Build Your Own Cat Tree – How to Pick the Right Carpet For Your Cat Tree

If you have an inkling to build your own cat tree but have never done it before, then you may have a lot of questions. Many of those questions probably center around what type of materials you should use.

This article will give you tips for selecting and buying the right type of carpet to use for covering the base, posts, and shelves of your cat tree.

Where To Get Carpet

One of the best ways to obtain carpet is buying it straight off the roll. All carpet outlets and most building supply stores will allow you to purchase carpet this way. However, you may be limited to purchasing it only in certain foot increments (often 12′).

If purchasing off the roll will leave you with too much excess, you can try to purchase scraps. Most carpet outlets have carpet remnants they sell for a discount price.

These are often brand new and are simply scrap pieces left over from new installations at houses, apartments, office buildings, etc. Spending a little extra time shopping around can help you land some amazing carpet deals.

What Type Of Carpet Is Best?

When you build your own cat tree and are ready to cover it with carpet, you’ll have a couple considerations to address. First, what color do you want it? This is really a personal choice so I’ll leave that between you and your cat.

Second, you’ll need to decide what pile, texture, and weight you want to use. If you’re unfamiliar with carpet terms, pile simply refers to the length of the carpet fibers and the weight refers to carpet thickness. In terms of texture, it’s best to go with non-loop carpet. This will prevent your kitty from getting hurt by ensuring her claws don’t get snagged.

If you want to make a cat tree with the most eye appeal and the least frustration during the construction process, then stick to medium pile (3/8″ to 1/2″ long fibers) and medium weight carpet.

If the carpet fibers are too long or the carpet is too thick, it will be difficult to bend and staple around the edges and corners of shelves. If it’s too short or thin, then the backing shows through when it is folded over edges and around corners.

How Much Carpet Is Needed?

Obviously, when you build your own cat tree, the amount of carpet needed will depend on how extravagant your design will be. In most cases, you can create a nice, average-sized cat tree with around 50 square feet.

How to Prevent Your Rug From Getting Spoiled

1) Vacuum the rug regularly:

It is very important to vacuum the rug regularly but in the direction of the pile of the carpet and not against it. Vacuuming the carpets against the pile of the carpet would only ruin and damage the carpet and will decrease the longevity of your beautiful carpet. Also, experts recommend that daily vacuuming is not mandatory. Ideally one should only vacuum two or three times a week.

2) Prevent from Moths, Beetles:

One of the major enemy’s of handmade oriental rugs is moths and beetles. The same moth’s that destroy clothes and food can hamper your favorite carpets. Moths prefer dark places and if the rug is not used and is kept in dark storage, the carpets are most likely to be infested by moths. When you are examining your carpet for moth damage, make sure to inspect the back of the rug since moths are more prone to damage the back of the carpet as opposed to the front of it.

Therefore, a carpets that is walked on and used frequently is less likely prone to rug damage. However, in case moths or beetle damages your rug, it is best to give it to a rug repair expert and get it professionally rectified.

3) Avoid direct sunlight:

Direct sunlight is also one of the nemeses for a damaged carpet. Sunlight streaming through a direct window is sure to damage your rug in some way or the other. Usually, the colors fade unevenly and wool/ cotton dry out and become brittle. With this being said, it is essential to prudent your expensive item and be careful to expose it to direct sunlight. You can eliminate this problem by keeping your curtains closed or coating your windows with Mylar that has the secondary effect off taking a couple of degrees off heat.

4) Use Rug Pads:

Although no one has ever methodically demonstrated that the use of rug pad can increase the longevity of your masterpiece, it is still recommended by a lot of carpets professionals. Rug pads primarily prevent the carpet from slipping and provide an extra cushion to the rug even though most likely your handmade rug will outlast the rug pad.

To conclude, it would be right to say that although there are a plethora of tips available other than the aforementioned pointers in order to protect your rug, it is advisable to follow these steps to avoid burning a hole in your pocket for rug repairing especially after investing a good amount of money in buying one for your beautiful home.

Natural Treatment For Eczema – Can You Really Treat Eczema Naturally?

Natural treatment for eczema is possible. If you are wondering how to treat eczema naturally then be assured. There are hundreds of ways of doing the same. However, one of the most vital elements in the home-based or natural treatment for eczema includes having a plan to keep the body hydration. This is vital for both the external and internal regions of the body.

Even though you can find a lot of chemical based products that claim to be the best, they may further aggravate your situation. These products like cosmetic cures comprise of many harmful chemicals. They may turn out to be very harsh for your sensitive skin and thus hinder in the treatment for eczema.

‘How to treat eczema naturally’ compromises of some diet changes along with the application of some natural extracts. Natural oils are some of the best treatments for eczema. Apply virgin varieties of these oils rather than going for the refined alternatives. These include the virgin coconut oil that is known to be a very effective remedy for eczema. It also suggested for curing array of other skin conditions. This oil contains lauric acids, which is available in mother’s milk. It is a natural and effective topical ointment for maintaining smooth and soft skin.

The application of mudpacks is another natural treatment for eczema. You can apply fuller’s earth on the area. Make a paste of fuller’s earth along with camphor, sandalwood and rosewater. Apply it on the affected area and allow it to remain for 30 minutes. Sometimes, turmeric is also suggested in these packs as it has healing and anti-bacterial properties. Turmeric can be applied with leaves of bitter Neem, which is also an anti-bacterial agent. Mashed papaya is another suggested remedy for curing eczema naturally. You can also mash the seeds of papaya and apply on the affected areas for reducing itchiness.

Try doing cold compress at home. This treatment for eczema helps to reduce the irritation of the skin. Just leave a wet towel in the freezer or dip it in cold water. Squeeze out the excess water and apply on the affected region.

It should be kept in mind that knowing ‘how to treat eczema naturally’ lays emphasis on following a healthy skin care regimen. Effective treatments for eczema include avoiding harsh soaps and commercial cosmetic products that dry the area, leading to further damage.

RC Airplane Scratch Building – EPS-Depron Vs EPP

If you are considering the option of building your own foam RC airplane, then you will want to weigh the options of which material to build it from. These two materials, EPS-Depron and EPP, are the most commonly used foams for just such a task.

EPS (expanded polystyrene), comes in several forms, depending on the application, however, Depron is the form used commonly for RC airplane fabrication. Depron is stiff and brittle, yet easily painted if using the correct type of paint. This foam is easy to cut, and moderately easy to sand to the desired contour. Standard Cyanoacrylate glue (CA or superglue) will dissolve this type of foam, as well as some spray adhesives and spray paints. There is no greater disappointment than to spend your valuable time, money, and effort building a beautiful model, bring out the spray paint and watch all your craftsmanship dissolve into nothing but a pile of goo! So, take special care to select a friendly adhesive and paint. Low temperature hot glue works great, and water-based paints are preferred. Experienced modelers are most likely to select EPS-Depron to build an RC airplane from scratch because of its stiffness and ease of contouring.

EPP (expanded polypropylene) is soft and pliable; and because of it’s softness is able to withstand moderate impacts. This foam is difficult to cut and nearly impossible to sand. Contouring can be accomplished, however, with a rasp tool. Cutting can be done with a very sharp knife, box cutter, or a hot wire cutter. Adhesives work fine on EPP including CA, low temperature hot glue, and many others. Painting onto EPP can be accomplished without worry of destruction by dissolving. Beginning RC pilots will be happier with their EPP construction because the RC airplane will be able to withstand crash after crash during the learning curve and still fly.

Construction of an RC airplane from either EPS-Depron or EPP is basically the same, with the exception of the slight differences in technique because of the material softness or brittleness. In both cases, you can use low temperature hot glue, a hot wire cutter, a jigsaw, and a box cutter. The main construction differences come in the areas of the aircraft that need extra support. The softness of EPP allows it to flex. Therefore, it is highly recommended that you add carbon rods in critical areas by cutting a groove into the material where you want the reinforcement, place the carbon rod in place, and fill in the groove with hot glue. Also, additional reinforcement of large areas can be accomplished using fiberglass mesh and epoxy, or by using duct tape. Control horns should be reinforced locally on both sides of the foam, and engine mounts should be doubly secured so as to not rely solely on just glue by cross pinning the mount through the airplane body. Then the body of the foam plane can be painted, covered with colorized shrink wrap, tape stripes and stickers of your choice. Add electronics, control rods, and an engine, then let the excitement begin!

How To Make Primitive Snowmen Ornaments Out Of Cotton Batting

Love snowmen? Like to decorate your home with snowmen during the entire winter season? If so, I have a really easy snowman project to share with you today. This project is easy enough that even a beginner crafter can master making one…or several of them in just one afternoon.

You will need just a handful of basic sewing and craft supplies that can be purchased at your general craft supply store. I used a sewing machine to make mine but you can certainly hand stitch him together too!

Here are the supplies you will need to make one.

Warm ‘n Natural Cotton Batting (natural off-white color)

Black Embroidery Floss

Orange Fimo Clay (just a tiny pea sized amount)

2 Plastic 4 MM Round Beads

Scrap of Homespun Cotton Fabric (measuring 1/2″ by 7″ in length for scarf)

Sharp Fabric Scissors

Sewing Machine and Basic Sewing Supplies

Clear Drying Modge Podge (decoupage medium)

Clear Crystal Glitter (fine grade)

Foam Stenciling Brush


To Make Your Pattern: Hand draw a snowman shape onto paper that measures approximately 6″ tall by 4 1/2″ wide at his widest point. Cut out your shape and use as your pattern template.

Use your paper pattern and trace around it onto two pieces of cotton batting. Cut out the pieces. In a plastic cup or throw away bowl, pour 5 tablespoons of Modge Podge into the bowl along with 5 tablespoons of water. Stir until combined. Sprinkle in 1 to to 2 teaspoons of the glitter and stir again. Using your foam stenciling brush, brush the mixture across both pieces of your batting. Let air dry. (takes about 1 hour to completely dry).

Using six strands of black embroidery floss, stitch two X’s onto his face to resemble his eyes, fasten off in the back so your ends and knots don’t show on the front. Using a pea sized piece of orange Fimo clay, roll it out in the shape of a carrot for his nose. Bake the nose in the oven according to the package directions on your clay pack. Using three strands of black embroidery floss, attach your two round plastic beads onto the snowman’s belly to resemble is black coat buttons, fasten floss off in the back so knots don’t show on the front.

Using your sewing machine, place wrong sides together and straight stitch 1/8″ in from the edges, leaving the bottom of the snowman open for turning. Once done, turn him right side out and finish the bottom edge stitching by hand. Cut a piece of homespun cotton fabric into a strip that measures 1/2″ by 7″ in length and tie it around his neck to resemble his scarf.

Variations: If you want to turn it into an ornament, thread a piece of white floss through the top to hang him on your tree or packages. If you want to turn him into a refrigerator magnet, glue 2-3 magnet disks onto his back side with hot glue or craft glue.

Baby Helmets for Treating Flat Head Syndrome

When your child is diagnosed with severe plagiocephaly, brachycephaly, or scaphocephaly, you may be left wondering about the treatment options available. In the most severe cases where physical therapy and repositioning have proven ineffective, orthotic helmets or bands are prescribed. In this article, we’ll review the different types of orthotic devices available, the average cost, and some issues that you may run into if you are considering this treatment, such as insurance.

If your doctor or physician has recommended the use of an orthotic device to remedy your child’s flat head, your options are numerous. Many smaller orthotic companies produce their own devices, although most in the United States now recommend that their patients use the STAR family of products, Boston Band, or the DOC band. These companies have become industry leaders due to their ability to provide customized products at low cost to a large number of patients across the US. They may work directly with your physician or through local clinics. In other countries, different manufacturer options are available.

Helmets and bands work along similar principles. Some individuals choose to distinguish between active and passive orthotic devices – although for many of the orthotic devices available today, the difference between the two is negligible. This is, in part, the result of most helmets and bands being considered passive devices or falling in a gray area between active and passive. The primary difference between the two, as currently viewed, is the snugness of fit. Active devices fit more tightly than their passive counterparts. Self-described active orthotics currently in use for the treatment of flat head syndrome include the STARband, STARlight band, STARband bi-valve, STARlight bi-valve, STARlight cap, DOC band, and the Hanger cranial band. Passive helmets and bands include the Clarren helmet and the Boston band.

Treatment with a helmet or band lasts an average of 2-4 months and the cost varies widely, from $2300-$4000 per helmet or band. Some children will require more than one orthotic device, depending on the severity of their condition and the type of orthotic helmet or band used to correct the deformity. Some designs are intended to accommodate for skull growth and can be adjusted as your baby ages, while others are expected to be replaced as the cranium changes and develops with age. If your baby gets a cranial helmet, they will need to visit the clinic frequently for adjustments, normally every one to two weeks.

Many parents are concerned, and rightly so, about the position which their insurance company takes regarding their child’s condition. Luckily, much of the necessary information is available on-line. In order to prepare yourself for an insurance claim, you can thoroughly research the ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes, HCPCS procedure codes, and billing practices of your insurance company regarding the treatment of baby flat head syndrome or positional plagiocephaly, brachycephaly and scaphocephaly. You may wish to consult carefully with your orthotic provider before proceeding with treatment in order to determine the amount you will have to cover out of pocket, and what their track record has been for collaboration with your insurance company. Some clinics only work with a limited number of insurance companies. Sometimes, the preference for one code over another or the use of an outdated code can cause huge insurance headaches or the denial of coverage that would normally have been provided, which is why it can really help to do your homework.

If you filed an insurance claim for your child’s helmet or band and have been denied coverage because it is considered a cosmetic problem, you can write an appeal letter. The status of plagiocephaly, brachycephaly and scaphocephaly as real medical conditions with long-term health ramifications is still underway. Many insurance companies have faced law suits in recent years, and are beginning to recognize the need to provide coverage for infants and children with these conditions. Look up examples on-line, and contact other parents via forums and support groups in order to bolster your appeal.

Once you have completed the appeal process, if your company still denies coverage, you can re-appeal, or look for other funding options. Additionally, there are some non-profit organizations and foundations dedicated to securing funding for children in need of treatment for flat head syndrome.

How To Prepare A Base For A Stone Or Paver Walkway Or Patio

Building a nice place to walk or sit outdoors is a great project to do yourself. There is a lot of satisfaction gained because you see and use it everyday. For that reason it really pays to do a good job on the foundation of your project. You don’t want to wish later on that you had done a better job.

First steps are important. Some people want to just get it done and will bypass important considerations and preparations. So, here are a few situations you need to watch.

Determine where you want your walk or patio. Look for tree roots that will be difficult to remove, but worse, may come right back and disrupt your finished project. See if there is standing water or a low spot that gets runoff across it and will leave dried dirt on your stone. If so, you have to raise your project to accommodate that situation.

Once you have a good site you need to remove the top layers of soil until you get to the depth you have determined is sufficient. How deep is that? You can use a thinner base for a walkway or patio than you can for a driveway or parking area and the calculations are easy.

First, what is the thickness of your stone? You will need 1.5 to 2 inches of material to set your stone into. You can use sand, but I prefer limestone dust – sometimes called limestone screenings. You also need 3 to 4 inches of crushed stone as a base. So add those up and subtract a half-inch for settling.

For example, say your stone is 2.5 inches thick, your dust is 2 inches deep, your crushed gravel is 3 inches deep – that’s 7.5 inches – and subtract your settling figure of a half-inch – now you know you have to dig a minimum of 7 inches deep. It can be deeper if you remove a stone or root, and just fill in with additional crushed stone, but shallower is not good.

Once you have the depth you need, get a tamper and tamp the dirt down so it is very firm. Add your crushed stone, level it with a rake and tamp it. Add the limestone screenings but don’t tamp them yet. Use a screed to level your area and give it a slight tilt for rain runoff. About 1/16th inch per foot will be sufficient and not be noticeable when you walk on it or sit on it with your beverage.

Now you can lay your stones. Once you have them in place and all your adjustments have been made, tamp them down into the limestone dust base. Put a board or piece of plywood down first so you don’t crack or chip the stone.

If you placed the stone tight together you will have to use fine sand to fill the cracks to tie them together. If you have wider spaces, 1/8 inch or more, you can use more of the limestone dust. Using the limestone is preferred so you will have more stable finished project that will last longer.

You will hear people say to use sand so you have good drainage. You really don’t want water getting under your walk or patio though. It freezes in winter and buckles the stone. Water washes away your sand over time. Weeds will grow in the cracks. If you have a poured concrete walk or patio you don’t drill homes in it for drainage. My opinion is to make your project so the water will run off of it and very little actually goes under it. Make your base stiffer and you will have a project that will outlast you.

Good luck on your project and have fun!

Looking for Affordable Apartments for Rent

Are you moving to a new city? If you are then, finding affordable apartments for rent is probably one of your priorities. You can choose from plenty of options in your search these days. Finding the right rental property may not be as difficult as you imagine.

Your income is the first thing that you should consider if you are looking for an apartment. It may be possible to seek help from organizations like HUD if you fall within a certain yearly income. You can benefit from the affordable apartments for rent for low income tenants that these groups offer.

Do you fall within the state guidelines of programs like HUD? If you do, then you should make sure that you take advantage of the opportunity to find affordable apartments for rent according to your income. These organizations work with your specific level of income so you will only pay what you can actually afford.

Asking questions from the people I knew was the first thing I did, when I was looking for affordable apartments for rent. This turned out to be one of the most valuable resources available. I was lucky to have friends and family members who were willing to help me find a place that I could afford on my meager waitress income. I have to say that I was shocked when I discovered many cheap, unadvertised apartments for rent in my area.

An unadvertised rental that was behind a private home was one of the nicest options available to me. I found a cozy one bedroom suite that was perfect for me in that small building. I almost fell in love with the place, even though it wasn’t one of the affordable apartments for rent that I put on my list. That wonderful apartment was just too far out of the way for me.

I had no choice but to try the other affordable apartments for rent on my list. I had my eye on a place that was located on a perfect location and I already knew the landlord. I talked to the owner and asked to be put on a waiting list because the current tenant was about to move. I would have never known that the apartment was going to be available if I hadn’t networked with friends and family.

You can also find affordable apartments for rent by searching the newspaper. However, shopping around might be a better option. It’s important that you become familiar with the neighborhood. It would also be wise to consider how far you want to drive to work each day. You can find the best cheap apartments for rent available by simply asking around.

Micathermic Heating Pros and Cons

A relatively recent development in the 100 year history of space heaters is micathermic heating. The mica in micathermic is a silicate mineral split into thin sheets used to form the rectangular exterior front panel of a micathermic heater.

The mica panels themselves do not generate any heat. Their function is to quickly radiate the heat generated by heating elements behind the mica panel into the room.

Micathermic heaters are available in two styles. The first is the flat panel type which resembles a small LCD television. The second design, made only by Soleus, is called the “console” model and looks something like an old fashioned car radiator with rounded corners. (In reality it’s much more attractive than the description).

The incorporation of mica panels into space heater design adds a degree of versatility not found in other heaters. This same design, however, results in some minor drawbacks as well.

Here then are the pros and cons of micathermic heating.


Silent Operation

Since micathermic heaters have no fan, anyone with an aversion to noise can rest comfortably without annoying distractions.

Note: The exception to this is the fan equipped flat panel model BH1551-U from Bionaire which, in my humble opinion, defeats the concept of quick and silent heat. Additionally, most consumers who have purchased this model state that the fan is too noisy and lacks the power to make a difference in the heating coverage area.

Versatile Placement

The ultra thin design of the flat panel version allows it to snug up against a wall or hung on the wall itself with the included hardware. And there’s even a flat panel model by DeLonghi which they feature as safe for bathroom use.

Note: Once again, the exception to this is the aforementioned fan equipped model by Bionaire, which cannot be wall hung.

Quick Heat

Unlike an oil filled radiator which can take 20 minutes to heat up, you can feel the heat radiating from a mica paneled heater almost instantly when it’s turned on.

Lightweight – Portable Design

Most mica heaters weigh almost 40% less than oil filled or baseboard convection heaters and all come equipped with a handle (some with wheels too) for easy portablility.


Limited Coverage Area

The downside of owning a quiet, fan-less heater is a limit to how large an area it will heat. However, all micathermic heaters will adequately cover an area of 150 square feet and, according to actual owners, the console model from Bionaire heats slightly more than 200 square feet.

The Essential Guide to Equestrian Show Riding and Equestrian Riding Apparel

Competitors in every sport want to be at their best. And being at your best includes the right apparel. Equestrian apparel is especially important because unlike casual riding, competitors in English riding must appear sleek, refined and in control at all times. In the show ring, the judges want to be looking at the way you and your horse communicate and how well you control and direct your horse. Loose fitting clothes have no place in show riding as safety is of the utmost importance. English riders also need their show clothes to reflect a neat, subdued and elegant air, so that their riding skills and the training of the horse shine through.

Dressage, hunt seat, and pleasure classes each have specific requirements regarding equestrian clothing. It is up to you to check with the sponsoring organization to get the details of your equestrian clothing needs.

Show Clothes From Head To Toe

Starting at the top, helmets are the most important accessory because they may save your life in a fall. An ASTM F-1163-01 and 04a/SEI certified helmet is a mandatory part of your equestrian clothing any time you are on or working around a horse. These helmets are tested for the rigors of riding. Helmets are sized by measuring the circumference of the rider’s head.

The Importance Of A Show Coat

The first part of show clothes that judges will notice is a rider’s show coat. A properly fitted jacket should give you a trim appearance with squared shoulders and a narrow waist. To check for a good fit, you should be able to take a pinch of approximately one-inch of fabric from the sides of the shoulders, which will allow the freedom of movement you need.

The waistline of your jacket should be at your natural waistline. The length of your show jacket should take it just to the bottom of your buttocks. Show jacket sleeves are measured at one inch below the wrist. Show coats are generally beige, gray or a dark color. Dressage show coats are black.

Underneath Your Show Coat

Under the show coat, women wear a ratcatcher and men wear a buttoned shirt. Getting the right fit is crucial to creating the right image while allowing you to ride safely and effectively. Ratcatchers are extra long-sleeved shirts with a short, upright collar. Ratcatchers and shirts should be form-fitting yet allow the rider the necessary freedom of movement with show clothes.

Riding shirt sleeves are generally two inches longer than normal clothing, to allow you the reach when jumping. After putting on your show jacket, one-fourth to one-half inch of your shirt cuff should show. Ratcatchers are normally white or of a pale color. A stock pin should be worn with your ratcatcher. Men are required to wear a button-down shirt with either a tie or a stock pin.

Jodhpurs And Breeches

Jodhpurs are riding pants with an elastic cuff that is worn over your horse riding boots. They are also essential if you are wearing paddock boots. When sizing for jodhpurs, measure your inseam plus one inch with your paddock boots on. If you will be wearing your jodhpurs in the show ring, try to find a color to match with your show jacket.

Breeches come in many styles, including front-zip, pull-on, side-zip, low-rise and full-seat. You’ll want to make sure that your breeches maintain the overall trim and professional look of your equestrian clothing. Show breeches are normally beige. When shopping for most show clothes including Jodhpurs and Breeches, fabrics with Lycra are ideal in order to provide a trim fit with stretch for movement.

Boots Made For Riding

Your field or dress tall black boots must fit properly. Since manufacturers differ, you must use the sizing chart for the horse riding boots that you are buying. Most horse riding boot sizing charts will ask for calf and height measurements, plus your normal show size. Calf measurements are taken at the widest part of your calf, with socks and riding breeches on, while seated. The height measurement is from the base of your heel to the top of your lower leg plus one inch.

Tall horse riding boots must fit snugly in all the right places to give you the look and support you need to do well in the show ring and to complement the rest of your equestrian clothing. Those with hidden zippers will give a snug fit and will be easy to put on.

Dressing with the appropriate equestrian clothing for competitive events not only will showcase your command of the sport, but will also provide the safety you need when jumping. Wearing the proper show clothes also shows respect for the elegance and control of English riding.

How to Make a Backup Mother Mould

A mother mould is a special casing which supports a flexible latex, silicone or polyurethane rubber mould. It helps to prevent them distorting or collapsing when the casting material is poured in. These rigid supports can be made of any rigid material such as plaster, fibreglass or polyurethane plastics.

The current material of choice for making mother moulds for larger subjects is fibreglass. The low cost and light weight of this material makes it ideal. Mother moulds for smaller objects tend to be made of plaster. If a latex mould is less than 200mm in height then you probably wouldn’t need one at all. Moulds of this size can quite successfully be poured by suspending it in a hole cut in cardboard. On the other hand some 3D tile moulds of around 100mm in size with a wide flat horizontal surface may distort and would definitely require a mother mould to support it.

The rigidity of mother moulds is important so that it offers sufficient support to the flexible rubber mould. It is therefore important that the rubber mould has no undercuts as it can be difficult to remove from the rigid support when cast with material. The rubber mould can however have undercuts on the inside. The undercut on the external part of the mould can be filled with flexible sponge dipped in latex. Additional coats can then be added to make the outside of the mould smooth.

It is also important to make the mother mould immediately after the rubber mould is made. The original object inside the rubber mould will hold the rubber mould to its true shape and the mother mould will support the mould accurately.

Making a Plaster Mother Mould for a Latex Mould.

As soon as the latex mould is complete and dry apply a fine coat of petroleum jelly on all exterior surfaces of the mould. This will aid in the removal of the mother mould when complete.

Most mother moulds need to be a two piece casing which needs to be fastened together around the latex mould. You will need to find the easiest parting line for the two pieces to separate from the mould. This is usually on the less detailed areas of the mould. Once you have decided where your parting line should be mark it out with a pen on the latex mould.

Now you can make your first half of the mother mould. Using non-hardening oil based clay build up a wall up to the parting line. Make this wall about 50mm in thickness and add some grooves into the wall to act as a registration point so that the two mould pieces will slot together in the correct place.

Plaster can now be applied to the first half of the latex mould right up to the clay walls. Make sure the clay walls with the registration grooves are covered with plaster. Small squares of hessian can be soaked in the plaster and added to the plaster already on the mould to add strength to the mother mould. Make sure you overlap these hessian squares. Build up the plaster mother mould until it is about 15 to 30mm in thickness and allow drying.

Once the plaster has set you can remove the non-hardening clay. You will now need to apply a release agent to the plaster which was left with registration grooves when the clay was removed as we will now add the second half of the mould. If no release agent is applied to this part of the first mother mould piece the plaster will stick to the second half. We can use petroleum jelly for this.

Now apply plaster to the second half of the mould in the same method as the first piece with hessian for strength. Once this second piece has set both halves of the mother mould can be removed. These pieces should come away easily. The mould support is now complete. The original model can be removed from the latex mould and casting material can be poured in. Thick rubber bands can be used to hold the plaster mother mould pieces together while casting.

Note: When making the plaster mother mould it might be a good idea to ensure the top is level as when you turn it upside down to cast it will need to be freestanding unless you plan to support it with braces.

Making a fibreglass Mother Mould

The method of creating a fibreglass backup is basically the same as the one we described above.

Apply the non-hardening clay in the same way at the part line and apply petroleum jelly or wax as a release agent to the latex mould. Coat the latex mould with the polyester resin before applying any fibreglass matting or strands. This will ensure there are no air bubbles and the resin will get into every shape and corner. When this first coat cures to a tacky state apply the fibreglass mat which has been saturated in the resin. Continue to apply the mat to the entire surface of the latex mould ensuring that you overlap your matting. Once completed allow to cure and repeat with the other piece of the backup.

How to Find a Good Wireless Doorbell

If you don’t have a doorbell, isn’t it frustrating when you don’t hear people at the front door knocking? You’ve probably missed deliveries, and your friends and family might have stood outside in the cold because you just didn’t hear them. Also, you might have a working doorbell, but it is getting old and kind of hard to hear. You don’t feel like getting a new one, because you have no idea how to run wires. What should you do?

Why not get your hands on a wireless doorbell? These doorbells are usually quite inexpensive, but there are a few things that you will want to keep in mind before you buy.


Rule #1: You should find a doorbell that is not too cheap, but not too expensive either. Usually if you look for a “middle of the road” price range, you will get a solid unit, but one that works every time you need it. Price isn’t always a determining factor but chances are, if you find a wireless doorbell that’s significantly less expensive than comparable products, it is probably because the quality just isn’t up to par. Think about it. It you are the manufacturer and have a quality doorbell, you are going to market it around the same price range as your competitors. Manufacturer’s aren’t going to leave money “on the table.”

Rule#2: Always shop at a place with a good return policy. You’ve got to be able to test this unit out in your home, and if it is not loud enough, you should return it and opt of a better one. Most on-line stores and your retail box stores will have a guarantee of some sort, some very liberal, some very strict. This is different than a manufacturer’s warranty which warrants the product against faulty electronics or workmanship. Most manufacturer’s will have a warranty that extends past any store guarantee but you need to understand this prior to making a purchase.

Rule#3: You should be able to hear your doorbell from every room in the house or have the ability to expand your electronic door chime throughout your home. If it does not, then you know what to do– return it and get one that does.

Rule #4: You should be able to hear the doorbell from the outside as well. If you cannot hear it from the outside, the person ringing it may have no idea that it’s actually working, driving those inside the house crazy. This does not sound very intuitive at first but if you think about it, it makes sense. How many times have you stood outside a home and rang a door chime, never knowing if it is actually going off inside the home. If the home has a working wireless doorbell but you cannot hear it outside, someone at the front door could be ringing and ringing it, driving your crazy never really knowing it is working. Make sure the receiver has a nice sized speaker to give the best sound output. As a rule of thumb, 2 1/2” speaker is a nice sized speaker for a wireless doorbell receiver.

Tip #5: Make sure the range is sufficient. When range is mentioned regarding wireless doorbell units, it is referring to the distance from the wireless doorbell button (the transmitter) to the wireless door chime receiver (the speaker.) The published range you see on the packaging will be in ideal environments, but we all know ideal environments rarely exist. Most mid-range wireless doorbells will have a range of approximately 150 feet.

Tip #6: One advantage offered by most models of wireless doorbells is they tend to be expandable. Meaning you can add additional transmitters (push buttons) and/or additional receivers. This will allow you to add push buttons at your back door, for example, and also add a receiver in an upstairs bedroom.

Tip #7: You should make sure that you have fresh batteries in both the indoor and the outdoor units. Remember that if it gets cold in the winter, the outdoor doorbell battery will die faster due to the temperatures. Wireless door chimes typically have an outdoor wireless door chime button powered by batteries. The power consumption of these wireless buttons is very minimal but do require a good power supply. Because these wireless doorbell buttons are outside, the cold weather will diminish battery life. Periodically test your electronic door chime setup to ensure everything is working correctly.

Tip #8: You should make sure that the outdoor unit is made of strong plastics. This is the only part of the unit that might be outside in freezing temperatures. Wireless doorbell buttons need to made of plastic to ensure the wireless signal they transmit are not interfered with by metal. With that said, there are varying degrees of quality when it comes to the plastic housings that house the wireless button. Just check it over and make sure it is not cheaply made and the first cold snap won’t crack it.

Tip #9: Install the outdoor unit to the side of the door then check to see if it actually works prior to throwing packaging and the receipts away. Often times, if your door is metal, it won’t be able to transmit the signal or the metal will interfere with the transmission range. Since most residential homes do not have metal doors, this should not be a problem. If your home does have a metal door or metal door frame, a small wood shim mounted underneath the door chime button will dramatically improve the signal degradation that occurs because of the metal.

Tip #10: Once everything seems to be working properly, you are now free to enjoy your new doorbell. Most of your batteries should last about a year but check it often just to make sure. If your receiving unit plugs into a standard wall outlet, it could be subject to electrical surges so check it too. If you are going out of town, go ahead and unplug them so a lighting storm won’t hit them while you are away.

Wireless doorbell units are usually inexpensive and will range from $20-$100 dollars. A good mid-range doorbell is probably going to cost about $35. It may not be a good idea to go much lower than that, unless you live in a small house or apartment and the outdoor part of the wireless doorbell is protected. Using these is going to be easy, installing them is quick; and batteries are cheap.

Brilliant Techniques on How to Ensure Winnings on Free Lotto Scratch Off Tickets!

It is somewhat undeniable that people are already used to getting everything that they need in an instant. This is maybe due to the technological advancements happening in today’s era. But would you believe that people also do want to acquire money instantly? And this is essentially the primary reason as to why various lottery games are by now booming in terms of popularity. As a matter of fact, one of the most-well liked lottery games nowadays has something to do with the free lotto scratch off tickets. These tickets usually contain obscured information which can only be revealed by scratching them off.

There are in reality ample of methods on how you can get and play scratch off lottery tickets for free over the Internet. And the two most common among these methods are as follows:

  • Complete an online survey. In this method, all you have to do is to look for a website that allows you to acquire a free scratch card for every completed survey. You have to make sure though that the survey which you are filling out is qualified for a scratch off ticket.
  • Purchase products that entail free scratch lotto cards. Most of the products today do include some freebies like scratch off tickets. You can opt for these products so that you can get scratch cards absolutely for free.

There are a number of methods on how on earth you can obtain free scratch off tickets. You can in fact make use any of these methods. You only have to see to it to play smart and providentially to ensure great cash winnings. And you can only do this if you are going to take into consideration the following brilliant techniques in playing and winning scratch off ticket lottery games:

  • Evaluate the scratch off tickets that you want to play. You can in actuality do this by merely visiting your state’s official lottery site over the Internet, comprehending every pieces of information written in there, preparing your intended budget for playing scratch cards, and identifying your odds of winning.
  • Select the scratch cards with the best odds. If truth be told, you can basically carry out this technique by plainly examining the scratch off tickets per se. If you see a white line above or beneath the scratcher cards that you are holding then, you can be guaranteed of great chances of winnings because tickets that are highlighted or with white lines are deemed to be the winning cards.
  • Avoid using too much emotion when playing scratch off tickets. This is important since too much emotion can most of the time lead to irrational decisions which can then limit your odds of winning. So, just stay calm and cool when playing scratch off lottery tickets that are free of charge.

Playing lottery games such as the free lotto scratch off tickets can be a last resort in acquiring instant money without any hassles at all. All you need to do is to get them for free and play them cleverly. In so doing, you cannot only enjoy the said lottery game but you can generate more cash out of it too.

What is a Fiber Optic Patch Panel?

Fiber optic patch panels are also known as fiber distribution panels. Patch panel’s function is to terminate the fiber optic cable and provide access to the cable’s individual fibers for cross connection.

Fiber patch panel can use fiber patch cables to cross-connect, connect to fiber optic communication equipment or test the individual fibers in the fiber cable.

A fiber patch panel usually is composed of two parts, the compartment that contains fiber adapters (bulkhead receptacles), and the compartment that contains fiber optic splice trays and excess fiber cables.

If you want a even neater cable management, you can also use a fiber patch cable management tray to neatly store and manage excessive fiber patch cable lengths.

Optical fibers from workstations or from other wiring closets terminate in termination boxes. The termination boxes provide a patch point for a small number of connections, but larger installations will have a separate patching location that serves all of the incoming and outgoing fiber cables.

A fiber patch panel consists of an array of duplex SC adapters, hybrid adapters, or Small Form Factor (SFF) jacks. If the entire installation, including the fiber optic hubs, repeaters, or network adapters, uses the same type of fiber optic connectors, then the array can be made of compatible adapters or jacks.

To convert between fiber connector types, you need a hybrid adapter or a conversion cable. A hybrid adapter is a passive coupler that joins two different connector types, while a conversion cable simply has one connector type on one end and the other type on the opposite end.

Fiber patch panels provide a convenient way to rearrange fiber cable connections and circuits. A simple patch panel is a metal frame containing bushings in which fiber optic cable connectors plug in on either side. One side of the panel is usually fixed, meaning that the fiber cables are not intended to be disconnected. On the other side of the panel, fiber cables can be connected and disconnected to arrange the circuits as required.

Foreclosure Defense Procedure in Florida

Foreclosure typically begins once you have missed your first mortgage payment, for whatever reason. After a certain period of time, your lender will typically send you a letter called a Notice of Default. This letter will explain that you are behind on your payments, and tell you how much you currently owe your lender. If you do not pay the amount due, and continue to not make mortgage payments, your lender will send you a Notice of Intent to Accelerate, which states that if you do not pay the amount owed and due of missed mortgage payments, then the lender will call the full loan amount due. This letter is typically send out at least 30 days prior to a foreclosure case being filed in the courts.

If you still do not reply to your lender or arrange payment, then the lender will hire a law firm to file a foreclosure case in court against you. The lender will have its law firm draft a Complaint for damages against you, which will state generally: 1) the address of the property and county it is located in; 2) that you owe more than $15,000 to the lender; 3) that you signed a note and mortgage; 4) that you failed to pay that note and mortgage; 5) that you will owe the lender’s attorney’s fees plus interest on the loan balance.

The lender will be required to serve a copy of the complaint, with and attached copy of the note and mortgage, on you, your spouse, any tenant, or any other person with an interest in the property. If the lender cannot serve any of these parties in person by process server, then it will typically serve those parties by what referred to as “service by publication.”

Occasionally, the lender will include a count for a “lost note” or “re-establishment of lost note.” This occurs when the lender cannot reasonably locate your original note and mortgage, but still wishes to enforce their terms. The lender will plead a lost note count pursuant to ยง 673.3091.

The lender will typically file an affidavit stating that the note and/or mortgage was in its possession but lost or destroyed by no fault of the lender. The lender then can introduce any copy of the note and/or mortgage in place of the original to prove the terms of these documents. Shocking to most homeowners, this is the low standard that the lender must meet to foreclosure when it does not even have the note and/or mortgage in its actual possession at the time it files a foreclosure.

Once a copy of the summons and complaint is served on you, you get 20 days to respond to the allegations in the complaint. You can do this by one of two way: 1) file a motion to dismiss; or 2) file an answer with or without affirmative defenses.

A motion to dismiss challenges the complaint on various grounds; be it jurisdiction of the court, form of the complaint, etc. A common motion to dismiss revolves around a situation where the lender fails to attach the note and/or mortgage to the complaint. Pursuant to Florida Rules of Civil Procedure 1.130, the lender is required to attached all notes, contracts, and other documents to the complaint. From a conceptual standpoint, this makes sense as you would not know what terms the complaint is referring to breaching without a copy of that document.

The homeowner can also challenge the lender’s “standing,” or right, to file the lawsuit. These types of defenses have been mildly effective. Certain defense lawyers have successfully shown that the lender did not own the note and mortgage when the lawsuit was filed and gotten the foreclosure case dismissed. This is usually done by showing that the note was not endorsed (stamp showing transfer to a new lender) before the lawsuit was filed. The Court in McLean v. J.P. Morgan Chase Bank, N.A., 79 So. 3d 170 (Fla. 4th DCA 2012) found that when a lender cannot prove standing at the inception of its lawsuit, the remedy is the outright dismissal of the case without prejudice and without leave to amend. This will force the lender to file a whole new lawsuit from the beginning, re-serve all parties, pay a new filing fee, etc.

Once a motion to dismiss is filed, a hearing will be set and both sides will appear to argue the issues. If the judge grants the motion to dismiss, it will typically be with leave, or permission, for the lender to file an amended complaint fixing the procedural error. If there is a more serious issue, such that the court does not have jurisdiction over the matter, then the court can dismiss the case completely. This will typically be “without prejudice,” meaning that the lender would be able to re-file the lawsuit against you in the appropriate court or otherwise remedying the issue.

The other option is to file an answer to the complaint. In the answer you will admit or deny the allegations of each of the lines of the complaint. These allegations must be carefully answered as you do not want to admit something that will give the lender the right to quickly obtain judgment against you. With the answer you may also list any affirmative defenses you may have. An affirmative defense affirms part of the plaintiff’s claim, and offers additional information that mitigates or justifies the defendant’s conduct. In Florida, the affirmative defenses available, pursuant to Florida Rules of Civil Procedure Rule 1.110, are: ” accord and satisfaction, arbitration and award, assumption of risk, contributory negligence, discharge in bankruptcy, duress, estoppel, failure of consideration, fraud, illegality, injury by fellow servant, laches, license, payment, release, res judicata, statute of frauds, statute of limitations, waiver, and any other matter constituting an avoidance or affirmative defense”

At the same time as the answer, or shortly after, you will file discovery on the lender. These filings are “Requests for Production,” “Requests for Interrogatories,” and “Requests for Admission.” Requests for Production is where you will ask the lender to produce certain documents from the loan file, the note, the mortgage, servicing agreements, pooling agreements, etc. Requests for Interrogatories will require an officer from the bank or servicer to answer questions under penalty of perjury. Requests for Admissions are similar to interrogatories, but will require the lender to admit or deny certain allegations or questions.

Requests for Admission are limited to 30 requests by Rule 1.370, Florida Rules of Civil Procedure, and must be answered within 30 days. Requests for Interrogatories are similarly limited to 30 days and must be responded to within 30 days. Requests for production similarly must be responded to within 30 days.

Once discovery is complete, the case can go one of two ways. Typically, the lender will file a motion for summary judgment. Here, the lender is stating that there is no issue left of material fact and that it is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. The lender will file this motion along with affidavits of amounts owed to the lender (including unpaid taxes and insurance, as well as interest), and the lender law firm will file an affidavit as to its attorney’s fees owed. Florida courts have further held that the lender must have refuted, or successfully stricken, your affirmative defenses in order to obtain summary judgment. Lazuran v. Citimortgage, Inc., 35 So. 3d 189, 189-90 (Fla. 4th DCA 2010) (reversing summary judgment where the plaintiff failed to refute the affirmative defense of lack of notice). If not, then this would be a good defense to the lender obtaining summary judgment against you at the summary judgment hearing.

The lender, or the court sua sponte (“on its own”), can set the case for trial. The lender will file a list of its witnesses and exhibits for trial. Typically, the witnesses will be a representative from the bank who is familiar with your loan file and the documents within. Its exhibits will typically be the note, mortgage, default letter and payment history.