Men Who Are Too Forward – 6 Ways to Stop a Man Who Wants to Be Physically Intimate With You Too Soon

6 ways to stop a man who wants to be physically intimate with you too soon! “He is too forward,” Christine’s mouth twisted in disgust. “Just image, I just met him and he wants to touch me up. What does he think I am – a tramp?” Her indignation was beginning to grow into mixture of anger and embarrassment. Another girl told me how utterly despicable this guy was because all he seem to want to do is have sex and they had just only met. She crossed him off immediately. Should you reject a man because he makes sexual advances on you before getting to know you properly? Well this is what Christine (and most women) did. Do you agree? Well on the surface of things she is probably right.

However let’s drill down some more. After much studied thought I am slowly coming to the conclusion that a lot of women are missing out on having a great relationship and a good man because of something that can be fixed. First let me say that most men in one way shape or form entertain a remote idea of what it would be like to have sex with you. Most men – thank goodness – manage this thought and feelings. They don’t let you know that, because they realize that you may be offended like my client. By the way if you are attracted to the man you will think likewise but you won’t show this because you don’t want to appear like a common prostitute. FACT: most men are psychosexually programmed for sex. This has nothing to do with him being nasty, earthy etc. It is simply when his seminal vesicles (the part of his testicles that store sperms) are full; he gets a strong biological urge to have sex. This may be when he goes on the “prowl”. It is similar to the urges you get around your menstrual cycle.

That said most men make an intelligent effort to control it. Another reason when some men try to push your hot buttons is to test you. He wants to find out how easy it is to score on you. Of course if you give in he will have a great time but you ratings in his eyes will drop significantly. Of course if you give in he will have a great time but you ratings in his eyes will drop significantly. What can you do? How to you handle this?

1. First you must be clear about your boundaries and principles.

a. When do you feel safe to begin physical contact. No I don’t mean sex. Holding hands, kisses, necking petting

b. Determine if you want a good night kiss and what type of kiss you will allow eg peck on cheek, light mouth peck etc

2. Also be clear about how many dates or how well you want to know a guy before having sex e.g 2,3,4 months or dates. My strong suggestion is never to have sex on the first few dates.

3. If a man begins to touch you in uncomfortable places, do not get angry, simple take his hand and gently but firmly move it back on his leg, calmly explain that you don’t feel comfortable doing that at this point.

4. Tell a story of one of your friends who gave in to a guy recently, fell pregnant and the guy didn’t want to know. Explain how cheap and worthless she feels now. Emphasise that it’s never a great idea for a woman anyway since may be just a test.

5. Be sure to be light hearted about it all. Indicating through you attitude that it good to have fun and even do things together with him but you are not about to go down that (necking, petting and sex) road at this point.

6. If he continues get up and immediately terminate the date or meeting. Here the attitude you should adopt when men try to hit on you. “Sex is great but I don’t feel comfortable doing it unless I am in a secured relationship.”

10 Easy Tips To Gain Your Visitors Trust

As a webmaster it's important to gain the trust of your visitors as soon as they arrive at your web site. In this post I'm going to share my top 10 tips to help gain your visitors trust.

1. Have a contact phone number on your web site. Even though most visitors will never actually call you, displaying your phone number gives them peace of mind knowing that if they ever do have a problem you're only a phone call away.

2. Register your site with BBB and The Better Business Bureau (BBB) ​​and are independent nonprofits that review and providing seals of trust for web sites of all types. They employ strict controls to make sure your web site is trustworthy and you publish and abide by a true and ethical privacy policy. Having the BBB and TrustE seals on your web site can increase sales by more than 50%.

3. Choose the right domain name. We all know you can register [] to rank highly in search engines for the keywords "cheap cell phones", but generic domain names like this do not help when you're trying to build a reputable brand name. If you want to gain your customers trust register a domain name that includes both keywords and your own unique identity, such as or

4. Have a detailed "About Us" page. Tell your visitors about the history of your web site as well as the team behind the scenes. Include brief biographies and pictures of staff members, as well as any relevant facts including how long your company has been in business, if you have more than one office, if you have partners, etc.

5. Release regular press releases. Sites such as will publish your press releases online for a small fee. You can create a press release when you launch a new product or stock new items. You should also post the press releases in the "News" section of your web site for customers to read.

6. Never break a promise. If you tell your newsletter subscribers that they will receive your newsletter and only your newsletter, do not go sending them advertisements or "partner emails" the day after they signup. They will unsubscribe quicker than you can say "empty subscriber list".

7. Write and publish articles. Become an expert on a topic related to your web site. If you sell golf clubs online, write an article about how to choose the perfect golf club and post it on free articles sites such as Post it on your home page too. Keep your articles short and to the point and DO NOT advertise your products or services in the article. Customers will read your articles and after they have read a few of them they will find it refreshing that you're not shoving a product down their necks and you will earn their trust quickly.

8. Offer a refund guarantee. Even at the best of times most people are cautious about buying anything online. Create and post a solid refund guarantee on your web site. Include your refund policy, and also explain how you legitimately refund all requests (within reason, of course) and include contact details so customers can contact you if they actually do need a refund. You could even take it one step further and include testimonials from customers who you have reimbursed with them explaining how happy they were with the process of obtaining their refund.

9. Post web site links, email addresses or photos with customer testimonials. Never ever post a testimonial without any details of the person who sent you the testimonial. Always include the person's web site link, email address and / or photo (with their permission, of course). Also, do not post "typical" testimonials on your web site. By typical I mean testimonials that will not make your visitors say "WOW". Only post really commendable testimonials that praise your products, customer support or both.

10. Let them know about your secure ordering process. If you use SSL (secure sockets layer) to process your orders securely make sure your customers know that you take security seriously. Include an image of a secure padlock at the bottom of your checkout page, along with some text like this: "We take your privacy seriously and use 128 bit SSL encryption to process all orders. Order securely 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year ".

Barriers To Success With Article Marketing – Unlock The Secrets To Overcome Writer's Block

Article marketing is a really good way to market your internet business primarily because it is free. This means that whatever profit you make will be a hundred percent complete profit.

If you look at most of the other methods of advertising you need to pay for your adverts. Consequently at the end of the day after paying your advertising expenses your business may not be that profitable.

However, the biggest challenge faced with article marketing is that you need to get a significant amount of articles out there to succeed online. If you only writing one a day this is not nearly enough to succeed with this method.

Once you start doing 5 to ten articles every day. the biggest challenge you will experience is writer's block. There will be days when you just do not feel like writing and this can become a major problem for your business.

I would like to address one of the best ways that you can overcome this process that may seriously undersine the success of your business.

Make sure that you track and organize all your ideas electronically. Often you may be busy with one idea and you will get a bright spark. Later on you may not remember that. When you are busy writing more articles you may run out of ideas and you will have a ready database of material that you can use.

Some times you will really feel like writing. Go to gym or do some other activity that will take your mind off it. When you come back you will feel refreshed and ready to start again. If you are in a quiet area put the television on. If you are in a noisy area for example the stereo may be on then turn it off. This alternative state will help to get your creative juices flowing again.

One final point is that when you first start writing it will be difficult. The more practice that you get the easier it will become and this method will build a stable foundation for your business as it is the most reliable traffic generation method.

Cosmic Ceilings Are a Unique Concept in Interior Decoration

When it comes to interior design and decorating not too much consideration is usually given to what can be done with a ceiling. Color and texture may be taken into account but little else.

A little known but unique concept, particularly for childrens bedrooms, is a Cosmic Ceiling. It is a type of mural with a twist!

Using specialized paints, materials and equipment, effects such as stars, the Milky Way, planets, constellations …. and more are hand-painted onto the surface of the ceiling. This process usually takes around 2 to 4 hours depending on the dimensions of the ceiling. The paintings themselves dry to a milky / off-white color and if applied to a white / pastel colored ceiling they will remain essentially invisible to the naked eye during daytime.

The paintings will then absorb the available light during daytime and at night when the curtains are drawn and the lights are switched off the ceiling will come to life. It is as if the roof has been removed from the home and you are left staring up into the Cosmos.

Children are fascinated by the magical way in which the effects disappear and appear when you turn the lights on and off.

Another aspect of them is that they can also be themed. If the child is keen on Star Wars, space travel, Dr.Who, fairies etc. then the ceiling can incorporated these also.

A Cosmic Ceiling can also be very much a part of the bedroom decoration / design of a child suffering with Autism or Asperger Syndrome because of its relaxing and therapeutic effects. Many parents with children suffering from autistic disorders have commented on how much it helps their child to focus on the colors and effects so promoting relaxation and sleep where they could remain restless and wake for hours.

Mom's Corner Away from Chaos

Home is a place to go and recover from the daily grind, but for most mothers,
home and family life is the source of stress. A mother's day seems endless, full
of demanding work schedules, caring for children, preparing family activities
and more. This Mother's Day, take a few moments to kick your feet up and truly
escape from your hectic schedule by creating your own private corner, away from

Establish a No-Kid-Zone

Seek out the most private corner or room of your home, whether it is the
bedroom, guestroom or home office, and announce to all family members that the
specified area will be off limits, ensuring that you are not disturbed.

Selecting a quiet space that is far away from the high traffic areas of your
home will help keep your mind focused on the present moment, not on the future
and your overbooked calendar.

Calming Colors

Create a calming color palette in your private space by using cool colors that
represent natural landscapes. Just like nature, these natural colors exude a
sense of peace and tranquility, which will help you unwind. Popular cool colors
include soothing blues, greens and violets.

The colors you use to decorate your home tend to affect your mood, energy level
and even your appetite. By selecting cool blues, light greens and violets you
can potentially soothe your senses.

Warm Flooring

Incorporating flooring that will compliment your wall color. By maintaining a
simple color scheme, you can avoid strong color contrasts which can be
distracting. In order to create a calm feeling, mimic nature and use darker
color on the floor and lighter colors on the surrounding walls.

Install soft carpet, or lay down a simple area rug, but be sure to stay away
from patterns because they will be too lively and busy for a tranquil space.

to find a large selection of carpets and area rugs that will help complete your
calm corner.

Smooth Fabrics

Soothe your sense of touch by banning abrasive fabrics, like polyester and wool,
and opt for soft velor, cotton and chenille pillows and throw-blankets. The
feeling of soft smooth textures will suggest serenity.

Soft Lighting

When lighting your space, keep in mind that dark wall and flooring colors will
tend to absorb light while the lighter colors reflect it. Invest in a few lamps
with tungsten light bulbs and create a warm glow throughout the room. Tungsten
bulbs create a soft, gold-tinted light that will ease your eyes.

A quiet and private space will help you eliminate the distractions of your every
day role as a mother and caretaker. Enjoy your escape, but do not leave the kids
unsupervised. Delegate another adult to watch your children so you can
successfully clear your mind and feelings of motherhood anxiety.

This article is provided by West Coast Flooring Center, one of the largest
flooring stores in Southern California, offering flooring services with a wide
variety of quality flooring options and other home improvement services.

Do You Really Need a Hydromatic Sump Pump in Your Basement?

Perhaps you have purchased a home with a basement and for some reason there is no sump pump system in the basement. Should you run right out and buy a complete sump pump system and does your system have to have a hydromatic sump pump in it? What does "hydromatic" mean anyway?

Does Your Basement Flood?

Not all rains flood when it rains. Some basements flood sometimes and some basements take in water just about every time that it rains due to a high water table. This means that each particular foundation will have its own requirements for water removal.

Water Activated

A hydromatic sump pump is a pump that contains some sort of trigger mechanism that turns it on automatically when water that needs to be pumped out is present. There are a few different type of hydormatic sump pump trigger mechanisms but by far the most popular is a simple float mechanism.

Float Trigger

Like a wheel, the float type of hydromatic sump pump trigger system just seems to be the oldest and the most reliable, so people have stuck with it. However; there is one downside of a float trigger on a hydromatic sump pump and that is that the water has to build up before the pump will go on.

Other Trigger Options

This is why some people opt for haydromatic sump pump trigger mechanisms that are engineered to sit much lower to the ground. While these newer trigger systems still require water to enter the sump basin to be activated they only require as little as an inch or so of water to activate.

Consider Your Options

Whether or not you actually need a hydromatic sump pump in your basement is entirely up to you. If you store valuables in your foundation or have remodeled it into living space you may give it consideration even if you live in a desert where it never rains. This is because, even a broken pipe or misplaced garden hose that is left on can lead to a flooding disaster.

Business Survival, Growth & Marketing in These Lean Times of 2009

It is a rough world out there in the economy and the "real world". What can you do in the world of commerce to keep your business cruising in 2009 – if not simply alive and treading water?

First of all focus on the long run. There were people and companies even during the dark years of the "dirty thirties" and the major economic downtown – if not depression of the last century who looked ahead and knew that the good days would return once again. It is only a matter of time and mindset. It is amazing at even when people think that it is all over – the universe is expanding it is all over, what the point ?, that the economy can turn on a dime in a short time period and rebound. The resilience of people, especially the ability to be innovative and as well stick to it ness of American people, workers and personalities can do wonders and accomplish what can seem to the seemingly seeming tasks. A rebound can happen in the shortest of time periods as well. Count on it and take these measures and beliefs as truisms of the highest accord.

Still what can you do "until things turn around"? First start your business again. Act as if you did when you first started up – full of the highest and greatest measures of targeted work, intrinsic enthusiasm and boundless energy. Next, regardless of always being prepared and ready as well to "make that sale". It turns cash flow. Remember people run with the herd, most of all they want to reassure. Business is synergistic. It all works together. Business done builds and partnerships more business. It is like two gas stations at a corner will do the business overall of four. On top of that with cash flow your suppliers can be paid promptly. Everyone wins on this one.

Always remember that attitude counts. Along with attitude may be more aggressive pricing. That is you may well have to offer lower prices on products. Customers are hurting too. They can not afford to pay what they used to. Well not always. On top of that they may well have options and offers from your competitors that may well be very attractive and tantalizing to switch. Why give them the chance. Now is the time for spadework, to build and enlarge your foundation and reputation. Don not be shortsighted and try to make up volume either by charging more or even trying to overcharge those unwilling customers who come by, or are even in a bind. It is shortsighted in the long run. Totally.

If you can think of anything – work to provide your customers with "real value". It is all in a long run view. Long term value is always the best policy. You may well be tempted to cut corners – either on their end or even yours. This falls under the descriptive term of "false economy". At some point, not in the too distant future, cut corners will come back to haunt you. You may even have to bite the bullet and "do good" to repair and take care of problems. the worst if you lose a customer to another supplier and vendor, due to requests or work that you either feel is not in your customer's or your own best interest it is a wise choice. you will see that customer back – all the wiser and more appreciative of your product and services.

Lastly a downturn can be a time for planning and growth. Systems can be improved and revamped. Training and updates can be done. In business, in the new millennium, it is not often about costs so much and investments in a monetary sense but about time. Years ago we had lots of time but little money. Not long ago you may well of been in the situation of the reverse – lots of cash flow and even profit, but little time. During the current financial downturn you will have lots of time, and less cash. Well for the moment. One last point which is bedrock, do not do anything foolish out of panic. Maintain your ethics, morals, your work ethic and most importantly your reputation. Always think positive. Think for the long term and the home run.

Getting Your Ex Boyfriend Back – 5 Things You Shouldn’t Do

Getting your ex boyfriend back isn’t really that difficult if you’re using the right approach. The problem too many of us experience when doing the “get my man back” thing is falling into some common traps. Here are five pitfalls to avoid if you want to get your man back.

MISTAKE: Trying to be someone else.

Don’t try to transform your attitude or personality just because of a break up. You can get your boyfriend back without trying to completely alter yourself. The trick to reviving a relationship is using the right strategy, not trying to be someone you’re not.

MISTAKE: Relying on wishful thinking.

Hoping, wishing and wanting are just fine–but only when they’re combined with action. Too many relationships that could’ve been absolutely wonderful have fallen apart forever because people failed to take action. At some point (the sooner the better, by the way), you need to stop hoping and start doing.

MISTAKE: Begging and pleading.

Begging your guy to come back usually doesn’t work. Besides, you shouldn’t feel like it’s necessary to stoop to that level. You can go about getting your ex boyfriend back without a bunch of crying and begging. Don’t sink to that level. Instead, get your hands on a good blueprint for convincing guys to go from breaking up to making up.

MISTAKE: The waiting game.

Let me preface this by saying that it is possible to get your ex boyfriend back even if some time has passed since the break up. However, it is easier to get the job done if you act fast. The longer you wait, the tougher it’s going to get to revive things. If you want to be back in his arms, it’s better to start sooner than it is to wait. Besides, you don’t want him hooking up with Ms. Rebound if you can avoid it.

MISTAKE: Flying by the seat of your pants.

Getting your ex boyfriend back isn’t all that hard if you’re using the right strategies, but most women who try and fail to bring guys back usually don’t use the right strategies. Don’t go by pure instinct or the advice of girlfriends. Consider this: there are actual experts out there who have made it their lives work to figure out what works in relationships and what doesn’t. These professionals know what will bring people together and can show you which buttons to push while you’re getting your ex boyfriend back.

The Exceptional Cognitive Abilities of Dolphins

Dolphins are perhaps the most intelligent aquatic mammal on Earth. With their self-awareness and abilities to communicate, reason, express emotions, adapt, and perform altruistic acts, they have spread across every ocean and many freshwater rivers in the same way humans have populated every continent. The cognitive abilities of dolphins are exceptional. Below is a close examination of this mammal’s brain size, structure and remarkable cognitive abilities.

I. Brain Size/Structure:

Dolphins have a large, folded brain with an exceptional intellectual capacity. As a result, they learn extremely quickly and possess the ability to produce creative responses.

Although their cerebral cortex is 40% larger than that of humans, it is shallower, resulting in a neocortical volume that is 80% of that of humans. Nonetheless, both possess comparative cerebral hemispheres and folding to process sensory information and stimuli.

The average bottlenose dolphin brain weighs 1.7 kg (.4 kg more than the average human brain). When comparing brain size to body size – the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), the average dolphin brain registers between 4 and 5 (second to the 7 EQ of the average human brain and significantly higher than the EQ of any other type of animal including the great apes). This indicates a close proximity to human cognitive abilities.

In comparison to humans and other land mammals, a dolphin’s brain has five versus six layers in their neocortex, with no functional segregation. This likely permits humans to focus on greater detail and dolphins to process sensory information at greater speeds, which may be more critical in a 3-dimensional water-based environment with few distinguishable landmarks where sound travels 4-5 times faster than on land.

In addition, relative to brain size, a dolphin’s brain has a significantly larger cerebellum than a human. This is likely since an aquatic environment places greater need on motor control. Furthermore, a dolphin’s cerebellum is also larger due to the absence of functional specialization, since it is likely used for cognitive processing.

Unlike the human brain, a dolphin’s brain includes a paralimbic lobe to enhance integrated information and emotional processing. It is likely that emotions play a greater role in a dolphin’s life than a human life.

Dolphins generally sleep in a semi-alert state by closing one eye and resting one side of the brain at a time. They usually alternate, closing one eye for 5-10 minutes and then the other. Within a 24-hour period, dolphins generally rest each eye and each side of the brain between 3-4 hours.

This is necessary so that dolphins can keep a lookout for potential predators – usually large sharks and killer whales. Remarkably, many dolphins in captivity, having recognized the absence of potential predators, rest both sides of their brain simultaneously, sleeping with both eyes shut.

II. Social Setting:

Dolphins are exceptionally social animals, consistent with humans, great apes and other creatures displaying high levels of intelligence. They occupy home ranges and live in pods or schools known as fission-fusion societies based on subgroups of age and sex-related individuals with size varying dramatically from about 6 to up to several thousand. At times, when there is an abundance of food, pods can join with each other forming superpods.

Although membership in pods is flexible and fluid, members of a pod form strong bonds with each other. Some pods are long lasting while others are merely temporary associations of individuals formed for a common goal. Nevertheless, dolphins refuse to abandon injured or ill individuals, assisting them to stay afloat to breathe if necessary. In addition, mother dolphins are known to take loving care of their young while entire pods will risk their safety to protect a mother and her calf from harm.

Within these pods, dolphins maintain intricate social networks. Each dolphin has a few close associates and additional more casual relationships with others within the pod. Dolphins breathe together, hunt together, coordinate their movements to capture prey, and take turns ingesting such prey. In addition, dolphins frequently alert others when large amounts of prey are discovered enabling others to get more food while enhancing safety with their greater numbers since potential predators may be interested in the same food source. Dolphins work exceptionally well during times of danger.

Dolphins are among the few species known to teach their young survival skills and culture. Mother dolphins teach their young to hunt through playful-looking movements, pointing gestures, and repetition. When teaching a calf to hunt, mother dolphins consistently take 8 times longer to capture and ingest their prey – often capturing and releasing it so that their calves can learn through observation and repetition. This transfer of knowledge is called “theory of mind.”[1]

In addition to learning to hunt, young dolphins undergo extensive training. They learn about the rules of the pod, are disciplined when they act inappropriately, are taught about collaboration and cooperation, and about the identities and personalities of each member. Furthermore, to assist with the tasks, mothers share responsibilities and often take turns watching over hyperactive calves.

Dolphins are also taught to communicate through sound imitation. At this time, dolphins are the only non-human mammal to display strong evidence of vocal mimicry, vocal learning,[2] and learning of body movements through imitation.

In May 2005, it was discovered that the Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin passed on cultural behavior by teaching their young to break off sponges and cover their snouts with them while foraging for food. At the same time, it was discovered that some male dolphins in Brazil taught their young to use weeds and sticks as part of their sexual rituals.

Like other creatures of higher intelligence, dolphins at times engage in acts of aggression using their teeth and snouts as weapons. These disputes likely arise over competition for mates. At times these acts are so intense that targeted dolphins leave the pod or unfortunate calves fall victim to infanticide.

While sexual acts between dolphins are usually brief, foreplay can be lengthy and sexual acts can be repeated many times in a short timespan. In addition, dolphins may engage in sexual activity for pleasure and among different species, producing hybrids. However, at times, sexual activity can be violent with male dolphins displaying aggression towards both females and other males.

Complex play is also an important part of a dolphin’s life. Dolphins occasionally perform acrobatic tricks, play with seaweed and other food, produce bubble rings that they then observe and even bite, and play-fight among themselves. They also enjoy surfing waves and even interacting with boats and other creatures such as whales and humans.

III. Multi-modal Sensory Perception:

Dolphins primarily use four senses to perceive the world around them. These senses, used in simultaneity and conjunction with each other, are vision, echolocation, taste, and touch. Together they are used to integrate information from their surroundings. Such information is processed at high speeds. Yet despite the multi-modal nature of dolphins, it appears that they have no sense of smell.

Dolphins have acute vision both in and out of water. In addition, their eyes possess both rods and L-Cones enabling them to see in dim and bright light, and possibly colors within the red and green light spectrums. Dolphins, however, cannot see blue coloring except under certain light conditions when both the rods and L-cones, which have a very low sensitivity for blue light, are active. However, with 7,000 times as many rods as the human eye, dolphins can see extremely well in dark conditions such as murky water.

In addition, dolphins can move their eyes in different directions at the same time. One eye can look to the side while the other looks up enabling them to have two fields of vision with a 300° panoramic view. These two fields of vision can also overlap.

Dolphins generally hear tones within the frequency range of .25 to 150 kHz versus the average human auditory range of .02 to 17 kHz. In echolocation (the ability to see with their ears, in which the dolphin receives sound waves in the form of nerve impulses that are interpreted into a visual depiction of the object), dolphins may emit up to 700 clicks per second at between 40 to 150 kHz to detect the size and location of an object hundreds of meters away. In fact, dolphin echolocation is so sensitive that it can detect a 3-inch steel ball from approximately 90 meters away. Echolocation is also valuable in detecting echo signatures of potential prey.

Dolphins possess the ability to taste and differentiate between salt, bitter, sweet, and sour. This can be useful for navigation (ocean currents may have distinct chemical traces), orientation, discovering food, locating other dolphins, reproduction, and even stress sensitivity.

Dolphins also are extremely sensitive to touch which can be useful in sensing water movement and utilizing it to their advantage. The reason dolphins have such acute touch is because unlike human skin that possesses an epidermal layer of dead cells, a dolphin’s outer layer of skin is composed entirely of live cells.

IV. Shape Recognition:

Studies have shown that dolphins can match simple and complex shapes with precision. In an early study, dolphins were able to match a cube, pyramid, and rectangular prism with high accuracy based on vision and echolocation.

In another study, a dolphin’s ability to match 16 pairs of complex shapes and designs was tested through vision, echolocation, and multi-modal (vision and echolocation used in conjunction with each other) perception. The results were astonishing. During this experiment, an 8 year-old female bottlenose dolphin, Ebele was able to match 94.6% of the pairs through echolocation to vision (detected the pairs which hidden in a box through echolocation and then matched them through vision with pairs suspended in the water), 97.1% of the pairs through vision to echolocation (detected through vision pairs suspended in water and matched them with pairs hidden in boxes through echolocation) in a sample consisting of 384 trials. The results were even equally astonishing when Ebele’s multi-modal skills were tested. When tested to match pairs projected over a television screen (for which echolocation cannot be used) with pairs suspended in the water that allowed Ebele to use vision and echolocation simultaneously, she was able to identify 95.8% of the pairs in a sample consisting of 24 trials.

V. Mirror Self Recognition (MSR):

The ability to possess sentience or self-awareness to think about oneself in the physical and mental realms illustrates a complex level of abstract thinking that is rare among animals. Studies have shown that dolphins possess this self-awareness.

Studies have shown that dolphins can recognize themselves in a mirror and investigate their own bodies. They have also shown that dolphins are aware of their own behavior and body parts as well as their feelings of doubt when subjected to difficult memory tests.

During the MSR tests, dolphins proved that they possessed selective attention in that they could pay attention to themselves in a mirror and were aware that they were viewing themselves instead of another animal.

When dolphins were marked with non-toxic ink or water markers consisting of no ink, they immediately swam over to a mirror or the most reflective object (when a mirror was not present) to inspect themselves. Furthermore, when dolphins had been marked by non-toxic ink, they spent more time in front of the mirror, carefully examining the marking on their bodies.

With their self-awareness, dolphins can also form analogies between their bodies and those of another, even improvising when the body of another species looks nothing like their own body. For example, if a person raises a leg, a dolphin may raise its tail.

In another example of self-awareness as well as understanding of cause and effect, dolphins have been observed to splash water on people who have approached their tanks and then raise themselves out of the water to determine the response their actions had elicited.

Dolphins can also discern the difference between reality and television. When observing others being fed on television, they initially swam up to the TV to check for fish. Afterwards, upon realizing that televisions projected depictions of reality, dolphins swam to their feeding areas when they saw others being fed on television, in anticipation that they too were about to be fed.

VI. Language and Communication:

Being among the most vocal of animals, dolphins are capable of producing a broad range of sounds ranging from whistles (their primary means of communication), burst-pulsed sounds (primarily used to convey a dolphin’s emotional state ranging from pleasure to distress), and clicks (primarily for echolocation).

From a very young age, dolphins learn to produce a signature whistle (likely their name) based on imitation of a mother’s signature whistle. This signature whistle allows others to identify the individual. In addition, dolphins also learn to imitate another’s signature whistle so that they can likely address other dolphins by name, a key component of any functional language. They often whistle and respond to whistles to let others know where they are. In addition, a mother and calf who become separated, whistle frequently to locate each other until they are reunited. It is also believed that dolphins use whistles to refer to prey and objects. However, the extent is not known.

At the same time, it is known that dolphins use pulsed yelps during courtship, pulsed squeaks when in danger, and a rapid series of buzzing clicks when angry or involved in a confrontation.

In addition, dolphins also use body language as a means of communicating. This body language ranges from arching their bodies, bubble blowing, swimming with joined pectoral fins, flexing, head movement, nuzzling, jaw clapping, and even ramming and head butting.

Sufficient evidence exists that dolphins communicate information about “what,” “where,” and “who” while there is no substantive evidence of them communicating about “when,” “how” or “why.”[3] Furthermore, studies have shown that dolphins communication like that of humans, is intentional, the core purpose of developed languages. This communication ranges from playful, excited chatter to more serious conversation, for which the depth and content is not fully understood. A vivid example of dolphins’ intentional communication occurred in an aquarium in Hawaii. When a mother and her two-year-old calf were placed in separate tanks that were connected via audio link, both mother and calf were observed chirping at each other as they rapidly exchanged information over a telephone link.

In addition, studies have shown that dolphins are capable of understanding symbols and hand gestures (mainly from American Sign Language), can learn associations between symbols, sounds, and objects without specific reinforcement or direct intervention, and can classify relationships between events. In fact dolphins have proven to be as proficient as humans when it comes to comprehending constructed sentence structures with a strong understanding of syntax (knowledge that word order makes a difference and changes the meaning of a sentence, for example dolphins know they cannot fetch a person and put him or her on a surfboard) and semantics (comprehension of words and symbols). In addition, experiments have shown that dolphins can also discern between numerical values. They can comprehend if two or three objects are available and can also determine with little effort if something is absent. For example when a dolphin is asked to retrieve a Frisbee in the water, it does so with little effort when such a Frisbee is present. However, when asked to place a Frisbee that is present in the water on a surfboard that is absent, dolphins have been shown to respond that they cannot do so since the surfboard is not present.

VII. Memory:

Studies have shown that dolphins have excellent memory systems. This has been proven by dolphins’ abilities to learn sentence structure and meaning, retain human vocabularies of approximately 40 words in which thousands of sentences can be constructed, to memorize objects seen (matching them against new pairings consisting of pairs and triplicates of objects) and sounds heard (ranging from high frequency to long duration and match them against lists of between two to six different types of sounds) and by their ability to learn specific behaviors that can result in either adverse or rewarding experiences.

However, despite their excellent memory systems, the core of cognitive learning, dolphins appear to have a short-term memory that is more acute than their long-term memory. They were able to identify objects seen and sounds heard with a higher accuracy based on recency of effect.

VIII. Emotions:

Dolphins utilize vocal sounds and swimming patterns to express emotions in lieu of facial expressions.

Dolphins are generally affectionate creatures that show emotions towards their own kind as well as other species. They show concern for ill or injured members of their pod, they fiercely protect a mother and her young from predators, mourn for deceased members, and show excitement and joy when reunited with long lost members for which they had developed a bond. In addition, dolphins have displayed the capacity to show fear and concern and been shown to possess not only emotions that last for a short duration but also moods that could last for longer durations.

IX. Altruism:

Stories date back thousands of years about the altruistic, selfless nature of dolphins. Dolphins are not only altruistic towards their own kind but other species as well. Many examples of intra- and interspecies altruism exist. At times, dolphins have sounded an alert heard 10 kms away to call other dolphins to assist in saving a human being. This interspecies altruism is likely the result of a dolphin’s strong emotional feelings, self-awareness, “theory of mind,” consciousness, and perhaps even the existence of a conscience in that they could not bear to see a human being perish anymore than a person could bear to see a dolphin or cat or dog perish. As a result, they transpose feelings of anguish, hurt, and loneliness onto others producing the same feelings of compassion that humans have for another. In essence, dolphins possess an openness and caring for other species.

A dolphin reportedly saved Telemachus, the son of Odysseus when he fell into the sea and nearly drowned as was written by Homer (c. 850 BC). In gratitude, Odysseus placed the figure of a dolphin on his shield.

Roman scientist Plinius (AD23-AD79) wrote about a dolphin that befriended a little boy. The boy fed the dolphin each day. One day when the dolphin did not see the boy, it searched for him. Upon discovering that he had drowned, the dolphin pushed his body onto a beach, laid next to him and died. Roman mosaics also show men playing with dolphins.

In the 18th century, a pod of dolphins saved Vietnamese sailors after their boat was sunk by hostile invaders.

In 1996, Martin Richardson was saved from a shark attack in the Red Sea when pod of dolphins encircled him and created turbulence to scare away the shark. The dolphins did not leave until Mr. Richardson was rescued.

In 2004, a group of New Zealand lifeguards were saved by dolphins that had formed a protective ring around them. The dolphins maintained the ring for about 40 minutes until 3 m-long shark had left. The lifeguards then swam to shore.

In 2007 a pod of dolphins saved surfer Todd Endris from a great white shark that had attacked him.

In March 2008, a dolphin came to the rescue of two pygmy sperm whales, a mother whale and her calf that were stranded on a New Zealand beach upon hearing the whales’ distress calls. The dolphin led the whales 200 m along the beach and safely out to sea. This was similar to a 1983 incident at Tokerau Beach, New Zealand when a pod of dolphins herded a group of between 76 to 80 pilot whales and guided them safely out to sea.

Dolphins have been known to support a sick member of their pod and to standby an injured or ill companion regardless of the danger to themselves. They also work cooperatively in groups, assist each other in obtaining a mate, and put themselves at risk to defend a mother and her calf.

X. Conclusion:

Based on the exceptional cognitive abilities of dolphins, the existence of cognitive convergence (in which brains of separate species share remarkable abilities to process sensory information and input from their surroundings and to communicate and comprehend language), one can hope for the day when interspecies communication is possible so that all species may develop a greater understanding of the world, greater appreciation for each other, and most importantly collaborate for joint solutions to preserve our wonderful planet. When or if interspecies communication is made possible through technology (e.g. computer links – dolphins have already been proven to understand computer-generated bars and disks that symbolize words and phrases in sign language) and greater understanding, from what can we learn better about what it takes to and is like living in all the oceans of the world regardless of temperature, depth, and chemical content, and anecdotal evidence of marine world issues than dolphins?


[1] Dolphins and the evolution of teaching.  World Science.  7 August 2008.  17 January 2009.

[2] Diana Reiss, Brenda McCowan and Lori Marino.  Communicative and other cognitive characteristics of bottlenose dolphins.  Trends in Cognitive Science. Vol. 1, No. 4.  Elsevier Science, Ltd.  July 1997. p. 2.

[3] Margaret Klinowska.  Brains, Behaviour and Intelligence in Cetaceans (Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises).  26 September 1994.  17 January 2009.

Additional Reference:

Adam A. Pack and Louis M. Herman.  Sensory integration in the bottlenosed dolphin: Immediate recognition of complex shapes across the senses of echolocation and vision.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.  Acoustical Society of America.  1 August 1995. pp. 726, 729-730.

Comparing Quotes From Painters

Painting your house is the most cost-effective remodeling you can do, and it's a great time to consider doing so now.

When you get quotes from a number of painters, consider these factors when you choose among them:

  • Make sure the quotation clearly outlines what areas are being painted, the preparation process, and the materials to be used, and gives a firm price for the work. While issues can be discovered after work begins that may affect the price, the initial quote should give a reasonably confident price for the work, and a good amount of detail on all the steps of the process.
  • Make sure that preparation of the surface to be painted is taken seriously. With poor preparation, painting will not give good results.
  • The quotes should all list the type of paint to be used, and the number of coats to be given. If one firm intends to use a lower quality paint that another, or to use fewer coats, then the numbers will not be comparable.
  • In looking at the materials to be used, make sure that specific brands are given. "Paint" just does not give you enough information.
  • While there are many factors that can affect price – differences in overhead, for example, or seasonal variations – the truth is that a very low price can often be a warning of poor workmanship or cutting corners. A job as big and as visible as housepainting is not the place for false economy.
  • Do not even consider a painter who does not have the proper licensing and insurance. In Australia, look for painters with Master Painter certification. Your painter must have public liability insurance and be registered with the Department of Fair Trading. By law, customer and contractor must enter into a written contract with contractors being required to also provide warranty insurance for work over $ 12,000 – your job will have OH & S obligations and may also have EPA implications which need to be discussed with the painter and / or corresponding state government department. Non-compliance will jeopardize your rectification rights.

Michael Peters of Sydney Master Painters "Courtney and Wise, Pty" told us, "Remember, if it's not in writing, it's just a maybe." No matter what verbal guarantees you receive, be sure to compare quotes carefully to make sure that you're comparing apples with apples.

Why You Need an Elevator Speech!

Have you ever stood in line waiting for service? Stupid question, right? Have you ever used that time to introduce yourself, your product or your services to the individual in front of you, in back of you, or along side of you? If not, then you are missing a golden opportunity for potential business!

Introducing your product or your services in about the time it takes to travel in an elevator from the top floor of a building to the bottom is known as the elevator speech. This brief but concise presentation should be about 30 seconds in length and consist of anywhere between 100 and 150 words. The idea is to pack a lot of information into as few words as possible.

The value of this introduction can reap untold benefits if you make use of it not only in your business environment but also when you are NOT doing business; i.e. waiting in line for a Disney ride or for a ticket to attend Emeril Live in New York City or for the launch of a new product at Best Buy. Many people spend a tremendous amount of time waiting, time that could be put to good use.

When standing in line, have you ever noticed that conversations will erupt in various sections of the line? Some people always talk while waiting in line. Are you one of them? If so, have you ever considered focusing your words on what you do professionally?

If you are not one who talks easily to strangers, you should consider improving that aspect of your personality. Those who are most successful in business are those who are not afraid to take the first step and that means talking to others about your services. (Incidentally, if the thought of approaching a stranger frightens you, ask yourself what you stand to lose by taking the first step?)

Admittedly, starting a conversation about yourself or your business may not be the correct approach in all situations but a bit of small talk about the weather, the amount of time you will be waiting or even the reason you are both standing in line could be all the opening you need to introduce yourself.

The secret of the elevator speech is to capture their attention as well as their interest with your words. Telling the other individual that you are a website designer, a marketing expert or a financial analyst is not intriguing.

What sets you apart from all others in your profession? That is how you should tailor your introduction. Yes, you should tell them your name and your business but that is probably not enough to be memorable (unless you happen to do roofing and the one person you chance upon is looking for a new roof!). Create your elevator speech with an idea or a line that makes you unique because it is that one quality that they will remember. And that one quality could be the ticket for new business for you.

When I introduce myself, the other person may not remember my name or my business, but if I also tell them that I am the voice lady, they will remember me.

The opportunities that lie in front of you are numerous if you are willing to take the first step. Think outside the box the next time you ‘step into an elevator’ and explore the possibilities just waiting to happen. While the individual you speak to may not be the next Donald Trump or Oprah Winfrey, it could be someone looking for precisely what you have to offer.

Rules and Regulations Governing Vehicle Number Plates

In 2001 the laws governing the display and supply of replacement number plates were very changed in order to tackle the problems of false plates and mis-spaceed or illegible number plates. False plates are a problem to the police as criminals use them while committing crimes and illegible or mis-spaced number plates create problems for speed cameras and Automatic Number Plate Recognition systems.

Since the introduction of the new legislation all number plate suppliers have had to register with the DVLA and must put their name and postcode on each plate manufactured. The supplier must inspect proof of entitlement and ID provided by the customer and keep a record of both to be kept available for inspection by the police or trading standards officers.

The layout and materials of number plates are also specified in the legislation, and must comply with british standard BS AU 145d which governs the reflectivity and durability of the materials. There is only one font which is legal and characters must be 79mm high and 50mm wide. The gaps between each figure must be 11mm except for the gap between the two blocks of digits which must be 33mm. There should be a minimum gap at the top, bottom and sides of 11mm.

Europlates are allowed with a choice of flags such as St Georges Cross, Saltire, Union Jack, or Red Dragon. These are very useful for those that take their car to continental europe frequently as it negates the need for a GB sticker on the car.

Escudella Recipe – How To Make A Perfect Andorran Dish

While Andorran cuisine is mostly Catalan, it also bears some influence from Italy and Spain, due to the close proximity to this small country. Due to its mountainous regions, sheep is a common livestock animal, making lamb the favoured meat, but pork features quite often in Andorran cuisine as well, especially in the form of sausages and ham. Due to its large sea opening, fish is another common ingredient as well.

Fresh vegetables are paramount for the very finest of Andorran cuisine, and the most commonly used vegetables are potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage and salary. Staples tend to be pasta and bread, which is usually served with cheese and wine. Foei gras is also very commonly found on the Andorran dining table. Andorran cuisine is well known for using a variety of cooking methods and techniques. Using just the right amount of spices, or being able to pair the correct wine with your food is considered an essential part of Andorran dining.


Escudella is a classic Catalan dish, but with the deft flourishes and infectious personality imparted to it by generations of Andorran cooks, Andorra now has its own version Escudella, and it amazing enough to be referred to as Andorra’s national dish.

It is basically a stew made from gelatinous bone broth, with the protein in it coming from chicken, ham and sausage, along with veal or beef bones. There are many variations of Escudella, which is expected since it is considered a traditional peasant dish, and is a comfort food to a lot of Andorrans. Some cooks find the Escudella lacking in color contrast and vibrancy, but that’s just a visual component: once you’ve tasted it, you’ll be coming back for more and more and more. It’s definitely a hearty, one-dish wonder.

The Ingredients:

2 cups dry white beans

1 small ham bone

1 marrow bone (veal or beef)

1/4 chicken (or used several pieces, according to your taste for white or dark)

400 g raw pork sausages, sliced or formed into balls

2 slices cured ham, cut in chunks

1 large potato, cut in eights (Desiree or white)

1/4 cup rice

1 cup of pasta noodles (or pasta shells)

1 cup of cooked chick peas (yes, you can used canned ones to save time)

Salt and pepper (according to your tastes)

The Instructions:

Gently cook the sausage pieces/balls in a cast iron Dutch oven with vegetable oil over medium heat until browned. If you don’t have Dutch oven, a pot or flame proof-Casserole dish will do just as well.

Rinse the dry white beans in cold water and tie the ham bone and marrow bone in cheesecloth.

Put the beans, bones in cheesecloth, cooked sausage and ham in the pot or casserole. Fill it up with 8 cups of cold water, and add salt according to taste.

Bring to a boil, then reduce the flames and let it cook gently, covered, for about 2 hours. A good test of seeing whether it is ready is to check that the beans are cooked, and whether the chicken is very tender.

Remove the bones and discard them. If you like eating marrow, and most people do, you can save it for later.

Remove the chicken pieces and put them aside.

If there is only a little liquid left, you can add a bit more water.

Bring it to a rapid boil.

When it’s boiling, put in the cabbage, potatoes, rice, noodles (or shells), cooked chick peas and add pepper to taste.

Turn the flames down to a medium heat.

Cook for 30 minutes. You can test to see whether it’s ready by checking on the softness of the rice and potatoes.

Before serving, put the chicken back inside. If it’s on a bone, and you don’t like bones, you can remove them from the meat before putting it back into the pot or casserole.

Cook for a few more minutes. This is so that the chicken in the stew/soup is heated back up.

Season to taste.

Serve warm.


Baguettes or other French/Italian bread are the perfect accompaniment for this dish.


The final result should be a mix of stew and soup: think of the consistency of split pea soup.

What to Look For When Selecting A Plastic Surgeon

A potential cosmetic surgery patient needs to know what to look for when selecting a plastic surgeon. But first they need to know what kind of plastic surgery they want to have performed. This could have rhinoplasty, face lift, tummy tuck, liposuction, dermabrasion, botox injections or any one of many rules, or even a combination of procedures. Some plastic surgeons are more skilled at one type of treatment than they are at others.

One good way to find a plastic surgeon is by word of mouth. The patient should speak to people they know who have used a plastic surgeon for their own procedures and are happy with the income. Some might have before and after photos that they're willing to share. The patient should also look up websites like the American Society of Plastic Surgeons to help them find a local surgeon. Some have been reviewed on-line by their patients and former patients and these reviews should be read and considered.

All of the surgeons the patient may choose should be certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery and in good standing with their state's medical boards and licensing agencies. There should be no unresolved malpractice suits pending against them, nor should they have a criminal record.

When the patient has the names and contact numbers of a few plastic surgeons, they should arrange for interviews. They will probably have to pay for these interviews, but it's possible that insurance covers them.

They should ask the surgeon how much training they've had in the surgery the patient is interested in. A plastic surgeon should have at least six years of experience as a surgeon and at least three years experience in plastic surgery. They should be actively participating in any required continuing education courses and be trained in the latest plastic surgery techniques. Plastic surgery is a specialty where the technological advances can be quite rapid.

The plastic surgeon should only work with accredited hospitals, clinics and other medical venues. The surgeon should be able to tell the patient which facilities these are and where they're located. They should be willing and eager to work with the patient to achieve the desired results of the plastic surgery that they're seeking, but should be realistic about what plastic surgery can and can not accomplish. The safety of their patients should be first and foremost with them.

The choice between plastic surgeers may come down to how close their office is to the patient's home and if it's convenient to get to. The patient should learn what the office hours are and if there are emergency hours. They should learn the name of and meet the person who would be covering for the surgeon at that time.

Because a lot of plastic surgery is considered elective, it may not be covered under medical insurance. If insurance does not cover the procedure the patient wants, they should ask if they would be allowed to pay under an installment plan.

When the patient has chosen the plastic surgeon, then they can ask more specific questions about the procedure they want and what to expect from it.