Why Does My Dog’s Vomit Smell Like Poop?

Most dog owners think once their puppy reaches a certain age; they don’t have to be as concerned about everything that goes into their mouth. Not true! Even though puppies and younger dogs are the most common victims of intestinal obstruction, older dogs can also be at risk.

Be aware, if your dog’s vomit smells like stools, your dog is in a serious, life-threatening situation. What you smell is feces, that has backed up, and cannot pass normally, due to a blockage!

Most Common Causes of Intestinal Blockage

The major cause if this symptom is an obstruction or severe trauma to the lower gastrointestinal tract. The larger or sharper the obstruction, the more risk your dog faces of perforation, rupture and peritonitis.

Veterinarians have removed an extraordinary array of objects from our canine companions gut! They include, but are not limited to, coins, hearing aids, retainers, marbles, socks, T-shirts, batteries, rawhide, unchewed biscuits, bones, plastic wrap, tin foil, children’s toys, rope, twine, bully sticks, balls (including a whole golf ball!), towels, wood, blankets, toy stuffing, cat litter, yarn, pins, jewelry, and nails/screw,

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms usually appear within 7 hours after ingesting the item However, it may take days in some cases, before the you notice there is a problem. The most common warning signs indicating something is wrong are intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, lack of appetite, pale gums, bleeding, weakness, lethargy, electrolyte imbalance, shock, and possibly death.

Owners often get a false sense the obstruction has passed if their pet has diarrhea. Don’t be fooled. Diarrhea can work itself around a blockage.

As a rule, upper gastrointestinal obstructions usually cause projectile vomiting.

Lower gastrointestinal obstructions commonly cause a distended abdomen and vomit that smells like feces.

Intestinal strangulation blocks the flow of oxygen and blood, causing gangrene of the intestines.

Death can occur in a matter of hours.

Diagnosis/Prognosis

The sooner your pet is examined and the object is removed, the sooner the recovery process will start. Your veterinarian will exam your dog by palpating the abdominal area to check for distension and tenderness. They will examine the gums to see if they are pale. They may suggest an x-ray, to identify the item, and locate the blockage.

Depending on the severity of the obstruction, or if there are factors that complicate the situation, such as perforation, rupture, peritonitis or necrosis, most dogs recover fairly quickly.

Treatments

The treatment usually depends on the size, shape, how long the item has been ingested, and whether there is any rupture or perforation. Treatment to remove the object could be as simple as your veterinarian inducing vomiting, or retrieving the object with an endoscope. Do not attempt to induce vomiting yourself.

Most likely, your dog will be dehydrated. Your veterinarian may use IV therapy to rehydrate and antibiotics, to prevent secondary infection. They will also most likely recommend rest, and a liquid or soft diet, before moving on to your dog’s regular diet.

If the object has passed your dog’s pylorus (where the stomach connects to the small intestines), surgery is required. Post surgery requires rest, IV therapy, antibiotics, and observation for leakage, followed by liquid diet, to soft food, to regular diet. They probably will have to stay at the animal hospital for a day or two following surgery.

Bottom line: Always check what your puppy or dog has in their mouth! Supervise what your dog is chewing, especially if they are aggressive or obsessive chewers. If the object is small enough to get caught in their throat, throw it out! If you know they are sneaky thieves, make sure objects they should not have access to are well out of their reach. Do not take any risks, if their vomit smells like poop, get help immediately!

3 Ways to Get New Content Approved for Your Ezine Account

People create an article account in a bid to publish their articles. If one has a decent number of articles in directory, then that person will never be short of content writing job offers. Many articles directories give you maximum amount of exposure and you also get t earn decent amount of money. But publishing an article is not an easy task. So here are a few tips which will help you publish these articles very easily. These tips are some basic and simple things which people tend to forget while writing. They are also very easy to follow.

Firstly, you must write articles on topics which interest you or on topics which you have great knowledge. All your articles should have good quality information which will interest the readers. You do not really have to be bombastic. You must use simple language which is easy to understand. If you are using complicated technical terms, then you must provide their definition too in brackets. If the editor can not understand what you are talking about, he will just push your article away and work on others. So always try to use simple terms which are easy to understand. Simplicity attracts readers too and if your article is well appreciated, then there will be no dearth of jobs for you.

The next thing you must keep in mind is to keep your article free of grammatical mistakes and spelling mistakes. This is a major turn off for most readers and editors. They will not continue reading your article if the first paragraph itself contains too many errors. If your articles are full of these mistakes, then they will be definitely rejected. Proof read your article at least twice before you hit the send button. Do not use long wind sentences. All the information should be short and accurate. Keep everything uncluttered and uncomplicated. Do not use any fancy text or graphics. Just ensure that your article is of good quality and it will be clearly published.

The third and the most important thing to keep in mind are to keep your articles authentic. Do not nick any information from blogs or articles of others. If you are accused of plagiarism, then your account will be suspended permanently. If you think that there is a bit of information which you have to use in your article and then provide a reference for the same. Copying even one statement from other source is not acceptable. If you are not an expert in a particular field, then it is best that you should not attempt that particular article. Comply with all the rules and regulations on their website and follow all the guidelines. So these are a few tips which will certainly help you get your article published on article directories. Follow these tips carefully and you will become a successful published author in article directories in on time.

Types of Performance Standard

The setting of standards raises the problem of how demanding the standard should be, Should the standard represent a perfect performance or an easily attainable performance. There are four types of standard.

(1) Ideal Standard.

These are based on perfect operating conditions: no wastage, no spoilage, no inefficiencies, no idle time, and no breakdowns. Variances from ideal standards are useful for pinpointing areas where a close examination may result in large savings, but they are likely to have an unfavorable motivational impact because reporter variances will always be adverse. Employees will often feel that the goals are unattainable & not work so hard.

(2) Attainable Standard.

These are based on the hope that a standard amount of work will be carried out efficiently, machines properly operated or materials properly used, some allowance is made for wastage & inefficiencies, If well-set they provide a useful psychological incentive by giving employees a realistic, but challenging target of efficiency. The consent & co-operation of employees involved in improving the standard are required.

(3) Current Standard.

There is standard based on current working conditions (current wastage, current inefficiencies).The disadvantage of current standards is that they do not attempt to improve on current levels of efficiency.

(4) Basic Standard.

These are standard which are kept unaltered over a long period of time, & may be out of date they are used to show changes in efficiency or performance over a long period of time basic standards are perhaps the least useful & least common type of standard in use.

Revision of Standards

In practice standard costs are usually revised once a year to allow for the new overheads budget, inflation in prices & wage rate, & any changes in expected efficiency of material usage, labor or machinery. Some argue that standard should be revised as soon as there is any change in the basis upon which they were set. Clearly, for example, if a standard is based on the cost of a material that is no longer available or the use of equipment which has been replaced, it is meaningless to compare actual performance using the new material & equipment with the old standard.

Frequent changes in standard can cause problems.

• They may become ineffective as motivators & measures of performance, since it may be perceived that target setters are constantly “moving the goal posts”.

• The administrative effort may be too time consuming.

The most suitable approach would therefore appear to be a policy of revision the standards whenever changes of a permanent & reasonably long-term nature occur but not in response to temporary “blips” in price of efficiency.

Cunninlingus For Beginners – 3 Steps to Make Her Squeal With Delight!

One of the hardest things to do as a guy, is to go down on a girl and provide amazing cunnilingus. In all honesty, it does take some practice and some learning on the different techniques that work amazingly well. But there are definitely some things you can do as a beginner to make her squeal in absolute delight. Let’s get started:

1. Warm her up. Don’t dive right in, but rather warm things up by kissing, touching and licking. Slowly make your move downtown. Once you are there you want to continue to warm things up, by kissing and licking the thighs and the vagina area. Once you hear that she’s getting excited, then you can zero in on the clitoris and go to work.

2. Go gentle with a FLAT tongue. You can experiment later with a firmer, more pointed tongue, but for beginners it’s best to use a flat tongue to start with. Girls can be very sensitive and many have stated a firm, pointed tongue can be too harsh. Go gentle and feel her out. If she’s sensitive then take it easy and maneuver slowly.

3. Use this Technique. For a good starter technique, simply focus on tongue circles. Just go round and round with your tongue as if you are making circles. This is a basic, but effective technique. Beyond your circle action you can vary the speed, you can go from small circles to occasional larger circles and then back to small, and you can do spiral circles where you start small and gradually go larger, then reverse it. There are many variations you can perform, just pay attention and see how well she responds to the particular circle technique you are performing.

Differences Between Damask, Brocade, and Jacquard

Often times, uneducated individuals use the terms damask, brocade, and Jacquard interchangeably with one another. It can often confuse those who are unfamiliar with the world of fabrics. Jacquard is a decorative or woven pattern that is created by using a Jacquard attachment on a loom. The attachment resembles the punch card on a piano. It is purported to offer better versatility and fabric control for the operator of the loom. The Jacquard technique can be applied to a variety of fabrics, and it is commonly used on brocade and damask fabrics. It is commonly used in a variety of apparel and home goods, from tablecloths to bedding.

Brocade is defined as a lavishly decorated, shuttle woven fabric. It is primarily woven from silk; although, it is possible to find brocade constructed from a blend of silk and synthetic fibers. Often, it will be embroidered with gold or silver thread. Brocade can trace its origins back to India, where weaving is a traditional art form. It is typically woven on a loom, and it may or may not be woven using the Jacquard technique. It is also characterized by the manner in which the brocaded or broached parts of the fabric hang in loose groups or are clipped away. Although the scenes and patterns on brocade appear to have been embroidered, the scenes are actually woven into the fabric using advanced weaving techniques that involve manipulating the weft and weave of the fabric. The most common types of scenes depicted on brocade fabric are those of floral prints.

Damask, similarly to brocade, is a fabric that features woven scenes of floral patterns, intricate geometric designs, or simple scenes of domestic life. It may be woven of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibers. However, it is most commonly created from silk. It is primarily different from brocade in the fact that its woven fabric pattern is reversible, while that of brocade is not. Similarly, shorter weft patterns in damask allow for more subtle effects in the fabric to be created as it plays off of shadow and light. Damask weaves also contain a higher thread count than that of brocade. Double damask weaves are the highest quality of damask produced; however, it is also the most expensive.

Analingus – Best Tips To Consider Sexual Rimming

Just the thought of analplay for some may bring an instant reaction of ‘ick’ or ‘ewh’ especially if you’re one of the many women who’s first encounter with analingus has been by way of a rogue finger prodding your rear without prior consent. Yet done properly between two loving partners analingus can bring you a multitude of wonderful sensations and is also an excellent primer to rectal sex.

If you have not heard of analplay being described as analingus, you may be more familiar with the terms ‘sexual rimming’, ‘tossing the salad’ or ‘licking arse’. Such crude terms are enough to send any nice lady running with her tail squeezed firmly between her legs, but if you are curious and open to new adventures, analingus with the right loving partner can turn from being an unpleasant shock to a very warm and welcome surprise.

Simply, your anus is lined with many delicate nerve endings and when these are stimulated by the tickle of a tantalizing tongue the result can be quite heavenly. The trick to enjoying these new sensations is to love your bum, get over any inhibitions and embrace sexual rimming as an incredibly sensual and intimate act between lovers. It’s the total acceptance of each other’s bodies with no part being off limits that can strengthen bonds and heighten the sense of eroticism.

Speaking of eroticism, another reason analplay feels so deeply sensual is because the pelvic floor muscles lie just below the surface of the anal area. If you squeeze them now you will notice how your anus slightly contracts, and it’s these muscles that compress during orgasm. Analplay including the insertion of sex toys rouses the pelvic floor muscles and intensifies all erotic sensations.

Is Analingus Safe?

Like all forms of sex, precaution does need to be taken when experimenting with analplay. First thing first, you must get clean before sexual rimming. Ensure you both go to the toilet beforehand and then have a shower together. Use warm soapy water to thoroughly clean your anus and you can even insert a soapy finger slightly inside.

It’s important to note that despite all your best efforts at cleaning, there can be times when fecal matter clings on to the anus and skin around it. Although fecal matter is actually stored in the colon and only passes through the rectum when it’s ready to be released all the way out of the body, traces can sometimes remain in the rectum, anal canal and anus after defecation, although these can be washed out.

Don’t get yourself too much in a tizz about this possibility and don’t get too carried away with your cleaning. You can actually damage or tear the soft tissues of skin on your anus if you use too much force. Instead use baby wipes, which are excellent for the gentle cleaning of all skin folds and you also get the added bonus of their pleasant smell.

If this still completely puts you off, you could consider using a Dental Dam which is like a condom for your bum. It acts as a latex barrier between the anus and mouth and while it might not seem very sexy, it will protect you from bacteria and viruses such as HPV, HIV and Hepatitis.

Talk to your partner beforehand, decide if you are going to be the giver or receiver. Using a dental dam might just be the piece of confidence you need to get you on your way to sexual rimming.

How To Give Anal Rimming

When learning how to give anal rimming, or any form of rectal sex, it doesn’t have to be anything you don’t want it to be. The simple caressing, stroking and gentle pressing of a finger around and in the opening of the anus is analinugs enough for some people. Or it’s the gentle flicker of a delicate tongue on the nerve packed area of your anus that is simply bliss for others. Analplay definitely does not have to be about penetration. However if you keen to move on to anal sex, then analingus is essential to prepare your body for penetration.

Like other forms of oral sex, take your time, relax and gradually seduce your partner by massaging their inner thighs or the backs of their legs. Gradually start to lick these areas and use your fingernails to rub around the outside of the bum. Blow on the anus and then apply gentle pressure rubbing around the rim.

The greatest satisfaction comes from tender kisses, loving licks and variations of tongue movements circling in and around igniting all those wonderfully delicate nerve endings.

If your partner permits, you can use both hands to spread the anus wide and then point your tongue and insert it in and out. If you are using your finger, be careful of your nails as any rough edges can nick the delicate skin.

Analplay Positions

If you’re totally new to analplay, positions such as doggy, or bending over may feel too vulnerable and too exposed to begin with. If you are on the receiving end you could start with regular cunnilingus, then as your body becomes more aroused it can be a natural progression for your partner to lick slowly further south. Just be mindful to prevent any bacterial infection that once he hits your bum with his tongue he cannot go back up to your vagina.

Sideways 69 is a good position to start out with. Regular 69 can be a bit tricky for you to get in to a comfortable and accessible position that you can both enjoy, but if you both turn side on, you can massage, lick and suck to your mutual delight.

When you are ready and feel completely comfortable with exposure should you try any of the following positions:

Doggy

Doggy is where the receiver assumes the doggy position kneeling down and the giver kneels behind gently spreads each butt check to reveal the anus.

Standing Bent Over

This one is self explanatory, however you can modify it by the receiver bending over the edge of a bed or chair to maximize comfort for both parties.

Legs Up

In this position the receiver lays on their back with their legs open and bent, knees drawn up to their chest. The giver lays on their stomach in front. This position can be made more comfortable with the receiver laying on the edge of the bed and the giver keeling in front.

How To Read Jewelry Marks

The number markings on precious gold jewelry are a bit of confusion to lots of people. We are generally used to seeing a karat or silver mark like this: 10K, 14K, 18K, Sterling, etc. The numbers mean the same thing.

For 14k the number is technically 583 but most manufacturers adopted the European way and make 14k gold a tiny bit over 14k, so the mark is 585 in most 14k jewelry. 18K is marked 750. If the mark is valid and there is a makers mark also in the jewelry, the number means these items are 18k gold.

Here is where the numbers come from. Pure gold is called 24 karat. For 18k gold, there are 18 parts of pure gold mixed with other metals to make the metal suitable for use in jewelry. 24k is too soft alone to stand up or to hold stones well. 18 parts pure gold divided by 24, or 18/24 equals 750. That is where the number comes from. The jewelry is 75% pure gold, 750 parts gold with 250 parts other metals out of “1000” parts. It is easier to think of it as a percent which is pure gold in the recipe.

Sterling silver is marked 925. Sterling is 92.5% pure silver and the rest is other metal, generally copper.

What does it mean if the ring marked 14K PR? The 14K simply means it is 14K (Karat) gold and because of the K means it would have been made in either South East Asia or The United States. The PR marks are just the Maker or Store ID or even a design mark, and have no relevance to the Value.

The basic decimal formula to work out the quality of gold content is quite simple, as they are all measured in ‘Parts per Thousand.’ This means that 9ct gold is calculated like this: 9 (for 9ct) is divided by pure gold (24) and then multiplied by 1000 (for pure gold as a decimal). ie: 9/24*1000=375 That 375 is the decimal quality for 9ct gold and is sometimes shown with a decimal point in front – .375

The old Victorian standard of 15ct gold is calculated the same way – 15/24*1000 = 625 (Not quite the numbers you have on your jewelry. Dental gold is 16ct or 666 recurring. But you can also reverse this formula by starting with the decimal and working back. ie: 375/1000*24 = 9

In your case we can use 698/1000*24 = almost 17ct

I have a platinum engagement ring and found a wedding ring that I really like but the band is made of palladium. Is it safe to wear these two metals together without one damaging the other?

It will wear the softer metal OVER TIME but that could take many years. My Grandmothers wedding ring eventually wore away the band of her engagement ring but it took over 20 years to do.

Platinum and Palladium and quite good together but I would take the advice of your local friendly jeweler and have them check both rings. Sometimes the Platinum may be a lower grade in order to make it harder – so have that checked.

Agoraphobia Is Not the Opposite of Claustrophobia

Agoraphobia isn’t the opposite of claustrophobia – but a lot of people think it is. In fact I used to think exactly that. I used to think exactly that even when I was suffering from agoraphobia. I was even offered the opportunity to join an agoraphobics group, but I said no because I wasn’t afraid of open spaces. I quite liked open spaces as long as no one else was anywhere near me. In fact if there was no other human being in sight, then that was OK as far as I was concerned. But that was all a very long time ago.

The translation of agoraphobia is ‘fear of the market place’, not, as many people think, fear of open spaces. The essence of the market place is people and human interaction. This is what is fearful. Places that agoraphobes typically avoid, or have problems with, are supermarkets, theatres, cinemas, crowds, parties. Places where a rapid exit might be difficult.

The fear is usually of showing oneself up in some way in the eyes of others. Typically agoraphobes worry about things like: vomiting (usually as a result of severe anxiety); fainting; having a panic attack; or suffering from a genuine health emergency like a heart attack. The concern is usually one of embarrassment – perhaps fainting and finding oneself on a supermarket floor gazing up into a circle of concerned faces who will insist on making a fuss and calling an ambulance.

Many agoraphobes manage to get by with a trusted helper who accompanies them when they need to go shopping or out socialising. This person is there to rescue them and take them home should anything bad, like a panic attack occur. But when that helper is not available life is very restricted.

If medical help is obtained the most likely result is medication with tranquillisers and anti-depressants. Neither of which actually solve the problem, they just enable a minimum level of functionality. The problem remains, like a monster in the wardrobe, waiting to show its scary face as soon as you turn off the lights,  or look the other way. So you are trapped. The medication keeps the monster locked in the wardrobe, but doesn’t get rid of it. Stop the medication and the monster is free once more.

Life as an agoraphobe is no fun at all.

So if you are agoraphobic and reading this I want to reassure you about a few things:

  • This is not a disease, but you can ‘heal’ it.
  • There is nothing physically wrong with you.
  • Your brain is as normal as anyone else’s.
  • The cause is the way you think.
  • The cure is changing the way you think.

Changing the way you think is not easy, but it is a lot easier than living the isolated, fearful, life of an agoraphobe.

When you think about the totality of the change you need to make, it seems an insurmountable task.

When you think about the single next step you need to take – it becomes not only possible, but relatively easy.

The first steps are the most difficult. Every step after those first few become easier. They become easier because you have the memory of success and knowledge that what you are doing is already making a positive difference to your life.

Good Guitar Chords For A Love Song – How to Write a Love Song On Guitar

If you are looking for good guitar chords for a love song then I would certainly suggest using minor chords somewhere in the progression because minor chords tend to set the correct tone, however it isn’t completely necessary.

Let’s take look at 2 very popular love songs and see why. Bryan Adams has written 2 hit songs, ‘Heaven’ and ‘Everything I do’. Now if you were to ask me, I would say that both these songs would have strong minor chords, but surprisingly only one of them does, and the thing is that the song I would have put money on being mainly minor chords, ‘Everything I do’ actually only has 1 minor chord.

‘Everything I Do’ has only 4 chords – A, D, G and Em so it’s the melody of the vocals and lyric that provides the strong love song element to the piece. It’s a great song to play just on acoustic guitar because of the simplicity of the song but you can also play it on electric guitar and it will still sound quite good.

‘Heaven’ again has very a very strong vocal arrangement with emotional lyrics and is more of a rock ballad than ‘Everything I do.’ The guitar chord sequence has 2 minor chords and are as follows – Am, Dm, C, F, G. Again it’s a nice song to play just on acoustic guitar but the chorus does lend itself to power chords so if you want to play it you may need to change the arrangement slightly.

If you are trying to write your own love song then I suggest firstly using chords that have already been laid down for you and then adapting the chord sequence to fit your song. So think about a classic love song that you like or why not try using the chords the chords from either of the two songs we have looked at in this article? Try not to use too many cliches in your lyrics as you’ll find that your song is less appealing, so do your best to come up with some original lines.

Wedding Ceremony Unity Candles

Wedding unity candles are a traditional part of any wedding ceremony and celebration. Unity candles comes in many styles to suit any occasion. Below are just a few of the most popular Unity Candles.

The Modern Square Pillar Candles and Taper Candles, in whites and dulls go with any color tone and any party theme. These truly create a sensual and lovable ambience for the occasion.The Double Ring Unity and Taper Holders in sparkling brass and silver metals, give an elegant base and a rich artistic support for various designer candles to hold on until the last burn of the wick.

The melting wax that falls on the holders further gains the effect and adds a tint of antiquity to the wedding party. Accessories including the interlocking rings at the base and the taper holders render a must-have appeal for ring bearers and bridesmaids.

The Sweethearts Forever Ceremony Candles bear artically created hearts inspired by the hand colored photographs of ace photographers. The perfect background illustrations and lace details with ribbon and mauve resin flowers featuring the base, provide a resplendent ambience, including a unique appearance on the wedding tableops. A western panorama is created in your wedding ceremony with specially themed Western Fringe Ceremony Candles.

These uniform pillar candles are neatly draped in special silk cord, silk rope miniature white Stetson and two horseshoes that symbolize good luck and fortune in future endeavors. The silver-plated unity candle holder with a heart motif is yet another unique way of expressing the relationship of love, passion, and idyllic communion amidst an atmosphere that is full of fun and frolic.

Completely styled for those rare occasions of your wedding ceremony including bridal shower and ring bearer occasion, are the set of frosted votive candles right imbued with the spirit of Love, Joy, Hope, Faith, and Trust. The Clear Glass Candle Holder is an ideal match for frosted votive candles that not only provide a stringent support base to this tender and subtly designed candle, but also inspire a romantic and passionate mood for the special day.

These are mostought after gift ideas for guiding the way of guests through the aisle, along garden settings in a traditional wedding ceremony.The tarnish resistant Silver Plated Interlocking Heart Taper Candle holder has a tough and antique looks bearing two subtly designed heart shapes interlocked to symbolize unity, love and affection.

The exclusive candle gift ideas also include winter wonder ceremony candles, to become one unity candle, 50th anniversary unity candle, pearl unity candle, double heart ivory unity candle, enchanting moments white unity candle set and many more to give the wedding ceremony that extra flavor and sparkle.For the traditional Church ceremony these wonderful and elegant

Unity Candles are just the perfect choice. When the meaning of two that become one "Unity Candles" these candles make great keepsake items of your special day.

How To Read Jewelry Marks

The number markings on precious gold jewelry are a bit of confusion to lots of people. We are generally used to seeing a karat or silver mark like this: 10K, 14K, 18K, Sterling, etc. The numbers mean the same thing.

For 14k the number is technically 583 but most manufacturers adopted the European way and make 14k gold a tiny bit over 14k, so the mark is 585 in most 14k jewelry. 18K is marked 750. If the mark is valid and there is a makers mark also in the jewelry, the number means these items are 18k gold.

Here is where the numbers come from. Pure gold is called 24 karat. For 18k gold, there are 18 parts of pure gold mixed with other metals to make the metal suitable for use in jewelry. 24k is too soft alone to stand up or to hold stones well. 18 parts pure gold divided by 24, or 18/24 equals 750. That is where the number comes from. The jewelry is 75% pure gold, 750 parts gold with 250 parts other metals out of “1000” parts. It is easier to think of it as a percent which is pure gold in the recipe.

Sterling silver is marked 925. Sterling is 92.5% pure silver and the rest is other metal, generally copper.

What does it mean if the ring marked 14K PR? The 14K simply means it is 14K (Karat) gold and because of the K means it would have been made in either South East Asia or The United States. The PR marks are just the Maker or Store ID or even a design mark, and have no relevance to the Value.

The basic decimal formula to work out the quality of gold content is quite simple, as they are all measured in ‘Parts per Thousand.’ This means that 9ct gold is calculated like this: 9 (for 9ct) is divided by pure gold (24) and then multiplied by 1000 (for pure gold as a decimal). ie: 9/24*1000=375 That 375 is the decimal quality for 9ct gold and is sometimes shown with a decimal point in front – .375

The old Victorian standard of 15ct gold is calculated the same way – 15/24*1000 = 625 (Not quite the numbers you have on your jewelry. Dental gold is 16ct or 666 recurring. But you can also reverse this formula by starting with the decimal and working back. ie: 375/1000*24 = 9

In your case we can use 698/1000*24 = almost 17ct

I have a platinum engagement ring and found a wedding ring that I really like but the band is made of palladium. Is it safe to wear these two metals together without one damaging the other?

It will wear the softer metal OVER TIME but that could take many years. My Grandmothers wedding ring eventually wore away the band of her engagement ring but it took over 20 years to do.

Platinum and Palladium and quite good together but I would take the advice of your local friendly jeweler and have them check both rings. Sometimes the Platinum may be a lower grade in order to make it harder – so have that checked.

The High Cost of Plastic Surgery

Plastic or cosmetic surgery helps to improve a person’s form and appearance. Cosmetic surgery is used mostly for beauty reasons or to improve a person’s appearance. The costs of cosmetic surgery are high. Cosmetic surgery is done on those who have been affected by accidents or suffered second degree burns. It is also performed to improve a person’s facial skin if he/she has suffered from burns.

Cosmetic surgery is also done to enhance a person’s physical attributes and beauty.

Cosmetic Surgery Procedures and its average price

Botox Injection

Botox injection helps to remove unwanted wrinkles and crow’s feet on the face. It is done to improve a person’s youthful appearance. One session of botox injection will $380 on the average.

Breast Augmentation

Breast enlargement or breast augmentation is commonly done on slim women. By means of silicon or saline implants, breasts can be augmented. It costs $3500 for an average saline breast augmentation procedure while it is $4,000 for silicone.

Chemical Peel

Chemical peel is the best solution for treating wrinkles, blemishes or an uneven facial skin tone. This procedure involves the use of a chemical solution for bringing a smoother texture to the face. The chemical peels helps to remove the damaged outer layer of the skin. The average cost of this cosmetic procedure is $850 more or less. When done by a reputed surgeon, the results can be positive for all these procedures.

Facelift

Facelift is another popular type of cosmetic surgery procedure. It is done to overcome problems related to sunburns and even gravity in their faces. The fatty deposits in the neck, slacking jaw line and deep creases near the mouth necessitate such a procedure, but only with the help of a reputed doctor. A facelift can cost as much as $7,000.

Disclaimer: The contents of this article are for informational purposes only. We aim to be as accurate as possible, but there may be some unintentional omission of information. The content is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your doctor or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding your medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on within this article.

Swingers

Ever wondered what wife swapping, swinger’s clubs and swingers lifestyle really mean? In a committed partnership but looking for some extra sexual excitement together?

Swinging has become increasingly popular across middle aged mainstream married, or committed, couples. Over 4 million people world wide are swingers, with over 3000 swingers clubs around the globe to join. Swingers can also meet through online swinger’s sites, swinger’s personal ads, house parties and swinger’s lifestyle magazines.

“Swinging” is considered to mean a married or committed couple engaging in sexual activities with either another couple, multiple couples or with a single person. These events can occur at swingers clubs, private parties, private homes, hotels, and even at specific holiday resorts.

Traditionally, the average age of swingers is the mid 40’s, and all ages and body types are considered acceptable.

“The Lifestyle”, or the swinger’s lifestyle, was created in the late 1990’s in London for the well heeled under 40’s. Forget the jatz and crackers. Trendy, up market venues were selected, smart evening wear was the attire and photos were needed to prove physical attractiveness. This idea took off quickly and is now popular in all parts of the world. Selective swinging refers to usually childless unmarried young graduates with average ages of late 20’s. Lifestyle swinging and selective swinging both encompass all swinging activities. These terms came into use mainly because younger couples didn’t care for the term swingers with its traditional connotations.

It is thought that swinging started in the 1950’s in US military bases in California. The husbands all threw their car keys in a bowl and whoever belonged to the keys that the wife pulled out had her as their sexual partner for the night. Originally, these little get togethers were called key clubs. In the late 1950’s the media redubbed them wife swapping parties. Wife swapping is now considered to be an archaic term and is not entirely accurate in covering all the sexual options of swinging couples.

For those of you who are a little shy or new to the game, there are many swingers’ sites available for you to check out. Most of them cater to those looking to heat up their relationship, as well as those singles who want to mingle with like minded individuals. Some of these sites offer adult personal ads, which can include video voice and pictures. They also offer video chat rooms, speed dating, swinger club location listings, video messenger, and hot games. Some sites also offer offline swinger parties where you can take it at your own comfort level and speed.

Swinging sexual activities include: exhibitionism, having sex with your partner while being watched, voyeurism, and watching others having sex. Soft swinging, or soft swap, is kissing, stroking or oral sex with a 3rd or 4th person. This can also include threesomes or group sex but usually partners are not swapped. A full swap means having penetrative sexual intercourse with someone other than your committed partner. The original wife swap. A full swap can also mean a committed couple having sex with a bisexual female for a saucy threesome. Group sex is an all inclusive term for multiple partners having sexual intercourse in the same room or an orgy. While the sexual activities are happening in the same room this is referred to as same room swapping. When there are separate rooms involved it is then called play.

Planning a raunchy vacation with your partner? There are now online swinger sites catering for the couple who are into swinging holidays or nude vacations. Swingers’ resorts can be found in the Caribbean, Cancun, Mexico and various parts of Europe. These resorts are designed for couples only, who enjoy erotic exciting lifestyles, and all seem to involve destinations with beautiful white sandy beaches and featuring large exotic looking swimming pools. Many of these swingers’ resorts have a variety of saucy theme nights. Some of the resorts promise “non stop flat out parties” for the more active bodied person.

Providing that the emotional bonds between the committed couple are whole, many swingers feel that their chosen lifestyle increases the strength of their partnership. In one survey, while only 6% confessed to having a problem with the green eyed monster, up to 70% of swingers claimed they had no problems with jealousy at all.

Seeking to spice up your sex life with your significant other? This could be it! Swingers clubs, swinger sites, swinger sex, swinger’s lifestyle, and swingers resort. Pack up your condoms and raunch up your relationship now!

Have Fun, Coco Swan.

Create Computer Games – Get Started on Creating Your Own Virtual Worlds

I’ve always loved video games, ever since I first played them on a friend’s computer in the afternoon after elementary school. There’s something almost magical about the fact that we can move images around and interact with virtual worlds, a living fantasy presented for us to interact with however we please. I’ve also always wanted to make games myself but, until recently, didn’t have the technical knowledge to do so. Now, I’m a second year software engineering student, so if I weren’t able to code a game without too many dramas there’d be something drastically wrong. But what about the common person: the person for whom the term ‘memory leak’ conjures up images of their grandfather, ‘pipeline’ is where the water flows, and ‘blitting’ is unheard of? Well, everyone can get in on the game creation process, and you don’t even need to learn ‘real’ programming to do so.

So where do games start? With an idea. Games, like all fiction, require an idea to be successful. Sure, in the same way you can just sit down and write a story without foresight, you can jump on in and slap a game together. However, unless you get ridiculously lucky, the best works are usually the ones that have been well thought out beforehand.

There are two methods of planning a project. You can start from a known technological standpoint and build your project on top of that or you can just go for the design, add as many features and ideas as you like, and then remove the ones that you can’t use when you’ve decided on the technology you’re going to implement the game with. In general, the second type is probably the best one to go with when designing games. When you’re first starting out however, the first option will save you many headaches.

So, for a first game you’re going to want a pretty simple idea. Don’t get me wrong, crazy-go-nuts game ideas are fantastic, and there should be more of them out there, but you’re not going to be able to create a real world simulator with fifty billion virtual people all interacting real time with your actions having a butterfly effect on the future of the virtual universe when it’s just your first game. Really. Many people try it; none that I know of have succeeded. Imitation is the best way to start out. Simple games such as ‘Space Invaders’, ‘Tetris’, ‘Pacman’ or even ‘Pong’ are great places to start. All are largely simple to create but have some inherent challenges. ‘Pacman’ for example, requires path finding for the ghosts. I recommend that you start even simpler than that for your very first attempt. ‘Space Invaders’ is a nice point to jump in. You can make a simple, complete game without much effort and it’s almost infinitely extensible.

If you’re stuck for an idea, pick a genre that you enjoy. Do you love adventure games such as ‘Monkey Island’, ‘Grim Fandango’, ‘Space Quest’, ‘King’s Quest’ etc.? Design one of those. Are you into fighting games like ‘Street Fighter’, ‘Tekken’, ‘Soul Calibur’, ‘Mortal Kombat’ and so on? Come up with an idea for that. Do you like first person shooters such as ‘Quake’, ‘Half Life’ or ‘Doom’? I don’t recommend it as a first project, but you can always give it a go. Feel free to be as generic as you like, this is a learning experience after all.

Now that you have your idea it’s time to flesh it out. Don’t worry about the technology or the fact that you may not know how to actually implement a game just yet, just grab yourself some paper and a pencil and go crazy with ideas. Describe the main characters, game play, goals, interactions, story, and key mappings, anything you can think of. Make sure you have enough detail so that someone can read through the notes and play through the game in their head with relative accuracy. Changing game design during the coding process is almost always a bad idea. Once it’s set, it should remain set until the tweaking phase (I’ll go into this more later) or you’re likely to enter ‘development hell’, where the project goes on and on; more and more work is done with less and less outcome.

At the end of this period of your game creation, you should have the following:

– A written outline of the game’s characters and possibly a sketch or two (be they space ships, yellow circles, cars or the prince of the dark kingdom of Falgour, you need to know who or what the player will be and who they will compete against)

– A written outline of the story (if there is one, this isn’t too vital for ‘Space Invaders’ or ‘Tetris’, but for ‘Uber Quest: An Adventure of Awesomeness’ it’s a really good idea)

– A description of game play, written or storyboarded. Storyboards are visual representations of ideas. Draw your characters in actions, with arrows showing the flow of action and short written descriptions detailing the events occurring in your image (because some of us aren’t fantastic artists and our images can be a little… open to interpretation…)

Now that you have a fleshed out idea, it’s time to work out how this will all get put together. If you’ve gotten to this point and are worried that you’re going to have to spend years learning complex programming languages in order to implement your idea, fear not! Others have already done the hard yards for you. There are many RAD (Rapid Application Development) Tools available for game creation, a number of which are available for free online. Some of them still require you to learn a ‘scripting language’ (a simplified programming language made for a specific task) but in general this isn’t too complicated or involved. I’ve compiled a brief list of some of these I have found at the end of the article. The free ones are listed first, organized by game genre.

Well, that should be enough to get you started in the creation of your game. The most important thing to remember once you’ve gotten this far is that you need to complete your game. Many people start a project and then lose interest and it fails, or they keep moving on to one new project after another without finishing anything. Start small, build a working (if simple) game that is, above all else, complete. When you get to this stage you will always have a huge number of things that you wish to change, fix etc. but you’ll get a great feeling from knowing that it is, in its way, finished.

From this point, you can start the tweaking phase. Play your game a few times and ask others to do the same. Take note of what isn’t fun or could be better and change things here. At this stage, it is more important than ever to keep backups of previous versions so that if a change doesn’t work you can go back and try something different without losing any of your work. It is at this point that you can add all new features, improve graphics and sounds, whatever you please, safe in the knowledge that you’re working on a solid foundation.

When you’re happy with your game, why not share it with the world? There are many cheap or free places out there for you to host your files on and then you can jump on link lists and forums and let everyone know about your creation. Well, I hope that this has been a helpful introduction into the art of creating games. It’s a great deal of fun, and can open whole new avenues of creative expression for you to explore. Jump in and have fun!

Links:

General Game Creation:

(Tools that allow easy creation of many different game types)

Game Maker: http://www.gamemaker.nl

MegaZeux: http://megazeux.sourceforge.net/

Adventure Games:

(Games such as Monkey Island, King’s Quest, Space Quest etc.)

Adventure Game Studio: [http://www.bigbluecup.com]

AGAST: http://www.allitis.com/agast/

3D Adventure Studio: http://3das.noeska.com/

ADRIFT (for text adventures): http://www.adrift.org.uk/

Role Playing Games (RPGs):

(Games such as Final Fantasy, Breath of Fire, Diablo)

OHRPG: http://www.hamsterrepublic.com/ohrrpgce/

RPG Toolit: http://www.toolkitzone.com/

Fighting Games:

(Games such as Street Fighter, Mortal Kombat, Tekken, Soul Calibur etc.)

KOF91: http://sourceforge.net/projects/kof91/

MUGEN (unfortunately the site is largely in French): http://www.streetmugen.com/mugen-us.html

Side-Scrolling Games:

(Games such as the 2D Mario Games, Sonic the Hedgehog, Double Dragon etc.)

The Scrolling Game Development Kit: http://gamedev.sourceforge.net/

There are many others available as well. One particularly useful site for finding game creation tools is: http://www.ambrosine.com/resource.html

Also of note, although not freeware, are the excellent game creation tools available by Clickteam at: [http://www.clickteam.com/English/]

Klik and Play and The Games Factory in particular are the programs to have a look at and download the free demos of.

If you really want to do things right and program the game yourself, there are some excellent programming resources available at the following locations:

Java Game Programming:

http://fivedots.coe.psu.ac.th/~ad/jg/

http://www.gamedev.net/reference/articles/article1262.asp

http://javaboutique.internet.com/tutorials/Java_Game_Programming/

Visual Basic Game Programming:

[http://markbutler.8m.com/vb-tutorial.htm]

C++ Game Programming:

http://www3.telus.net/alexander_russell/course_dx/introduction_dx.htm

http://www.rit.edu/~jpw9607/tutorial.htm

General Information:

http://www.gamedev.net/

http://www.gamasutra.com/

What Is Modernization?

Modernization is the process of change in the sectors of the economy, politics and social systems. These changes reflects the movement of societies from a traditional stage to a more modern phase.

How does modernization occur?

Modernization occurs through:

1. Colonialism: this is an important reason for modernization. The Indian colonial master introduced the English language which was the first sign of modernization.

2. Migration: this is also a reason for modernization. This can especially be illustrated by the migration of Europeans to the colonies in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Aspects of modernization

The following points are the basic aspects of modernization:

1. The modern way of living: this happens when the old way of living changes into a modern way. Example replacement of mat with a dining table or replacement of pitcher with a water cooler.

2. Changes in residence: for the comfort of living, some people changed their residence from wooden huts to houses made with bricks.

3. Mass media: A communicate through narration has now being replaced by newspapers and internet.

4. Urbanization: The domestic migration to cities or urban areas from rural areas. Example: Just after the independence of Pakistan, 87% population was living in villages and 12% was in cities. But presently 68% lives rural ares and 32 % can be found in urban areas. This is one of the main characteristics of modernization.

5. Change of profession. In the beginning, the economy was agrarian in nature, but in due time industrialization occurred. This is another main feature of modernization: the rapid industrialization of societies.

6. literacy and education: a situation whereby the population literacy rates increase dramatically.

7. High per capital income: the significant rise of the per capital income is important due to the higher purchasing power of the people which will, in turn, boost significant economic growth.

Economic aspects of modernization

The economic aspect of modernization can be derived from the following points:

1. Money: this takes place when the barter system has now been replaced with paper money.

2. Wage system: this happens because in traditional societies wages were not connected to time whereas in modern societies wages became related to time.

3. Communication system: communication is compulsory for economic development. because communication is important for economic, social and political functioning.

4. Technology and its application: through modernization, the technology applied in daily lives of the people has replaced the old ways of doing things with manual/animal powert.

5. Preservation of food products: the storage of food and other products and the distribution of such items in a systematic way increases the consumption and production of food products..

Political modernization

Political modernization is regarded as the result of economic development and social mobilization.

Political modernization contains three elements:

1. Validation of authority

2. Development of political participation

3. Differentiation of structure

Characteristics of political modernization

The following are the most important characteristics of political modernization:

1. It increased the influence of a single Authority: with the process of political modernization, the influence of a single authority and its agencies increased and become widespread.

2. Variation of functions: political modernization has brought a clear picture of the differentiation function.

3. Ultimate power rest with the people: political modernization can be observed with the shifting of ultimate power to the people which occurred slowly and gradually.

4. Democratic values and principles become popular: Like Nelson Mandela said: one man, one vote and regular elections to clean up the political swamp.

5. Secularization of politics: the separation of religion and state.