Sound Absorption

Have you ever walked into any empty room and noticed how bad the echo was? Maybe it was an apartment or a house that you were looking at for rent or purchase. Typically, when a room is empty there is nothing to absorb excess sound waves. An empty room with no carpet or drapes is even worse.

After furniture, carpet and drapes were put in your room you may have noticed a dramatic difference in the acoustics of that room.

The reason for this dramatic change is simple. Most items such as furniture, drapes and carpet absorb sound waves. The items that do not absorb sound waves will deflect them. Materials such as fabric and carpet will absorb sound waves resulting in a more pleasing environment while materials such as vinyl and leather will reflect sound waves resulting in excess noise commonly known as slap and flutter echo.

Many times the existing furnishings and decor in a room is not sufficient to absorb the excess sound waves. Sound absorption panels, also known as acoustic panels are commonly used to absorb excessive high and mid level frequencies. There are many manufacturers that offer a wide variety of styles, shapes and sizes. While most sound panel manufacturers offer a limited fabric style and color selection, there are some that offer a larger variety. Sound panels can be arranged in a variety of ways often making them a conversation centerpiece. Many manufacturers use foam or fiberglass insulation inside of their sound panels as the core. In recent years, it has been shown that foam and traditional fiberglass insulation contain chemicals that can he harsh to extremely dangerous to our health such as formaldehyde. As our world has become more environmentally aware, some manufacturers have started using environmentally friendly cotton fiber as the core of their sound panels. The sound absorption properties of cotton fiber is second to none making them, in many peoples opinion, the best choice.

Do You Know What A Calorie Is?

There is a food calorie definition but it's a little difficult to explain and even more difficult to remember.

The simplest way to explain it is they are in our food. If we have too many, we gain weight. Perhaps you're a daily calorie counter to be sure you do not eat too many.

The basics

Perhaps you can remember this: 1 pound of body weight is equivalent to 3,500 calories. If someone consumes 3,500 more calories than they burn, they will gain 1 pound. On the other hand, if someone burns 3,500 more calories than they consume, they will lose 1 pound.

It does not matter how long it takes. For instance, if someone decrees their calorie intake by 500 per day for a week, and they burn the same amount as normal, they will lose one pound that week. The reverse is also true. If someone increases their calorie intake by 500 per day for a week and burn the same as normal, they will gain 1 pound that week.

Any way you look at it

The numbers can be applied a number of different ways but the results will be the same: 3,500 more calories consumed than burned will result in 1 pound of weight gain, and 3500 more calories burned than consumed will result in 1 pound lost, regardless of the time it takes.

The bottom line is calories consumed have an inverse relationship to calories burned. There is more to the equation than that, but if you can remember that, it's a great start.

3 forms

Calories come in three forms: Carbohydrates, protein, and fat. We need all three. However, it's important to understand that 1 gram of carbohydrates and 1 gram of protein contain 4 calories. 1 gram of fat contains 9 calories.

As a result, fat has gotten a bad reputation. It's not that fat is bad. It's that we need to understand that fat contains more than twice the calories as carbohydrates and protein.

What's inside

The calories themselves are not all there is to the equation. Within calories are nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and a host of other nutritional factors. It's important to get the most " bang for your buck" as it were.

Low calorie foods, such as many vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables, are high in nutritional value and low in calories.

It pays to read labels and get to know what foods contain which nutrients. We need all nutrients in optimum amounts for maximum health.


There's also an empty calories definition.

Empty calories are exactly what the word implies. They are calories but they contain no nutrients. Many alcoholic drinks are examples of this.

It's important that the calories we consume are as rich as possible. We should avoid empty calories.

We have the ability to totally control our intake to burn ratio if we take the time to learn what we're eating and the time and energy to burn it off.

Skincare For Men – Men Are You Caring For Yours?

Skin care basics are not just for women.

A good skin care regimen is essential for men as well. What is the difference between men's skin care and women's skin care? The only real difference is that men shave. Otherwise, the basics are pretty much the same. However, not all products are made the same.

Skin care essentials made with natural ingredients are an excellent choice all around.

Some products that are used to clean the skin contain harsh chemicals and can strip the skin of much-needed natural oils and moisture. The chemicals can also leave a detergent film behind which can irritate the skin and cause breakouts.

Men have oilier skin and larger pores than women.

Daily cleansing is vital to healthy skin. A good scrub, one that invigorates your skin without teasing it, is a good choice. Toning and moisturizing after cleansing are the next steps to great looking skin. When considering a toner, choose one with the least amount of chemicals. One that contains around 5% glycolic is best and can be used daily to keep skin firm. This also helps your skin to fight off the effects of the many pollutants in the environment today. The moisturizer you choose should, once again, be one with natural ingredients.

Make sure to hydrate your face and neck on a daily basis.

Moisturizing helps to prevent wrinkles as men age. Vitamin E and Aloe Vera are great natural moisturizers. Do not miss the area under the eyes, where age will show before anywhere else on the face. Keep Vitamin E capsules on hand and use the pure vitamin E under the eyes for an intestinal moisturizing treatment.

Every person has a different skin type.

Whether you have oily, normal or dry skin, it is important to ex-foliate regularly to remove dead skin cells. Also, after shaving, men need to apply a moisturizer that does not contain alcohol or has an intense scent. Sensitive skin is especially prone to react negatively if harsh chemicals are used. Go with something that contains chamomile or another soothing natural ingredient. Lip balm with an SPF of at least 15 is a good way to protect and hydrate your lips.

Facials are not just for women.

Men benefit just as well from either a home facial or a spa facial. If you go to a spa, the professionals there can tell you how to best care for your skin type. You are never too manly to NOT go to a spa and have a facial done. Everything is based on how you look these days.

Men who care about their skin need to actively protect it from the elements.

Stay hydrated by drinking at least eight glasses of water a day. Exercise is vital to healthy skin since it increases the amount of oxygen traveling to the skin tissues which can ward off premature aging. If you are going to be in the sun for longer periods of time, protect the skin with a block containing at least 15 SPF or higher. You'll protect yourself not only from unsightly brown age spots, but skin cancer as well. Sunglasses protect your eyes from overexposure to the sun too.

Skin is affected by our diet and our habits.

Try to stay away from anything in excess. Moderation is the key when it comes to alcohol consumption, smoking, and eating. Stress and fatigue also affect our skin in negative ways. A good night's rest is important not only to function well, it is great for healthy skin too! Eat foods that are high in Vitamin E and Vitamin C, or take supplements to get your daily recommended dosage. Its time for all men, young and old to start caring for their skin and start today, its never too late!

Calcium: the Miracle Mineral

We’ve heard it not only once or twice or even thrice but a lot of times. If you want healthy bones and teeth then pack up on the Calcium intake. While it is true that calcium is absolutely necessary to the health and strength of bones and teeth, this essential mineral also serves several other important purposes in the body. Yet, many people still routinely fail to consume enough calcium in their daily diets.

In addition to the benefits to teeth and bones, calcium plays a role in blood clotting, muscle functions, and the cell membranes maintenance. It is also important to the prevention of debilitating bone diseases, such as osteoporosis.

Despite the known importance of consuming adequate amounts of calcium daily, some research have found that as much as 75% of Americans do not have a sufficient daily intake of calcium. Comprising most of these numbers are those who are following strict vegetarian diets.

Fortunately, there are several varieties of calcium supplements available on the market. Adults need between 1000 mgs and 1300 mgs of calcium per day and should not exceed beyond 2500 mgs as overdose in daily calcium intake can cause other health problems. Your health care professional can help you to choose the amount that you need daily as preexisting conditions, such as bone loss or damage due to previous deficiencies, can make a difference in how much you should be taking daily. The most common calcium supplements include calcium citrate, calcium carbonate, oyster shell or bone meal based calcium supplements, coral calcium, and calcium gluconate and calcium lactate based supplements.

In choosing your supplement, you should be aware of how to read the label to ensure that you are getting the amount of calcium that you think you are. Elemental calcium is the term used for the calcium that your body will be able to absorb. Some supplements have this and other types of calcium, but it is only the elemental calcium that can count towards your daily intake. Calcium is absorbed best in acidic circumstances, which is why many supplements are recommended for use after meals, when the stomach acids are at higher levels.

Current research has found that calcium citrate is the most efficient of the supplements because it can be absorbed easily by the system. However, although it is absorbed easier and can be taken at any time of day, whether or not there is food in the stomach, this type of calcium supplement often contains less of the elemental calcium, and thus more pills daily will be needed. On the other hand, calcium carbonate is the most common over the counter calcium supplement. It has a special instruction though and that is it should be taken only after meals when there is increased stomach acid production. These, however, should be watched for sodium content.

Calcium is needed by our system to enable us to live healthy and normal lives. Insufficient daily supply of this mineral in our body can lead to numerous health problems causing not only a lot of damage in the pockets but also an abnormal lifestyle. To avoid these complications and inconvenience, it is therefore essential to intake the right amount of calcium needed daily by our body. A little research and consultation with a nutritional specialist can help you to plan your daily diet so as to be able to obtain the healthy amount of daily calcium.

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Caribbean Food – A Little History

The Arawak, Carib, and Taino Indians were the first inhabitants of the Caribbean islands. These first inhabitants occupied the present day islands of British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Grenada, Haiti, Trinidad, and Jamaica. Their daily diet consisted of vegetables and fruits such as papaw, yams, guavas, and cassava. The Taino started the process of cooking meat and fish in large clay pots.

The Arawaks are the first people known to make a grate of thin green wood strips on which they slowly cooked meat, allowing it to be enhanced by the flavor of the wood. This grate was called a barbacoa, and the word we know today as barbeque is taken from this early Indian cooking method.

The Carib Indians added more spice to their food with hot pepper sauces, and also added lemon and lime juice to their meat and fish recipes. The Caribs are said to have made the first pepper pot stew. No recipes exist since every time the Indians made the dish, they would always add new ingredients. The Carib had a big impact on early Caribbean history, and the Caribbean sea was named after this tribe.

Then the Caribbean became a crossroads for the world . . .

Once the Europeans brought Africans slaves into the region, the slaves diet consisted mostly of food the slave owners did not want to eat. So the slaves had to be inventive, and they blended their traditional African foods with staples found on the islands. The Africans introduced okra, callaloo, fish cakes, saltfish, ackee, pudding and souse, mangos, and the list goes on.

Most present day Caribbean island locals eat a present diet that is reflective of the main ingredients of original early African dishes, and includes cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, plantains, bananas and corn meal.

African men were hunters in their homeland, and often away from home for long periods of time. They would cook spicy pork over hot coals, and this tradition was refined by the early slaves in Jamaica. The technique is known today as “jerk” cooking , and the secret involves a slow meat cooking process. Jamaica is famous for jerk chicken and pork, and you’ll find jerk all over the island.

After slavery was abolished, the Europeans went to India and China for labor, and more cooking styles were introduced. Much of the Indian cooking culture remains alive and well in the Caribbean of today with the introduction of curried meats and curry powder. Indians call it kari podi, and we have come to know this pungent flavor as curry.

The Chinese introduced rice, which is always a staple in home cooked island meals. The Chinese also introduced mustard, and the early Portuguese sailors introduced the popular codfish.

Most visitors to the Caribbean have no idea that the fruit trees and fruits so familiar to the islands were introduced by the early Spanish explorers. The fruit trees and fruits brought from Spain include orange, lime, ginger, plantains, figs, date palms, sugar cane, grapes, tamarinds and coconuts.

Even the Polynesian islands play an important role in Caribbean cooking. Most of us remember the movie “Mutiny on the Bounty”, but do not know that particular ship carried breadfruit, which was loaded on board from the islands of Tahiti and Timor. In the movie the crew took over the ship, forced the captain into a small boat to fend on his own, and they threw the breadfruit, which they considered “strange fruit” overboard. Another ship was more successful in bringing breadfruit from Polynesia to Jamaica and the St Vincent and the Grenadines. Breadfruit is a staple diet in the current day Caribbean

America is responsible for introducing beans, corn, squash, potatoes, tomatoes, and chili pepper to the Caribbean. In fact these particular foods had never been seen in Asia, Europe or Africa, so America actually introduced these foods the rest of the world via the Caribbean.

So it’s no wonder Caribbean cooking is so rich and creative with the flavors of Africa, India, and China, along with Spanish, Danish, Portuguese, French and British influences. Food served in the Caribbean islands have been influenced by the cultures of the world, but each island adds its own special flavor and cooking technique.

How to Create an Inviting Beer Garden for a Pub, Bar or Restaurant

It’s that time of year again where you need to start thinking about your Garden for the Summer. Here are a few useful ideas:


First and most importantly, a garden connected to a Pub, Bar or Restaurant should feel like a Garden and not in interior space. Many proprietors try to continue the interior finishes to outside which defeats the purpose of a Garden atmosphere. The Garden should have outdoor features like stone and brick and the furniture should look like outdoor furniture. On my travels I found many beer gardens with timber sheeting and fabric covered bar stools – these areas are trying to look like indoor spaces. Instead try to embrace the outdoor Garden atmosphere, work with the multitude of materials and finishes which are available to transform a bland space into an exciting alfresco experience.


Decide on your style or theme and then do some research.

Look at the building and its walls – are there any existing characteristics that may dictate a style or that can be embellished?

Keep the theme running from the interior through to the outside – for example, if you have an Art Deco interior then try to incorporate Art Deco statues, tiles or lamps outside rather than it being a generic garden. Similarly, if it is a traditional Pub with lots of Bric-a-Brac then carry outdoor Bric-a-Brac through.


Weather considerations

The glare/heat factor: use canopies, planting or coloured glass to diffuse.

Wind: Use wind breakers. Anything can be designed to reduce the wind factor – Willow fencing, metal or timber frameworks with glass or canvas wind breakers. I recently designed a trellis planter and because it was on wheels, it was movable which worked really well for my client.

When deciding on the position for your seating consider which direction the wind comes from.

Rain: Provide adequate coverage for smokers in bad weather. In particularly wet climates, a permanent fixed solution like glass in a timber or glass framework will be much more maintainable than a canvas canopy. Glass means that daylight/sunlight can come through which is important on those warm summer days. If it gets too hot or bright then outdoor blinds can be fitted.


Before building anything it is important to know what your local regulations are. In Ireland the guideline for covering areas is described like a bus shelter where the roof covers an area that has walls that are 50% open and 50% closed.


Divide smokers from non smokers if you have the space.

Opening windows may not be an option as the smoke can be pulled into the interior and customers do not like this.

Provide ashtrays on tables and a few sand buckets about the place from which cigarette butts can be taken from at cleaning time.


Make sure the views are good and not facing bin/garbage areas or car-parks. Use screening with plants or timber fencing to hide ugly areas.


Again use outdoor fittings which suit your style whether modern or traditional. Lights can be fitted into all kinds of things and places. Try outdoor led rope lights below skirtings at low level or above a wall for a nice warm glow. Often you can find a fitting which lights up and down thus getting the double benefit. Choose lighting that will create ambiance without giving your customers a headache from the glare. Candles always look fab in a garden setting set into simple glass jam jars, bird cages or antique sieves or metal objects. If you have an outdoor bar make it glow in the dark with candles and led strip lights.


Check the local regulations on this – in many cases outdoor bars need to be located in a smoke free area otherwise the person serving at the bar will be subject to smoke inhalation. If using timber, use teak or a suitable outdoor timber with as little detail as possible so that water does not collect in its cracks. Using timber outdoors means you are going to have to commit to maintaining it. Being subject to all kinds of weather means that whatever finish you use will need to be topped up regularly. Stone counter-tops are great because the water runs off. Use lockable fridges and under counter units for security. Make sure there is permanent cover over the Bar and the customer so that the counter can be used in all weather.


Flowers make people smile so go mad with them! Use colours to suit your garden’s palette. Its always good to have a few varieties in a planter or pot just in case one of them fail. You can plant flowers in anything as long as there are holes for run off water – buckets, bicycles, beds… have a look at these ideas. Ask your plumber to install a piped watering system set to a timer with feeds running to all your plants and flowers. It can be set to water at night so that run off water will have disappeared by morning. Change your planters to ivy’s and small trees like box hedge in the winter for an evergreen look.

I recommend you hire a designer to guide you through all of this. A professionals advise is worth it and you can usually agree with a designer as to the level they get involved so as to suit your budget.

For more ideas on gardens check out the blog posts at

Leyland Cypress Staking Is Critical

Leyland Cypress trees catch a lot of wind! A deciduous tree like Maples or Oaks have leaves that turn on edge to let the wind pass through, but Leyland Cypress and Thuja Green Giant trees catch the wind. It is important to use the appropriate stakes and tie material for each tree size and also important when they should be removed. For Ball and Burlap trees especially, the trunk to root system connection will have loosened due to loading on the truck, transport to your location, and unloading. Properly staking them will allow that connection to re-tighten and also they will be straight when established. Explained below is exactly which stakes to use, how to secure them and where to purchase the material I recommend. Proper staking is one of the most important steps for success. Don’t waste your money on mulch and invest it on securing your privacy screen trees.

Ten feet and higher trees should be staked with six feet metal fence posts so that each tree is secured in three or four directions. Allowing them to rock back and forth, it will break the root to trunk connection, and a percentage of the trees will die. Ball and Burlap trees from 10 feet through 25 tall should be staked with tree tie webbing from am Leonard item LT500G, the green color is my favorite. It is easy around the trunk yet still has 900 pound test strength. Landscapers have used have used rebar wire or aluminum electric fence wire pushed through two feet sections of garden hose for years which will work for smaller Ball and Burlap (B&B) trees up to thirteen feet tall, but is not strong enough for larger trees and also takes lots of time and dull knives cutting all that garden hose. I always return one year later and collect back my tree stakes and it is very important to cut the tie material from around the trunk. An Arborist knot is best that will hold on but permit some stretching when you secure around the trunk but I also wouldn’t be convinced your helpers used it faithfully on each tree. If you are faithful and remove the tree tie webbing after one year, the tree will not be hurt even if other knots were used.

Fourteen feet and taller trees are best staked by securing the tie around the trunk midway up from the ground (or as high as you can reach) up from the ground. For trees this top heavy, you should not tie to a metal fence post directly in front of the tree because as the wind rocks the tree it will pull the stake up. If you use six feet metal fence posts on trees this size, secure the tie from each tree to the bottom of the tree stake right at ground level in front of the next tree along the row. If you had trees spaced at eight foot on center, and reached up and tied the webbing nine feet high on the trunk, your lines would be at forty five degree angles. Long Island landscapers use four inch diameter pine poles available from Lynch’s garden center in Southampton. Drive in the ground at 45 degree angles away from the trunk. These are strong stakes but still the lines should be tied up midway on the trunks and the lines should be at forty five degree angles for strength to the stakes. Smaller Ball and Burlap trees can be staked with three ply poly twine, it usually comes in white and has a plus in that it rots away after one year. This is great for landscape jobs a good distance away that you might not want to return just to release the tie material.

For seven feet tall B&B trees in twenty-two inch root-ball you can stake with two inch by two inch hardwood stakes six feet tall and use the poly twine or tree tie webbing.

When planting ten gallon size container grown trees five tall I use 1inch diameter 8 feet tall bamboo stakes they can be purchased for around one dollar each. For this application, use a post driver tool and drive the stake down through the root-ball into the ground beneath and use the poly twine. You won’t have to return to the job and collect the bamboo stakes, the portion underground will be rotten by that time and the ply twine will have rotted away as well. After six months walk the row of trees and re-tie anywhere the twine has rotted away, so for fall planted trees re-tie in spring.

How Profitable is the Pressure Washing Business?

The Power Washing Business is a lucrative business that most anyone can start and make a honest living. The start-up capital required is low and there isn’t expensive overhead required to keep your business running. In many areas there is low competition and high demand for both residential and commercial work.

You may have noticed how competitive the landscaping business is in your area. Everyone seems to be driving around a landscaping truck with a lawn mower in the back these days. How often do you see a pressure washing company in your area? The reason being, pressure washing is more of a niche business that most people aren’t knowledgeable about.

A question, commonly asked by people interested in starting their own pressure

washing business is, “How much money can I make running my own pressure washing business?”

Of course this depends on what the demand is in their area and how much work they are willing to put into marketing their business, but here are some numbers that will give you an idea of the profitability:

The average price you can charge to wash a single story house is $350-$450 dollars. Most single story residences on average will take 6 hours of work to accomplish. Often the homeowner will want other things pressure washed or cleaned such as the driveway, roof, fence, area around the pool, etc.

You can charge $100-$150 dollars more for each additional thing they want pressure washed. It’s not uncommon to make $650 dollars for washing a single story house and the fence area, or maybe the house and driveway together.

The commercial side of the business has even higher profit margins. There are a wide range of jobs that have high returns such as cleaning apartment complexes, fleet washing, and parking lots.

A strong desire to succeed along with an effective marketing plan is the key running your own power washing business, and earning a stable, long-term income.

18 Accommodations and Modifications for Child in Special Education With Auditory Processing Disorder

Are you concerned that your child in special education may have Auditory Processing Disorder, because they seem not to understand verbal communication? Has your child with autism already been diagnosed with this disorder? Would you like to learn what accommodations and modifications can be given at school, to help your child with their education? This article will discuss 18 accommodations and modifications that you can ask for as you advocate for your child who receives special education services.

Auditory Processing Disorder is the inability to attend to, discriminate among, or understand auditory information. This does not mean that your child can not hear, but that what they hear gets mixed up in their brain. This disorder causes many educational difficulties for children, which can be assisted by accommodations and modifications.

Accommodations are defined as: Changes made in how a student accesses and demonstrates learning, and adjustments made to the presentation to or response from the student that does not change the content or the intended exit. In other words an accommodation, is a change in presentation or in how the child responds, but does not change the content itself.

Modifications are defined as: Changes in what a student is expected to learn and demonstrate, and changes in content, requirements, and / or expectations. You should be careful that configurations are as minimal as possible so that expectations for learning can remain high !!


1. Reduce or minimize auditory distractions
2. Reduce or minimize visual distractions
3. Flexible preferential treatment
4. Provide isolated area in the classroom for independent work
5. Make sure that the teacher has your child's attention before giving verbal information or directions
6. Use visual clues, outlines, organizers and study guides as needed
7. Use technology to give visual clues (overheads, computers, etc)
8. Provide teacher notes
9. Use manipulative's
10.Provide alternative test taking options
11.Extend testing time
12.Use an FM system
13. Use ear plugs to reduce distractions


1. Reduce language level or reading level of assignments
2. Adjust difficulty level and length of assignments
3. Provide alternative grading system
4. Avoid penalizing for spelling errors
5. Read test to student (this could be a accommodation, but it does change the expectations, so I included it in modifications)

By knowing what accommodations and modifications are available that could be used to help your child learn, you can advocate for these. A child with Auditory Processing Disorder can learn with special education services as well as accommodations and modifications.

About the Mount Kinabalu Climbing Experience – Starting Points and Tales

Mount Kinabalu is the highest mountain in Malaysia and also ranks the 20th place among the highest peaks in the world, in terms of prominence. This and its impressive biodiversity makes Kinabalu one of the most important and far-famed mountains in the world. It is the main attraction in Sabah, along with the Kinabalu National Park- the park surrounding the mountain, which has a variety of flora and fauna that covers not less than 4 climate zones. You can now see why "Mount Kinabalu climbing" is such an imposing phrase. Most people think about is as a dream. But this is a dream that can come true. Below are some tips that can be very useful if you decide to follow your dreams.

Mount Kinabalu climbing preparation for beginners

First of all, you should know that climbers must be accompanied by guides at every moment of their hike. These are the park's rules and everyone must follow them. Secondly, if you want to have a total experience then you should allocate 3 days to the climbing, meaning you will spend 2 nights on the mountain. The mountain's physical properties and its abundance in unique species of plants require that.

If you are a beginner, Low's Peak is not too hard to be climbed if you are in good physical shape. However, other peaks are not that accessible and require more advanced climbing skills.

Mount Kinabalu climbing- starting points

The hike has 2 main starting points:

  • Timpohon Gate – located 5 km away from the park entrance. The place is also known under the name "Pondok Timpohon", meaning "Timpohon Shelter", because of the large wooden shelter that was built here. The place is peaceful and offers a spectacular view. The place has a check point for climbers, where they can file their permits to the stationed ranger. It also has a shop, providing snacks and refreshments.
  • Mesilau Nature Resort- a tourist resort built in 1998, which is a great lodging place for ecotourists. It is 30 minutes far from the Kinabalu Park and 2000 meters above the sea level. This is also a peaceful place and its meeting room stands for motivational training, seminars, meetings and retreats for small groups.

The two paths cross two kilometers before Laban Rata.

Mount Kinabalu climbing tales

There are many tales concerning Mount Kinabalu, but one of them is absolutely breath-taking. It claims that "Kinabalu" means "Cina Balu" or "A Chinese Widow". The story says that a Chinese prince was rescued by the natives of Borneo after his ship sank. The prince fell in love with a local woman and then abandoned her because of his parents. The woman died at the top of the mountain, which she used to climb every morning to see if her husband would return home.

Turbo Calculator Explained

Turbo calculators are useful software applications that help you choose the right turbocharger for your build up. Good calculators have additional features that help you maximize the potential of your turbo setup including improving the spool characteristic and maintaining reliable control over your boost pressure.

Intro to turbos

Turbochargers are air compressors that are typically attached to an engine to improve its performance. The compressor side of the turbocharger intercepts the air coming into the engine’s intake system and compresses it before it reaches the cylinders. This compression increases the air density allowing the engine to ingest more oxygen molecules (which are essential to the combustion process) in the same cylinder volume, ergo making the engine breathe like a larger displacement engine and ultimately allowing it to produce more power.

The turbine side of the turbocharger is what drives the compressor wheel described above. The turbine intercepts the exhaust gasses coming out of the engine, and uses part of the thermodynamic energy stored in those hot and rapidly moving gasses to spin the turbine wheel. This turbine wheel is physically connected to the compressor wheel and as it picks up speed the turbo starts to spool – which is the point at which the compressor reaches a high enough speed where it can start to compress the air to overfeed the intake side of the engine as described earlier.

Matching turbo size to engine demand

Now there are many possible combinations of different sizes of compressors and turbines creating an array of turbochargers to work on any vehicle. For example a very large displacement engine that does not have a high horsepower target will have require a larger turbine that will not choke the exhaust flow but a smaller turbo that does not have to do that much work compressing air for such a small power target. Alternatively, a small displacement engine with a very high power target, such as a drag racing four cylinder engine will require a smaller turbine side for quicker spool, but with an over-sized compressor side to be able to deliver a very high power target at a very high pressure ratio.

What a good turbo calculator does is help you choose the right turbocharger to match both the intake side and the exhaust side of your engine to give the best balance between quick spool and reaching our overall power targets.

Generally speaking, larger turbines and larger compressor wheels are larger and heavier… and require more time and more energy to spool them up. At the same time larger turbines and larger compressor wheels are able to support higher power targets without choking off or limiting the engine flow. This is the inherent trade off between spool and peak power that is the nature of the turbo sizing game.

Factors affecting engine demand

Knowing that the turbo is both driven by the engine exhaust flow, and also knowing that the turbo needs to ultimately have a higher peak air flow than our engine (in order to force feed it and raise our power levels)… then at the core of any good turbo calculator is a good engine model that understands how much power and flow the engine is already making in order to choose an appropriate turbocharger.

The are several factors that affect engine demands that most performance enthusiasts are very likely to perform on their cars prior to, or during doing a turbo conversion or installing a turbocharger kit.

For example:

* Increasing the displacement of the engine will typically increase the engine’s power between 2% and 15% depending on the type of over-bore or stroker kit used.

* Raising the rpm at which the engine produces its peak power level will affect power by the ratio of those two rpms… for example using an aftermarket camshaft to allow the engine to produce peak power at 7500 rpms as opposed to 6500 rpms for the stock camshaft should increase power delivery by roughly 15% depending on the exact tune.

* Other modifications such as a new intake manifold or a larger exhaust system and a better designed exhaust manifold for the turbo system may raise the engine’s volumetric efficiency at peak flow by anywhere between 5 and 15%

Combining all of those factors together, it is possible that the engine that you are trying to turbocharge is already producing up to 50% more power (and thus has 50% higher demands from the proposed turbocharger) than a stock engine that is still performing to its original manufactured parameters.

Calculating your ideal pressure ratio

Now that we know our new engine demand and power levels (after factoring in any modifications we have performed as mentioned earlier), we can then move on to choosing a turbocharger that is matched to this exact engine combination.

Normal engines breathe under the sole effect of ambient air pressure due to the Earth’s atmospheric conditions. These conditions vary with things like elevation and humidity; however, in general most engines breathe due to a pressure differential of 1 bar of boost (or 1 atmosphere) between the outside air, and the vacuum inside the cylinder.

If our current engine produces 450 horsepower at 1 atmosphere in naturally aspirated form, and we would like to make 750 horsepower with a turbocharger then the logic goes as follows:

To force the engine to flow 750 horsepower instead of 450 horsepower, the turbocharger needs to create a condition where the intake manifold of the car is operating above the normal atmospheric pressure of 1bar. The exact pressure level required in an ideal world is actually the ratio of those two power levels which is 1.66 bar (or 1.66 atmosphere) of pressure since air flow and air pressure are linearly related.

Knowing this now, we know that we are looking for a turbocharger that can flow 750 horsepower worth of air (roughly 1125 cubic feet per minute) at a pressure ratio of 1.66.

This figure of 1125 cfm @ 1.66 PR is the key to choosing the right compressor wheel that is capable of flowing that much air, at that pressure level, at a high enough efficiency level.

The real Density Ratio vs the ideal Pressure ratio

As stated earlier, in ideal conditions a pressure ratio of 1.66 is enough to reach our power goals. However, in the real world, air temperature rises when air is compressed. This temperature rise causes the air to expand as we are trying to compress it which reduces its density.

The combination of this thermal expansion is a loss in compressor efficiency. The ideal compressor has a density ratio of 2.0 at a pressure ratio of 2.0, i.e. when the air is compressed to twice the pressure, it is now at half the size, and at double the density… However in the real world, the density ratio always lags behind the pressure ratio depending on the thermal efficiency of the compressor wheel where it is possible that our target pressure ratio of 1.66 that our actual density ratio is 1.5 which means the actual power we will make at this boost level will be 675 horsepower rather than the target of 750.

Using a good inter-cooler, after the turbocharger can bring the overall system efficiency up close to 85% or 90%. But this means that in most cases, you have to know that most turbo calculators are about 10 to 15% off of your target power level and that you will need slightly more boost pressure to reach your target power goal. That is unless the turbo calculator knows the exact point on the compressor map where you will make peak power, and unless it corrects for both the compressor efficiency at that point as well as the inter cooler efficiency (which are the two factors affecting the gap between the real density ratio and the ideal pressure ratio),

As the turbo calculator gives you a short list of possible turbochargers that will meet your power and boost pressure goals to match your engine demands, it is a good habit to choose a slightly over-sized turbocharger where your data point (1125 cfm @ 1.66 PR) is sitting in the middle of the compressor map on a high efficiency island, rather than at the far right of the compressor map of a smaller turbocharger that is almost maxed out for this engine combination. Having a slightly over-sized turbocharger allows you to compensate for the slight difference between the actual density ratio and the calculated pressure ratio that most calculators can’t correct for, and with this larger turbo you will be able to slightly raise your actual boost pressure to make sure you still reach your target power goal. A smaller turbocharger that has your target data point at the far edge of the compressor map will ultimately have a lower compressor efficiency on that larger outer island and will have no more room to grow with you for any future modifications or power increases.

Turbine Aspect Ratio Sizing

Now that we have found the compressor wheel that matches our engine demands, we must move on to choose the right turbine aspect ratio to get the best spool characteristics out of our turbocharger. On most street engines running pressure ratios in the 2.0 range you will find that turbocharger manufacturers have already coupled adequately sized turbine wheels to match the compressor wheel to give good overall performance.

However, even having that already taken care of by the manufacturer, the customer is still left with a choice turbine aspect ratios which helps target a certain spool rpm in trade-off for peak flow.

The turbine aspect ratio is the ratio of the diameter of the turbine inlet pipe to the radius of the turbine wheel. To simplify this explanation think of a fan mounted with pin on a long straw. The fastest way to get the fan to spin up is typically to blow on the outer edge of the fan lobes by focusing all of your breathe as a tight stream of air on that outer rim. This ‘nozzle’ like air injection helps spool the fan but ultimately shaping your mouth into a nozzle limits the amount of peak air that you will be able to blow at the fan before back pressure builds up in your moth.

Alternately, opening your mouth and blowing on a larger area of the fan takes longer for the fan to reach its peak speed but in the end you are able to blow larger amounts of air through the fan without building up pressure in your mouth.

The turbine aspect ratio is the ratio of the inlet area of the turbo to the turbine wheel diameter, and so having chosen a single turbine wheel and fixing that diameter, altering the size of the turbine housing inlet changes the size of the air ‘nozzle’ injection into the turbine for the air coming out of the engine’s exhaust ports.

A smaller aspect ratio has a smaller inlet area which enhances the nozzle effect and gives faster spool. A larger aspect ratio has a larger inlet area which distributes the air across a larger area of the turbine wheel, which does not promote spool, but ultimately helps the engine breathe more easily at peak flow levels without creating so much back pressure in the exhaust manifold.

Generally speaking the turbine aspect ratio (A/R) is chosen based on:

* Displacement: The larger the engine displacement, the more power it can produce at lower rpms levels, the less ‘nozzle’ assist it needs from the turbine housing, the larger the aspect ratio can be.

* Engine redline and target spool rpm: The higher the engine redline, the wider the range of rpms we have to make power in, the less urgent it is to spool the turbo at 2500 rpms (when you have up to 10,000 rpms to make power with) and the more likely we are to choose a larger aspect ratio.

* The peak pressure ratio: The higher the pressure ratio we are shooting for, the wider the dynamic range of power output that we will see from the engine between being off boost and on boost, and the higher the flow requirement will be on the typically smaller turbine side (which is matched to the smaller engine to get any kind of spool in the first place) and thus the larger the aspect ratio will be chosen (albeit on typically a smaller radius turbine for these cases).

A good turbo calculator is able to take into account these different factors and recommend an aspect ratio that will give a good compromise between spool rpm (the rpm at which the turbo first starts to produce power) and the peak flow capacity of the turbine wheel (which can degrade by up to 25% – a significant amount – for a 0.40 A/R housing vs a 1.20 A/R housing for example).

Waste-gate sizing

The waste-gate is an exhaust port that is controlled by turbo pressure. Once the pressure in the intake manifold reaches our desired pressure ratio, the waste-gate port is opened to direct exhaust gasses away from the turbine wheel and directly into the exhaust system. This bypass prevents more energy from reaching the turbine and regulates the turbine wheel rpm.

The general concept behind waste-gate sizing is two fold:

1- The larger the waste-gate the more energy you can take away from the turbine, and the more accurate your boost control can be. Smaller waste-gates can be overwhelmed at higher flow levels and show side-effects like ‘boost creep’ at high rpms.

2- The waste-gate needs to flow a percentage of the total exhaust airflow related to percentage utilization of the turbocharger. For example, a turbocharger that fully spools at 2500 rpms on an engine that has a 7500 rpm redline needs to bypass two thirds of the exhaust air away from the turbine since only one third of the engine output is enough to spool the turbo.

Similarly, the larger your turbocharger is compared to your power goals (having a 1000hp capable turbocharger on a 600hp engine for example) the larger the waste-gate needs to be in order to move exhaust energy away from the turbine preventing the turbo from going to its maximum rpms and producing too much boost and too much power (which the engine may not be prepared to fuel or handle).

So either way, there is a minimum waste-gate port size that will be able to handle a reasonably matched turbocharger to your engine demands. As you oversize the turbocharger larger and larger (leaving room for future upgrades and more power) and as you lower your spool rpm and your turbine A/R lower and lower, then you need to compensate by using an even larger waste-gate port to manage your boost levels properly.

Methods to Increase Human Growth Hormone Naturally

Wouldn’t you love to feel like you did when you were a teenager? You could look and feel at least 20 years younger using a few techniques, but they do need a little work.

Though not instant, when you increase the amount of human growth hormone (HGH) in your body, it will produce both physiological and psychological changes that make you look and feel years younger.

Increasing your HGH levels not only helps you feel much healthier, but another benefit is it can help burn away your unwanted ‘spare tire’ plus other fat that is hard to target.

If you, or someone you know, is trying to burn fat, increasing the level of human growth hormones in your body is one of the best way to carry out this. A great deal of evidence shows a sturdy relationship with the HGH levels and body fat. That shows our ability to burn fat increases when our body produces more HGH.

It’s no secret there is the right way and the wrong way to increase HGH levels, but here we’re going to keep it clean.

Weight Loss Benefits of Human Growth Hormones

*Sleep and Mood Improvement

*Improvement in sports performance and recovery time.

*Bone density increases

*Energy level and endurance increases

*Enhances ability to burn Fat

*Promotes Lean Muscle Mass

Knowing such benefits exist, it’s understandable that a professional athlete maybe tempted to unethically increase their HGH levels.

It’s nice to know this can all be done naturally. There is no doubt in my mind, that by using these techniques, we can lose body fat and reach weight loss goals.

When prompted to do so, our pituitary gland will release human growth hormones naturally. What does it take to encourage the pituitary gland to release enormous levels of HGH into the blood stream, or even a slight bit more?

It has come to my attention that the pituitary gland doesn’t speak English, so we’ll need to communicate in a language it understands. Don’t worry, you already know the language.

It is; Actions Speak Louder Than Words

Actions speak louder than words is what my wife always tells me. So we’ll use our actions in order to communicate with our pituitary gland.

The 5 actions listed below will help your HGH levels increase and drill into your fountain of youth…

1- Get plenty of sleep.

This is especially important for men. It is understood that in the first 90 minutes of sleep for men is the time the highest levels of HGH is released, however extended sleep sessions showed a higher increase of HGH. It is suggested to get 8 to 10 hours of sleep.

2-Keep Away From Sugar

Glucose will limit the regular spike of human growth hormone in our system because it acts as an inhibitor, even more if you had an intense workout. Sports drinks will work against you more than with you, unless you have been heavily exercising for over an hour, or if you are training for an elite level competition. Gatorade and other sports drinks contain glucose, which decreases the flow of HGH, especially after your workout when you need it the most. Drink more water during and after a workout and forget the Gatorade if you really want to loss fat.

3-Intermittent Fasting

Even though intermittent fasting has a lot of benefits as well as an effect on HGH, you can enhance the results when used strategically. Due to the fact intermittent fasting has a good relationship with the pituitary gland, the action will be heard loud and clear and will help increase HGH levels all by itself.

You will reinforce the effect when combining fasting and exercise, (the whole is greater than the sum of its parts). You’ll soon be on the road to getting ripped and losing body fat when you exercise in a fasted state. Remember to take measure to maximize your HGH response when you exercise in a fasted state.

4-High Intensity Interval Training

The fact is, you are trying your best if you’re working to lose weight and haven’t heard of HIITS. There is no better way to increase Human Growth Hormones in your body plus burn off fat than the High Intensity Interval Training exercise routine. HIITS helps to increase HGH during and after your workouts.

Review: More Human Growth Hormone = Better Ability to Burn Fat

People just don’t realise how important the rest is. Rest is what you need to insure you can have intense work outs. To help us reach our lactate threshold fast, high intensity interval training is necessary. A message is delivered to our pituitary gland to release a boat load of HGH when we reach the lactate threshold. What’s good about this is we can finish these intervals with any exercise. Simply try out your favorite exercise.

My own favorite is the treadmill, so my usual routine would look like this:

Walk 1 minute, 30 seconds power walk, session is 15 minutes.

To see if you are getting the HGH Flush you want, look for

*Skin is warm to your touch

*You are perspiring

*You are short of breath when you complete your workout

5- Cold Shower

I couldn’t tell you how much of an increase of HGH you’ll get when you take a cold to hot alternating shower, but I do know it helps with recovery. Not knowing if these are true stories, but I’ve heard a lot of body builders and other athletes insist that an ice bath, and or a cold shower play a major part with recovery and help delay soreness of muscles. If you take it to the extreme, I believe that rotating a hot and cold shower could have close to the same effect as High Intensity Interval Training, but either way will help with a workout recovery. If I have the time, here is what I do before I workout.

Cold Water (as cold as I can take it, you might want to scream) for 30 seconds.

1 minute of hot water

Repeat for 10 minutes.

The Untouchables – The Many Mistakes About Eliot Ness Exposed

Most people are familiar with The Untouchables either through the television series starring Robert Stack or the Brian DePalma film starring Kevin Costner. Both of these vehicles give inaccurate information about the Untouchables as well as the leader of the group of men, Eliot Ness.

In the film, Eliot Ness is played by Kevin Costner. He is seen as a family man with two biological children and a wife named Katherine. He has a daughter and his wife is pregnant and later in the film gives birth to a son. First big error is that Eliot Ness had three wives, but none of them were named Katherine. He never had any biological children although his third wife and he adopted a three year old boy.

Ness never killed anyone as is seen in the movie. Nor did he, even for a moment, trust the police in the city of Chicago where Al Capone had everything in his pocket. Ness pursued Capone with a vengeance, but never confronted him at the Lexington Hotel.

The Untouchables were nicknamed after they refused to take a bribe. It was at this time when the name Eliot Ness became known to the public in Chicago. Prior to that, they were a covert operation. Ness and his team of ten men, each handpicked for the job, worked from the Transportation Building. They did not associate with the police nor were introduced to the police department as they worked as a covert team that was associated with the Treasury Department.

In the television series, Robert Stack plays Ness and is more realistic in his depiction, although much older than the man he is portraying. Stack is often seen as angry and in his office quite a bit. His wife is Betty in the TV program and he has a son. He is closer to the real life person of Elliot Ness than in the movie as he is rarely seen at home and he and his men are often seen working until all hours of the night. Rarely does the telephone ring in the office when Stack does not pick it up.

Creative license has been taken with Eliot Ness since his death in 1957 and even prior. When his biographer, Oscar Fraley was writing his book, Ness failed to mention the fact that he had been divorced twice nor did he remember much about his Chicago days of chasing Al Capone. Fraley made the entire persona up that lives on to this day.

A biography of the prohibition agent details his downfall but gives very little insight as to the man he was as by the time the biography was published his wives and close friends were dead. Some fiction books have taken more liberties with the person he was by basing some of their writing on the biography that was written in the late 1990s.

Colorado River Steamboat Travel

The Desert Lifeline

Hostile Indians weren’t the only danger in the hundreds of miles of southwestern desert country in the late 1800’s. No, you also had rattlesnakes, robbers and a few resentful Mexicans looking for some vulnerable early day settlers crossing this barren, unforgiving desert. There are some spots in that parched country that may not see any rain in some years-places were even cactus won’t grow. That’s dry!

But here, there is a lifeline called the Colorado River. So how does man harness this as a supply link for his use in trying to survive? Can he? Should he? And at what price? For early pioneers and entrepreneurs, no challenge was without consideration. Human life was valued according to the needs. During this time, a good mule was worth more than a man. This was always a factor in decisions made. And in one area, for a while, a camel was hoped to be worth even more, but I’m getting a little ahead of the story.

Now we all know that Arizona is landlocked, don’t we? But what if it weren’t? In fact, there was a water connection all the way between San Francisco and the southwestern desert for over fifty years. It’s true. And generally, it was a lot less hazardous than the arduous trek across the mountains to the west at that time.

Between 1853 and 1908, there were sternwheeler steamboats carrying supplies to the few towns and U.S. Army forts like the one in Yuma, Arizona, about 120 miles above the mouth of the Colorado River. The $500. per ton cost to bring supplies from San Francisco overland was too much for small military stations, so these shallow bottom boats were the answer, although not without a lot of resolve, faith and capital investment. Colorado River steamboats that drew less than three feet of water could pass over the many sandbars and carried tools, hardware, dry goods, mining machinery, and milling equipment to the settlements along the river. By river, the cost per ton was $75., much more affordable for the settlers and Army forts, and still profitable for the steamship company. Downstream loads were gold, silver, copper, and lead, as well as hides, wool, and pelts in season.

As it turned out, the early Indian tribes, especially the Cocopahs, soon realized they could gain employment along the river providing wood for fuel for the boats, and eventually even becoming river pilots.

One of the advantages of the sternwheelers was that when encountering a shallow sandbar, they could turn around and actually chew their way across the obstacle. Imagine that!

In January 1858, a steamboat exploratory trip above Yuma went approximately 450 miles from the mouth of the Colorado before needing to turn around due to lack of supplies mostly. How exciting this must have been. Going in an area in a manner never before attempted. This first trip proved the feasibility of river travel-and considering it was during low water made it even more remarkable.

On the return, as they passed the area near today’s Ehrenberg, Arizona (but western New Mexico Territory at that time), they were surprised to encounter a caravan of camels silhouetted on the ridge above before attempting to cross the river. The riverboat ended up ferrying the supplies across, while the camels could swim easily enough without their heavy packs. The camels were a convoluted experiment by the Army to find a better way to navigate the barren countryside.

While the U.S. was engaged in a war back in the east during the 1860’s, the war in this part of the U.S. was along the river with two freight companies competing to be able to haul the many tons of goods being unloaded at the mouth of the river waiting for delivery upstream. A new customer was Brigham Young who was negotiating for getting supplies to Mormons in Utah. Hauls were eventually made as far as to Callville, some 600 miles above the Sea of Cortez. The years through the late 1870’s were busy and profitable with many tons of commerce carried, along with passengers.

The establishment of the railroad in the area around 1879 severely limited the river freight business. Two of the remaining flat-bottomed boats were dismantled, and the other two mostly plied the upper Colorado. Freight was still going to Fort Mohave, which was along the river just north of the point where Arizona, Nevada and California connect.

Ironically, in May 1883, at today’s Needles, California, the railroad was only able to cross the 1600′ wide river by using one of the two remaining steamboats to put in the necessary pylons for its bridge. This, the same railroad that was putting the river trade out of business. A certain riverboat company was not too upset when river currents in 1884 washed out the bridge for a time.

Noting how the Colorado River Steam Navigation Co. had operated as many as five steamers and five barges during the heyday of the steamboat business, an editor of the Yuma Sentinel wrote, “How the mighty have fallen. From a powerful corporation it has been reduced almost to naught… Water transportation can never compete with railroads.”

In January 1900, the most majestic of the steamboats at 149.5 feet long and with double smokestacks, the Mohave 2, ran aground into Jaeger’s Slough, where the captain, and the company, left her to rot, a less-than-honorable end for such a grand workhorse. This became a monument of man’s intrusion into a challenging new area and symbol of the move to tame the west. Certainly the end to the grandest days of travel for the hundreds of miles along a wild west’s wild river’s days of being tamed.

Ron Kelley (2/12)

Top 10 Electric Shavers Reviews In 2016

You can even rinse several new electric razors or utilize them in the shower, while some even have LED screens. Today, “high tech” is not limited to laptops and smartphones. If you want to reap the benefits of modern stubble-slaying technology, listed below are the top electric razor reviews for guys 2014 so that you can consider.

Electric Razor Reviews For Men

10. Remington R4-5150A Titanium Rotatry Shaver

With this Remington R4 Rotary Shaver which includes Pivot and Flex Technology, you may get a classic and close shave. This electric razor will contour towards the angles on the chin and jaw line simply because of its 3 independent flexing heads, whilst it will also reach areas which might be tough to shave, as if your neck, simply because of its pivoting neck.

Remington R4-5150A Titanium Rotatry Shaver

9. Remington F5-5800A Rechargeable Foil Shaver

This Remington Rechargeable Electric Foil Shaver is certain to give you professional-quality shaves in minimal passes. You can easily cut 72 hours worth of growth due to the integrated intercept trimmer. Similarly, the angles and contours of your respective face are going to be effortlessly accompanied by the surgical steel foils caused by its Pivot and Flex Technology.

Remington F5-5800A Rechargeable Foil Shaver

8. Wahl 7060-700 Bump-Free Shaver

Wahl 7060-700 Bump-Free Shaver is usually a splendid grooming solution which has a hypoallergenic gold foil that can prove to be ideal in case you have sensitive skin. The foil also makes certain that you get a bump free shave to your face, head and neck, while its extendable trimmer can provide an even closer and even more precise shave.

You can run it from cord or batteries.

Wahl 7060-700 Bump-Free Shaver

7. Wahl 5 Star 8547 Rechargeable Hypoallergenic Free Shaver

This Wahl Rechargeable Hypoallergenic Free Shaver can be an upgraded version in the Wahl 8061 5 Star Electric Shaver, which had been quite favored after it was first introduced. Since this is really a Deluxe Rechargeable Cordless Shaver, it ensures mobility and portability once it really is fully charged. The anti-allergenic gold foil with this shaver not just ensures hypoallergenic shaves but additionally bump free shaves also.

Wahl 5 Star 8547 Rechargeable Hypoallergenic Free Shaver

6. Panasonic ES8243A Men’s 4-Blade Rechargeable

This Panasonic Wet/Dry Rechargeable Electric Shaver has Nanotech Blades that provide exceptional shaving. It is built with four cutting blades and also a quadruple foil, while Panasonic has expanded the cutting surface by 32%, consequently a better shave emerges with every stroke. Panasonic’s linear motor powers the blades, in order that they shave including the thickest of beards.

Panasonic ES8243A Men’s 4-Blade Rechargeable

5. Braun 3Series 340S-4 Wet & Dry Shaver

If you would like to shave your personal way, this Braun Wet & Dry Shaver will work both in and out in the shower. You can use this electric razor with shaving foam or gel to customize its performance for better comfort while shaving. The SensoFoil technology of the electric razor will glide across your epidermis for additional comfort and control.

Braun 3Series 340S-4 Wet & Dry Shaver

4. Panasonic ES8103S Men’s 3-Blade (Arc 3)

This fully loaded dry/wet washable electric razor comes complete with innovative, smart features that deliver a cozy and remarkably close shave. This electric razor includes a 3-blade shaving system, which ensures maximum closeness and coverage, even for the parts within your face that happen to be most difficult to shave. The razor will float effortlessly simply because of its flexible, pivoting head.

Panasonic ES8103S Men’s 3-Blade (Arc 3)

3. Philips Norelco PT730 Powertouch

The efficiency and longevity of classic Philips Norelco razors happen to be combined having a better looking design and improved functionality within this Philips Norelco Powertouch Electric Razor. Easy and quick cleaning beneath a running tap is manufactured possible from this electric razor, whilst you can enjoy the ease of mobility due to its cordless operation

2. Braun Series 7- Pulsonic Shaver System

This 790cc advanced shaver through the Braun Series 7 may be designed to give the ultimate grooming experience. Revolutionary Pulsonic Technology is included on this electric shaver that captures a lot of hair in each stroke by making use of over 10,000 micro vibrations. Additionally, a cozy and thorough shave is that is generated by its powerful linear motor.

Braun Series 7- Pulsonic Shaver System

1. Philips Norelco 1150X SensoTouch 2D

With an easy-to-hold, innovative design, this Philips Electric Razor has an exceptional shaving experience by employing GyroFlex 2D technology. A lithium-ion battery powers this electric razor for cordless portable operation, and it is user-friendly features such as SensoTouch 2D make shaving a pleasure rather than a chore. This electric razor can be excellent for travel as it a storage pouch can be included.

Philips Norelco 1150X SensoTouch 2D this one is kinda as equal as wahls electric shaver

If you are prepared to make the jump and convey a touch of modern-day technology in your shaving routine, you then should choose one in the above top electric razor for males. If you loved my article do share on your social media profile, thanks for reading.