How to Apply Hot Wax for Hair Removal

There are essentially two types of Hot Wax available for the beauty therapist / esthetician to use. Traditional style Hot Wax takes its name from the temperature it has been heated to, it can feel quite hot on the skin. And the new style Non Strip wax.

Traditional Hot Wax It is applied using a wooden spatula in a figure of 8 motion adding additional layers to build up the thickness and ensure all the hairs are caught in the wax prior to removal. The wax does have a strong grip of the hairs, but when it cools it sets hard on the skin and is often very difficult to remove. In some cases it can feel like using a spatula to chisel away at the wax to get it off.

Most therapists now are moving to the new style of Hot Wax that was initially developed in the early 80’s by a French chemist. This style of wax comes by various names such as Non Strip, Brazilian, Peelable, Hot Film etc. They all essentially work in the same way and with a much lower melting temperature which makes them a lot more comfortable for the client.

Before beginning the waxing check the area to be waxed, look at hair growth directions and where needed if the hair is too long (generally over 1cm in length) using some clippers trim it down to about a grade 2 (6mm) – but no shorter.

Before applying the wax cleanse the skin using a suitable cleanser product on a cotton pad. Next prepare the area for waxing by using a very small amount of pre-wax oil. Several wax companies now make these, commonly with a jasmine fragrance. Using oil instead of talc is a much better way of preparing the skin, you create a lipid barrier between the skin and the wax which means it sticks to the hairs and not the skin. As a result removal of the wax is much easier and a lot more comfortable for the client. If the wax slips off when you apply the oil you have put too much on, wipe over the area with a strip and this will remove all the excess oil and leave the perfect amount behind.

To apply the wax scoop out a small amount from the pot onto your disposable wooden spatula and apply the wax in the direction of the hair growth as you would warm strip wax. The line should be fairly thin, but not too thin as it will break when removed. There is a little bit of an art to getting the thickness correct, and each wax is slightly different so play about with yours to practice this. If the wax is too thin you can apply some extra over the top to thicken it up. You can also extend the length of the strip by overlapping slightly and continuing down.

To save time you can apply a second strip to the skin, adjacent to but not touching the first strip. Once you have completed applying this strip the first one will be ready for removing.

Before removing the wax just touch it where it is thickest to ensure it is set, then start by flicking the end of the strip with either your finger or the end of a spatula. Now bracing the skin to keep it tight remove the strip, if it is a long strip do not remove in one pull! Instead remove a short section, move your bracing hand near the end of the wax you are removing and stretch the skin again. Continue this all the way up the strip. Once removed press your hand into the skin or rub over once to soothe it.

Once all hair has been removed apply a generous amount of oil and remove it using your cleanser product on a cotton pad. This removes any sticky residue and prepares the skin for the after wax lotion or products.

For very short stubborn hairs you can apply the wax against the direction of hair growth and then remove as normal. This can help to lift the hairs into the wax to ensure they are gripped tightly in it.

What Every Homeowner Should Know About Carpet Cleaning Rentals

One of the most effective ways to keep your carpets in tip top shape is through the use of a carpet cleaning rental. If you don’t really know what I’m talking about, here’s a quick explanation. I’m referring to the Rug Doctors and Bissell machines that are available for rent at your local hardware store or supermarket. In Canada, the Rug Doctor is available for rent at almost every Safeway. The machines usually cost between $40 and $60 a day to rent. You definitely don’t need an entire day to clean your home though. An average size house will probably only take a couple of hours to do. The process is pretty straightforward as well. It basically involves pushing around a vacuum-like machine. The difference is though, that this vacuum uses a combination of water, cleaning solution, and vibrating brushes to deeply penetrate the dirt in your carpet.

Despite the fact that these rentals are cheap and effective, a lot of homeowners just can’t be bothered, believing that a weekly vacuuming will suffice. This is a big mistake. Vacuuming does a great job of picking up the dust and allergens that end up on the surface of your carpet, but it doesn’t go beyond that. You need a machine that digs deep into the roots of your carpet and eliminates these bugs right at the source. Now, the text that follows is by no means a complete guide. It should at least convince you that renting a carpet cleaner is the right thing to do though.

The most important reason for keeping your carpets in shape actually revolves around health. Most people think that carpets are nothing more than an ascetically pleasing and soft floor to walk on. This is all kinds of wrong though! The carpet actually plays an integral role regarding the quality of air in your home. Here’s how it works. Air comes in through the door every time you open it. With all the good stuff it brings in, it also brings in a lot of bad stuff. I’m referring to things like allergens and bacteria. Now, these little pests hang around in your home’s air for a while before eventually settling in your carpet. If your carpet is clean, this isn’t a big deal. The bugs end up stuck inside your carpet. This is a good thing as it means they are no longer in the air, being breathed by your family. Over time, the carpet gets dirty though. It’s ability to take on new allergens weakens so these little pests just stay in the air! Think about the way a filter stops working when it’s dirty. It’s essentially the same process… So how do you fix a dirty filter? Well, you clean it of course! The same can be said of your carpet. Keep it clean and the bacteria and dust mites won’t have a chance to infect the people living in your home.

If you can’t really be bothered to keep the allergens out of the air in your home, maybe money will motivate you. That right… keeping your carpets clean can actually save you money. You see, the carpet is a part of your home. It’s an investment that needs to be protected. If you let your carpet rot from the bottom up, you’ll eventually have to replace it entirely. This can be really expensive. Do yourself a favor and maintain the carpet that you have. You won’t regret it.

People who are buying homes always look the carpet as well. I know that when my wife and I were looking at places to buy, we always noticed a smelly, ugly carpet. It really turned us right off.

“No way in hell we’re buying that piece of crap home!”

The rest of it may have been really nice but we didn’t care because the carpet was so hideous. Keeping your carpet clean increases the value of your home.

So there are two solid reasons to consider an annual carpet cleaning rental – Health and money. Happy cleaning!

Reliable Carpet Cleaning Services – What Does It Involve

Owing to the woolen material used to make it, carpets are great magnets for dust and dirt. If there are kids and pets around the house, the need to clean your carpet is higher and more frequent. The collection of pet fur and food and color stains give the impression of poor cleanliness and hygiene habits. Not only this, a dirty carpet can be a source of serious allergies.

Regular vacuuming does help to keep your carpet clean; however, you will also need a professional clean up once a while. Here’s what professional carpet cleaning services involve.

There are many types of carpet cleaning. All the methods start with a thorough vacuuming. It is to extract the dust from your carpet or rug so as to make the other methods more effective. This method is called the dry cleaning method. The dry cleaning method also makes use of special cleaning powders. They are designed to attract the dirt almost as soon as they are applied. After the powder is applied and allowed to do its work, the carpet is thoroughly vacuumed.

Shampooing is the second method. Like dry cleaning, it is a kind of pretreatment. The carpet is sprayed with a cleaning solution or a shampoo. It is worked into the carpet with a machine and then extracted by vacuuming. These solutions are formulated with cleaning agents that remove dirt and stains from carpet fibers. They also contain deodorizes and brighteners that improve the look and smell of your carpet. Although effective, shampooing does not do a full-proof job as some dirt and microbes still remain behind.

The steam cleaning process is a hot water extraction process. It is considered the most effective of all carpet cleaning methods. The process employs heavy duty equipment to inject a solution of hot water and detergent into the rug or carpet. The dirt mixes up with the chemicals and is then extracted using high pressure machines. In case of steam cleaning for carpets it is important to make sure that all the moisture is removed. If moisture is left behind, it will lead to mold growth. Mold will not only destroy your carpet, but also emanates a foul odor and could give rise to allergies. Depending on how dirty your carpet is, the professional might also use the foam cleaning method; it’s a blend of dry cleaning and shampooing.

Besides these carpet cleaning solutions, there are other add-one services you can opt for by paying an extra charge. The first is applying deodorizers for that fresh clean smell. You can also use a carpet sealant. This solution seals the top layer of the carpet and prevents straining. It also preserves the colors of the fabric and keeps it from fading.

Thus, there are different methods of cleaning a carpet and a professional carpet cleaning service will offer most of them. You should choose a method that is designed for your carpet material. If you are not familiar what to use, speak to professional carpet cleaners. The cost of cleaning depends on the type of carpet cleaning service you opt for.

Starting a Carpet Cleaning Business and Choosing the Best Portable Carpet Extractor

The carpet cleaning business continues to expand rapidly across America. Independents and franchisees are growing by large numbers. Carpet cleaning companies are cleaning carpet, tile & grout, boats, automobiles, furniture, drapes, walls, carpet dyeing and much more. Some specialized carpet cleaning companies have even branched out into the lucrative duct cleaning business and water restoration business. Although the residential carpet cleaning business is large, even larger is the commercial opportunity. Although running a commercial driven carpet cleaning business might require more equipment and might not be able to be run out of your home the opportunities are large. Hospitals, office buildings, hotels, warehouse facilities, retail outlets, restaurants, apartment complex common area’s, club houses and much more all need this service more than once a year.

It is because of this fast growing business that there are dozens of manufactures of carpet extractors to choose from. Over $100,000,000 in carpet extractors was sold in 2008! With this huge opportunity getting started requires choosing the best machine possible for your budget to begin. It is important to determine how much machine you would like. There are machines that do both carpet and tile & grout, though if you’re going to be cleaning mostly cars or lugging this machine up stairs often it may not be a machine you’d want because of its weight. The following is a quick summary of the different features to look for when choosing a portable extractor:

  • PSI – There are extractors that go from 50 psi – 1200 psi. If you plan to do mostly residential homes and upholstery having a machine that does is between 50-250 psi is usually sufficient. Too much pressure and you’ll get the common compliant that you’re leaving the carpet to wet buy homeowners. When cleaning upholstery typically you’ll only be at 50 psi and for most residential carpets you’ll be either at 100 or 200 psi. If you plan on doing a lot of tile and grout you’ll want high pressure of 1200.
  • Heat vs. No Heat – Hot water does assist in the cleaning process. It will help in breaking down the oil and debris in the carpet. Soil in the fibers typically will extract easily with no heat, though the oil in the fibers of a carpet are more easily extracted with heat. Heat will speed up the process, though with no heat agitating the carpet before will assist or a higher PSI will also assist in extracting without heat. The labor cost if running crews is much lower using heat than using only a cold extractor. Another option is pouring hot water in the extractor and pre-spraying before hand. The downside to heat is you’ll be using more electricity and risk tripping the breaker with some machines.
  • Tank Size – The bigger the tank the less stopping to refill when cleaning. If you’re going to be doing a lot of automobiles and upholstery a 3-6 gallon should be ok, though if you’re doing a lot of rooms you’ll want a larger tank.
  • Weight & Size – Remember you’ll need to load the machine in a truck or van. Some machines are terribly heavy, while others aren’t.
  • CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) – This is the air flow which will assist in the drying time for the carpets
  • H20 Lift – This is how much the lift is for pulling back up the water that’s been released into the carpet. The more you lift the dryer you’ll leave the carpet. A good balance between lift and CFM tends to be better.
  • Look for attachments you’ll need. Most portable carpet extractors aren’t sold as packages so you’ll want to make sure to purchase the vacuum & solution hose, wands, upholstery tool and crevice if needed. Packages are put together occasionally so make sure to check.

In conclusion it is essential to choose the best machine for your budget when starting a cleaning business. The better the machine the greater the saving are in time spent at each job site and quality that your customers will receive. Good Luck and always feel free to visit us online and chat with a personal account manager with further questions.

Herbs – The Alternative Cure For Acne, Pimples, Eczema, Spots and Many Skin Problems

For those of us who prefer the natural, tried, tested and true to the “fast food” way of the modern life, nature has always had the answers to our needs. Since day’s undocumented, herbs have been used to treat most medical and beauty problems we may encounter, and until the end of times, this will continue to be so as long as we look after our green heritage and preserve our herbal inheritance.

Herbs can be used internally (as a drink or eaten fresh) or externally; as infusions, creams or oils. For the purpose of this article I have grouped them in their functional categories, to make using them easier. I have included simple recipes (that apply to all the herbs listed below the recipe), to help you get the job done. Good luck!

External Treatments

On the spot Treatment

A date looming and Oh No! An ugly spot! No problem, try the following:

Squeeze juice, fresh from the stem, leaf, seed, fruit or flower, directly onto the spot to kill germs, cool inflammation and improve blood circulation.

Dandelion (stems)

Nasturtium and Evening Primrose (petals)

Aloe and Bulbinella (leaf)

Garlic (clove)

Lemon (Juice)

Infusion, face splash and face steam. (As a daily cleaning treatment)

Make an “infusion” The standard recipe is: 1 teaspoon dried herbs (3 teaspoons fresh herbs) to 1 cup of boiling water, let stand for 5 minutes, strain, and let it cool. Apply to the skin with cotton wool, or as a face splash or a face steam.

Lavender and Parsley. Flowers and leaves can be used for facial steams.

Chicory – for inflammation, boils and septic areas.

Patchouli and Bergamot – powerful, antiseptic, anti-fungal and anti bacterial, regenerates skin cells

Mask, poultice or compress. (A few times a week or when the problem is really troubling)

Make a face Pac (mask) or paste (poultice) or compress (Cotton wool soaked in liquid and placed on face); the standard method is: the plant is crushed and a little water is added, leave on until dry, then wash off.

Horseradish – (paste) replace water with milk.

Stinging Nettle – (paste) eczema and acne remedy.

Comfrey and Fenugreek – (paste) use leaves.

Marigold – (paste) (flower petals) clears and softens the skin

Aloe – (paste) crush leaves (no need to add water) heals and prevents scaring.

Basil – (paste) no need to add water, draws out puss.

Camomile – (compress) reduces inflammation.

Chickweed – (poultice) relieves inflammation and brings boils to a head.

Borage – (Face Pac) made up with cooked barley and bran.

Astringent (Twice a week or before that great date, to look great.)

Use an astringent to tighten the pores, to prevent sagging and to reduce the tired look. Make an infusion, the standard quantities are; 1 cup of herbs to 1 litre boiling water, let it stand until cool. Apply to face with cotton wool.

Evening Primrose – use leaves for greasy, spotty skin, eczema and rashes.

Camomile – use petals, tones clears, purifies and softens the skin.

Horsetail – clears tones and purifies skin.

Scented Geraniums – a mild astringent to cleanse and improve circulation.

Face Cream: (Long term, twice daily treatment with cream)

Make your own face cream. The basic recipe is as follows: Use as a basis a combination of honey, lanolin, glycerine and almond oil in equal proportions. Slowly heat in a pan, when melted, add crushed herbs in the ratio 1/5 herbs to 4/5 basis and stir until the mixture is boiling. Simmer gently for 20 minutes, then strain, whisk mixture until thick and creamy and quite cold. Pour into pots and cover.

Bulbinella -soothes all skin problems.

Aloe – use the leaf sap to make a soothing and healing moisturizing cream.

Myrtle – for blemishes.

Marigold and Comfrey and Salad Burnet for dry skin

Camomile – for oily skin.

Face Oils: (Long term, twice daily treatment with oil)

(Make in the following way): Dry the herb. Add to a basic oil like Almond, Jojoba or Sweet oil (the ratio is ½ herb and ½ oil) Place in a closed jar, let it stand in a warm place (shake daily) strain after 10 days. Discard herbs, repeat process with fresh (dried) herbs until you have the strength you desire. This should be at about 4 to 5 weeks. The greater the concentration herb to oil, the more effective the mixture will become.

Marigold – (flower petals) soothes inflammation has antiseptic properties, heals and softens.

Tea Tree – is an antibacterial, soothes irritated skin. More effective if mixed with Witch Hazel.

Rose – clears tones and purifies the skin.

Evening Primrose – helps clear up spots.

Scented Geraniums – Is useful in balancing the sebum in oily and dry or inflamed skin.


To solve a skin problem, applying products to the face is not enough, the body has to be cleared form the inside. The benefit is to clear the blood; blood removes impurities and transports necessary nutrients to the skin. There are two different ways to do this. The first to drink an infusion (tea) the second is to include herbs freshly eaten in your diet.

Tips for Embroidery on Knit Sweaters

Sweaters are everywhere. Men, women, children and teenagers are donning these popular garments year-round. While a sweater is fashionable in itself, the addition of a rich-looking, embroidered design adds to the garment’s appeal and increases its value. Of course, getting that design on the sweater can sometimes be a bit tricky.

Because of its nature, sweater knits often create headaches for the embroiderer. Threads are “eaten.” Entire designs disappear. The fabric itself puckers and waves. Sometimes the design is even cut right out of the garment by the needle penetrations. Fortunately, you can avoid these potential problems and achieve high quality results.

These adjustments need to be made right from the beginning of any job. Having a well d design is essential in embroidering on sweater knits. You need to let your digitizer know beforehand that the design will be used on a sweater. Better yet, give the digitizer an actual sample of the fabric for testing purposes. Simply communicating with the digitizer can save you a great deal of trouble down the road.

There are a few tricks in digitizing for designs that will be stitched on knits. To stabilize the fabric and create a foundation for the design, try increasing the amount of underlay stitches put into a design. Also try to keep the design elements large and advises against attempting small, delicate details or fine lines. Instead of the usual logo composed of a symbol and lettering, why not advise your customer to try only a symbol? It is more understated, has more graphic punch-and is easier to produce. Once your design is digitized, it’s time to start stitching. By following a few guidelines, you should be able to produce top quality work.


Taking the time and effort to prepare a knit garment for embroidery can mean the difference between a great looking design and just plain shoddy work. At this stage, your primary goal is to stabilize the fabric. This can be accomplished with the combination of backing, dissipating spray adhesive and topping. When working with knits, you should always use a cut-away backing as opposed to tear-away. It’s a good idea to spray the backing with an adhesive before placing it on your garment. Gently press the backing to the garment. Make sure not to press too hard, as this could distort the ribs. If your design lacks a substantial amount of underlay, compensate by using some type of plastic or water soluble topping. For best results, lightly coat your topping with spray adhesive and then press it to the garment with the palm of your hand. By sandwiching the knit between the backing and topping, you’ve increased its stability. The adhesive spray helps prevent the garment from slipping while the machine is running.

Hooping tips

Because knit fabric is so stretchable, extra care should be taken when hooping for embroidery. Knits stretch in all directions. To avoid distorting the fabric, gently pull the knit in a vertical direction only.

Make certain the rib of the fabric is straight. If it’s placed in the hoop at an angle, it will cause your design to distort and pucker. Place the garment into your hooping board and carefully smoothing out the wrinkles. Then, gently press the top frame into the bottom. Again, make sure all the ribs are parallel to each other. The knit should be taut, but not so tight that the fabric is stretched out of shape.

Besides stretching the garment out of shape, hooping too tightly can cause other problems, especially with the finer knits. One embroiderer relates a hooping horror story. A customer had given him an expensive cashmere sweater to embroider. He quickly hooped the item, put it on his machine and stitched a handsome design. However, when the hoop was pulled apart, the entire area that had been framed fell from the sweater. He definitely learned a lesson about hooping that day! While this is an extreme example, a too tight hoop can cut the fibers of the knit and leave unsightly rings around the design that won’t disappear. Another factor to consider is the size of the hoop.

It’s best to match the hoop size as closely as possible to the design size. Some people like use an eight-inch hoop for a two-inch design. That’s not a good idea because a hoop that’s too large tends to cause knit fabric to pull and pucker.

Techniques for sewing

Once the garment is hooped properly, you’re ready to begin stitching your design. If you have a large order, it’s a good idea to get a sample of the fabric or garment you’ll be using and do a little testing. In this way, you can determine the best possible machine settings for the particular product. Always use a ball point needle on the knit garment. A regular needle cuts the threads of knit fabric and can even cut the stitched design away from the garment itself.

The size of the needle is dependent on the type of sweater knit. Fine knits require a size 9 or 10 ball point needle. Needle sizes 10 to 11 work best on medium knits. And, heavier knits make it necessary to work with 12 or 14 size needles. It’s also smart to slow down the speed of your machine a bit to get better results.

Hopefully, by following these suggestions, you will be able to produce handsome embroidery on today’s popular sweaters.

How To Fix a Broken Skateboard Deck

There’s something about riding on a repaired skateboard that is inexplicable. It adds a new challenge, and brings a little fun back into the sport that has gotten so serious over the past few years.

If your skateboard has chipped, try saving the pieces and gluing them back on. If the pieces are nowhere to be found, or are completely unusable, then it’s time to get out the bondo. Bondo is great for repairing skateboard chips – you can just mix it then spread it over the cracks and chips and it will prevent them from getting worse. Any excess bondo can be sanded off and the board should ride just like new. It’s important to stop chips early on in the deck’s life, because if they are allowed to grow, eventually the whole tail or nose will wear down and the board will be irreparable.

If you’ve ever snapped a deck, you can fix it with some metal reinforcement sheets that they use for concrete. Have it cut to the size of the deck and then attach it to the deck using small screws, tape, epoxy, or whatever else you have. Make sure to line up the break on the deck as best you can so everything fits together properly. The metal is very light and will make boardslides easier, while keeping your graphic safe. If the board snaps again, just do the repair with a new sheet of metal.

Flatspots on wheels can be repaired without too much hassle. Take an electric drill and put the wheel on the end of it so that it will spin. You may have to wedge some cloth in between the wheel and the drill so that the wheel doesn’t get damaged. When you have the wheel on the end, turn on the drill and get the wheel spinning then place it on some sandpaper. This will grind the wheel down evenly and get rid of any flatspots. Try to keep even pressure on the wheel so that you don’t make them oblong.

If your bearings are slow, take them out of the wheel and remove the bearing shield. Clean them using some bearing cleaner, then add some bearing grease to them and they should ride like new. Some bearings just need to be replaced, but most of them can be cleaned and will work perfectly.

Fixing Trucks

If your trucks are worn down, try epoxying a small piece of rebar or pipe to them. This will keep the trucks from wearing down too far, and you should be able to grind with ease, depending on what you use for the repair.

If you lose an axle, or if the axle gets stripped, you’re basically out of luck. You can try epoxying the axle back into place, but there is really a lot of pressure on that part of your skateboard.


These repairs are really only temporary, so if you try any of them don’t expect them to last a lifetime. Be safe when working with power tools and high strength glues; you wouldn’t want to get hurt. The best thing to do if your skateboard really needs replacing is to buy yourself a few blank skateboard decks. These are cheaper than normal decks and last just as long. A blank skateboard deck is great for the money.

Hamilton Beach Water Cooler – The 4200 and 87330 Water Coolers Reviewed

Hamilton Beach is a well-known manufacturer of many moderately priced useful household appliances, including the Hamilton Beach water cooler. For people who are on a limited budget, a Hamilton Beach water dispenser may be the ideal choice. Available in mini and freestanding cabinet models, one of these water coolers can be purchased for less than $100 in USD.

The 4200 Hamilton Beach water cooler is a mini cooler that sits easily on most countertops and fits a 2, 3, or 5-gallon water bottle. This handy little unit is just the right size for homes, small offices or classrooms. It dispenses both hot and cold water, has easy to use soft touch buttons and a whisper quiet motor. Simple indicator lights on the front of the unit indicate heating, chilling and power.

A childproof safety switch prevents small children from accessing the water to guard against burns and messy spills. The piercing valve is spill resistant; making bottle changes as seamless as possible and the drip tray can be easily removed for cleaning. This Hamilton Beach water cooler is an environmentally friendly product, with no CFCs, and can be purchased for about $50.


  • Compact
  • Quiet
  • Dispenses both hot and cold
  • Child proof safety switch
  • Environmentally friendly


  • Takes up counter space – needs an appropriate surface
  • May be too small for large offices
  • Silicone drain stoppers are difficult to remove
  • Has been known to leak due to damaged drain stoppers

The 87330 Hamilton Beach water cooler is a slim freestanding model that fits nicely in any corner or nook in any type of room. It dispenses both hot and cold water and has a built in storage cabinet with convenient shelving for storing coffee, tea and drink mixes. The large sized push-button taps are easy to use, and the hot one has a childproof lock to prevent accidental burns to small children.

The spill proof piercing valve makes bottle changes easy and dribble-free and the sturdy bottle holder supports even the heaviest bottles. It is able to cool water at a rate of 5 gallons per hour and heat it at an hourly rate of 1.33 gallons. With a price of about $70, this Hamilton Beach water cooler is much more economical than renting a similar unit from a major water company.


  • Free-standing
  • Convenient storage cabinet
  • Easy to change bottles
  • Supports bottles very well
  • Child proof hot water tap


  • Pours rather slowly
  • Taps are recessed too far back and close to the back wall, making it difficult to fill larger containers
  • Some people have mistaken the storage cabinet for a mini-fridge

A Hamilton Beach water cooler is an economical and convenient way to provide access to hot and cold water to anyone who needs it. These reasonably priced units are widely available in large stores such as Target and Wal-mart and also on many sites throughout the Internet. 

Woodworking Beginners: Introduction To First Time Crafts

Woodworking: The Process Of Making Something Using Wood

The art of woodworking is one of the most ancient and widespread. From the earliest days when humans first experimented with the many uses for wood, our civilization has had a connection with this material, in all its varieties and forms. And the growth and advancement of mankind has been closely intertwined with our ability to improve our woodworking skills and to develop new uses for wood.

Primitive civilizations used wood as material for building shelters, tools, weapons, utensils, and other items necessary for survival. As time went on, they began to expand the use of wood to include the creation of creature comforts such as furniture and decorative items. They also built boats and rafts for exploration, travel and trade.

As skills and knowledge continued to develop, and woodworkers began to understand the wide variety of properties of forests from different tree sources, wood became one of the most widely used materials, found in nearly all areas of life, from home to work, production to pleasure. Those who had a talent for working wood became important artisans and craftsmen, and guilds and workshops were developed to help document and preserve the art, train apprentices, and represent the interests of those involved.

Different specialties within woodworking began to develop, each with their own tools, projects, and techniques. These categories included:

  • Wheelwright – A person who makes wooden wheels and spokes.
  • Cooper – A person who makes barrels and related goods.
  • Turning – Using a lathe and cutting tools to create symmetrical, round or curved pieces such as table and chair legs, pedestals, and candlesticks. Some wood turners, called bodgers, focused specifically on making bowls, cups, and other household utensils.
  • Carving – generally reiterates to any woodworking project that involves removing pieces of the original wood to create a finished product.
  • Carpenter – historically a wagon maker but over time the term has come to be associated with woodworking in general and more specifically with home and commercial construction.
  • Cabinetmaker – Someone who specializes in making cabinets, shelving, and some pieces of furniture, such as chests, curious and other storage items.
  • Shipwright – professional shipbuilder, often assisted by craftsmen from other areas of woodworking.
  • Parquet and Marquetry – Creating beautiful and often complex patterns with different wood veneers. Originally used as decoration on furniture and some homes, but now has expanded to include artwork and picture making. Parquetry typically involves the use of geometric shapes, while Marquery draws from life images and scenery.

Today, some of these categories have become obsoleste as steel, plastic, cement, and other compounds have replaced wood in many situations. While wood is still used in numerous important applications, including home and commercial construction and furniture making, woodworking has become an activity practiced less for necessity and more for pleasure, challenge, satisfaction, and honor.

For some, woodworking is still a means of making a living, but for many, it is a fun and rewarding hobby. In addition, the tools, techniques, and applications have become more advanced and sophisticated. A person just getting started in woodworking could soon become overwhelmed with the amazing number of choices.

Most experienced woodworkers would agree that the art is still a progressive experience, taking many years to learn and advance in skill-level. The knowledge needed to create a stunning and functional chest of drawers, grandfather clock, desk or other fine piece of furniture for example, takes time and practice to develop. And the skills needed often overlap the different areas of specialization in woodworking.

Not knowing where to start or how to focus their interests, many people new to woodworking become discouraged and frustrated and soon give up. In addition, taking on projects that are too difficult or trying to work with uniquate tools can also lead beginners to decide that woodworking is not for them.

Luckily, tips and ideas from expert woodworkers can help those new to woodworking get off on the right foot. In an effort to provide a comprehensive overview of woodworking we have done the work, traveled and talked to experts in their fields, and grilled them over their secrets, their challenges, all their experiences, and their key advice for beginners. Those interviewed include fine furniture makers, master carvers, seasoned shop teachers, and several other skilled craftsmen who have been working with wood for decades.

One of the most common suggestions given was to start with the basics of general woodworking and the use of common tools used, and to avoid getting too complicated too fast. There was strong emphasis on building a solid knowledge of different woods, using key hand tools, starting with simple projects to develop key skills, and learn about safety.

As one expert toy maker, shared, "Getting a good working knowledge of woods and basic hand tools is the best thing a beginner can do to ensure future success. know how to measure, cut, shape and join with hand tools, you'll be much better at it when it comes to using power tools and woodworking machines. "

Taking the experts' advice, comments, and tips to heart we explored those beginning, foundation skills in a way that is easy to understand and does not intimidate beginners. You will learn about:

  • common woodworking terms
  • the trains and uses of some of the most popular types of wood
  • general woodworking safety
  • different types of hand tools and their proper use and care
  • basic types of projects for beginners
  • introduction to woodcarving and the tools needed

Also provided is a resources list with details on different publications, websites, and other sources of information for beginning woodworkers.

It is important to note that the field is filled with talented and skilled craftsman of both genders. Women are active in all aspects of woodworking and have established reputations for quality work. We spoke with several women in gathering material and their input was an important contribution.

That is one of the beauties of woodworking; it is a field that is open to people of all ages, genders, races, backgrounds, educational levels, etc. Anyone willing to learn and to take the time to practice can become skilled.

Woodworking is a vast and interesting realm with seemingly endless applications and opportunities to learn. Enthusiasts can take their skills to many different levels and interest directions, and even make a living with their woodworking abilities. By mastering the basics and establishing a solid foundation, you take the first, and sometimes most important steps to becoming a successful woodworker.

Setting Cap Stones – Installation Techniques

One of the biggest areas of failure in masonry wall construction is the cap stone or lack of one. This article will deal with the proper installation of a cap stone and leave inferior design (lack of one) for another day!

For centuries the cap stone was the proper termination method for sound masonry construction. With the modern technology available today you can be assured a leak proof termination to your new masonry walls with a cap stone system that protects the masonry wall from unwanted water infiltration.

What are cap stones? – Simply, cap stone are cut stones that ‘cap’ or terminate the top of a masonry wall such as garden walls, parapet walls, firewalls, etc.

After the masonry has reached it final height the collar joint (the joint between the inner and outer masonry walls or wythes) is carefully filled, smoothed and brushed. Then a sheet of copper flashing is cut to the desired length and width of the wall.

Some contractors lie this directly onto the wall and lay their cap stones on top of it. Others may use a bituminous coating to cover the top of the entire wall prior to laying the copper flashing in place. Butt joints in the flashing are covered with a bituminous coating approx. 12″ – 16″ from the joint and a top piece of flashing is lapped over the joint. Either way is acceptable but the bituminous coating offers an additional layer of protection.

Why use copper flashing? – Copper is used because it has a strong history of holding up to the elements. In this situation any leaking that occurs through the cap stone or joints will drop to the copper flashing and flow out from under the stone and down the wall face, keeping it from the interior of the wall.

You can also crimp the flashing with drip edges and locking seams for the joints if you so desire. Each increase in details adds increased cost to the project but also increases the durability of the wall.

Setting the stones – Now that the flashing is in place and secure you begin to set the cap stones by placing a full bed of mortar on top of the flashing where you will place your first stone.

Smooth and level the mortar bed as needed and set your stone into place. Then level you stone with a mason’s level cut your joints beneath the stone making sure all voids are filled and then continue the same process for each additional stone. As you proceed with each additional stone, leave the head joints (the joints between each individual stone which is 3/8″ – ½”) open.

Filling the head joints – Now that the stones are in place it’s time to come back and tuck-point (fill in with mortar) all the head joints. Some stone will stain very easily from the cements used in mortar so test your stone. If needed, tape the stone on either side of the joint until you have completely filled (tuck-pointed) and ‘tooled’ that joint, at which time you remove the tape and brush the joint clean.

Your tuck-pointing mortar will be the same mortar that you used to ‘bed’ the stones with but will be ‘stiffer’. This will allow you to compress the mortar into the joint with a tuck-pointing tool assuring a tight and full joint. When you ‘tool it’ (finish the joint with a concave joint tool) you will compress the joint even further and as you ‘slick it’ you draw the cements to the surface of the joint giving you a water proof seal between each stone.

Following these few tips and suggestions you can have cap stones that will provide a lifetime of protection from water entry for your new masonry wall.

What to Expect From Living in Luxury Apartments

What do luxury apartments have to offer? Well, they are included in well-maintained residences, with exclusive neighborhoods, which are generally not accessible to the general public. That creates a safer environment for the residents, thus allowing them to be more relaxed and enjoy their time. Moreover, the maintenance staff finds it easier to keep the landscape of such properties clean, as most of the time there are no frequent cars or visitors to spoil the sidewalks or grass.

Safer environments

The companies offering luxury apartments are very serious about the safety of their residents. This can be observed from the entrance in such residential communities, where the security staff manages the complex gate to ensure that nobody except the residents or their guests enter the premises. This helps creating a safer environment, allowing residents to be in the open at anytime of the day or night, without worrying about strangers. Moreover, the area is very quiet and calm at night as it’s free of noise coming from random traffic or loudly talking groups of people.


Apart from providing enhanced safety, comfort and maintenance, luxury apartments living also includes extraordinary services and top class amenities. The rooms benefit from a large variety of amenities, in order to truly define a luxurious living. Some of the exceptional facilities that such apartments provide are:

Spectacular view

The most common features of any luxury apartment include open areas and many facilities designed to make your life more enjoyable. Such apartments usually come with vast terraces and balconies that offer spectacular views of the city. The kitchens and bathrooms are very large, to ensure your comfort at all times. You have a friend from the animal world? Don’t worry, these residences are pet-friendly. Depending on the residents’ requirements, they can choose between apartments having one to three bedrooms, duplex residences and studios.

Vehicle Safety

Another important feature for the residents of luxury apartments is the security provided for their vehicles. Garages are provided in convenient places in the community. You’ll appreciate having a place to park your car that will protect your vehicle from any damage caused by prevailing weather, broken branches of trees and flooded streets. There are also very remote chances of another car accidentally touching your car and causing dents and scratches, or damaging it in any manner.

Enhanced Apartment Security

Many people prefer living in gated luxury apartment community for the enhanced security provided to each apartment. Since the entrance is restricted, no strangers can roam around the area to create trouble or damage any property. There are no sales persons to disturb the residents on weekend or any other day. Most companies offering such apartments have adequate arrangements to screen people that don’t reside there. This adds to the security of not just residents, but also the security of any workers employed by the companies for doing various maintenance jobs.

Effective Self-Defense – Kubotans

When it comes to self-defense products, no self-defense items come close to being simple, practical, and effective as Kubotans, or Kubatons as some people mispronounce them. They are simple because they are cylindrically shaped and made of solid plastic or metal. They are practical since they are small enough to conceal and carry. And they are effective for the reason that they are impact weapons designed to either control or inflict pain on your opponent. But, how do you pick the best one since they are several variations in design, color, and material?

Pick one that is meant to be carried most of the time, such as a keychain Kubotan which has an attached key ring at one end. That way, you cannot leave home without it. Also, choose a Kubotan that has a pointed end. Pressure equals force divided by area in physics, P=F/A. Therefore when you apply force, you exert more pressure with a pointed tip than a Kubotan with a flat end since you are striking a smaller area.

Keychain Kubotans are available in black, red, blue, and silver. The best color for such a weapon is black since it is less visible and stealthier to carry. The most appropriate method for wielding the Kubotan against an attacker is when the perpetrator is caught totally by surprise.

You maximize the impact of your strikes with a Kubotan when it is composed of metal instead of plastic. Metal has more weight and density and less prone to warping and breakage compared to plastic. Additionally, gripping a metal Kubotan feels more solid and authoritative, giving you a sense of confidence.

The black pointed keychain Kubotan measures 5.5 inches in length and 0.4 inch in diameter. It is durable, maintenance free, legal to carry in public, and compact enough to conceal. I own several of them, each with its own set of keys, and always have been carrying one for years on and off duty.

Teflon PTFE Virgin and Mechanical Grades, What is the Difference?

There is often some confusion about the difference between the most common grades of PTFE, often called Teflon: Virgin Grade, and Mechanical, or Reprocessed Grade. This information will help you understand these two types and their different applications, and therefore save you time researching the information.

Material and applications

PTFE ( polytetrafluoroethylene ) is a type of plastic most commonly known as the brand name Teflon®. PTFE resins have a continuous temperature rating of 260°C (500°F). Mechanical properties begin to degrade above this point.

Both Virgin and Mechanical grades are 100% PTFE material and have similar chemical properties. These are both unfilled types of PTFE. Other types are available with fillers such as carbon, bronze, or glass to improve performace for certain applications.

Mechanical PTFE is an economical, reprocessed PTFE with slightly lower physical properties than virgin grade. It is also referred to as “recycled” or “reclaimed”. Reprocessed material is added during the manufacturing process; usually a small percentage but it varies. It is more economical than virgin. This is the grade used for most applications, for less demanding uses where high purity materials are not required, such as noncritical chemical, electrical, and mechanical applications. It has better wear resistance and compressive strength than virgin grade. Not suitable for food contact.

Virgin PTFE is a higher grade, pure material, and is more expensive. It is made with no recycled material added. It is chemically inert up to 500ºF, the best chemically resistant material available. Virgin has better physical properties and retains flexibility in low temperatures. It is a good electrical insulator, with high dielectric properties. It is FDA approved and is used in the pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and cosmetics industries. It is often used for medical or electrical applications. Virgin has better friction characteristics, which may be important in some applications.

How do you know if you have Virgin or Mechanical PTFE?

Distinguishing between the two grades by sight is certainly not easy! To the naked eye, the two grades may look identical.

Virgin grade is often a purer white when compared side-by-side, and should feel more smooth and slippery.

Additional information

PTFE is commonly called Teflon®, which is actually a DuPont trademark name for its brand of PTFE resin. Different brand names are used by other manufacturers, such as Fluon ® or Dyneon ®.

If you would like to refer to the ASTM standard, see ASTM D1710 Standard Specification for Extruded Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Rod, Heavy Walled Tubing and Basic Shapes.

The History of the Honda CD125 Motorcycle

It was a fabulous good looking motorcycle, as well as fairly uncommon beyond Japan. During 1969 a good ‘improved’ single seat design along with heavy duty travel luggage rack had been launched, still using the ‘sloper’ motor as well as electric start, designed for Home market designs.

Around 1971 arrived the 3rd version of a commuting 125 twin’s, on this occasion using the vertical engine, still with the exact same tightly spaced cylinders as well as side driven cam chain.

The actual wheel dimension currently getting extended from 16″ to 17″, produced this motorcycle just a little bigger, the Honda CD125 eventually bowing out with the 1973 design, using the solely genuine modification remaining the dropping of the oh so ‘Sixties’ tank side chrome panels. Every one of these function each day 125 twins are actually enchanting as well as sought after by enthusiasts, which single carburettor as well as 4 speed gearbox becoming one of many charms for this reduced powered however oh so smooth twin cylinder unit.

The Honda CD125 places itself in the touring class replicating a similar model known as the Honda CA125. The many features that this model offers are top of the line with a fuel economy of 52.4 liters. The width of the Honda CD125 was vary small at only 780mm allowing easier turns and helping the machine way less in its entirety. The height was also vary valuable to bikers allowing both a driver and passenger a more to the ground appeal.

The weight of the Honda CD125 is light when both empty or filled with 52 liters of petrol. When this model is dry it weighs in at just around 133kg and while filled with gas the weight only raises by five digits to 142Kg. The wheelbase is also larger for a more comfortable riding experience at 1,280mm. The Honda CD125 was and still is a high quality bike that is made for the road and the distance that follows.

Honda’s CD125 is stocked with an air cooled stroke SOHC 4 Valve engine with a displacement of 9.4:1. The engine’s lubrication system is known as a forced and splash wet sump. This helps maintenance stay lower than the average of similar motorcycles. Honda included an electric start engine with a valuable CDI ignition. The CDI ignition allows the 5 speed transmission to get a jump start and remain in an all-star state wherever you are bound to ride it.

The frame of the Honda CD125 is a diamond steel tube with a caster at 27 degrees. This helped manufacture in the rear swing-arm for rear suspension and the telescopic fork front suspension. Like many bikes of the kind, the Honda CD125 includes a drum for both the front and rear brakes. The equipped speedometer features many need to know aspects such as miles driven, gas and a few other components.

A Credit Card For People With Bad Credit – $10,000 Guaranteed Starting Credit Line

The recent financial crunch has caused many would be credit issuers to tighten up on approvals for those consumer applicants with less than perfect credit. Even new credit seekers who do not have poor FICO scores, but also have not had the opportunity to establish a good credit profile as of yet are being turned away and treated as high risk applicants.

The problem for people who fall into either of these categories is that they have a legitimate need to either establish or re-establish their good credit profile and raise their FICO score, however without easy access to credit card approvals their ability to accomplish this necessary task is extremely difficult. Ironically, it’s these same card issuers who would like their applicants to have established solid credit histories who will not approve them in the beginning to help them prove that they are worthy of a new card approval. This vicious credit circle affects over half of the households in American today.

A few companies have recently stepped in to fill the credit needs of this growing consumer segment and offer instant online approval credit cards for people with bad credit or no credit history at all. These credit providers will typically issue new credit cards without a credit check and regardless of the applicants past or present credit history. Some of these cards are issued as major brand logo credit cards, prepaid debit cards, secured credit cards and online catalog shopping cards which allow the card holder to purchase household and gift items from the credit grantors web based store.

One such card offered with no credit check is a new Platinum Card that boasts a huge beginning limit of $10,000 for all of its approved applicants, even those with poor credit or no history at all. As long as the applicant is at least 18 years of age and has a valid U.S. checking or savings account, the applicant will be approved. The Platinum Card also features 0 % interest on any unpaid balance and there is no employment verification required for approval. The card does require a minimal initial membership fee, however once the new member is approved, the card issues each user a whopping $2,500 bonus to use towards unpaid balances in addition to the generous starting limit of $10,000.

For consumers who are having trouble getting approved for a traditional credit card with strict income and employment requirements, this particular card for people with bad credit may be a valuable option to acquire a high limit credit card with no credit checks or employment verification.