sleepy legs or with eyes half open, but for those with left or right hemiparesis, the negative effects are magnified. A stumble can turn into a fall and possibly a head injury since one arm has poor strength, does not react quickly and is not likely to stop a fall. If a foot drags slightly during the day with shoes, then it can be so much worse at night even so unsafe that the person will roll over the toes so as to bruise them and fall forward on the weak side. Lessons learned here emphasize the need for uncluttered floors and hallways. A stray shoe on the floor or even newspaper can prove disastrous. Either could throw off the balance suddenly for a waking person especially in the dark.

This brings up a suggestion for low level lighting in the home or apartment. Economical battery operated motion detector lights are available at many stores now or a search online. Even if a cane is not needed during the day; it would be wise to have a cane near the bed, even a quad cane for late night awakenings or an early morning rising. In the morning, there are other issues as tightened up leg muscles that need stretching before safely moving.

Shower and Bathroom Safety

Morning stretching is important, especially as we who are injured age but more importantly, shower safety needs to be addressed. There is much assistive devices available and occupational therapists can communicate effectively the needs here, however I can give you my thoughts. These are that it can be quite scary at times, especially if you have had an accident, falling in the shower, tub or bathroom before. You will need to be able to have something within reach on your good side to grab onto, basically at all times. Please note that if you can’t use the screwed in support rails and use the bars with suction cups, you really need at least two bars together. Redundant support as these are known t slip and when you have water or soap in your eyes and reach out with the bar slipping, it can be devastating. I would recommend having a bar on the entry or exit and on the opposite side. This way if a person with hemiparesis turns around there is always a bar on the good side.

But it does not stop there. Bathroom floors are usually smooth surfaces and with one foot having no or minimal grab, then any water on a smooth tile or marble surface is like ice and can easily cause a fall when drying. Rubber backed rugs are most often used but can bunch up under feet. A work around solution for these throw rugs is rubber strips with adhesive on both sides. The local hardware store will have some rug grippers or search the web

Dressing

This is an area again where an occupational therapist assures you are prepared with any assistive devices for reaching around the weak side or fastening in back and collar. However, I can emphasize that so much more time needs to be available, just in case. Even though, there are assistive devices and there is ample training in doing this usually available before even leaving the hospital.

Food Preparation, Cooking Kitchen Safety

One’s ability to prepare meals will vary. I understand it’s good to be independent but in the kitchen it just may be smarter to minimize preparation with knives or stovetop. Even the oven can cause burns and fire easily. Having a cardboard pizza box fall onto a hot broiler iron can start a fire that is not too easy for someone with a disability to put out quickly. Sure there are now small convenient fire extinguishers available but some often need two good hands to operate correctly and then even finding it quickly can be an issue for trauma, brain injury or stroke victims.

Fortunately, there has been an improvement In microwave dinners. This certainly would not be your first option in the past. However, I have been at this for almost thirty years now and I really have seen a great variety come on the market and costs go down. Good, healthy dinners can be cooked in one minute. I still bake chicken and pizze plus a few others but safety really needs to bethe forst priority. Losing balance and reaching out to find as hot frying pan to lean on can happen and I have personal experience, it’s not a quick heal having a burn in the palm of your good hand. Agsin here as in the bathroom, a rug with rubber backing and rug grabbers should be required.

Mind Body Health Needs

Concentration and Focus are the key in most everything that the person with hemiparesis might have to overcome. That is why ongoing brain training is so important.

Human interaction, relationships contribute greatly to complex usage of our brain and even helping to stay young. Well living alone minimizes this benefit ad over time can have an adverse effect. Sure, some will say the upward potential may be limited but start with the objective of not losing ability. Without regular exercise, mind or body can atrophy to borrow a term used to describe not using muscles.

There are free and paid sources on the web. There are now brain improvement magazines at the local supermarket and brain games are popular and effective, most even for one hand use.

Geographic Area Specific Issues

Depending on your locality, power outages can occur during natural events mostly as snow or ice storms, hurricanes, tornadoes. When living on the eastern coast, I lost power even when their was a high windstorm. Natural events as this can have an impact on people living with hemiparesis just as they do for others with a disability, elderly or families in general. However preparedness is the key here and living alone increases importance of having battery lighting, food, water, cell phone, radio, all available and easily attainable in possibly in the dark.

The power loss may be worse in cold weather for this condition as detrimental effects can disable some people with this extreme muscle weakness and possibly nerve damage. This varies of course depending on person or injury but in general arms and legs can start shaking uncontrollably and a serious limitation to mobility. Poor effects are also exhibit in sudden changes of weather. Each person may experience this differently but a check with your physician is best.

To assist in times as these, warm clothing, even a safe generator where it can be installed in a home as a backup are suggestions with heat packs available at sporting good stores or camping supply shop.

Summary

Some of the techniques and tips outlined here may seem obvious to some or simple but they are not always thought of ahead of time before they are used. This is evident in support forums online, knowing individuals and my own thirty years of living with hemiparesis. There are of course more but in general, consideration that movements can be slow at times as can thinking. An important point is if there is a loss of balance or tripping, it will most likely be on the weak side which of course doesn’t react fast nor have enough hand strength usually to hang on to something firmly. This is why safety is the first priority when living alone with this injury.

Cleaning And Killing Black Mold With Common, Non-Toxic, Household Products

You will find several household products you are able to use for cleaning black mold. This is a short list of commonly used items that are safe to use.

Mold is really a fungus that thrives in moist or humid conditions. It could be discovered in locations from the house that remains damp, for example the bathroom, kitchen or basement. Mold can be damaging to the surface it grows on, discoloring or corroding it. It can also affect people with allergies and can cause a fatal lung infection if breathed in. The key to mold control is moisture control.

It is essential to dry water damaged areas and items within 24-48 hours to prevent mold growth. If mold is a problem in your house, clean up the mold and get rid of the excess water or moisture. Fix leaky plumbing or other sources of h2o. Wash mold off tough surfaces with detergent and water, and dry totally. Absorbent materials (for example ceiling tiles & carpet) that become moldy may have to be replaced. These house remedies can help get rid of mold effectively.

1. Cleaning Black Mold With Detergent and Water

You are able to use a solution of detergent and water to clean off surface mold from non-porous material such as glass and tiles. Detergent is not a mold killer, the solution is meant for scrubbing off the visible mold from the surfaces. When mold grows on non-porous material, it’s good enough to have all the surface molds cleaned thoroughly. It’s not necessary to kill the mold. For cleaning black mold off outdoor cushions, mix a gallon of water and 1/4 cup of soap in the bucket. You can stir the mix around with your hand and the sponge.

The mixture should be slightly sudsy. Scrub the cushions with the sponge. You can scrub as tough as you like until you get the mold and mildew stains off. The detergent should kill the mold and mildew while it’s breaking down the stains. Dowse any remaining stains with lemon juice. You may still have some pale stains remaining on the cushions once you have finished cleaning them. These should be saturated with lemon juice. Let the cushions dry in the sun. The lemon juice will lift the remainder of the stain out from the cushion using the sunlight as a catalyst.

2. Cleaning Black Mold With Baking Soda

Sprinkle baking soda over moldy carpet to absorb the mold and freshen the air. Leave it on the carpet for as little as 20 minutes or overnight. Use a vacuum cleaner with an empty bag for maximum efficiency to vacuum up the baking soda. Baking Soda paste can be used to clean tile floors as well. It’s suggested that you mix enough water with the baking soda to create a soft paste, then apply it to the trouble spots on your tile, scrub, and rinse with a vinegar/water mixture to neutralize the baking soda to avoid residue.

3. Cleaning Black Mold With Borax Powder (this one is possibly the easiest!)

Use a solution of 1 cup of borax powder to 1 cup of h2o to mop floors. Scrub the black mold with the disinfecting solution over a small area. Wipe away the fluid and scum of mold and disinfecting solution with old rags, but do not rinse the cleansed area. Leaving some borax behind will help prevent the black mold from returning. Repeat steps until you have cleansed all the black mold. Leave your work area open to ventilation and exposed to the sun if possible. This will help speed the drying process and blow out any spores in the air. That will also help reduce the possibility of a recurrence of black mold.

4. Cleaning Black Mold With Vinegar

Clean mold on hard surfaces using a solution of equal parts vinegar and water. Fill a plastic spray bottle with the solution. Spray surfaces in the kitchen and bathroom with the solution and scrub the area with a tough brush. The latest trend in mold and mildew control is the shower and bathroom sprays that use once you’re done taking a shower. These products work just fine, but they act on the same principle as the vinegar spray. Vinegar can substitute just about any bathroom cleaning product sold today, with the exception of heavy duty abrasive cleaners like Comet.

5. Cleaning Black Mold With Chlorine Bleach

Use a solution of one part chlorine bleach to one part h2o to clean carpeting and upholstery that has been affected by mold. Soak a sponge or cloth in the solution and swipe it across the mold to trap the spores in the cloth. NOTE… While leach will clean the black mold, it will not kill it on porous surfaces. You must still use a mold killer before or after you clean the black mold with chlorine bleach.

6. Cleaning Black Mold With Hydrogen Peroxide

Get a bottle of hydrogen peroxide with 3% concentration from your local drug stores. Transfer the hydrogen peroxide into a spray bottle and spray it onto the mold infected surface. Leave it for at least 15 minutes for hydrogen peroxide to take action and kill the molds. After that, scour the area to remove all the mold and mold stains.

For stubborn mold in tough to reach places, like the grout of tiles, use full-strength hydrogen peroxide. Simply apply a number of capfuls to the affected area, allow it to sit for 15 minutes and scrub with an old toothbrush. Note… Keep the spray bottle of remaining hydrogen peroxide in dark place as light reduces the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide. For more effective mold removal, you may consider using hydrogen peroxide with vinegar during the cleaning process.

Hydrogen peroxide is effective at killing molds as it has the elements of anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal. It is a much safer mold cleaner as compared to bleach because it does not produce toxic residue or toxic fumes that harm the environment. Hydrogen peroxide is good at cleaning mold on almost any materials including clothes, walls, bathroom fixtures and other kitchen appliances. For removable rugs, lay them outside on a sunny day with the back of the carpeting exposed to the sun. Mix one part of 3% hydrogen peroxide with five parts h2o. Spray the solution onto the back of the carpet and allow the sun to hit the carpeting for a day. The combination of direct sunlight and hydrogen peroxide will kill mold spores.

7. Cleaning Black Mold With Ammonia

Make an ammonia solution using a ratio of 1 part of ammonia to 1 part of h2o. Fill a spray bottle with ammonia solution and spray it onto the moldy surfaces. Leave the solution to sit for a number of hours before rinsing with h2o. After rinsing or wiping with water, allow the areas to dry completely. For vinyl seats like in your boat, combine 1/4 cup of ammonia with 1 cup of water, and pour this solution into a spray bottle. Spray the mold with this mixture, and scrub it with a bristle brush. Rinse the solution off with clean water to remove it from the vinyl seats. If you still notice mold on the seats, use rubbing alcohol.

NOTE… Ammonia, similar to bleach kills mold growing on non-porous materials like bathtubs, tiles, countertops, and glass. However ammonia is not an effective killer for mold growing in porous materials like drywall and woods. Ammonia is a harsh chemical, it emits toxic fumes when mixed with bleach. Use ammonia with care.

8. Cleaning Black Mold With Liquid Laundry Detergent

Pour two cups of cold h2o and 1 tbsp. liquid laundry soap into a bowl. Mix it up vigorously with a whisk to create thick suds. Dip a rag into the bowl to scoop out the suds. Rub the suds gently onto the moldy carpet. Switch to clean portions from the rag and apply more suds often. Rinse the carpeting with a rag and plain water. Blot thoroughly with a dry rag to remove excessive moisture. Mix 1 gallon of warm h2o and 1/2 cup borax powder into a bucket if the mold remains. Dip a scrub brush into the borax solution and scrub the carpet until the mold is gone. Rinse the carpet with a rag and plain water, and dry thoroughly with a clean rag.

9. Cleaning Black Mold With A Homemade Disinfectant Spray

Once all of the mold has been cleaned, use a disinfectant spray to purify the area. In a plastic spray bottle, combine 1 cup of distilled (or spring) h2o, 1 cup of 91% isopropyl alcohol and the juice of a couple average lemons. The solution is safe enough to spray into the air and does not harm surfaces that it comes into contact with. Store the spray bottle in the refrigerator and use within a few weeks. This will give your house the sterile smell of a doctors office as well as a ‘Lemon Pledge’ hint creating the illusion of ‘dusting all day’!

10. Cleaning Black Mold With Grapefruit Seed Extract

Most households do not have Grapefruit Seed Extract in the cupboard but it’s readily available. Combine 20 drops of grapefruit seed extract to about 1 cup of water will make a useful mold killing solution. Simply squirt the solution on moldy surfaces while wiping with a soft cloth to remove mold and the harmless, light residue will prevent it from coming back.

11. Cleaning Black Mold With Citric Acid

Your local Whole Foods or co-op should have crystallized citric acid on hand and it is relatively inexpensive. Use about 1 cup of acid to 1.5 gallons of hot water. You are able to wring out your mop a little and spread it on lightly, but the chances of it evaporating before you get around to scrubbing increase when you use less. Soak the floor(tile floors only) if you have a large room and need time to do all the scrubbing. Letting the acid soak a little will also give it time to break up mineral deposits, dirt, rust and of course the black mold.

You will need to rinse a number of times with citric acid, it does not come up as easily as other products but it’s much safer around small children. Cleaning a tile floor with citric acid is not only environmentally friendly, it’s incredibly effective. You may already be familiar with the orange hand cleaner products, they use citric acid for cleaning as well.

And there you have it, household solutions to use for cleaning black mold

Cleaning And Killing Black Mold With Common, Non-Toxic, Household Products

You will find several household products you are able to use for cleaning black mold. This is a short list of commonly used items that are safe to use.

Mold is really a fungus that thrives in moist or humid conditions. It could be discovered in locations from the house that remains damp, for example the bathroom, kitchen or basement. Mold can be damaging to the surface it grows on, discoloring or corroding it. It can also affect people with allergies and can cause a fatal lung infection if breathed in. The key to mold control is moisture control.

It is essential to dry water damaged areas and items within 24-48 hours to prevent mold growth. If mold is a problem in your house, clean up the mold and get rid of the excess water or moisture. Fix leaky plumbing or other sources of h2o. Wash mold off tough surfaces with detergent and water, and dry totally. Absorbent materials (for example ceiling tiles & carpet) that become moldy may have to be replaced. These house remedies can help get rid of mold effectively.

1. Cleaning Black Mold With Detergent and Water

You are able to use a solution of detergent and water to clean off surface mold from non-porous material such as glass and tiles. Detergent is not a mold killer, the solution is meant for scrubbing off the visible mold from the surfaces. When mold grows on non-porous material, it’s good enough to have all the surface molds cleaned thoroughly. It’s not necessary to kill the mold. For cleaning black mold off outdoor cushions, mix a gallon of water and 1/4 cup of soap in the bucket. You can stir the mix around with your hand and the sponge.

The mixture should be slightly sudsy. Scrub the cushions with the sponge. You can scrub as tough as you like until you get the mold and mildew stains off. The detergent should kill the mold and mildew while it’s breaking down the stains. Dowse any remaining stains with lemon juice. You may still have some pale stains remaining on the cushions once you have finished cleaning them. These should be saturated with lemon juice. Let the cushions dry in the sun. The lemon juice will lift the remainder of the stain out from the cushion using the sunlight as a catalyst.

2. Cleaning Black Mold With Baking Soda

Sprinkle baking soda over moldy carpet to absorb the mold and freshen the air. Leave it on the carpet for as little as 20 minutes or overnight. Use a vacuum cleaner with an empty bag for maximum efficiency to vacuum up the baking soda. Baking Soda paste can be used to clean tile floors as well. It’s suggested that you mix enough water with the baking soda to create a soft paste, then apply it to the trouble spots on your tile, scrub, and rinse with a vinegar/water mixture to neutralize the baking soda to avoid residue.

3. Cleaning Black Mold With Borax Powder (this one is possibly the easiest!)

Use a solution of 1 cup of borax powder to 1 cup of h2o to mop floors. Scrub the black mold with the disinfecting solution over a small area. Wipe away the fluid and scum of mold and disinfecting solution with old rags, but do not rinse the cleansed area. Leaving some borax behind will help prevent the black mold from returning. Repeat steps until you have cleansed all the black mold. Leave your work area open to ventilation and exposed to the sun if possible. This will help speed the drying process and blow out any spores in the air. That will also help reduce the possibility of a recurrence of black mold.

4. Cleaning Black Mold With Vinegar

Clean mold on hard surfaces using a solution of equal parts vinegar and water. Fill a plastic spray bottle with the solution. Spray surfaces in the kitchen and bathroom with the solution and scrub the area with a tough brush. The latest trend in mold and mildew control is the shower and bathroom sprays that use once you’re done taking a shower. These products work just fine, but they act on the same principle as the vinegar spray. Vinegar can substitute just about any bathroom cleaning product sold today, with the exception of heavy duty abrasive cleaners like Comet.

5. Cleaning Black Mold With Chlorine Bleach

Use a solution of one part chlorine bleach to one part h2o to clean carpeting and upholstery that has been affected by mold. Soak a sponge or cloth in the solution and swipe it across the mold to trap the spores in the cloth. NOTE… While leach will clean the black mold, it will not kill it on porous surfaces. You must still use a mold killer before or after you clean the black mold with chlorine bleach.

6. Cleaning Black Mold With Hydrogen Peroxide

Get a bottle of hydrogen peroxide with 3% concentration from your local drug stores. Transfer the hydrogen peroxide into a spray bottle and spray it onto the mold infected surface. Leave it for at least 15 minutes for hydrogen peroxide to take action and kill the molds. After that, scour the area to remove all the mold and mold stains.

For stubborn mold in tough to reach places, like the grout of tiles, use full-strength hydrogen peroxide. Simply apply a number of capfuls to the affected area, allow it to sit for 15 minutes and scrub with an old toothbrush. Note… Keep the spray bottle of remaining hydrogen peroxide in dark place as light reduces the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide. For more effective mold removal, you may consider using hydrogen peroxide with vinegar during the cleaning process.

Hydrogen peroxide is effective at killing molds as it has the elements of anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal. It is a much safer mold cleaner as compared to bleach because it does not produce toxic residue or toxic fumes that harm the environment. Hydrogen peroxide is good at cleaning mold on almost any materials including clothes, walls, bathroom fixtures and other kitchen appliances. For removable rugs, lay them outside on a sunny day with the back of the carpeting exposed to the sun. Mix one part of 3% hydrogen peroxide with five parts h2o. Spray the solution onto the back of the carpet and allow the sun to hit the carpeting for a day. The combination of direct sunlight and hydrogen peroxide will kill mold spores.

7. Cleaning Black Mold With Ammonia

Make an ammonia solution using a ratio of 1 part of ammonia to 1 part of h2o. Fill a spray bottle with ammonia solution and spray it onto the moldy surfaces. Leave the solution to sit for a number of hours before rinsing with h2o. After rinsing or wiping with water, allow the areas to dry completely. For vinyl seats like in your boat, combine 1/4 cup of ammonia with 1 cup of water, and pour this solution into a spray bottle. Spray the mold with this mixture, and scrub it with a bristle brush. Rinse the solution off with clean water to remove it from the vinyl seats. If you still notice mold on the seats, use rubbing alcohol.

NOTE… Ammonia, similar to bleach kills mold growing on non-porous materials like bathtubs, tiles, countertops, and glass. However ammonia is not an effective killer for mold growing in porous materials like drywall and woods. Ammonia is a harsh chemical, it emits toxic fumes when mixed with bleach. Use ammonia with care.

8. Cleaning Black Mold With Liquid Laundry Detergent

Pour two cups of cold h2o and 1 tbsp. liquid laundry soap into a bowl. Mix it up vigorously with a whisk to create thick suds. Dip a rag into the bowl to scoop out the suds. Rub the suds gently onto the moldy carpet. Switch to clean portions from the rag and apply more suds often. Rinse the carpeting with a rag and plain water. Blot thoroughly with a dry rag to remove excessive moisture. Mix 1 gallon of warm h2o and 1/2 cup borax powder into a bucket if the mold remains. Dip a scrub brush into the borax solution and scrub the carpet until the mold is gone. Rinse the carpet with a rag and plain water, and dry thoroughly with a clean rag.

9. Cleaning Black Mold With A Homemade Disinfectant Spray

Once all of the mold has been cleaned, use a disinfectant spray to purify the area. In a plastic spray bottle, combine 1 cup of distilled (or spring) h2o, 1 cup of 91% isopropyl alcohol and the juice of a couple average lemons. The solution is safe enough to spray into the air and does not harm surfaces that it comes into contact with. Store the spray bottle in the refrigerator and use within a few weeks. This will give your house the sterile smell of a doctors office as well as a ‘Lemon Pledge’ hint creating the illusion of ‘dusting all day’!

10. Cleaning Black Mold With Grapefruit Seed Extract

Most households do not have Grapefruit Seed Extract in the cupboard but it’s readily available. Combine 20 drops of grapefruit seed extract to about 1 cup of water will make a useful mold killing solution. Simply squirt the solution on moldy surfaces while wiping with a soft cloth to remove mold and the harmless, light residue will prevent it from coming back.

11. Cleaning Black Mold With Citric Acid

Your local Whole Foods or co-op should have crystallized citric acid on hand and it is relatively inexpensive. Use about 1 cup of acid to 1.5 gallons of hot water. You are able to wring out your mop a little and spread it on lightly, but the chances of it evaporating before you get around to scrubbing increase when you use less. Soak the floor(tile floors only) if you have a large room and need time to do all the scrubbing. Letting the acid soak a little will also give it time to break up mineral deposits, dirt, rust and of course the black mold.

You will need to rinse a number of times with citric acid, it does not come up as easily as other products but it’s much safer around small children. Cleaning a tile floor with citric acid is not only environmentally friendly, it’s incredibly effective. You may already be familiar with the orange hand cleaner products, they use citric acid for cleaning as well.

And there you have it, household solutions to use for cleaning black mold

What Is Washi Tape: Functional and Decorative Washi Tape Uses

So what is washi tape? Many people have heard the term but are unsure of the many potential decorative washi tape uses, and how it can best be employed once it has been purchased. In fact it has dozens of uses, and many use it as gift wrap or as an everyday item in their home. We shall explain here what this type of craft tape can be used for, including its sealing tape and decorative properties. Fundamentally, it is a type of Japanese paper. In fact the name itself indicates that: Wa + shi = Japanese + paper.

How is WASHI Tape Made?

Washi tape is produced from the pulped fibers of a number of plant species. Among these are fibers from the rice plant, hemp, bamboo, the mitsamuta shrub and gampi bark. The source is largely irrelevant to its main properties, which are fundamentally those of a regular paper masking tape. It is easily torn, can printed and possesses adhesive properties light enough to be peeled off the substrate but strong enough to be of use for packaging.

Unlike normal paper made from wood pulp, washi tape possesses a semi-translucent quality, so that you see light shining through it. Two of the main reasons why it is so special are that it can be printed in an unlimited range of colors and patterns, and it offers a beautiful option for those seeking a strong craft tape that can also be used for packaging. The tape can even be peeled from tissue paper if done carefully.

Washi Tape Uses

There are many washi tape uses. It can be printed with single solid colors, or with any beautiful design for use as a decorative tape for craft or functional applications. Because of its unusual strength for a form of paper, this unique tape is used to decorate and secure a number of household items where a strong bond is not essential.

Some use it to fix notes to their freezer or wallboards, and it is also useful for sealing small gifts. However, because washi tape can be peeled off, there is a compromise between its sealing power and removability. It is not recommended for sealing bulky or heavy packages, but is a lovely way to seal light packets intended for special people.

When using it to seal light packaging always make sure the substrate is dry and non-greasy, and that your hands are clean when you apply it. It is not a good security tape, but its decorative properties are excellent!

Washi tape is a popular decorating medium for items such as flower pots, vases, lampshades and tablet and laptop covers. It is also useful for decorating cups, saucers, tumblers, glasses and other forms of tableware because it offers a degree of water resistance. However, there are many different types of this tape, and not all will resist being washed with water unless done very gently.

Many Japanese use washi tape to decorate their chopsticks. You can use the tape to identify your own cutlery and crockery in a student flat, or to turn an ordinary table or desk into a beautiful work of art. The uses to which this decorative sealing and craft tape can be put are limited only by your imagination.

Craft Tape or Cosmetic Tape?

Washi tape has a number of cosmetic uses. You can brighten up your personal appearance by using adhesive washi tape on your toenails and fingernails. Brighten up your bicycle frame and decorate your car or van with this extremely versatile tape. You can use it on any smooth surface, even glass. If used on your windows, its semi-translucent properties will literally make the design glow.

It is because it is available in a wide variety of beautiful designs and vibrant colors that it has become so popular worldwide. Yes, it can be used a packaging tape for small parcels (though check its strength on these first), and it has several more functional uses that you can likely think of, but it is for their beauty that such tapes are popular.

You can’t go wrong by using washi tape for any decorative or craft purpose. It has not been so popular all round the world for no reason – washi tape speaks for itself and you will be astounded by its beauty when you first use it.

Washi Tape Summary

So, what is washi tape? It is a Japanese craft tape that can be used a sealing tape or for decorative purposes. It can easily be removed and reused for another purpose. It can be cleaned with a damp cloth, but only if you treat it gently and do not rub it hard. Its translucent properties offer a number of opportunities for its use to decorate lampshades and even fluorescent light tubes. Quite frankly, the potential uses of this beautiful tape are limited only by your imagination… and it seals packages!

How A Person Should Store Art Drawings

If a person has a love of art and drawing, then the chances are that such a person has been storing every single drawing for a long time. Where to put them might be a problem as an individual may not be sure where to keep them safe. It is very important for one to ensure they are stored well for future use and remembrance.

Being organized is the best thing to do. Every artist should be a person who is well organized. The drawings and paintings need to be kept safe and clean. This will show the seriousness of an individual in carrying out such an investment. There are many ways of keeping the drawings and painting safe from any kind of damage. It only needs a bit of organisation.

An individual is advised to convert an old cereal container into a file folder. It is very possible to fit quite a number of drawings into it. A person can use one cereal container for example, to store drawings of nature. An individual can have another cereal box for storage of drawings and paintings of cartoon character. It is advisable to use cereal boxes that are big enough. Small ones may not work as expected.

People need to purchase a portfolio folder. It is a type of a folder that is design to neatly hold ones drawings together. Purchasing such a folder can do great help in displaying the drawings quickly and easily. This kind of folder can even be made at home. It just needs two pieces of cardboard, glue, a strip of construction paper and a string.

Having everything at hand, you should glue the two pieces of cardboard to the strip to form a folder. One must then punch a hole. The hole has to be punched in the top center pieces. After doing that, the paintings and drawings should be placed inside the folder. The folder should then be closed up by pulling the string through the holes. Make sure to tie them together.

People can also use a scrapbook to keep the paintings and drawings safe. A scrapbook is design to have plastic covers. Each page has a plastic cover. This will definitely help in protecting your drawings. This can be a protection from any spills and even fingerprints when admirers are looking through the drawings. This very crucial in keeping the northern British art safe.

Purchasing an accordion folder is also advisable. This can be obtained from the local supply store. The benefit of purchasing an accordion folder is that it is designed to hold several drawings. They are being sold at very reasonable prices. Which means they are affordable to everyone. Your drawings can stay pristine and in their original condition. This is because it is design to allow one to slide a different drawing into each and every slot. If the drawings are kept in such a folder, they will never get wrinkled even if they are cramped together.

Therefore, keeping ones art safe is very important. The above options will cater for most situations, and will greatly help in ensuring the drawings are stored safe, clean and dry.’

Why You Should Consider Buying Lego Toys for Your Child

One of the most popular and reliable toy brands around is Lego. For a few decades, it entertains kids while teaching them problem solving skills, imagination, and creativity. There are thousands of different models and sets are on market now, giving you lots of choices that are not available with any other toy.

Lego’s strength is its simplicity. Among others, Lego has elaborate sets for putting together a complex moon-lander or a pirate ship. But the most fun you get from the good old-fashioned set of basic multi-purpose bricks that can be used over and over again to build pretty much anything.

It is also possible to buy separate supplies of bricks to create your own designs from scratch, or to supplement the models you already have. It is impossible to get disappointed. Even if you are bored after building one set, you will just build something new right away.

New bricks are as colorful as the originals but they are bigger in size. Since the bricks are interchangeable, they can be used with any Lego sets, and kids will be using these blocks throughout life.

Lego sets are suitable for kids of all ages because of the simple design and concept of using colorful bricks for building things.

Duplos are the pre-cursors to Legos. Children whose fine motor skills are not yet developed enough to handle the smaller pieces can use Duplo sets just fine. They are safe for kids who still put things in their mouth.

Although Lego is not the cheapest toy, in the long run it is the best investment in toys. The bricks will last long time since they are almost unbreakable and hold you child’s interest for years.

Looking For an Apartment in Milwaukee, Wisconsin That Approves With Bad Credit Or a Broken Lease?

Milwaukee is a large city with a strong cultural backbone. This attractive city in Wisconsin has been a center of business and culture for decades, giving such notables as Milwaukee beer and much more. The city teems with new life in the form of colleges and recently opened businesses. This naturally attracts visitors and immigrants from other states not to mention other smaller cities within Wisconsin. Area apartments therefore are in hot demand. One standard procedure when applying to lease an apartment in Milwaukee is that you have to have credit that is acceptable. If you have bad credit or your rental history involves a broken lease, there is a high probability you will get denied. But this should not discourage you. There are some apartments within the metropolis that can work with applicants whose credit is damaged.

  • Arlington Heights
  • Franklin Heights
  • Harambee
  • Metcalfe Park and more…

People in Milwaukee who are looking for apartments which approve tenants with bad credit or a broken lease report one major frustration; these types of rental units cannot be easily located. One reason for this is that they do not readily advertise in the mainstream media for fear of attracting people whose credit is overly tarnished. They are also working to protect existing tenants. If your credit is not where it should be, and you are searching for an apartment in the Wisconsin area, it is good to exercise patience in your search. Some of these second chance apartments in Milwaukee approve problem tenants on a case-by-case basis.

We have mentioned that there is a level of frustration involved when searching for these types of apartments. One way to try and cover some ground is to network. This involves asking for referrences especially from people who themselves are lease holders. Another helpful option is speaking directly to an apartment locator. These might have insight as to who is renting to whom and where. Finally, utilize the power of the Internet to search for area apartments which might be willing to work with you.

Remember that even if you do locate these apartments and have a manager that is willing to listen to your case, you must also fulfill other critical requirements such as having a job and also passing a criminal background.

Options for Blueprint Storage

Blueprints are commonly used by government agencies, construction firms, universities, medical facilities, and architects since large format blueprints are easy to read and they allow the reader to see the “whole picture”. However, storing blueprints is another matter, since they are very difficult to protect and organize. Additionally, blueprint users will face a number of challenging issues such as maximizing floor space, document safety, document security, organization, and access. Of course, cost is always a factor.

Luckily, many storage options exist for you to utilize. Options for blueprint storage include flat file drawers, rolled file storage, digitization, plastic covers, lamination, and vertical file storage systems. This article will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each storage method.

Flat file storage systems are the traditional method of blueprint storage and work well for documents that are archival in nature, which do not need to be moved with frequency. Large format documents can be very heavy, particularly when they are on the bottom of a flat file drawer. This makes the blueprints prone to tearing and ripping when moved; the sheer weight of large file drawers can require two people to remove the files out of a flat file system. Flat file cabinets can make attractive office furniture since they can be made of exotic woods; the large surfaces can function as extra desktops or shelving. They also can provide a good storage medium for clean sheets. Flat file systems are notoriously heavy and immobile; flat file systems are very secure with locking features.

Rolled blueprints, which remain a common practice, are typically stood on end in a vertical position. While easy to access and carry, rolled files tend to deteriorate quickly. Users tend to arrange the rolled blueprints in a haphazard manner, which creates organization problems and can damage the documents. The blueprints are easily damaged from contact with other documents; they also can get dusty and dirty which encourages deterioration. Rolled blueprints can be stored in wire upright trays which provide quick access; some blueprint trays come on rollers for increased mobility. Rolling blueprints creates another problem called blueprint “Memory”. The rolling, then storing blueprints this way, even for a short period, causes them to not lay flat but rather curl back to the rolled state, when you unroll them. This makes them harder to use and it gets worse, not better the longer the are rolled.

Digitally scanning documents is increasing popular for archiving seldom used blueprints, but with scanning charges at over $100 per document, digitization can be cost prohibitive. This is particularly true for legacy documents which may be seldom used, but remain very important for future reference. Surprisingly, digital documents are not foolproof. Blueprints created by older types of software can be very difficult to read when using newer versions software. This can be particularly true for intricate drawings where precision is of utmost importance. In those cases, archiving paper blueprints is the only salvation.

Storing files in plastic covers is a good method to protect files from coffee spills, weather, or dirt. They can also protect the documents from cigarette ashes. If you have ever been to a construction site, you know that they are a chaotic and dirty place; this makes protecting blueprints at a construction site a full-time job. Plastic covers can provide good protection for blueprints that need to be carried from site to site.

For the same reason, laminated files are becoming more popular for engineers, construction workers, and architects in the field. Large document lamination is affordable and provides for the ultimate safety of a document, although the weight of the document is more than doubled. The problem here is that once laminated you can’t make changes or notes on the blueprint. Long term storage of laminated documents can prove problematic since they are inflexible and can get permanently creased.

Vertical file storage systems may be the most efficient method for storing blueprints. By storing blueprints in a vertical (and flat) position, floor space savings of up to 75% are achieved. Stored in vertical plastic sheaths, blueprints are protected from damage by dirt or contact with other documents. Access and organization is improved since all blueprints are labeled like the files in a conventional file cabinet. This easy access minimizes the stress on the office worker when searching for documents since all documents are easily found. Cost savings can be substantial since one vertical file storage system retailing for $1500 can store the equivalent of a three five-drawer flat file storage systems with dimensions of 24×36 inches, which can retail for $3800 or more. Vertical file storage systems have wheels and are mobile; they also can be locked to provide a secure storage system.

Thus, many options exist for blueprint storage; your blueprint storage needs will dictate the preferred methods of storage. For many users, multiple storage systems prove the best solution.

Cycling in the City – The Pros and Cons

With changing global circumstances such as increasing fuel costs, traffic and high fees for parking, there has been a change in how people get around, whether to work or appointments or even to grocery stores. One of the means of transport that has gained support is cycling. In many major cities and surrounding areas the push for cycling lanes and laws to protect bikers has grown in popularity and more and more people have taken to the streets with two wheels instead of four. There are however both pros and cons which all cyclists and drivers should consider.

Pros: Cycling is one of the best means of transit. Not only is it better for the environment, healthier for the rider and less costly than driving. Most buses are outfitted with bike racks and other modes of transportation such as subways generally allow a few bikes per car for those people commuting from longer distances. Cyclists are also seeing cities changing to accommodate their needs. Bike lanes and streets which are bike friendly are beginning to be a part of the city. As much as biking instead of driving is good for the environment it is even better for your health as it is recommended to get 20-30 minutes of exercise per day. One of the biggest benefits of cycling is the lower costs associated with it. Commuting to work saves money as you are not stuck in traffic burning fuel and also not paying high rates for parking.

Cons: In West Coast cities and those with milder temperatures, cycling is a year-round activity enjoyed by many, especially the hardy who bike in the winter months. Biking in the city can be a dangerous activity. Inadequate laws can be problematic to cyclists. Currently, other than owning a bike little else is required by law to outfit cyclists. Most states and provinces do not require helmets, reflective clothing and the knowledge of signals. Cars and other vehicles also do not require knowledge of bike signals either which can be confusing and dangerous for cyclists. Many people who ride bikes are very courteous and respect the rules of the road, especially in a city setting which can be very dangerous at rush hour. There are occasionally cyclists who disrespect the rules by taking non-cycling routes which can be deadly as narrow roads, dark conditions and lack of safety equipment can lead to accidents.

Cycling is a great activity. It is healthy, environmentally friendly, cost efficient and a great way to travel. As long as cyclists follow the rules of the road and are properly outfit in safety equipment such as reflective gear, both clothing and on the bike, and a helmet, cycling is a great way to enjoy the outdoors and make a difference in the world.

Was The ‘Rainbow’ Division Tarnished By Its Battlefield Behavior In World War I?

World War I began in Europe in 1914, however, the United States remained neutral until 6 April 1917 when President Woodrow Wilson signed the joint resolution declaring that a state of war now existed between the United States of America and Imperial Germany. Three months later, in August 1917, U. S. National Guard units from twenty-six states and the District of Columbia united to form the 42nd Division of the United States Army. Douglas MacArthur, serving as Chief of Staff for the Division, commented that it “would stretch over the whole country like a rainbow.” In this manner, the 42nd became known as the “Rainbow Division.” It comprised four infantry regiments from New York, Ohio, Alabama, and Iowa. Men from many other states, among them New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Indiana, Michigan, Rhode Island, Maryland, California, South Carolina, Missouri, Connecticutt, Tennessee, New Jersey, Colorado, Maine, North Carolina, Kansas, Texas, Wisconsin, Texas, Illinois, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Oregon, and Pennsylvania also joined the division and became machine gunners, ambulance drivers, worked in field hospitals, or served in the military police.

The Southeastern Department commander recommended that the 4th Alabama Infantry be assigned to the 42nd. The commander of the 4th was Colonel William P. Screws, a former regular army officer who had served from 1910 to 1915 as the inspector-instructor for the Alabama National Guard. Screws was widely regarded as one of the major assets of the Alabama National Guard, and his reputation was likely a prominent factor in the selection of the 4th to join the 42nd. To upgrade the 4th Infantry to war strength, the transfer of the necessary numbers of enlisted men from other Alabama Guard units, including the 1st and 2nd Infantry Regiments and the 1st Alabama Cavalry.

On August 15 the War Department officially redesignated the 4th Alabama Infantry as the 167th Infantry Regiment, 84th Brigade, 42nd Division. The regiment comprised 3,622 enlisted troops and 55 enlisted medical staff for a total of 3,677men. The 1st Alabama Infantry had contributed 880 enlisted men to join the new 167th, the 2nd Alabama Infantry and the 1st Alabama Cavalry had provided enlisted men to bring the 167th to war strength, which was nominally 3,700 officers and men.

The Rainbow Division became one of the first sent to Europe in 1917 to support French troops in battles at Chateau-Thierry, St. Mihiel, the Verdun front, and Argonne. On 15 July 1918 the Division, acting as part of the 4th French Army, assisted in containing the final German offensive at the Battle of Champagne.

Let us set the scenario for the matter of alleged American battlefield atrocities on the part of the ‘Rainbow’ Division. On 15 July 1918, the Germans, in their final bid to end the war in their favor, launched a massive attack southward in the Champagne country of France. Although most of the defending troops were French, there were some units of the U.S. 42nd Division also involved in the defense and in the counter-attacks that ensued.

Concerning the battle participation of the U. S. 42nd (‘Rainbow’) Division in the Champagne-Marne Defensive battle of 15 July 1918, we read as follows in Donovan, America’s Master Spy, by Richard Dunlop:

“The regimental commanders [of the U. S. 42nd Division] were instructed to post only a few men in the first trench line, which would easily fall. Most were to be positioned in the second line, from which they were also expected to withdraw as the Germans swept ahead.”

“On July 15 at 12:04 a.m., the German artillery commenced one of the war’s most tremendous barrages. When at 4:30 a.m. the artillery stopped firing as suddenly as it had started, the silence over no-man’s-land was dreadful. The first Germans appeared wraithlike, running toward the American lines through the morning mist. Minenwerfers [large caliber German mortars] suddenly rained down on the defending Americana, and machine guns chattered death. The Americans who escaped the first charge scrambled back to the second line.”

“The Germans found themselves in full possession of the American first trenches; they thought they had won. They shouted, cheered and broke into song. Then the American barrage opened on the trenches. Since each piece of artillery had been carefully zeroed in on the trenches when they were still in American hands, the accuracy of the gunfire was uncanny. Some of the crack Prussian Guards still managed to reach the second line of trenches, but they too were repulsed, after bloody hand-to-hand encounters. The Germans broke off the attack.”

“To Donovan’s [Colonel William J. Donovan, commanding officer of the 165th Infantry Regiment, from New York] disgust, the Germans resorted to subterfuge. Four Germans, each with a Red Cross emblazoned on his arm, carried a stretcher up to the lines held by the 165th. When they were close, they yanked a blanket from the stretcher to reveal a machine gun, with which they opened fire. The Americans shot them dead. Still another group tried to infiltrate the American lines one night wearing French uniforms. They too were shot. All told, some breakthroughs were made, but the Germans had been halted by the Americans. The Americans had not been defeated as the French battle plans had expected they would be. After three days of battle, the Germans began

to pull back.” 1

On 18 August 1918 the following cablegram was received at American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) headquarters, Chaumont, France:

“”A F August 18, 1918.

Commanding General, 42nd Division, Bourmont.

Following received from Washington:

“For Nolan. Condemned Associated Press Dispatch from London received by Cable Censor ‘0055 Monday Baumans Amsterdam accusation that soldier[s’] of 42nd American line Division enraged at losses suffered 15/7 near Rheims killed same evening 150 German prisoners is made by Wolff Bureau on “Creditable authority” and accordingly displayed in Saturday’s German papers’. Dispatch held for assumed inaccuracy. Investigate and report.” Make immediate investigation and report by wire this office. By direction.

Nolan

4.55 P.M. “” 2

A “Condemned Associated Press Dispatch…” is assumed to be an AP dispatch which was intercepted by the “Cable Censor” and deemed unfit for forwarding (if sent from F&F) or transmission (if originating in London) and thus was condemned. This action would also presumably be taken if the origin of the telegram or cablegram was thought to be spurious or even sent under false pretenses. The original copy of this message was most probably burned with the “Confidential waste” at AEF HQ Chaumont.

Pershing and his staff at Chaumont did everything possible to control the press and the AEF staff would quickly ‘condemn’ sources from reporters and reports that were not run through General Pershing’s staff.

Regarding the day the telegram was received by AEF HQ on August 18, 1918, this would have been on a Sunday. “0055 Monday” in the telegram would refer to 12 August 1918. The telegram was received shortly after the Champagne-Marne Defensive Campaign, and while the U. S. 42nd Division was fighting in the Marne Salient during July and August of 1918. The “Wolff Bureau” was the Wolff Telegraph Agency in Berlin, a semi-official German new agency in 1918.

The G-2 (Intelligence Officer) of AEF Headquarters, Brigadier General Dennis E. Nolan took prompt action to investigate the alleged murder of German prisoners of war on 15 July 1918 during the Champagne-Marne Defensive Campaign. Nolan directed Major General Charles T. Menoher, commander of the U. S. 42nd Division to undertake an immediate investigation of the charge. The investigation was made on 20 August 1918 at the station of the U. S. 42nd Division, AEF, Bourmont, France.

The U.S. 42nd Division was composed of troops from Alabama, Ohio, Iowa, and New York. The troops that had contact with the German Army on 15 July 1918 were:

2nd Battalion, 165th Infantry Regiment (New York); 3rd Battalion, 166th Infantry Regiment (Ohio); 2nd Battalion, 167th Infantry Regiment (formerly 4th Alabama), and Companies E and F of the 168th Infantry Regiment (Iowa).

The force of the investigation fell on the 2nd Battalion, 165th Infantry, the 3rd Battalion of the 168th, 2nd Battalion, 167th, and Companies E and F of the 168th.

According to the “Report of investigation of reported killing of German prisoners of war,” from the Division Inspector and to the Commanding General, 42nd Division, AEF, sworn testimony was taken from a total of thirty-eight officers of the 42nd Division, and particularly from officers whose troops were so stationed as to come into contact with the Germans in the Champagne battle of 15 July 1918. Twenty-three officers gave sworn testimony and fifteen company-grade officers were required to give depositions. The testimony was uniformly a denial that any atrocities were committed during the fighting that day of 15 July 1918.

According to the same report, “All the officers state that no German prisoners were killed by American troops nor were any mistreated; not did any officer hear anything to that effect. On the contrary the prisoners were treated well, the wounded cared for and carefully transported to the rear and the prisoners given food, drink and cigarettes. In at least one case a wounded prisoner was carried while one of our wounded officers walked.” 3

The “CONCLUSION” of the report states: “That the statements contained in the telegram set forth in Paragraph II of this report are false and without any foundation in fact. That all prisoners taken by troops of the 42nd Division were turned over immediately to the French military authorities, and that, therefore, no troops of the 42nd Division had access to them other than those whose statements are covered by this report.” 4

The “RECOMMENDATION” of the report states: “That no further action be taken.” The findings were forwarded to AEF Headquarters and there the matter was dropped. 5

An unknown German newspaper purportedly published in Berlin, Germany, on Saturday, 17 August 1918 allegedly printed an article alleging that 150 wounded and captured German soldiers were summarily killed by soldiers of the U. S. 42nd Division on 15 July 1918. There were five newspapers published in Berlin on the date of Saturday, 17 August 1918: Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Deutsche Tageszeitung Germania, Neues Preussische Zeitung, Nordeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Vossiche Zeitung. Searches of the mentioned German newspapers have been made by several historians. No atrocity articles have ever been located in these German papers.

In James J. Cooke’s book, The Rainbow Division in the Great War, we read:

“”The Rainbows also had developed a very real hatred for the Germans. During the German bombardment on 15 July 1918, the doctors and nurses moved what wounded they could to a dugout, and the once callow Lieutenant van Dolsen recoiled in horror at what he saw”:

“Well we got down into the dug out and my dear mother such a shamble I never hope to see again. A long black tunnel lighted just a little by candles, our poor wounded shocked boys there on litters in the dark, eight of them half under ether just as they had come off the tables their legs only half amputated, surgeons trying to finish and check blood in the dark, the floor soaked with blood, the hospital above us a wreck, three patients killed and one blown out of bed with his head off. Believe me I will never forgive the bastards as long as I live.”

Editor’s note: Lt. van Dolsen, being an officer, was able to ‘censor’ his own letters, otherwise this type of comment would never have reached the home front. Van Dolsen’s letter to his aunt, Occupation Forces, Germany, 19 February 1919, MHIA. See also Stewart, Rainbow Bright, 70-71.

“One Alabama private who was in the thickest of the fighting on 15 July wrote to his mother, “All of you can cheer up and wear a smile for I’m a little hero now. I got two of the rascals and finished killing a wounded with my bayonet that might have gotten well had I not finished him…I couldn’t be satisfied at killing them, how could I have mercy on such low life rascals as they are?”

“A good bit of this hatred resulted from the Germans approaching American lines dressed in French uniforms taken from the dead in the first line sacrifice trench.”

“The hand-to-hand fighting was especially severe for the Alabamians and New Yorkers, and many of their comrades were killed or wounded in the fighting for the second defense line and in the counter-attacks that followed. Adding to the confusion was the occasional round of friendly artillery fire that fell short and hit the Americans as they repulsed the enemy.”

“The Alabama defense and decisive counter-attacks on 15 July was praised by all, and established the 167th Regiment as the best fighting regiment within the division.”

“There had always been rumors of units of the 42nd Division taking no prisoners. Major William J. Donovan, in May of 1918, described to his wife the possibility of the Alabamians’ of the 167th Infantry Regiment capturing and killing two Germans, and he ended his letter stating, “They [the 167th] wander all over the landscape shooting at everything.”

“Elmer Sherwood, the Hoosier gunner, reported the story that the Alabamians attacked a German trench with Bowie knives. “They cleaned up on the enemy,

Sherwood recalled, “but it is no surprise to any of us, because they are a wild bunch, not knowing what fear is.”

While in Germany on occupation duty with the Rainbow, Lieutenant van Dolsen wrote to his aunt back in Washington, DC, that the Alabams “did not take many prisoners, but I do not blame them for that.”

“The New York regiment was also known for fierce fighting and taking few prisoners on the battlefield. This issue of battlefield atrocities by the U. S. 42nd Division would again surface after the severe fighting at Croix Rouge Farm, in the Marne Salient, where the soldiers from Alabama and Iowa were heavily engaged at close quarters with a determined enemy.” 6

J. Phelps Harding, 2nd Lt., 165th Regiment, U. S. 42nd Division, AEF, wrote a letter home to his folks on 22 September 1918. His letter states, in part:

“I’m glad I had a chance to join the 165th-it’s a man’s outfit, and it has done fine work over here. One of the German prisoners, who met us here and at Chateau-Thierry, but did not realize we were at both places, said that America had only two good divisions – the 42nd and the Rainbow. He didn’t know they were one and the same. I won’t ask for any better men than the Irish in the 69th (165th). They are a hard hitting, dare devil bunch, very religious, afraid of nothing, and sworn enemies of the Boche. The regiment lost heavily at Chateau-Thierry – my company alone had 110 wounded and 36 killed outright – and every man has a ‘buddy’ to avenge. Lord help the Boche who gets in the way of the ‘old 69th.’ We are told to treat prisoners as approved by the war-that-was, when soldiers were less barbarous than they are now. After every action we see or hear of mutilation of our men – and there’s many a German who suffers for every one American so treated. I don’t mean he is mutilated – no American stoops that low – but I do mean that he grows daisies where, if his colleagues had been a bit more human, he might have been getting a good rest in an American prison camp.

Now I’ll really stop – perhaps I should have stopped before writing this last paragraph, but it’s said, so it stands.” 7

Editor’s note: As an officer Phelps was privileged to censor his own writing. An enlisted man, however, concerned about censorship, might have hesitated to write that ‘after every action’ soldiers found ‘mutilation of our men’ or to suggest that American soldiers killed German prisoners in reprisal. Boche is the French derogatory slang term for German soldiers during World War I.

In defense of the ‘Rainbow’ Division’s behavior on the battlefield, here is a letter I received in 1997 from Clark Jarrett, grandson of Paul Jarrett, a lieutenant in the 166th Infantry Regiment. Clark Jarrett telephoned his grandfather (at his age of 101 years) and transcribed his father’s conversation:

“”I appreciated your letter very much. I did as you requested…I called my grandfather the night after I received your letter. We had a very good phone call. I read him your exact words and took notes during our conversation. Here is what he had to say:

“I never saw or heard of anything about atrocities in the Rainbow. I can say that the 165th (New York) was not prepared to go to the front when the entire division was ready. I heard personally that the “165th was not fit for service.” They were considered playboys, not soldiers. My regiment, the 166th, served with the 165th as the 83rd Brigade. At the Second Battle of the Marne (Battle of the Champagne) I was informed by messenger that I should be aware of my left flank, as the Germans had entered the trenches of the 165th. I put my binoculars to my eyes and I saw that there was trench fighting going on down to my left. Thank God that the Germans did not break through. But I was aware that they might at any moment. After that, the 165th performed as well as any other unit in the Rainbow.

As for the 167th Alabama…the only time I every saw or heard of anything unusual was at Camp Mills, Long Island, New York, when we were in training to go to Europe. One night, we were called out to separate the 167th from a Negro unit. Apparently the white soldiers really got upset that black soldiers were in the division. Anyway, we had to part the two units…but I didn’t see any specific violence. I heard that there was a pretty good fight going before we got there. It was the 167th I was going to help when I got my knee fractured during the fighting at the Ourcq River.””

I hope this will give you another piece of the puzzle, David. I quizzed him really hard about the facts. He, as you know, has a wonderful memory, and will not [I repeat] not, go along with anything, nor any memory of someone else just to satisfy that person. He will tell it just exactly the way it was.”” 8

“On the fourth day, when the 69th and the Alabama continued to hold, the French general [Gouraud] said, “Well, I guess there is nothing for me to do but fight the war out where the New York Irish want to fight it.” 9

Author of The Last Hero, Wild Bill Donovan, Anthony Cave Brown, tells us:

“And, Donovan was to admit, the Micks took no prisoners. “The men, “he wrote,” when they saw the Germans with red crosses on one sleeve and serving machine guns against us, firing until the last minute, then cowardly throwing up their hands and crying “Kamerad,” became just lustful for German blood. I do not blame them.” Later when WJD [William J. Donovan] was required to sit in judgement on the German officers’ corps for its conduct in World War II, he recalled this incident, realized that if World War I had gone the wrong way, he might have been arrested for having committed war crimes, and he refused to prosecute.” 10

It is interesting to note that, during the fighting along the Ourcq River, and after the Champagne-Marne Defensive Campaign, the U. S. 42nd Division evidently again became involved with the matter of battlefield atrocities. We read as follows in Anthony Cave Brown’s book entitled, The Last Hero, Wild Bill Donovan:

“In the fighting the Micks again began to kill their prisoners, and Donovan recorded: “Out of the 25 I was able to save only 2 prisoners, the men killed

all the rest.” 11

Editor’s comment: “Micks” is an ethnic slang expression for the Irish-Americans. Once again we have the situation where an officer in the AEF is able to write just about any comment at all to the home folks. One speculates as to what the average enlisted soldier would have written, had he been permitted to do so. Major General William J. Donovan, commander of the 165th (formerly 69th ) Infantry Regiment during World War I, was later to become the founder of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and “father” of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Going back to the 167th Infantry Regiment (formerly 4th Alabama), Professor James J. Cooke, author of The Rainbow Division in the Great War, informs the author that:

“The matter of the atrocities concerned mainly the 167th Infantry and I was very concerned with it because of the investigation conducted by the HQ, AEF. There had been problems with the 167th being very aggressive in combat. But, when I searched for references in German papers, like you, I found none. It appeared that HQ got their information from reporters who simply heard rumors, etc. I do believe, however, that HQ was well aware of the hard fighting tendencies of units like the 167th and wanted to investigate quickly. I included the investigation mainly because it was HQ that ordered it done rather than from any German or poor sources. That is as far as I got when doing the Rainbow book. I did indeed research AEF records in RG 120 at National Archives II, especially the JAG [Judge Advocate General] and G2 [Intelligence] records, but found, like you, a brick wall as far as the origins of the reported atrocities. By the way, when I ran across “condemned” sources it was usually for reporters and reports that were not run through Pershing’s staff. As you know Pershing and his staff at Chaumont did everything possible to control the press.” 12

The soldiers of the 4th Alabama National Guard Regiment (167th of the U. S. 42nd Division) seem to have been a rather different ‘breed of cat.’ Many of them were backwoodsmen, avid hunters and crack rifle shots. It is said that many of them brought their personal Bowie knives over to France and that they used them in battle. 13

In a letter to the home folks, Ambulance Corps driver George Ruckle wrote, in part: “The Germans call us barbarians, they don’t like the way we fight. When the boys go over the top or make raids they generally throw away their rifles and go to it with trench knives, sawed off shotguns, bare fists and hand grenades, and the Bosch doesn’t like that kind of fighting. The boys from Alabama are particularly expert with knives and they usually go over hollering like fiends-so I don’t blame the Germans for being afraid of them.” 14

A young officer in the 42nd Division, made the observation in a letter home in early 1918 that, “the Alabamans, a rough, quick-tempered lot, always spoiling for a fight, lost their tempers.” This comment was made in regards to an altercation between the men from Alabama and the French civilians.

Could the old adage that, “where there is smoke, there must be fire” apply here?

In placing all of these pieces of evidence of alleged battlefield atrocities committed by the U. S. 42nd Division on the scales of justice, how does it all weigh out? In the opinion of this historian, the ‘Rainbow’ Division probably stands guilty of some extremely aggressive battlefield behavior during World War I. It is also my distinct impression that the investigation conducted by AEF HQ was a total whitewash.

Americans are loathe to accept the idea that their soldiery, in any war, either enjoy killing their enemies or are capable of committing war crimes of any sort and specifically battlefield atrocities against enemy soldiers or civilians. Americans are always so shocked and horrified whenever their soldiers act (or react) like anyone else in the world, as if “our boys” occupy a moral high ground unique on the planet. But, if one is to be true to historical fact, one must accept the idea that American soldiers have not always behaved honorably on the battlefield. There is ample testimony to this effect from World War I, World War II, Korea, (e.g., the incident at the tunnel at No Gun Ri in 1950, where a number of civilians were allegedly massacred by American soldiers) Vietnam (e.g., the Mylai incident, where Vietnamese civilians were allegedly massacred under the command of Lt. William Calley), and from Iraq, where all too frequently some of our fighting forces are accused of having shot unarmed prisoners, or having tortured them in prison.

In coming down to the year of 2005, we have Marine Corps Lt. General James N. Mattis, known as “Mad Dog Mattis” to the troops he led in Afganistan and Iraq, publicly stating that “It’s a lot of fun to fight, you know. It’s a hell of a hoot. It’s fun to shoot some people. I’ll be right up front with you. I like brawling.” The Commandant of the Marine Corps, Gen. Mike Hagee said, in part, “While I understand that some people may take issue with the comments made by him, I also know he intended to reflect the unfortunate and harsh realities of war.” 15

The murder of surrendering prisoners is not unique to World War I. That has been a barbarous practice in all wars. However, one aspect of World War I fighting has been perhaps neglected; perhaps the murder of surrendering prisoners was more common in that brutal war than we would like to believe.

While brave, kindly and charitable acts also characterized World War I, we should not forget that it also produced its share of battlefield atrocities. A certain de-sensitization about the value of human life may be necessary to cope in the stress of performing a job that requires killing, a cold mentality that must be kept on the battlefield.

Perhaps the best tribute to fighting ability of the Guardsmen of the Rainbow Division came from their enemies. In a study made in post-war days, the German High Command considered eight American divisions especially effective; six of those were those of the much maligned “militia” or National Guard! When the German soldiers were asked which American combat division they most feared and respected, the reply was always, “the 42nd”, and “the Rainbow.” For some reason the Germans never made the distinction. 16

Editor’s note: On German opinion of the 42nd Div., see e.g., The United States Army in the World War, XI, 410, 412-13; Thomas, History of the A.E.F., 221.

George Pattullo, a World War I correspondent for the periodical Saturday Evening Post, and accredited to American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in France in 1918, wrote as follows in his article entitled, “The Inside Story of the A.E.F.,” May 6, 1921:

“Just as it is impossible for an individual to view his family’s relations with outsiders impartially, so it is beyond the capacity of nationals of one country to see anything except their own side in dealing with other nations. The tendency to attribute base motives and double dealing to a rival is universal; on the other hand, everything that one’s own country does is great and noble and of pure purpose. And of course an enemy is always a scoundrel.

The extremes to which this sort of thinking will drive people are often laughable. I remember two nice old ladies from New England stopping a returned war correspondent on Fifth Avenue to question him about certain stories they had heard of war prisoners in German hands.

“Was it true that the Germans prodded prisoners with bayonets and kicked them, too, to make them walk faster?”

“Well, war’s a tough game,” answered the correspondent who was a bit fed up with

the whole business.

“It’s dog eat dog, and every army has men in it who go in for rough stuff.

You have to, in a fight!”

“Oh!” gasped the ladies, all aflutter, “But not our boys!

They’re too noble.” 18

Howard V. O’Brien, an AEF officer stationed in Paris, wrote an illuminating statement in his 1918 diary:

“Acquaintance growing up among different regions of U.S. Oregon reg’t and

outfit from Boston on same ship. Mass. boys at first dubious of “wild” Westerners-which had highest percentage of college men and generally bien élevé of any outfit I’ve seen. Most refractory bunch yet encountered, from Alabama. Pistol toters. G.O. [general order] ruled rods out. After that, all scrapping Marquis of Queensberry, and several good lickings helped.” 19

Victor L. Hicken, in his book The American Fighting Man, states:

“As far as the fear of the German soldier for the American soldier in 1917

was concerned, there is some basis for this contention. A French officer, observing the Yanks, wrote: “He arrived a born soldier….I think the Germans are afraid of him.” Rumor spread behind the German lines that it didn’t pay to fight well against the Americans; for they seldom allowed the Germans to surrender after putting up a stiff fight. One American regimental history, that of the “Rainbow Division,” substantiates this possibility by claiming that its men “fought to kill,” and that few prisoners were usually taken. Indeed, the facts on the “Rainbow Division” show that, for the amount of fighting the division did, very few prisoners were taken.” 20

A German is reported to have said:

“I did not meet the Americans on the battlefields but I have talked with German soldiers who did. These soldiers were against the Rainbow Division near Verdun and said they don’t want such fighting as they encountered there. The Americans were always advancing and acted more like wild men than soldiers.” 21

In Americans in Battle, we read:

“An historian of the Rainbow Division admits that its men fought to kill, an admission borne out by the mere 1,317 prisoners taken by the division.” 22