Why Is Eating Insects Disgusting? How to Change People’s Attitudes

Many researchers, including Haidt et al., 1997, have shown that people feel disgust mainly to animals, including people, animal waste products, items that show resemblance to any of those, and lastly, anything that has come into contact with the former. Other elicitors of disgust are sexual deviance, bodily violations, poor hygiene, as well as contact with death. The fact that something is “disgusting” means that we have a strong internal urge to avoid it, so in terms of animal and food products, this would have been partly to avoid pathogens. Fundamentally, disgust is a food rejection emotion, but over time, disgust elicitors have developed from many other cultural, social and moral domains (Rozin et al, 2008).

Why do people find insects more disgusting than bigger animals?

Insects are often found in large groups, they have 6 legs, are often wiggly and move very quickly. In other words, compared to the sight of a larger mammal like a cow or chicken, insects could be considered to look “very animal- like”. This might help explain why we would find the idea of eating them disgusting (Haidt et al.,1997).

Insects are also more similar looking to bacteria and parasites, which are known to spread filth and disease, some of the core disgust triggers. Furthermore many insects live in garbage, and the thought of cockroaches rushing out from the sewer will induce disgust in most people.

The association to sexual deviant behavior may also play a role in why we feel disgust. Insects like grasshoppers and flies can be seen in massive swarms in summer, copulating in midair. This induces the feeling of “flying orgies”, and hence, evokes feelings of disgust (Lockwood, 2013).

It has been argued by Haidt et al.,1997, that these disgust- eliciting events remind people of their animal nature. People in most cultures have a need to set themselves apart from animals, both in terms of physical and symbolic boundaries.

The origins of disgust and why it was beneficial

Unlike many animals who instinctively know what to eat, humans are omnivores and must learn what to eat. The advantage of being an omnivore is the flexibility and adaptability this brings, but on the downside, there is an increased risk of consuming toxic ingredients. An omnivore will always explore and study new foods, but apply scrutiny before they taste. This is why people are “neophobic”, meaning vigilant about new foods, in particular animal foods (Haidt et al., 1997).

Haidt et al., 1997, have tried to show how the emotion of disgust has developed from helping humans to know what to eat in the world around them, to later, what to do in the cultural context of the world (Haidt, Rozin, McCauley & Imada, 1997).

Evolutionary reasons for disgust

One factor, which might explain why we experience disgust at the sight of insects, and less so for bigger mammals, has to do with the history of our farming traditions. Traditionally, the wild animals, which would give the “biggest return” when farmed on a small scale, were bigger mammals like cows, sheep, pigs etc. These animals had a calm nature, so were easy to control, they would have a lot of meat on them, and have a herd mentality. Their skin could also be used for clothing, tools etc. (Terney, 2015).

None of this can be said for insects, which might be why the interest to farm them did not catch on initially. With increased urbanization, people also have less and less contact with nature, so are not exposed to more unfamiliar animals in their natural habitat, on a regular basis. There is a difference in seeing a beetle on a beautiful wild flower, than seeing it rushing across your kitchen table.

Secondly, we are surrounded by bacteria and parasites, which share strong resemblances to insects. The former are transmitted through contact with animals, their waste products etc. Throughout history people have died in millions from diseases transmitted this way, so it is a possibility that disgust has evolved through natural selection. In other words, people who were more sensitive to disgust, would have an evolutionary advantage as they would be less likely to be “contaminated”(Haidt et al., 1997).

Societal reasons for disgust

The theory of biological and evolutionary reasons for disgust has its limitations, as children are not born displaying feelings of disgust. Disgust develops in children during their toilet- training years, with feces being the main, as well as universal disgust trigger. The severity of toilet training, as well as the parents’ apparent revulsion displayed in response to changing the diapers etc., are likely to influence sensitivity to disgust (Rozin, Fallon & Mandell, 1984). Note how children before this age can be found curiously playing with insects and putting them in their mouth, without displaying any feelings of disgust.

Interestingly, Malson, 1964, as seen in Haidt et al., 1997, studied 50 feral children (children who have lived isolated from human contact from a very young age), and found that none of them had developed any feelings of disgust. Hence societal factors may be more important than biological factors.

Cultural differences in terms of disgust are present but very small compared to family context (Rozin, Fallon & Mandell, 1984). Rozin showed that there is a small but positive correlation for food preferences between parents and their children, within a culture. He demonstrated an even larger correlation in terms of disgust and contamination sensitivity. In fact, the children showed approximately the same attitudes and preferences to their parents in this area.

Therefore it seems that genetic as well as early environmental factors play a key role in the development and sensitivity to disgust (Rozin, Fallon & Mandell, 1984).

Contamination anxiety

Trace contamination refers to a disgusting item coming in contact with an acceptable food, and therefore leaving the acceptable food unacceptable (even if the offensive object has only come into contact with the acceptable food for a brief moment). This indicates that disgust is not mainly about preventing bad tastes, but rather has to do with a more complicated idea of “offensiveness” (Haidt et al., 1997). Linking this to the idea of eating insects, people are hesitant not because they expect the insects to taste bad based on the insects’ appearance, but because of anxiety about “what it is”, or “where it has been”. Trace contamination is universal and cross- cultural across grown ups (Rozin, Fallon & Mandell, 1984).

Trace contamination does not appear in children before the age of about 7. The reason for this might be both because of a certain level of cognitive development, as well as by an earlier establishment of a category of disgust.

The moral element

People who are vegetarians for moral reasons find meat more disgusting than people who are vegetarian for health reasons. However the course of moralization is reversible. In other words, something which was previously seen as immoral can be seen as neutral or moral (Rozin, 1999). This is very interesting as it indicates that people who are vegetarian for health reasons could be more easily persuaded to eat insects.


The feelings of disgust have developed as a defense against threats in the physical, societal and moral world. Some disgust triggers like disgust to animals, other people and waste products, are universal across cultures. Other triggers of disgust have developed over thousands of years, possibly as evolutionary defense mechanism. It has been discussed why insects elicit stronger disgust emotions in many people than bigger animals, and why these emotions would have, once upon a time, been beneficial. There seem to be both biological and societal reasons for disgust. The good news however is that these emotions are reversible, so following is a brief discussion on how Psychologists could use this knowledge to achieve changes in people’s behavior and emotions in terms of eating insects.


Family context was shown by Rozin, Fallon & Mandell, 1984, to be a big factor in terms of disgust. In other words: children observing and imitating the feelings of disgust elicited by their parents. This shows the importance of parent’s behavior and parenting style towards their children, and is something that should be addressed by behavioral psychologists. Over time and with training, disgust triggers towards for example insects, could change, and the sight of insects and the thought of eating them would no longer elicit disgust responses. Once a generation has changed their conception of eating insects, the effect would be duplicated for the following generation.

Trace contamination (referring to an acceptable food having come into contact with an unacceptable food hence leaving all the food unacceptable) seems to be more about a taught, cognitive idea of “offensiveness”, rather than about the actual taste of something. The fact that the effect of trace contamination does not appear in children before the age of seven, means that it could be stopped before the child acquires it. This explains why a third of the world’s population currently eat insects, as they have never been taught that eating insects is ‘disgusting’. For adults, educating them about what insects are, how they are farmed, what their health benefits are etc., could help them overcome their fear of “what insects are”, and make them see insects in the same way they see other sources of protein.

People are very visual, and most of the meat displayed in supermarkets has been packed and processed so it does not resemble the entire animal. In the same way as many people would be put off by seeing a whole cow displayed as “meat”, whole insects induce the same uneasiness. Going forward, introducing people to ‘hidden’ and smaller amounts of insects in food products, could be a way to convince them to try the product. The same principle applies when sushi was introduced in the Western world in the 80’s, and sushi has now become as mainstream as pizza and burgers.

Lastly, the fact that even emotions of morality can be reversed, means that people who are vegetarians or vegans for moral reasons, could change their attitude about eating meat, and hence insects. Insects contain many nutrients such as all essential amino acids and have a high protein content, which many vegetarians are lacking. The fact that insects are further down the ‘food chain’ than larger animals, and don’t have the same cognitive levels, could be used as a convincing argument for vegetarians and vegans to change their attitudes towards eating insects.

To conclude, we need behavioral and cognitive psychologists to collaborate and devise educational training methods to change people’s attitudes about eating insects. The studies that have been done clearly demonstrate that this is a possible task, which poses different challenges in terms of the education needed for children compared to adults.


Haidt, Rozin, McCauley & Imada, The Relationship between Disgust & Morality, 1997, Psychology and Developing Societies 9, 1.

Lockwood, J., How to Cultivate Disgust, Oct. 29 2013, http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/10/how-to-cultivate-disgust/280858/

Pennebaker, Mehl & Niederhoffer, Psychological Aspects of Natural Language Use, Annual Review of Psychology, 2003, Vol. 54: p. 547- 577.

Rozin, The Process of Moralization, Psychological Science, Special Section, 1999, Vol. 10., No. 3.,p. 218- 221.

Rozin, Fallon & Mandell, Family Resemblance in Attitudes to Foods, Developmental Psychology, 1984, Vol. 20, No. 2, p. 309- 314

Rozin, Fallon & Augustoni- Ziskind, The Child’s Conception of Food: The Development of Contamination Sensitivity to “Disgusting” Substances, Developmental Psychology, 1985, Vol. 21, No. 6, p. 1075- 1079

Rozin, Haidt & McCauley, Disgust: The body and soul emotion in the 21st century, 2008, In D. McKay & O. Olatunji (eds.), Disgust and its disorders. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. p. 9-29.

Terney, O., Bionyt Videnskabens Verden, N. 162, April 2015

Good Writing

Good writing is like sex. Two people are involved – the writer and the reader. Bad sex usually satisfies only one person, most preferably, the writer – the person who leads. Good sex not only satisfies both people, it pleasures them. So, like sex, writing must have all vital points that reach to this pleasure – movement, foreplay, sensitivity, rhythm and climax. When a writer carefully and logically includes all these aspects, the reader is pleasured, satiated and gratified, but when a writer ignores them, the reader feels that the writer is impotent and he abandons him after that one night. Good writing is about making a person desire to read.

It is essential to understand that those writers who write for themselves may possibly be never published. Sometimes, the writing that is hard-worked looks beautiful, mildly interesting but never exact. An ideal reader looks for few details in the entire 60,000 word novel or the 2000 word piece, and that is story and how well it is managed without afflicting it.

The most necessary detail to observe while writing is that you should never utterly confuse the reader. A reader's mind is fragile. He is quick as the words flow under his eyes and a picture is slowly being screened in his mind. But if a disturbance in the flow arises, the reader tries to wait for the turbulence to sustain and if it carries on even a while longer, he'll feel tired and he'll shut off that flow and go back to sleep. Your partner is bored. You were impotent.

Let's imagine a plausible sentence – "The apple is red." The same can be written in many a ways according to the writer's intellect and preferred style. For instance, a good writer might write just exactly that – "The apple is red." A writer who writes for himself may write – "The apple is brick-red, like hue in a twilight cloud." There is nothing grammatically wrong with the sentence or with the structure. It is perfectly germane. The 'wrong' thing here is that it is clarifying when it should be just stating. Clarification is needed when the situation is not intelligent by the word only. Good writing should point out and not reach that terminal. Can not understand? Allow me.

A man is hunting in the woods. He has his faithful Labrador by his side. They spot a winter-dyed rabbit. Instead of pointing at the bunny, Bruno scampers and takes a bite out of it. It defies the whole purpose of the dog. Instead of pointing (plating), it is eating it (clarifying it). I repeat: good writing should point out and not reach that terminal, because loss of exactness can destroy the rhythm, little by little.

Writing is a blend of time management (movement), bad prose (foreplay), good prose (rhythm), language (sensitivity) and story (climax).

Time Management:

Being realistic, I would say that time has nothing to do with writing in particular. You have to devote probably all of what you can afford to spare. Every time you write and give it a hundred percent, you'll improve definitely because there is no labeled margin, as such, that mars the progress of a writer. There is a simple theorem to success in life: 'Hard work.' There is also a simple theorem to success in writing: 'Unreltinging hard work.'

Bad Prose:

Bad prose is unidentifiable. It needs a very sincere, persevering eye to spot it. It's like finding tiny specks of blue ink on a black cloth. Bad prose is almost inconspicuous to the writer's eye; but they do the required damage to the story, all the same. It is the husk on the corn, the unnecessary stuff that can be done without. Observe this small para –

"The wind was leathery. It was bowled and screamed, drawing black. Darkness combed like poetry, little by little, mounting the sky and reeling before a star, like the million leaves that tend to sew in and out a bark's height. the window across, washing it with sight. Time was unessential, old and religious, but still, I somewhat liked her to be punctual.

There is nothing unethical about it. It does not flout any fence in writing. What it does is, is that it includes author intrusion, the husk. The author comes into the story and it skims away the tangibility of the story. The same para could have been deducted from author intrusion and still be written as –

"The wind hind into the dark, poetic night that spread open, like a pall. I watched in patience as she stood across in the window; sad curves on a silhouette."

This sentence touches the mind without confusing it beforehand. You remove the husk and you get the corn to eat. As simple as that.

Good Prose:

Good prose is about writing the truth, and then, exaggerating it a little. The complete truth is always deficient, the stereotypical truth is always too common – the exaggerated truth is beautiful and sufficient. There are only a few writers, who can write the "exaggerated truth". Truth unleashes a more visible reality, and exaggeration grasps that reality and fills in the vacant spots. For instance –

If you're writing about a scene set in the desert, the truth would be: hot, rasping sand … a harsh sun like melting glass … a cruel, scaling wind that raises soot-like clouds from the underneath. This is the utter and complete truth that would come to mind.

The exaggerated truth would be: a cawingulture speckling the sky … deep screwed faces in the sand … a breeze hissing at the mounding dunes …

Ands so on. It feels right and complete, and it is invented from being ideal. A scene can only be appealing if it is not ideal. It needs to ripen; it needs to be a bit exaggerated.


The way a man dresses tells the contemplating neighbor where he's headed. It is a language in his clothes that the neighbor can identify. But he was to wear beach sandals and Bermudas and head off to the royal ball, it would not be preconceived. It would come as a ridiculous and disgusting shock. That's exactly what bad language does. It shocks the reader's preconceived notification. It takes away the coherent and the direction.

Good language is the tool that takes a lot of practice and compulsive diligence to acquire. Below, I have listed a few golden rules that an efficient author observes while writing. Observe –

1. Use "Hope", "seeming" and words that suggest a thing instead of conveying it, as little as possible. They confuse the tendency of a reader to understand.

2. Try not to be passive. Passive sentences lengthen and ever, bore the reader.

3. Whenever words like "suddenly" or "immediately" come in a story, the reader gets ready and aware. The author gets deprived of shocking his partner. The element that was intended to be created loses its momentum. Use it scarcely.

4. Use almost all poetic devices, but strictly avoid rhythm and alliteration. They make a sentence look stupid and ludicrous.

5. Vocabulary has its own technique. Try not to infuse big, preposterous words in your writing when demonstrating feelings. For example, it is stupid to say – 'he was insipid and emotively ductile.' instead of 'he felt sad and morbid.'

Another thing most authors try to do is a play on words – a clutter of giggles, the singing and soughing wind, etc. This can either make a sentence intensely pacifying or just inane. It should be replaced by the 'exaggerated truth' which can efficiently fit in here.

6. Every story should encompass any or even some kind of dialogue from the protagonist, at least; else that character would not be alive or real for the reader. Dialogue should always be deal with a frank mind and not a hesitating hand. Writing claims a little liberality and all of it, is fiercely enjoyed in the dialogues.


The most endemic question a person faces before he starts writing is: what should I write about? Unfortunately, this question has no definite answer.

Let me excuse you of a notice: creativity is not inborn. Neither is imagination. It is worked upon and claimed in thought. It all concludes to writing … but cleverly.

Ideas are always there. There is an idea in everything we see around. It is important to remember how you can remember and construct a story from an idea.

Okay. Let's take three ingredients to make an idea for a story: a place, a genre and a protagonist. Let the place be my room, the genre be horror and the protagonist be an old lady. Now, let's move on to the next step – laying emphasis.

The old lady + my room. My room has walls, a fan, a cupboard, a chair, a ceiling. Let's take these elements and construct ideas. Do remember that the genre is horror.


Idea from wall – Maybe the old lady lives inside the wall all day and comes out at night through the wall, to haunt the house.

Idea from fan – Maybe the old lady is hanging on the fan for some thirteen years, in the derelict house.

Idea from cupboard – Maybe the talking head of the old lady is hidden somewhere in the cupboard. The head howls and screams every night.

Idea from ceiling – Maybe the old lady is buried in Hell and the ceiling is a gateway to hell.

Idea from chair – Maybe the old lady died rocking in her old armchair and now, nobody can move that chair, because even after her death, her weight is prevalent there.

This is logical and theoretical imagery. It helps to bring out the hidden depths of creativity and often, writers stumble through such a process onto very puissant subjects to write on.

One last thought: Good writing is not something about the writer. It is anything and everything about the reader.

Outdoor Chandelier Light Ideas and Locations

From small porches to large decks, gazebos to sun rooms, lighting choices abound. But before one starts choosing a light for looks, there are a few every important features that a home owner should be aware of.

Chandelier features: As with all products, a home owner should select one that is intended for your planned usage. With an outdoor chandelier, one that is UL approved for outdoor wet / damp locations is a must.

Chandeliers for outside use come with sealed circuitry so that the moisture can not penetrate down into the light. Also a rubber coated switch and heavy outdoor cord with a grounded plug is also a necessity.

When choosing an outside light with shades, be sure they are made from weather resistant material, or even sealed glass. Thus reducing the chance of damage to your light.

Location of outdoor chandeliers: Of course one thinks of a covered porch as a perfect place for a hanging chandelier. But also consider one in a gazebo or deck, or even in a sun room. A gazebo is one of my favorite places to see a chandelier. With the steeper pitch to a gazebo, it is a perfect place to incorporate a taller or higher outdoor light. When placing a chandelier over a table on a porch or deck, a down light included in the chandelier design is great. This lights up the table area for more after dark reading or board games.

A sun room or solarium is also an excellent place to use an outdoor chandelier. Even though a sun room is an enclosed area, sealed to the outside elements, a chandelier rated for exterior use is a wise choice. If a sun room has many plants or a hot tub, the raised humidity of the room can be more taxing on an interior chandelier. So to extend the life of your fixture go exterior.

But most importantly: Your outside chandelier light should complement the home's exterior flavor. This is your castle, and lighting is the crown finish.

For more outdoor chandelier lighting ideas, visit us one line at http://outdoorchandelierlight.com

Find Birth Date by Social Security Number

The social security number is a very handy tool to detect identity theft and frauds due to concealment of vital information. You can find out all the details of an individual provided that you know the correct social security number associated with that particular individual.

The database associated with the social security number is the most authentic and reliable in terms of information provided. The numbers are assigned by the central office at the time of the birth of the person for all the citizens of the United States of America. Therefore, the database maintained by the central government under the social security department can help you find out the exact date of birth of any individual born in the United States of America by their SSN. This can be very helpful to people who tend to forget peoples birth dates that are close to them.

The information age, as the present era is known, there is very easy accessibility to various information with the help of computers and the World Wide Web network. These technologies have made life very easy for humans because you can access any information from anywhere in the world. All you need to search for is the correct authentic links. There are many websites that offer you a chance to find birth dates by SSN. If you have the SSN of the individual, then you can logon to any of these websites and access the database to find out the date of birth of the individual.

DVD Players Are Nothing New

When the DVD players first came on the market, they took the World by storm since they were a huge step forward from the VCR players. The DVD movies came with crystal clear picture and sound andave us the option to jump to any part of the movie with a single click rather than waiting for ages for a tape to rewind; they also came with many other options such as subtitles support, language support, on screen menus and the media (the disks) are durable and can not be damaged by magnetic fields or heat.

While the "normal" DVD players are typically connected to a television screen, the portable ones come with their own LCD displays and can be used completely on their own. And it was not long after the DVD players came into existence that they found their way into our vehicles as well; in-car DVD players are not only becoming increasingly popular, but many car manufacturers offer them either as optional or even standard feature of some of their latest car models.

How does an in-car DVD work?

Typically, the two screens that the player usually comes with are mounted on the headrests of the front seats, and the in-car DVD and the displays are powered by an adapter that gets connected to the car cigarette lighter socket. The most common types come in the form of one DVD player that plays one single movie across both screens, however, dual in-car DVD players are also available. Some models can be powered by batteries or AC mains adapter as well and can be used outdoors or anywhere in your house. The displays are typically 7 '' wide and most of the latest in-car DVD players use 16: 9 aspect ratio, which is also the format that the latest LCD and plasma TVs use.

When it comes to audio quality, the most recent models have come a long way from the first portable DVD players and offer much better sound, usually from built-in speakers. Most of them have also headphone jacks, so your kids or whoever sits at the back can watch movies or listen to music without disturbing the driver or the other passengers.

Another great feature of most of the portable DVD players is the number of file formats that they support; the high-end models will let you play virtually any kind of disk that you can find on the market. They will also play your audio CD or the MP3 collection that you have saved to a disk; viewing photos, saved in the JPEG format is also supported by almost all models.

What kind of in-car DVD should you buy?

Apart from the price, you should also take a good number of factors into account, but quality should be definitely high on your list, followed by functionality and the features that the player comes with. Keep in mind that some players support only specific region DVD's, while others are multi-regional; the ease of use, the mounting mechanism, the size of the displays, and the supported formats should also be taken into account before making a purchase. The in-car DVD players, especially the high-end ones, are still relatively expensive which is why you should always purchase a product that comes with at least a year warranty.

If you take long journeys with your whole family and have kids that are not that easy to control, purchasing a portable DVD player might be just the product for you. It is likely to keep them occupied through the whole journey and you will hear less noise and witness less fighting!

Bathroom Lighting Ideas To Consider

Bathroom lighting can make the difference between one that is adequate and comfortable to one that is irritating and oftentimes not sufficient for your bathroom. This is why you need some bathroom lighting idea so your bathroom lighting will fall on the former category.

When looking around for the lighting to have on your bathroom, try to consider the manufacturer that offers fixture installation as well as the lighting. There are those that offer this kind of service. The best thing about getting them is that they are capable of considering the overall designs of your bathroom and will come up with the proper lighting to complete the whole bathroom design.

Furthermore, take into account the many purposes you and other members of the household are using the bathroom. It may be the area where you dress up and groom yourself. If this is the case, you probably would want the kind of lighting that does not reflect any shadows and shades.

If the prime purpose of the bathroom is for bathing and other related things, then having a centralized lighting fixture may be enough. You do not have to add more bulbs on the sides of a mirror. This is not the best option if you are also saving up on energy consumption.

Keep in mind also that there moist and moisture thrive inside the bathroom. Your lighting should be durable enough to withstand those things. If positioned improperly, it might even cause some serious problems to you and your home.

The bathroom is one part of the house where you and your family frequently come to. Having the right kind of lighting will ensure that all struggles in trying to look good are eliminated. It also means that you will not grope around just to find what you are looking for.

Look for some bathroom lighting idea that you think will suit your needs the most. With the variety of ideas out there, there is definitely one that will work for you and your bathroom.

Control The Air Flow Of Your Home- Ceiling Fan Remote Control

If you market something that is effective but caters towards convenience then you are on a winner at the moment. People specifically buy convenient items for their household because they just want to unwind at home after a long and stressful day's work. They do not want to be bothered with technical things anymore because their hectic lifestyle does not allow it. Take the TV remote control for example. Why get up to change the channel if you do not have to? They will pay anything for a little extra comfort, which is why the ceiling fan remote control has been such a hit!

The ceiling fan remote control is an innovative product that allows you to control the flow of air around your home from the comfort of your chair! Ceiling fans can cool or warm your home in a few minutes and the ceiling fan remote control allows you to access that technology with just the click of a button!

Not only is there a good market for the remote control ceiling fan, it is capturing the attention of consumers craving convenience. You do not have to get up and pull the chain that works the ceiling fan anymore, which was a pain to do anyway and did not cater for the shorter individuals around. The chain often meant that ceiling fans were largely redundant when a standard fan could be placed within touching distance! The wall switch followed, but again you had to get up to be able to control the ceiling fan, and sometimes floor panels were a little too complex to actually work. That is where the ceiling fan remote control came in! You can sit on your couch, think that you are a little too hot or a little too cold and adjust it as necessary!

Ceiling fans have been hit with the public since they emerged on the market decades go. They are far more convenient to use and control than air conditioning units and central heating panels and can be used in conjunction with both if you so desire. The fact that they have kept up with technology makes them indispensable, even more so since ceiling fan remote controls have been introduced. No matter what your d├ęcor or your style, a ceiling fan with a ceiling fan remote control can blend into the background perfectly because they can be brought in a variety of styles and designs.

The ceiling fan is the ultimate home appliance. Mounted onto your ceiling it can introduce a level of comfort that you have never known before and the ceiling fan remote control can introduce a level of convenience in keeping with that. If you want to get a ceiling fan then shopping for one with a remote control will fulfill all of your wants and needs within your home!

Why Consider Bamboo Flooring?

The flooring in our homes is one of the first things which our guests notice. They take up a lot of space and when it comes to decorating, often they are the last things which are thought of. However, the state of the floors can really affect the value of your home and it can also cause the whole look of the room to become unbalanced unless it has been done right. That is why choosing the right floor for your room and your home is extremely important. The flooring can make or break the entire look of the room as it can really add something extra.

Now, there are many different types of floating out there which attract people with all different tastes. However, you could end up paying a lot of money for flooring and it may not need to be the best type for your home. One type of flooring that is bound to get people talking is bamboo flooring. Not only is it impressive to look at, but it also helps to add character and you will certainly be the envy of the street with this.

How Bamboo Flooring Can Improve the Home

There have been many different technical advances over the years and because of these advances, they have allowed the processing of bamboo canes to be turned into suave and straight floor strips. Due to this process, it has allowed bamboo flooring to have an extremely high character, while giving it that great flow finish that it has. Bamboo flooring is very much in demand and it is not hard to see why so many people want to use this for flooring in their homes.

The bamboo flooring can come in either short strips, in tiles or it can even come in planks. The great thing about bamboo flooring is that it is quite easy to install due to the length of it. Bamboo flooring will need some care during the evocation process, which will help to fit everything properly. Once it has all been installed correctly, it will leave a long lasting and stalwart floor that you can enjoy for many years.

If you are tired of the range or if you are looking for something new and impressive, then bamboo flooring will certainly be something which you should consider. It has some great benefits and it can really add something spectacular to your home. It may be an idea to do some research about it and see whether it will suit your home or not. Also, you may want to look for tips on how to care for it properly in order to ensure that it lasts for as long as possible.

Overall bamboo flooring can really enhance the look of any home and due to the fact that there is a large amount to choose from, you really do need to do a little research before you choose which type you like.

Four Steps to Satisfy All Your Cravings to Achieve Happiness and Bliss

People are trying to achieve happiness at any cost. They are willing to pay any price to make themselves happy or buy happiness for the future. If you ask a young profession slogging 18 hours day as to why he is working so hard. He is likely to ascribe his toil to attain happiness. Even if his immediate goal may be to make money yet his ultimate goal is happiness and the money is merely a means to attain that goal. People who crave power too believe that power would give them happiness. The people who are craving for the physical and sensual pleasure do so to achieve happiness. Yet all wealth, power and pleasure is not sufficient to make a person happy as his desire becomes higher and higher. Gandhi has rightly said,

There is enough wealth in this world that can satisfy every person’s need. Yet the entire wealth is not enough to satisfy one person’s greed.

Are We Like This Fisherman?

It is, therefore, no wonder that no one seems to be happy in this world as no one has been able to satisfy his desire. We all seem to be like the fisherman of this story.

There was a poor fisherman who used to satisfy the basic need of his family by fishing. Once he was extremely hungry as, he could not catch a fish for many days. With great effort, he caught a big fish. He was extremely happy and planned to take the fish home to feed the self and his family. However, the fish requested the fisherman to show mercy on her and spare her life. The fisherman was kind, and he put the fish back to water.

Then he saw that the fish became a Goddess. She told the fisherman, that she was a Goddess who had become fish due to a curse. The effect of the curse was to be removed only if a kind man spares her life. So she thanked the fisherman for sparing her life and making her Goddess again. She asked the fisherman to ask for a boon.

The fisherman was a simple man. He simply thought what he needs and asked the Goddess to give him a decent house, good cloths to wear and sufficient food to eat. The Goddess granted his wish and promised that anytime he needs her help, he can always come to the same place near the sea and she will appear again to grant him another boon.

The fisherman on his return to his home found that the hut had disappeared and replaced with a beautiful house. He found his wife and children dressed in beautiful cloths. There was the best of the foods to eat. His happiness knew no bounds.

Many months passed. Once he was walking in the market, when suddenly he was asked to get out of the road as the king of the State was passing from the road. He was forcefully removed from the road. From a distance, he saw the king passing on the road on an elephant, full of grandeur. He felt humiliated by the men of the king. Then he remembered the Goddess and immediately went to the same place on the seashore and desired to see the Goddess.

Goddess appeared and asked him to seek another boon. He requested that she must make him the King of the State. The boon was granted. Now the man was too happy. He has all the power and wealth of the State.

After few years, once he was taking a tour of his State on the gold studded elephant in the month of summer. The weather was hot and humid. He was sweating profusely. He looked at the sky and found the sun to be shining like a hot iron. He wished for the cool breeze. Yet there was no wind. He felt frustrated and went straight to the seashore and asked the Goddess to appear.

Goddess asked, “What do you need now?” He said that he wants, that the sun must shine as per his direction and the wind must flow as per his wish. The Goddess got extremely angry and said contemptuously, “You fisherman! I made you a king. Still you are not satisfied. Go and become fisherman again.”

The Nature of Man

The author on conclusion of the stays asked the reader, “Whom do you think was wrong? Was it the fisherman or the Goddess?” He then concludes that the man was right as it is the nature of the man to seek more. So the fisherman behaved as any other man would have behaved in a similar situation. However, Goddess did not behave like Goddess as she kept on fulfilling the wishes of the man when it was within her power. But when the man asked for something which was beyond her power, instead of telling the man the truth of her limitation, preferred to punish him by making him poor again forgetting what he has done to give her new life.

While many of us would agree with the conclusion of the author that it is the natural desire of man to seek more and more in this world to fulfill his desire, yet in some corner of our heart we also feel that had we been in the place of the fisherman, we would not have committed such a blunder and would have not asked for such an outlandish boon. We also know that even if the Goddess would have satisfied his wish, he would have come back to her for still more wishes. Many of us have virtual control over sun and wind, thanks to the discovery of the Air conditioners. Yet we do not seem to have happiness despite of fulfillment of all possible physical comforts. While, it is true that man has unlimited desire, yet it would be incorrect to conclude that the desire of man is only material.

Jesus was the true judge of human nature and he rightly said, “Man will not for bread alone.” While bread is necessary to feed the body, yet no man can live merely to satisfy his body. While an animal may remain contented after its physical desires are satisfied, man moves to the next level of desire on satisfaction of physical desire.

What are the different levels of desire? We can classify the desires of man in four distinct categories viz.

(1) Desire of the Body

(2) Desire of the Mind

(3) Desire of the Soul

(4) Desire of Spirit

Thus while an animal can spent his entire life for the satisfaction of his physical desires man has to satisfy the cravings of the higher level, which may lie dormant only till the lower level desires are not fulfilled. The true happiness is realized only when man is able to satisfy the craving of all four levels of desire.

(1) Satisfying the Craving of Body

The first need of every human being, like any other animal, is to satisfy the craving of the body. The desires of the body can be satisfied by food, water, shelter, and clothing; and by the fulfillment of the sensual needs. However, the physical needs are satisfied only for a small time and the cravings return after some time. Therefore, we want to ensure the satisfaction of physical needs for future also by accumulation of wealth and by creation of rituals like marriages which takes care of sensual needs. All institutions of man are created with a view that man can ensure satisfaction f all his physical needs for life so that he can advance to the next level of craving.

(2) Satisfying the Craving of Mind

We all find that people acquires wealth much beyond their need. Often such people are called greedy or filthy rich. Yet the fact is that accumulation of wealth is not for the sake of the satisfaction of the physical need but for the mental need as wealth provides them recognition and respect in the society. People earn respect and honor which seems to be related to their salaries or wealth. Bill Gates was surely respected by many because he was the richest person of the world. Yet, in reality it is not the wealth that is respected in society but the respect is for the mind that created the wealth?

Imagine, that you have acquired a billion dollar by chance, say by lottery or inheritance. Or you have acquired wealth by killing a rich person or looting a country. Would you feel happy? Would you get the respect of people? The answer seems to be negative.

The fact is that people do not respect wealth or like the wealthy people for their wealth. After all only the owner of the wealth enjoys the wealth. Yet they like and respect the mind hat created that wealth. Wealth is merely a measurement of the mental or intellectual capability of a person in this material world. If in a company, different people are paid different salaries, the chances are that the person getting higher salary is likely to be more intelligent or wise than the person getting lower salary. Hence people respect the person getting higher salary as they believe that he would have higher mental capability. Many authors and leaders like Gandhi and Mother Teresa were respected even though they had no wealth at all. They too had the potential to create wealth, which they chose not to do.

Men seek respect of the people, once they become rich or powerful. This can be done only if the person satisfy his mental craving and evolve intellectually. Therefore a rich person has to prove his mental worth to the society. All self-made men have already done so. Others have to do so by making sound investment in the business and acquiring more wealth, thereby proving themselves to be smarter than the other. If they fail to do so, they also fail to realize happiness.

(3) Satisfying the Craving of Soul

Most people acquire their wealth or power by proving themselves to be smarter than others. Hence most successful people should be happy as they have been able to satisfy their body and mind. Yet they fail to get happiness as their next level of craving starts.

People realize late in their life that they are unique in this world having unique personalities and skill. It is a deliberate design of the nature as every person has been designed for a purpose. Thus every successful person seems to ask at some point of his life, when they fail to realize the happiness, “Who am I?”, “What is my Goal?”, “What is the purpose of my life?”

Identifying the self is the greatest secret for the person. Once a person realizes it, he understands the goal and purpose for his life. All great people like Gandhi, Buddha, Newton and Einstein understood their purpose of life and created a new world by satisfying their soul. There is no logic why they did the things which were quite offbeat for the “normal” people.

A man is able to satisfy his soul, only if he knows himself correctly and follows the voice of his conscious rather then the logic of the world.

(4) Satisfying the Craving of Spirit

The final destination of the man is to attain the divinity by recognizing the God within and without. Once a man has satisfied the craving of his soul, he realize that all the world is one and every one is connected to each other by the common spirit which we often call as God or Supreme Power . After this realization, the soul of the man becomes one with spirit. So the person works for the satisfaction for every creation of the world. All his wealth and power, instead of becoming a means to satisfy his desire, is used to satisfy the desire of the spirit or God by serving everyone in this universe.

Happiness- The Only Goal of Life

Not many people feel the craving of spirit as even their lower level needs is not satisfied. Yet it is only due to this craving that people like Bill Gates donated all their wealth for the benefit of the society. Buddha too left his kingdom for satisfying his craving of soul and spirit.

Indian philosophy believes that once a man satisfies his craving of spirit, he become one with God and become free from the bondage of life and death. He achieves his salvation by becoming one with God. However, one who fails to satisfy his craving of Spirit has to come back again and again to this world till he or her is able to satisfy all the desires. The state of satisfaction of all craving is also called Paramanada (Ultimate Happiness).

Thus, the natural desire of man is to progress from body to mind to soul to spirit. It is like a treasure hunt where, the clue of higher level desire is found after the satisfaction of the lower level desires. The reward for discovering each treasure is happiness. Moving in this direction is the source of happiness while moving in the opposite direction is the source of all unhappiness, pain and miserly.

Thus every man can achieve salvation or God or enter the kingdom of God not by suffering pain but simply by satisfying the cravings of his desires which rewards the person by the feeling of happiness.

The History of Republic Airport

1. Farmingdale’s Aviation Origins:

Located in Farmingdale, Long Island, Republic Airport is an historically significant airfield to the region and the world, having played both military and civilian roles. But long before it became an airfield, it gave rise to the manufacturers that built airplanes.

“The Industrial Revolution and airplane manufacture came to Farmingdale during World War I when Lawrence Sperry and Sydney Breese established their pioneering factories in the community,” wrote Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas in their book, Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (Arcadia Publishing, 2016, p. 9). “They were drawn by the presence of two branches of the Long Island Railroad… the nearby Route 24, which brought auto and truck traffic to and from the Fifty-Ninth Street Bridge in Manhattan; the level outwash plain, which provided land for flying fields; and the proximity to skilled workers… “

The area’s first aviation roots, however, were planted as far back as 1917. The Lawrence Sperry Airplane Company, incorporated that year with $50,000 of capital and located on Rose and Richard streets in the village of Farmingdale, produced its first aircraft in the form of the Messenger.

Designed by Alfred Verville of the US Army’s Engineering Division at McCook Field, the minuscule, 17.9-foot-long, all-wood biplane was intended for “aerial motorcycle” missions, alighting in small clearings to drop off and pick-up messages from field commanders, thus earning its name. Farmingdale’s aviation roots were equally cultivated by Sydney Breese, whose Breese Aircraft Company, located on Eastern Parkway, designed the Penguin. Resembling the Bleriot XI, the mid-wing airplane, powered by a two-cylinder, 28-hp, roughly-running Lawrence engine, was a non-flying, preflight trainer intended to aid US Army pilot transition from primary to operational types. Deployed on the open prairies of Texas, it sported a wingspan too short to produce lift, but allowed fledgling aviators to gain the feel of pre-departure aerodynamic forces on their horizontal tails. Of the 301 produced, only five were ever used for this purpose; the remainder were placed in storage.

2. Fairchild Aviation Corporation:

If Lawrence Sperry and Sydney Breese laid Farmingdale’s aviation foundation, then Sherman M. Fairchild cemented it.

Initially interested in aerial photography equipment, he founded the Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation in 1920, selling two such devices to the Army, and further developed the company into Fairchild Aerial Surveys to engage in map-making when he had received a contract for an additional 20.

Seeking to replace the myriad of airplane types he operated with a single, specifically- designed camera platform, Fairchild devised the required specifications for one, but could not locate a manufacturer able to build it at a reasonable cost. Forced to do so himself, he established his third aviation company, the Fairchild Aviation Corporation, and moved into the Sperry factory in South Farmingdale, vacated as a result of founder Sperry’s tragic death in December of 1923.

The high-wing, strut-braced, single-engine utility aircraft, designated FC-1 and first flying in prototype form in 1926, featured an enclosed and heated cabin to protect the pilot and his camera equipment, but its original OX-5 engine proved inadequate. Retrofitted with a higher-capacity Wright J-4, it was redesignated FC-1A.

The FC-2 production version, supported by wheels, floats, or skis, featured increased cabin volume. Powered by a 200-hp Wright J-5, the aircraft, intended for commercial operations, sported a 31-foot overall length and 44-foot wingspan. Accommodating a single pilot and four passengers, or up to 820 pounds of cargo, it had a 3,400-pound gross weight and could attain maximum, 122-mph speeds and operate 700-mile segments.

Demand at the South Farmingdale factory soon eclipsed capacity. After aerially surveying the region, Fairchild himself chose a 77,967-acre alternate on the south side of Route 24 and Conklin Street in East Farmingdale, a site which offered prevailing, South Shore winds and multiple-mode ground access by means of a railroad line and the major, Route 110 corridor, which would facilitate both personnel and raw material transport to the new field. Repackaged into airplanes, the latter could then fly out.

“The 77,967-acre Fairchild Flying Field was developed in the late winter and early spring of 1928 and was originally owned and operated by the Fairchild Engine and Airplane Manufacturing Company,” according to the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society. “The first flights from (it) took place in (the) late spring of 1928 after the Fairchild Airplane and the Fairchild Engine factories were completed and aircraft were produced (there). Fairchild built Model 41, 41A, 42, 21, 100, and 150 airplanes… “

Wings, like those of the Hempstead Plains to the west, once again rose from the farm fields of Long Island, built, propelled, and supported, respectively, by the Fairchild Airplane Factory, the Fairchild Engine Factory, and the Fairchild Flying Field, after Faircam Realty, Inc., purchased the land and its initial layout was established on November 3, 1927.

Although Fairchild produced multiple models at its new Long Island aviation center, its roots would quickly prove tenuous. Moving its headquarters to Hagerstown, Maryland, in 1931, after only three years, it vacated its facilities, which were almost immediately reoccupied by the American Corporation, or AVCO, whose Airplane and Engine divisions produced the Pilgrim 100 transport for American Airways. But the Depression, taking too large a bite out of the economy, severely diminished demand for it, since aircraft acquisitions were high on a company’s cost reduction list, and its presence proved shorter than Fairchild’s. By mid-1932, it had equally disappeared.

3. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation:

Initially located in Valley Stream, where it designed floats, the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation moved further east, to the Fairchild Flying Field, and took up residence in the former Fulton Truck Factory, where it hatched its first production fighter, the FF-1. Powered by a single, 750-hp Wright engine, the biplane, with a retractable undercarriage, was also offered in scout configuration, as the SF-1.

The most significant aircraft to emerge from the East Farmingdale production line, however, was the Duck. Tracing its origins to the Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corporation’s XO2L-1, it had been submitted to the US Navy in 1931, but, since Loening himself lacked the required facilities to build it, he turned to Leroy Grumman, his former colleague, who re-submitted it in modified form. Accepted on April 25, 1933, the biplane, called XJF-1, was powered by a 700-hp Twin Wasp engine, which drove a three-bladed Hamilton Standard propeller. Its bracing, consisting of one set of struts outboard of the fuselage and a second one, of wires, between the two wings, was minimal for its day. Water operations were supported by a centerline, under-fuselage float, into which the undercarriage retracted.

In all, 632 JF and J2F Ducks were produced, pressed into global, multiple-role service.

Although Grumman’s Farmingdale presence exceeded that of all others, it nevertheless ended after a half-decade, in 1937, when it relocated to larger headquarters in Bethpage, Long Island.

4. Seversky Aircraft Corporation:

Seversky Aircraft Corporation next took center stage in Farmingdale when it relocated there from College Point in Queens, occupying the former American Corporation factory.

A decorated World War I ace, Alexander P. de Seversky, like Igor Sikorsky, immigrated to the US from Russia, and in 1923, developed the first gyroscopically-stabilized bombsight at the Sperry Gyroscope Company, before establishing his own Seversky Aero Corporation, which focused on aircraft instruments and parts.

Injected with fresh capital, it initially occupied the EDO Corporation’s floatplane factory.

His first major design, the SEV-3, was both aerodynamically sleek and progressive, reflecting Seversky’s aviation-intuitive nature. Powered by a single, 420-hp, nose-mounted, Wright J-6 Whirlwind engine, the all-metal, low-wing aircraft, accommodating a pilot and two passengers in sliding, tandem canopied cockpits, was either supported by a wheeled undercarriage or floats, and in 1933 established a world speed record for piston amphibians. Two years later, on September 15, it sustained a 230-mph airspeed.

The foundation of many subsequent versions, which externally exhibited only minor variations over the basic design, it evolved into the next major iteration, the BT-8. As the first all-metal, enclosed cockpit design operated by the US Army Air Corps, it featured a 24.4-foot length and 36-foot wingspan. Powered by the 400-hp Pratt and Whitney R-985-11, the 4,050-pound airplane, accommodating two, had a 175-mph maximum speed. Thirty were built. It led to the definitive version.

Originally occupying Hangar 2 on New Highway and today used by the American Airpower Museum, Seversky Aircraft Corporation took over the Grumman factory in 1937 when it had relocated to Bethpage, thus maintaining two facilities. But, echoing the short history of the East Farmingdale airfield’s tenants, it came to an abrupt end: although Seversky, like many other aviation-minded “geniuses,” possessed the necessary design skills to create progressive airplanes, he lacked the necessary managerial flip-side of the equation needed to devise a proper, and profitable, business plan to market them, resulting in a $550,000 loss by April of 1939. While conducting a European sales tour six months later, on October 13, he was ousted by his own board of directors, who voted for his removal from the very company he had founded.

Reorganized, it was rebranded “Republic Aviation Corporation.”

5. Republic Aviation Corporation:

Fairchild Flying Field’s fortune was about to change. Fueled by World War II, the fledgling Republic Aviation Corporation would explode in size and its roots would become so deeply implanted in Farmingdale soil that it would be decades before they could be unearthed.

Instrumental in that war was the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt.

Succeeding the Seversky P-35, it was the result of Army Air Corps requirements, which included a 400-mph airspeed, a 25,000-foot service ceiling, at least six.50-caliber machine guns, armor plating protection, self-sealing fuel tanks, and a minimum fuel capacity of 315 gallons.

The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, which dwarfed all other aircraft, was the world’s largest, heaviest, single-engine, single-seat strategic World War II fighter, offering unequaled dive speeds.

War-fed growth of the officially-renamed “Republic Airport” resulted in the expansion of the company’s existing factory on the south side of Conklin Street, as well as the construction of three additional buildings, the installation of a control tower, and the lengthening of its existing runways, all in an effort to support P-47 production, which totaled 9,087 units in Farmingdale alone and required a work force of 24,000 to accomplish by 1944. Employees filtered in by the thousands every day. A round-the-clock production line spat a completed aircraft out of the factory every hour, and these were then ferried by the Women Air Force Service Pilots, or WASPs. Republic Aviation, one of the country’s primary defense arteries, pumped man-and-machine into the agricultural plains of Farmingdale and transformed them into an arsenal of democracy within an 18-month period.

“By 1945, Republic was contributing more than 30 percent of the Army Air Force fighters to the war effort against the Luftwaffe in the skies of Europe,” wrote Leroy E. Douglas in his “Conklin Street Cut-Off” article published in the September 1984 issue of Long Island Forum (p. 182). “Thus, Republic, Ranger, and its 23,000 plus workers-more than half of whom were women-did their part to win the war.”

When World War II’s doors closed, so, too, did those of the Thunderbolt factory, and Republic was forced to diversify its product range in terms of purpose and powerplant, converting military Douglas C-54 Skymasters into commercial DC-4 airliners, producing 1,059 civilian Seabee amphibian aircraft, and attempting to design a passenger transport of its own.

The resultant aircraft, the Republic XF-12 Rainbow–along with the competing, and identically-powered, Hughes XF-11–both received a contract for two.

Emulating the graceful lines of the Lockheed Constellation, the Rainbow, featuring a 93.9-foot overall length and incorporating design experience amassed during Republic’s fighter aircraft development, exuded an appearance quintessentially captured by Aviation Week and Space Technology magazine when it reported, “The sharp nose and cylindrical cigar shape of the XF-12 fulfills a designer’s dream of a no-compromise design with aerodynamic considerations.”

Peace proved the aircraft’s enemy. The close of World War II obviated its (and the comparable Hughes XF-11’s) need. Nevertheless, because of its long-range, high-speed and -altitude, day and night, limited-visibility photo-reconnaissance capability, it was ideal as a territory-mapping platform. Indeed, on September 1, 1948, the second of only two aircraft built photographed its transcontinental flight path from the Air Force Flight Test Center in Muroc, California, to Mitchell Field in Garden City, Long Island, during Operation Birds Eye.

Returning to its military roots, Republic entered the pure-jet era with a P-47 Thunderbolt successor.

Featuring a 37.5-foot length, the design, conceived shortly before the end of the war in 1944, retained the straight wings associated with propeller airplanes. These spanned 36.5 feet.

First flying on February 28, 1946, the 19,689-pound fighter-bomber, designated F-84 Thunderjet and able to climb at 4,210-fpm, established a national speed record of 611 mph, as powered by the 3,750-thrust-pound J35-GE-7. Its range was 1,282 miles and its service ceiling was 40,750 feet. Its production totaled 4,455 units.

Development of its successor began in 1949. Because of an Air Force funding shortage, Republic reduced development costs by retaining commonality, to the tune of 60 percent, with the F-84, but introduced swept wings. The aircraft, powered by a 4,200 thrust-pound Allison XJ35-A-25 engine and initially designated YF-96A, first flew on June 3 of the following year, three months before it was renamed F-84F Thunderstreak.

Korean War-sparked fund increases enabled Republic to complete a second prototype, which first flew on February 14, 1951 with a YJ65-W-1 engine, and it was followed by the first production example, which took to the skies on November 22, 1952. The type was deployed by NATO countries during the Cold War.

F-84F Thunderstreak production totaled 2,713 airplanes.

Nevertheless, Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas summarized Republic-based aircraft manufacturing by stating in their book, Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (pp. 7-8). “While aviation started in Farmingdale with cloth-covered triplanes and biplanes and prop engines, after World War II Republic helped moved the United States into the jet age with the F-84 and F-84F, which assisted US forces in Korea and NATO nations in the 1950s.”

6. Fairchild Republic Corporation

Although Fairchild departed the very airport it had created in 1931, that absence was short-lived. Reappearing three years later, it took up residence in its former engine factory as the newly formed Ranger Aircraft and Engine Corporation and remained there until 1948. But, for a second time, history was to come full cycle.

Acquiring Hiller Helicopters nine years later, it became Fairchild Hiller, and in July of 1965, it purchased the majority of Republic stock, resulting in the Republic Aviation Division of Fairchild Hiller. Fairchild had thus returned to the soil in which it had planted its first seeds. In 1971, it continued its buying spree, purchasing Swearingen and producing and marketing the 19-passenger, twin-turboprop Fairchild-Swearingen Metro commuter airliner. The following year, the company adopted the official title of “Fairchild Republic.”

Its principle design, conceptualized before the Republic acquisition, was given birth by the Air Force requirement for a close air support aircraft incorporating simplicity, ease of maintenance, and short-field performance, in order to operate from small forward air bases close to the battle line.

Designated A-10 Thunderbolt II and enjoying a production run of 733, it was instrumental in the Gulf War and during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

7. Post-War Manufacturing:

Although Republic Airport and its aviation companies had been associated with mostly-military aircraft design and manufacture, several diverse commercial and space components also emerged from its doors.

Integral to the Boeing 747, for instance, were the leading edge slats, trailing edge flaps, spoilers, and ailerons built by the Republic Aviation division of Fairchild Hiller, while it was also contracted to provide a similar role in its proposed, but canceled, supersonic 2707 airliner.

Equally integral to the Space Shuttle were the Fairchild Republic components manufactured in Farmingdale.

After awarded a $13 million contract by Rockwell International of Los Angeles on March 29, 1973, Fairchild Hiller designed and developed six aluminum vertical tail stabilizers, which sported 45-degree leading edges and measured 27 feet high by 22 feet long, in Hangar 17, along with their associated rudders and speedbrakes. The first, installed on test vehicle Enterprise, facilitated its atmospheric launch from a piggy-backed 747 platform over Edwards Air Force Base on February 18, 1977, while the others were mounted on Space Shuttles Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavor.

Expanding the commuter airliner involvement initiated with the Swearingen Metro, Fairchild Republic signed an agreement with Saab-Scania of Sweden on January 25, 1980 to launch the SF-340, in what became the first fully collaborative venture between a US and European aviation manufacturer. Fairchild Republic was contracted to design and build its wings, engine nacelles, and vertical and horizontal tail surfaces, with final assembly occurring in Sweden.

Fairchild Swearingen was assigned North American marketing responsibility, while a jointly owned Swedish company, Saab-Fairchild HB, established an office in Paris to fulfill this function elsewhere.

Powered by twin turboprop engines, the aircraft accommodated 34 passengers in a four-abreast configuration with a central aisle.

After completing some 100 wing sets, however, Fairchild terminated its contract work on the regional airliner, withdrawing from all civil projects, and the aircraft was redesignated the Saab 340.

8. Changing Roles:

Passed the ownership torch on March 31, 1969, Republic Airport was thereinafter operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), which continued to transform it into a public-use entity by acquiring 94 adjacent acres from the US government and purchasing an additional 115 privately owned ones to the south and southwest.

“The Metropolitan Transportation Authority took title to Republic Airport as a first step in converting it into a general aviation (field),” according to the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society.

Initiating a modernization program, it made several improvements. High-intensity lights were installed on 5,516-foot Runway 1-19 and 6,827-foot Runway 14-32, for example, the latter of which was also equipped with an instrument landing system (ILS). The Fulton Truck Factory, the airport’s original structure dating from 1916, was razed, while Flightways transformed a ten-acre site on the north side of Route 109 into a complex of new hangars, administration buildings, fuel storage tanks, and aircraft tie-downs. A dual-level Administration, Terminal, and Maintenance building opened in 1983, not far from, and shortly before, the operational phase-in of a 100-foot, $2.2 million FAA control tower.

In order to promote economic development of the surrounding region, New York State legislature transferred ownership, for a third time, to the New York State Department of Transportation (DOT) on April 1, 1983, which was advised by a nine-member Republic Airport Commission. It hardly curtailed the modernization momentum.

Indeed, eight years later, a $3.5 million, 25,600-square-foot Grumman Corporate Hangar, replacing the aircraft storage facility previously maintained at its now-closed Bethpage airfield and housing a Beechcraft King Air, a Gulfstream I, and two British Aerospace BAe-125-800s, opened.

In April of 1993, ground was broken for a $3.3 million, 20,000-square-foot SUNY Farmingdale Aerospace Education Center on the east side of Route 110.

Million Air, a subsidiary of Executive Air Support, constructed an 11,700-square-foot Executive Air Terminal and corporate hangar on the airport’s south end, and, by 2001, Air East commenced operations in its own, new, radiant-heated, 10,000-square-foot hangar, which also featured a 2,500-square-foot shop and 4,500-square-foot office and flight school. Yet another hangar-and-office complex, located in the Lambert area, opened its doors in June of 2005 when Talon Air, a charter company, began operations from it.

In order to provide increased clearance needed by the latest-generation of business jets, such as the Gulfstream V and the Bombardier Global Express, taxiway B (bravo) was relocated.

Indeed, more than $18 million in capital improvements were made since 2000 alone.

These enhancements, provisioning the airport for its new, general aviation role, had perhaps been a premonition of things to come.

In 1982, Fairchild Republic won a contract to build two new-generation Air Force T-46A training jets; but, the milestone, initially envisioned as a monetary lifeline, only provided the reverse effect: although the prototype was first rolled out three years later, it lacked some 1,200 parts, and although the second made a successful, 24-minute maiden flight in July of 1986, the contract for the program, fraught with controversy, was canceled, resulting in the layoffs of 500 employees.

Like so many companies dependent upon military contracts for survival, Fairchild Republic, without choice, ceased to exist the following year, leaving its sprouting factories and a legacy, which had begun six decades earlier. Ironically, the two names which had been the most instrumental in the airport’s beginning and growth-Fairchild and Republic-were the same two which had been involved in its demise. The doors of the Farmingdale airfield’s primarily-military aircraft manufacturing and testing chapter thus closed, and those to its general aviation one opened.

“With the company experiencing major financial problems in 1986-1987 and with the loss of support for the T-46A program in Congress, Fairchild terminated both the SF-340 and T-46A production after building only four aircraft,” according to Ken Neubeck and Leroy E. Douglas in Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale (p. 99). “Thus, by the fall of 1987, seventy years of airplane manufacturing in Farmingdale ended with employment and economic loss to the community and the New York metropolitan area.”

9. Airline Service:

In 1966, a year after ownership of Republic Airport was transferred from Fairchild Hiller to Farmingdale Corporation, it was officially designated a general aviation (civil) facility, fielding its first landing, of a twin-engine Beechcraft operated by Ramey Air Service from Islip, on December 7. In order to transform it into a gateway by facilitating airline connections at the three major New York airports, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority contracted with Air Spur to provide this feeder service four years later, assessing $12 one-way fares.

Although Republic was never envisioned as a major commercial airport, its central Long island location, proximity to the Route 110 corridor, and considerable infrastructure poised it for limited, scheduled and charter service to key business and leisure destinations within neighboring states. Yet its inherent operational limitation was succinctly stated in the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update.

“At Republic Airport,” it explained (Chapter 3, p. 8), “the New York State Department of Transportation implemented an aircraft weight limitation of 60,000 pounds in 1984. This weight limitation restricts the operation of aircraft over 60,000 pounds actual gross weight without the written consent of the airport operator.”

“Forecasts indicate that there will be an increase in the number of jet aircraft based at Republic Airport,” the Master Plan Update stated, “as well as an increase in jet operations,” as ultimately proven by annual pure-jet operation statistics: 2,792 in fiscal year 1986, 4,056 in 1990, 4,976 in 1995, and 6,916 in 1998. And, of its average annual number of based aircraft-about 500-this segment was also the fastest growing: 10 jet aircraft in 1985, 15 in 1995, and 20 in 1998. That number has since more than doubled.

One of the first scheduled airline attempts was made in 1978 when Cosmopolitan Airlines, operating an ex-Finnair Convair CV-340 and two ex-Swissair CV-440 Metropolitans in single-class, four-abreast, configurations, offered all-inclusive, single-day, scheduled charter packages to Atlantic City from its Cosmopolitan Sky Center. Its flyer had advised: “Fly to Atlantic City for only $19.95 net. Here’s how it works: Pay $44.95 for a round-trip flight ticket to Atlantic City, including ground transportation to and from the Claridge Hotel and Casino. Upon arrival at the Claridge, you’ll receive $20.00 in food and beverage credits good at any restaurant except the London Pavilion. You will also receive a $5.00 flight credit good for your next fight to the Claridge on Cosmopolitan Airlines.”

The carrier also briefly attempted to offer two daily scheduled round-trips to Boston on its 52-passenger CV-440s in 1980.

Facilitating this scheduled service growth was the construction of a passenger terminal.

“The terminal building, completed in 1983, has approximately 50,000 square feet of useable floor space and houses airport service vehicles, maintenance, fire protection, public terminal space, and rental areas on the first floor, plus administration offices on the second floor. Approximately 70 employees work in the building,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update (Chapter 1, p. 17).

Attempting to establish a link between Farmingdale and the major New York metropolitan airport of Newark International in order to feed its departures, PBA Provincetown Boston Airline commenced shuttle service with Cessna C-402 commuter aircraft, connecting Long Island by means of a 30-minute aerial hop with up to five daily round-trips and coordinating schedules with PEOPLExpress Airlines. It advertised avoidance of the excessive drive-times, parking costs, and longer check-in requirements otherwise associated with larger-airport usage, and offered the convenience of through-fares, ticketing, and baggage check to any PEOPLExpress final destination.

According to its June 20, 1986 Northern System timetable, it offered Farmingdale departures at 0700, 0950, 1200, 1445, and 1755.

Demand soon necessitated replacement of the C-402 with a larger, 19-seat Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante.

All of these brief, unsuccessful scheduled attempts, nullifying local residents’ ill-founded concern that Republic would ultimately develop into a major commercial airport and inflict its noise on close-proximity ears, failed to attract the needed traffic to render them self-supporting, emphasizing several airport-specific factors.

1). Republic was consistently associated with general, and not scheduled, operations during the latter part of its history.

2). Long Island MacArthur had already established itself as the island’s principle commercial facility, and carriers, as demonstrated by Precision/Northwest Airlink, gained no revenue advantage by diluting the same market, yet incurring increased airport and operational costs to do so.

“Republic Airport has had service by various commuter airlines and each has ceased service… ,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update. “The commuter service market area is limited, geographically, taking into account the larger airports, such as La Guardia, Kennedy, and MacArthur and the service they offer.”

“Since 1969, Republic Airport has accommodated the region’s need for an airport devoted to private and business aircraft, as well as charter and commuter operations,” it also stated (Chapter 1, p. 1). “Because Republic is situated in the midst of residential, commercial, and industrial development, its role is inconsistent with that of a scheduled air carrier airport for commercial jet transport.”

With the number of annual passengers having consistently increased-from 13,748 in 1985 and 30,564 in 1990 to 33,854 in 1995-its future commuter role could not be entirely ruled out.

“While past efforts by commuter airlines have not been successful, the potential for future service exists and is to be considered in the planning for the airport,” it concluded (Chapter 2, p. 10).

10. The Future:

Unlike Roosevelt and Glenn Curtiss fields, which succumbed to modern-era pressures and swapped their runways for shopping malls, 526-acre Republic only surrendered a small portion of itself to the Airport Plaza Shopping Center. Instrumental in early-aviation development and in the Korean, Vietnam, Gulf, and Iraq wars, it transformed itself into a general aviation facility, peaking with 546-based aircraft and becoming the third-largest New York airport in terms of movements after JFK International and La Guardia.

Billing itself as “the corporate airbridge for Long Island’s 21st-century economy,” this westernmost Long Island general aviation facility accounts for 1,370 jobs and $139.6 million of economic activity, supporting 60 on-airport businesses. The 110,974 movements recorded in 2008 encompassed 52 by non-rigid airships, 7,120 by rotary wing, 76,236 by single-engine pistons, 6,310 by twin-engine pistons, 5,028 by turboprops, and 16,228 by pure-jets. The latter, its second-highest total, emphasizes its increasing role as the “Teterboro of Long Island,” perhaps pointing the way to its future. Indeed, companies considering the area for their corporate locations cite the airport as a major asset, since it provides close-proximity aerial access for personnel and materials.

Toward that end, the State of New York approved funding in April of 2009 for a Vision Planning process to collect data from residents, employees, businesses, and users, and then plot its future course. Specifically, the program had a three-fold purpose-namely, to define the airport’s role, to determine how it will fill that role, and, finally, to ascertain how it will work with the community to attain the desired operational and economic goals.

“As part of the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS), Republic Airport is designated as a reliever airport with commercial service,” according to the 2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update (Chapter 1, p. 1). “Under ownership by the New York State Department of Transportation, there are specific state development and policy procedures which are followed.”

Although it may never eclipse its current general aviation role, its importance was not to be underestimated.

“”Republic Airport is an important regional asset,” it stated (Chapter 1, p. 1). “It provides significant transportation and economic benefits to both Suffolk and Nassau counties. The policy of the New York State Department of Transportation and the Republic Airport Commission shall be that Republic Airport continue to better serve Long Island.”

Whatever the future holds for it, it has a nine-decade foundation upon which to base it, as acknowledged by the plaque hung in the passenger terminal by the Long Island-Republic Airport Historical Society, “honor(ing) the tens of thousands of men and women who labored here in East Farmingdale, contributing significantly to aviation technology and aircraft production.” Those men and woman turned the wheels of the 11 aviation companies based there.


Long Island Republic Airport Historical Society website.

Neubeck, Ken, and Douglas, Leroy E. Airplane Manufacturing in Farmingdale. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2016.

2000 Republic Airport Master Plan Update, New York State Department of Transportation.

Chandeliers – Guidelines in Buying

Below are the list of things that you need to do before buying a chandelier. Read this article and save time and money before purchasing. Chandeliers are a necessary part for a classy home. If you have a big home, it will feel empty without any chandeliers. Your visitors would love to see the dazzling reflections of light and we will also give them a luxury feel of your home. And if you want a nice-looking home you need to think about interior decorating.

First thing that you are making note of with chandelier placement is the height. You need to take into consideration the length of the chain on your over all measurements. There are some people that were not able to accurately calculate the height prior to purchase ever forced to return the product after realizing that it’s either too long or too short. You also need to consider where the chandelier will be installed. Is it going to be underneath the dining table? Or in the hallway? The height of the people that will walk under it also needs to be considered.

Also, try to purchase a chandelier for its over all look and not how it lights up. You shouldn’t buy a chandelier for lighting purposes but buy it for the design and how it will make your room or hallway pleasing to look at. If you need light, you need to consider other lighting fixtures.

The main idea is to choose a chandelier for its looks and how would it look in your house or in your room and not its light output. There are still a lot of people that were unhappy about their chandelier because it gives up too much light and some of them complains that it gives off not enough light. The light output can easily be remedied by swapping out bulbs but looks of the chandelier cannot. That is why that you need to consider the style of the chandelier and not the light output.

Give value to the classic styles. A lot of people are buying chandeliers because it is the latest trend in style. This is a mistake. You can have the latest style of the chandelier but after 2 to 3 years it can be out of style. So try to stick with classic styles and the ones that would look good in your house for years to come an older and classic style chandeliers will give your house and a dated look anytime and every time and will not make it look out of style.

Five Major Symptoms of Internal Hemorrhoids

With most health conditions, the earlier you catch them the easier they are to treat. Internal hemorrhoids, of course, are no exception. The sooner you figure out that you’ve got them, the easier they are to fix up fast. However, most people run into a problem with this. How do you know internal hemorrhoids are there before they get serious? They start up inside the body and they originate from tissue that doesn’t have a lot of nerves running to it. That means that you usually can’t see or feel them until they are pretty far along. Fortunately, there are five big symptoms that ought to start you investigating.

The first big internal hemorrhoid symptom is bleeding. The vast majority of internal hemorrhoids will bleed at the slightest provocation. This happens because hemorrhoids are swollen blood vessels surrounded by inflamed tissue. First off, the mucous membrane that they’re covered by is very delicate and has blood vessels quite close to the surface. Second, that tissue is, as already stated, inflamed, which means that it has a lot more blood in it than it usually would. Third, it’s a weakened portion of a vein sticking out into a passageway through which things have to move. Bright red bleeding is almost inevitable.

The second classification of internal hemorrhoid symptom is incomplete bowel movements. Internal hemorrhoids that are getting big can partially block off the passageway, meaning that part of the bowel movement gets stuck. You’ll have to complete the bowel movement in two or three stages. In addition to being highly unpleasant, the problem of incomplete bowel evacuation also increases the chances of infection. The bowel movement is blocked by the hemorrhoid, which means that the hemorrhoid can get fecal matter stuck to or around it, which is never a good combination.

The third big internal hemorrhoid symptom is closely related to the second, and it’s the feeling of having an incomplete bowel movement. The difference is that in the first example, you actually did not get everything out, while in this instance you just feel as though something is still there. It’s caused by the hemorrhoid itself pressing on the hemorrhoidal cushions that tell you when something is there and needs to be gotten out. Of course, the hemorrhoid won’t come out, but it puts that sort of pressure on the receptors all the same.

The fourth symptom you need to watch out for is persistent anal itching, the kind that lasts for days and won’t stop. This itching can be caused by a variety of things. Even when it’s caused by internal hemorrhoids, it still has a variety of secondary causes. To begin with, when internal hemorrhoids get irritated they start producing mucus. This mucus naturally exits to the outside of the body, sticks to the skin, dries out and itches terribly. Another way that internal hemorrhoids cause anal itching is by keeping the anal sphincter open just enough that a tiny bit of intestinal fluid and fecal matter can get out and irritate the skin.

The fifth and last early symptom of internal hemorrhoids is Stage II prolapse. This means that the hemorrhoid only leaves the body while you’re straining and pops back in all by itself. You can occasionally feel it when you wipe. It feels like a small, fleshy, moist lump that retracts all the way back into the body if you’re not straining.

These early warning symptoms can help alert you to a developing case of internal hemorrhoids. If you should have any of them and you’ve never had hemorrhoids before, you need to make an appointment with your doctor. Some of these symptoms, such as rectal bleeding, can also indicate much more serious health conditions. You need to make sure that you’ve got internal hemorrhoids and not something more serious. With luck, you’ll find out about your hemorrhoids early and get rid of them at home quickly.

Memories From a Loved One Live On: Last Ravioli Left in a Pan on the Stove Reminded Me of My Husband

Our loved ones live on in so many ways. Five years after the death my husband, I still think of him daily. Moments appear that brings waves of sadness and joy and the most important experience of all; a knowing that he is always near.

I woke up this morning and walked into the kitchen to make breakfast. Last night. I left a pan of dinner on the stove for my daughter who would be returning from work after the rest of us were in bed. As I picked up the pan to wash it with a few other dishes, I saw it. One ravioli and one carrot. She had eaten everything except for one ravioli and one carrot.

Standing in the kitchen, staring at the ravioli, I had a wave of remembrance. A slow smile parted my lips and I surprised if this was in her DNA. She was only 12 years old when her father died. I do not think she could have remembered this habit of his. It could not have been environmental. It had to be encoded in her DNA.

My husband had been a great leftover eater. He was self-employed with a used car lot and auto mechanic shop less than one mile from our home. He worked a variety of hours. He would go to work early in the morning to open the shop, or late at night to complete a car sale or work on a car. Hurley, my husband, would pop home in the afternoon for a bite to eat, standing in front of the refrigerator looking for the oldest leftovers. I would guide him to the plastic containers of different shapes and sizes. He would grab a fork from the drawer to mix casseroles and side dishes and stand there eating the food cold. Standing in the kitchen, he would tell me the latest stories from work, laughing between forkfuls of food.

On the nights when he worked late and the rest of us were already tucked in bed, he would eat the leftovers and always leave a few bites in the containers. A few bites of lasagna, a piece of cake, one ravioli, one carrot. I asked about that curious habit one day and he replied that he left it for me. As he ate the food, he thought I might have gone to bed with thoughts of eating the food the next day. It was an act of kindness. He thought I might have wanted the last piece of cake and he did not want me to be disappointed when I looked in the refrigerator and it was gone.

Today as I stand in the kitchen and Out of habit, I ate the last piece of ravioli and the last carrot, as if it had been saved it for me. I thought about the little moments of kindness and it reminded me to pay attention. It is the simple moments of love and kindness that we remember. A touch of the hand, a kind word, a smile, and one ravioli left in a pan.

Designed for a Purpose

Purpose creates the existence of everything which we see. The things which are seen existing are in existence because of its purpose. Purpose must be fulfilled and so things are built to exist as a means through which purpose is fulfilled, that without purpose nothing will exist. Everything built was made with the purpose in mind which means that purpose makes the things which we see possible. This is quite a compelling understanding because with this understand we can fully be aware of the reason why things are made differently, why a shoe does not look like an airplane because of their difference in purpose which created the obtrusive difference in the invention.


Watching lives being lived without discovering purpose is one of the most disturbing views to watch. We live a confused life when we refuse to discover our purpose, denying ourselves the opportunity to live the life that is full of everything that is for us only. We exist to serve a purpose, it is in the serving of the purpose that we really are living and so to be unaware of purpose is to exist without living. Anything that lives outside of its purpose becomes useless to itself and others, like a shoe, if it goes outside of its purpose, it becomes useless, useless because its potential is not been used and it is in no way needful in a place outside of its purpose. Each one of us is created differently because of the different purpose we have to fulfill and so our innate potential differs. We are unique like it or not.


There is a visible struggle that is seen in the very eyes of the ones who are frantically seeking after the knowledge of their purpose. It has in a way landed some people down the plane of search, put off the fire that burns for coming into purpose. In this stage of life, it is not all that goes into the forest that comes out with the revelation of their purpose. It is in the same look we have as humans that make it difficult to discover our purpose. A car and a phone, the purpose is obtrusive because we see the difference between them and we understand that our unique purpose makes us different but looking from the outside of ourselves, we look alike and that has left us with the struggle that has led many to die without fulfilling their purpose.


It is imperative that we come quickly into the place of purpose to live our unique life more fully. Knowing your purpose is a solution to the confusion you encounter in your life, the mirror which you see the place you fit and the answer to why you are said to be unique.

The first step is to go to your creator. The purpose of an invention is in the mind of the inventor and so if you can’t see the purpose of a thing, you ask the one who made it. It is therefore compulsory to go to God the one who created us to find our purpose. The seeking of God’s face is the discovery of purpose and so to be in the inventors mind is to find your purpose. If you can get God to keep you in his mind by seeking him ravenously, he will reveal to you your purpose.

The second step is a form of self-analysis. Observing yourself from within to see how different you are from others because the differences is as a result of your purpose so the moment you look for how different you are from others, you open your eyes to discover your purpose. This leads me to a thought that your purpose is your true identity, that who you are is not in the similarities you have with others but in the differences, that is why when we try to fit in with others, we compromise the possibility of discovering who we are and denying ourselves the knowledge of our purpose. The ones, who really know who they are, behave differently and if not already living on purpose, can easily discern it. They are the most productive, impactful and effective individual in the world

To discover purpose is to be aware of who you are. It gives your life a sense of meaning and responsibility, a mission and vision. To live on purpose is to fulfill the objective of the one who made you.

The Difference Between a Casio Baby-G and a Casio G Shock Watch

Are you looking for the perfect watch that can stand up to your tough lifestyle? There are two that come to mind: the Casio Baby-G and the Casio G shock. These two watches are remarkably similar. They are both tough and durable. They can withstand large falls and impacts that other watches would crumble under. They can both be used in water, and they both have sleek designs that set them apart from other watches.

Their similarities make sense, though. After all, the Baby-G is just a smaller version of the G shock. Despite their similarities, however, there are a few unique differences you should consider before you decide to make a purchase.

Analyzing the Differences

  • Men vs. Women – One of the biggest differences between these two watches is that the G shock is made for men, and the Baby-G is made for women. The sizes of the straps and the watch’s face are different because of this. The Baby-G’s face is generally about the same in length, but it is usually not as deep as the men’s version of the watch.
  • Water Resistance – A G shock watch is generally (although not always) water resistant for up to 200 meters. While some Baby-G’s are as well, many are only resistant for up to 100 meters. Unless your favourite activity is snorkelling or deep sea diving, however, this should not be a problem.
  • Colour – The men’s version of this watch generally comes in very few colours, like black, red, silver, gray, and white. The women’s version, however, is much more colourful. You can find these watches in red, pink, green, white, purple, black, blue, and silver. This allows women to pick and choose different and vibrant colours to match any outfit they put on.

What do These Watches Have in Common?

Aside from their sleek look and unmatchable durability, these two watch styles have several features in common, including:

  • Temperature resistance – Some of the watches can withstand temperatures as low as -20 degrees Celsius.
  • Electro-luminescent backlight – The backlight on these two types of watches allows you to enjoy them anytime- no matter what time of day it is.
  • Auto-Calendar – These Casio watches are programmed so you will not only know the time, but the date as well. While the number of years the auto-calendar is programmed until will vary, depending on the exact version you purchase, some are programmed all the way until 2099.
  • Long Battery Life – The Casio G shock and Baby-G both come with long-lasting batteries. You can use these watches for up to two years before you need to replace them.
  • Stopwatch – Are you in training or simply trying to lose weight? These watches can help with one hour countdown timers, complete with an auto-repeat option, and a one hour stopwatch.

Whether you are a man or a woman, you are going to enjoy all of the unique features available to you from Casio’s line of G shock watches. If you are a woman, you can enjoy the traditional G shock gives a masculine flair and has all the bells and whistles you need, and if you are a woman, you can enjoy all the same great features, but with a more feminine and colourful accessory.