Internet Services – These Different Types Of Internet Services Will Leave You Speechless

Did you know these different types of internet services?

All of us are hugely dependent on the Internet in our day to day life. Quite often, you face problems with your Internet services and want to switch to another service provider. You may or may not have too much choice there, depending upon your location. Furthermore, one internet service provider may just be as good or as bad as the other.

If you happen to be a commoner and you do not like your current provider and you are desperate to switch, you are further foxed by the terms broadband, fiber optics, cable and satellite. They add to the many problems that you are facing and render decision making a bit more cumbersome.

If you are looking at the best ways to find a dependable internet service for yourself, you may like to look at the following aspects:

Different types of Internet Services

The term “Broadband” covers cable, satellite, DSL and fiber optic services for providing Internet services to customers. In contrast to the Dial-up services which were more common earlier, broadband keeps you constantly connected.

1. DSL – DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) operates over your normal telephone lines. Out of two choices, namely, ADSL (Asymmetric DSL) and SDSL (Symmetric DSL), ADSL is cheaper with faster download speeds than upload speeds. SDSL provides about the same fast download and upload speeds. You may like to have SDSL if you often back up large files to your cloud.

DSL is an economical option with stable speeds. However, if you are located far away from the service provider’s central office, your connection may be slower and less reliable.

2. Cable broadband – This is provided by your cable television service provider through coaxial cables. This is faster than DSL, more widely available than fiber optic broadband and does not depend on your distance. However, as the available bandwidth is shared with others in your neighborhood, the speed may be rather slow, particularly during the peak hours.

3. Satellite broadband – It uses satellites to beam Internet signals to your dish. It even covers areas where DSL, cable and fiber connections are not available. However, it is a bit slower than other broadband connections.

4. Fiber optic service – The latest in Internet connectivity, it operates using light over an optical network and offers the highest speed connections. But it is available in limited areas only.

Before finalizing the Internet Service Provider for your Internet service, please also consider the availability, download and upload speeds, cost, terms of service, add-ons, special features, and reliability and customer support services by the ISP.

What Does a Lis Pendens Mean in the Foreclosure Legal Process?

One of the legal terms that homeowners in foreclosure often come across is lis pendens. They may initially find out about the term when attempting to refinance their house and the mortgage broker turns them down because of this type of document filed against the property. If a lis pendens has been filed, it will show up with the county recorder as a document affecting the title.

A lis pendens does not stop or prevent foreclosure at all, as it is merely a document serving notice upon any other party that is researching the particular property affected by the document. In most cases of a homeowner behind on the mortgage payments, the lender’s attorneys will file the initial foreclosure lawsuit with the court and a lis pendens will be sent to the county clerk or recorder’s office to indicate that a particular property is in the process of a pending litigation.

The term lis pendens is Latin for “lawsuit pending,” and the lawsuit that it is referring to is the legal process of foreclosure. If the lender was not suing for the property to be sold for payment of the defaulted mortgage loan, this document would never be filed in the first place, as no lawsuit would be pending.

In fact, a lis pendens specifically indicates that the property is facing foreclosure, and the document will show anyone, such as a title company or prospective foreclosure refinance lender, researching the real estate that it is involved in a lawsuit. So the lis pendens is meant to signify the foreclosure; it does nothing to prevent the foreclosure, but it does not itself affect the homeowners’ ability to save their home.

The most commonly used legal mechanism that would stop foreclosure is filing bankruptcy with the court, and even this only puts the process on hold while the creditor and debtor are coming to an agreement to negotiate a settlement of the debt.

Homeowners may also wish to consider getting rid of the lis pendens affecting their home by mounting a defense against the lawsuit that has led to the foreclosure process. This is a direct defense of the litigation, though, not an extra legal process like bankruptcy that may be used to put the suit on hold.

If a lis pendens is filed with the county recorder against a piece of property, this indicates that the house is already in some stage of the foreclosure process. The homeowners are no longer in the preforeclosure stage, or merely behind in payments. At this point, foreclosure can not prevented, as it is already being pursued by the lender and its attorneys — it must be stopped, and homeowners need to begin putting together a realistic plan and researching various ways to stop foreclosure, such as a mortgage modification, repayment plan, selling the house, or a foreclosure bailout loan.

Faux Silk Curtains For Contemporary Interiors

When decorating it is a accepted detail that silk curtains offer a luxurious and stylish style to your décor. Traditionally silk curtains have been seen as a sign of riches and prosperity. In modern times silk is still highly considered in the textiles industry, actually so much so that some embroidered real silk curtains are priced well over a few thousand pounds.

In light of its exquisiteness and cost of real silk, curtain designer have invented with a textile made from polyester named as ‘faux silk’. At present in real world there is no legitimate substitute for natural silk, as the finer fascination for it cannot be altered by machinery, but actually there is nothing that has been seen close to it than the latest faux silk curtains we have found.

Faux silk curtains have the similar sparkle reminiscent of pure silk, the similar deep colours and amazingly even the same touch and feel. We all identify the one predicament with pure silk is upholding. You would be really need to dry clean them and this can be high-priced bearing in mind how hulking silk curtains can be with furbishing and finer material to shield the pure silk from sun wear and tear. This is not a hitch with ready made silk curtains as they can be washed in domestic washing machines and then simply air dried. Natural silk also creases very quickly and ironing them is not an alternative unless carried out capably. This actually is not a problem with faux silk curtains, which can in fact be ironed on the opposite with a usual iron on warmer temperature.

Its these simple but vital changes that make ready made silk curtains a real world option to re-consider when shopping.

As you might envision, faux silk is much more affordable. Curtain manufacturers all around the world are at the moment designing ready made silk curtains in various designs. You can now have eyelet fauxsilk curtains, embroidered fauxsilk curtains and even dupion faux silk curtains. Dupion is a faux silk stuff with a pronounced slub effect. With dupion curtains the stress is more on texture, while the twinkle is a lot less. This tends to make them ultimate for those who don’t like the shiny effect of silk.

Another type of faux silk fabric is taffeta. Taffeta curtains have a more well-defined shimmer, quite opposite to dupion curtains. Even the cloth is a lot softer for the taffeta curtains, and there is actually no texture. You could compare taffeta curtains to satin material.

Recently due to the downfall in demand, you may acquire taffeta being more usually taken up in mix-up of stuff such organza voile to design elegant latest curtains.

Regarding voiles, I in fact forgot to bring on faux silk voiles. These are really striking and graceful. Can you visualize a voile filling your space with day light while providing off slight touches of shine. Words simply can’t express the effect, you are recommended to view these faux silk voiles. Very related to organza voile but they are comparatively more dense and positively reflect more rays into the area. Recently we are having a choice of eyelet faux silk voiles in red, black, white and cream colours.

Organza voile is likewise designed with a silk theme. Really not as rich as faux silk voiles, hence matching for situations where more light is required during the day.

Eyelet faux silk curtains can be measured as the most popular at present with nearly 30% of the ready made curtain market share alone. Can be found in a range of rich colours such as black, green, pink and even gorgeous reds.

Lately due to mechanical enhancements you may get embroidered and even printed silk. One of the recent designs is a pintuck cream and brown fauxsilk curtain with pencil pleat heading. This is a rare matching of two shades of silk on one curtain.

Faux silk voiles and organza voile are rising in popularity as people are getting known to their attractiveness. As mentioned before a lot of organza voile are now accessible with taffeta for a newer touch.

Most ready made silk curtains are accessible in different tones and fashions at the moment, and because of the affordable prices, there is no expected downturn in reputation for this curtain type.

How To Power Wash Your Shed

When you have found one of the many sheds for sale, the next step is to keep it preserved. The most important thing to consider in the upkeep of your garden storage shed are: Time, Cost and Methods. All of it comes down to repairs and approaches to schedule them correctly along with how much you want to pay for them. Here we’re going to discuss strategies to keep your shed in good working order as well as how to do it on a budget.

One thing that will quickly ruin you shed is dirt and grime accumulation. Dirt will most probably occur regardless of whether you prefer it or not, but the important thing is to stay in front of it. Make sure to differentiate dirt from black mildew. Black mold will take place even when it is hot and dry. The good news is that dirt and mold can be quickly cleaned off using an electric power washer. Although the paint is peeling, go on and power wash that shed just before repainting a shed. If there is green mildew it means there is moisture trapped somewhere. Before you electric power wash consider and discover the source of the trouble. Check and make sure all mold, dirt and debris are removed before you prime and paint. The most beneficial cleaner to make use of for power washing is bleach mixed with drinking water. Make sure you check your concentrations and protect your skin and eyes before starting.

Probe the wooden exterior and interior of your shed to test for strength. If the wood looks gentle or soft, you could be subject to wood rot. Checking for wooden rot is very important to accomplish any time after a tough rain or simply a rainy season. Should you uncover wood rot: under no circumstances fear! Repair is easy as well as not very expensive to resolve. You should remove all rotten wood areas as well as test the surrounding wood to ensure the rot hasn’t spread. Swap the region with new sound wooden and prime and paint. It is actually always much better to repair wood rot mainly because wood rot is usually localized and would not require a whole replacement of siding.

The overall cleanliness within your garden shed is important to its longevity. Use insecticides on the inside and exterior of your garden barn to help keep out carpenter ants and bees which can damage the wood and add to wood rot. Aside from chemicals to keep wood destroying insects out, a little bit of elbow grease and a keen eye are all you need to keep you new shed or pole barn looking good for years to come. If you do start to notice some determination, hopefully you can follow our simply steps to rectify the situation and keep on enjoying your new garden shed.

Why Litigation Is Nothing More Than A Business Tool – 26 Unbreakable Rules of Litigation!

From Bill Gates at the end of the last century to John D. Rockefeller at the end of the previous century; from Rick Scott, founder of Columbia Health Care, to AT&T: from Richard Branson and British Airlines to Dan Peña and The Financial Times; from government, banking, insurance and every other facet of world commerce – to grow geometrically and stay around, litigation must be (prudently) used and mastered.

I will, as briefly as I can, memorialize the salient points of using litigation as a business tool.

Now before I start, I want it on the record, some 50% of my 30-year track record of litigation has had nothing to do with winning money, i.e., many lawsuits have been over principle, some were to right a heinous wrong such as slanderous remarks made about me; and some were because an entity just needed a good comeuppance and nobody else would carry the flag into battle.

I, like Don Quixote, have fought many a windmill.

As you’ve heard me speak and write about, when building your ‘Dream Team,’ you want Big Five accountants and a large national or international firm of lawyers – the best representation you can’t afford!

Unlike the success-oriented fees I coach you to use when facilitating transactions, no law firm will litigate initially on this basis.

Perhaps if your case is especially strong, they will do it on a contingency basis. Unfortunately, you will be using, from time-to-time, litigation as a positioning tool and your case may not be something you can seriously leverage.

A year or two ago, being left with a pig-in-a-poke, I had to litigate a case having specious facts at best to support my desired outcome. Fortunately, our (my) apparent lust for litigation was stronger than their desire to fight a hard fight, so a reasonably good settlement was finally arrived at.

Of course, during this process my good lawyers counseled us, advising our case needed to be much stronger, etc. Even with great lawyers, it is their job to tell you the downside risks. Again, what happens is you are often scared from pursuing your case.

Good lawyers win so-so lawsuits. Great lawyers can win lawsuits in which you have little or no chance to win.

Three of my favorite litigators over the years are Steve Susman and Cyrus Marter IV of Susman Godfrey in Houston, Dallas, Los Angeles and Seattle and Tim Harris of Charleston Revich & Williams in Los Angeles. All three have dug me out of some pretty big black holes.

I’ve dealt with them 10 and 20 years respectively. They are worth every penny they charge!

Our judicial system works, but we grow up being afraid of it. It’s way out of our comfort zone so we preclude ourselves from benefitting from it. Normally the cost associated with it keeps us from using it.

In fact, I’m currently embroiled in litigation where the ancillary players to the litigation have rights which are being severely violated. A large group of people could bring great pressure to bear, but they’re afraid because of previous bad experiences. They could get what they deserve but aren’t pursuing their best interests.

There are lawyers who take on cases for humanitarian reasons, if the case warrants, in business as well, i.e., big major corporations taking advantage of the system because of their size alone.

Why do you want to initiate the lawsuit so you are the plaintiff? As the plaintiff, you pick where and when the lawsuit is fought and probably ultimately adjudicated.

This can be a huge advantage. And secondly, the plaintiff is allowed two closing arguments, meaning you (your lawyer) gets to address the judge and/or jury once and then again after the defendants’ closing argument. This can also be very important.

26 Unbreakable Rules of Litigation

#1 CHOOSE YOUR BATTLES

#2 CHOOSE THE VENUE

#3 BE THE PLAINTIFF

#4 HAVE THE BEST REPRESENTATION

#5 LISTEN TO YOUR HEART

#6 DON’T LISTEN TO YOUR SICK STOMACH WHEN YOU’RE OUT OF YOUR COMFORT ZONE

#7 DON’T LISTEN TO RELATIVES, FRIENDS, ET AL

#8 LISTEN TO EXPERIENCED LITIGANTS – LIKE ME!

#9 GENERALLY SPEAKING, DON’T WORRY ABOUT THE COST (THIS IS VERY HARD!)

#10 BIG LAWSUITS ARE BETTER THAN SMALL ONES

#11 ELECT JURY TRIALS, AS OPPOSED TO A JUDGE ONLY

#12 PREPARATION (YOURS) IS EVERYTHING – KNOW THE FACTS

#13 PRACTICE DEPOSITIONS AND TRIALS

#14 IF YOU ARE THINKING OF A BETTER STRATEGY, GET A NEW LAWYER (NOT TRUE IN MY CASE)

#15 NEVER GIVE UP

#16 DON’T BE INTIMIDATED BY THE PROCESS

#17 USE MOCK TRIALS (PRETEND TRIALS YOU DO IN FRONT OF A HIRED JURY)

#18 DRESS SIMPLE AND CONSERVATIVELY IN COURT – NO JEWELRY EXCEPT A WEDDING BAND; WHITE SHIRT, PLAIN TIE AND DARK SUIT FOR MEN AND THE EQUIVALENT FOR WOMEN; SHORT GROOMED HAIR FOR MEN

#19 DON’T LOSE YOUR TEMPER IN COURT – IT’S OKAY TO CRY IF IT’S REAL

#20 HAVE YOUR SPOUSE IN THE FRONT ROW EVERY DAY. CHILDREN ALSO IF POSSIBLE. OTHER FAMILY MEMBERS IN SECOND ROW IS OKAY

#21 NO QUOTES TO THE PRESS OTHER THAN ‘WE BELIEVE IN OUR CASE AND THAT IS WHY WE WENT TO COURT’. YOUR WORDS CAN EASILY BE TURNED AROUND.

#22 WHEN YOU BREAK FOR LUNCH OR A RECESS, REMEMBER NEVER TALK IN PUBLIC ABOUT THE CASE – YOU NEVER KNOW WHO MIGHT OVERHEAR

#23 WHEN YOU FIND A LEGAL TEAM THAT WINS, STAY WITH THEM

#24 ALWAYS TELL THE TRUTH, NO MATTER WHAT. THE TRUTH SHALL SET YOU FREE.

#25 DURING VIDEOTAPED DEPOSITIONS AND IN COURT, LOOK AT THE CAMERA AND THE JURY. MAKE EYE CONTACT.

#26 WHEN TESTIFYING IN A DEPOSITION/TRIAL, IF YOU DON’T KNOW THE ANSWER, SAY YOU DON’T KNOW THE ANSWER

It’s a closed world of top litigators. Virtually all big law firms have good to super-good lawyers. All big law firms don’t have great litigators. You don’t always need a great lawyer, but sometime if you grow geometrically, you will.

Like any other project management, litigation must be managed. Unfortunately, like speech-giving, you become a great litigant by going through a learning curve.

I don’t mean you have to get involved in losing efforts (like making bad speeches so after some time you make good speeches) to get in a position to win in court. Large law firms will allow you to get ahead of the learning curve.

The Quantum Leap methodology talks ad nauseam about following your dreams. Life without dreams is like a bird with a broken wing – it can’t fly. I wrote this newsletter because sometimes you’ll need litigation to follow your dream.

Go out and kick some butt, and don’t let conventional wisdom keep you from achieving your dream.

Conventional wisdom says Don’t Litigate.

All high-performance people and the great organizations of the last one hundred years did and do litigate as I write this letter.

Don’t litigate frivolously – but don’t be afraid to either.

To Your Quantum Leap,

Daniel S. Peña, Sr.

Logistics Engineering

Logistics engineering mainly deals with the application of engineering methods to solve logistics problems. Logistics is the science of planning, organizing, and executing activities for delivering the required goods or services to the right location at the right time. Logistics engineering supports every stage of an activity to satisfy customer requirements.

Modern technologies, communication links, and control systems are essential to manage materials, services, and financial goals. Logistics engineering help to improvise new materials to suit the situation for a cost effective performance. Strategy management, research methodology, industrial engineering, supply chain management, quality assurance, and systems simulation and modelling are integrated in the logistics engineering field. This linking supports the functional area of logistics such as procurement, maintenance, transportation, disposition, and distribution.

Asset tracking and e-logistics used in the field of logistics management increase the efficiency and reliability of the distribution process. The method to trace the status of ordered products increases confidence among the customers. Analytical models and computer simulations help to improve overall performances. The proper implementation of logistic engineering processes ensures operational reliability, less maintenance cost, personal safety, and customer confidence. Designing of new products with high quality and less cost is recommended in logistics engineering. Maintenance planning using modern technologies of troubleshooting and built-in test equipments aid in providing speedy and accurate maintenance services.

Automation of system helps to upgrade the production process. Implementation of industrial engineering in the logistics management increase quality and quantity of production. Manpower requirements are reduced due to logistics engineering and help to lower the cost of production too. This helps to assure business objectives globally. Logistics engineering help to rationalize the process of logistics services, improve customer satisfaction, and save budgets of business dealings.

Grete’s Metamorphosis

Gregor Samsa’s sister, Grete, in The Metamorphosis, by Franz Kafka, seems to undergo a metamorphosis that is parallel to her brother’s. As Gregor takes on the characteristics of an insect, Grete gains her independence and maturity.

Before Gregor’s transformation, Grete seems to be his only close companion. She writes letters to him while he is away from home, and her first words to Gregor in the story are kind and caring: “Gregor? Aren’t you well? Are you needing anything?” (368). Later in the story, we learn that Gregor had planned to announce to his family his intention to send Grete to the Conservatorium, suggesting his close relationship with her.

After Gregor’s transformation, Grete initially seems to care about and feel concern for his well-being, as she would have before his metamorphosis. When she first sees Gregor, she shuts the door quickly in surprise, but she opened it again and “came in on tiptoe, as if she were visiting an invalid or even a stranger” (378). She didn’t want to disturb him and acted very polite around him. She sets out different types of food for him, to see which he likes the best. She also notices his new habits of his, and helps him keep them. For instance, leaving the chair by the window when she notices that he moves it there.

Through this, however, there is an obvious detachment and separation from Gregor after his transformation. The fact that Grete entered Gregor’s room feeling like he was a stranger implies her changed feeling toward him. Gregor had a basin “for his exclusive use,” as if his family could not use something after he had touched it (378). Also, his sister never touches the food that he doesn’t eat, even when it is apparent that he didn’t touch the food.

The sight of Gregor seems to cause a change in Grete’s behavior toward her brother. This may be evident when Gregor covers himself with a sheet, and he “even fancied that he caught a thankful glance from her eye” (382). Before this incident, Grete views Gregor as her brother in an unfortunate state. After she sees him, however, she begins to see him more as a creature than as her brother. At the same time, Gregor is beginning to eat less and act more like an insect than a human.

Another example of Grete’s changed attitude toward Gregor is her increasingly protective attitude toward the responsibility of taking care of Gregor, which soon seems to be more of a struggle between Grete and her parents than that of care for her brother. Gregor’s predicament creates an opportunity for Grete to be seen as more helpful and responsible to her parents. It seems that Grete becomes more concerned with cleaning Gregor’s room to prove her responsibility and maturity to her parents, and not necessarily with looking after Gregor’s welfare. Gregor still sees her, however, as “only a child despite the efforts she was making and had perhaps taken on so difficult a task merely out of childish thoughtlessness” (382).

Grete has her own opinions of what is good for Gregor, which many times opposes Gregor’s feelings, and she sees herself as “an expert in Gregor’s affairs” (384). Also, quite frequently these opinions oppose her parents’ views, which indicates that she is disagreeing with them for the sake of disagreeing, and again not concerning herself with the well-being of her brother. Grete is given a great deal of power when taking the role of caretaker over Gregor, and she uses the full extent of this power, and perhaps even abuses it. she is the one to decide if someone is allowed to visit Gregor and she determines what should be done with Gregor’s room.

Progressively, Grete begins to act against Gregor and begins to show less consideration and concern for his feelings, just as Gregor is beginning to care less about his family and more about his own situation. When Grete’s father comes home after Gregor has scared his mother and is out of his room, Grete doesn’t try to defend Gregor. Gregor gathers that “Grete’s all too brief statement” will lead to his father’s anger (386).

Another example of Grete’s changed feelings toward Gregor is the appearance of Gregor’s room. At first, when she notices that he likes to crawl around on the walls and ceiling, she clears his path by taking away furniture. Later, his room becomes a storage area for unneeded things from the rest of the house. She begins to neglect areas of Gregor’s room that become increasingly unclean.

Gregor has also gained an outside perspective of his appearance through the actions and reactions of Grete. In one instance, after Grete comes early to Gregor’s rom and sees him, she “jumped back as if in alarm and banged the door shut.” Gregor then states that “this made him realize how repulsive the sight of him still was to her” (382).

Grete continuously views Gregor as more of a creature, until Gregor comes out of his room to hear his sister play the violin and scares away the three lodgers. Grete says, “I won’t utter my brother’s name in the presence of this creature” (394). She continues to refer to him as a creature by referring to Gregor as “it” and, finally, questions whether the insect really is Gregor.

The final realization of Grete’s metamorphosis is at the end of the story when Grete’s parents “became aware of their daughter’s increasing vivacity” and see that “she had bloomed into a pretty girl with a good figure” (399).

The point at which Grete is seen as having changed through the situation into a young woman is also the point at which Gregor is viewed by himself and the people around him, as well, as no longer human, but an insect to be thrown out with the garbage.

Natural Astigmatism Cure – How to Cure Astigmatism Naturally

An uneven development in the cornea of the eye that results in poor eyesight is called astigmatism. In this condition, the cornea is no longer round, but becomes oval. Symptoms may be headaches, blurred vision and eye pain. The individual with astigmatism usually is treated with surgery or corrective lenses. An astigmatism cure that relies on natural remedies is much less traumatic.

Three main categories for improving vision naturally have gained significant approval. The first natural treatment is exercise. There are several exercises that can be used to improve vision and focus. Exercises such as yawning widely and rolling the eyes in a circular motion several times per day help to relax facial muscles. Change your focus from near to far rapidly and blink your eyes rapidly to reduce eyestrain.

An astigmatism cure that is based on diet is another popular remedy. Some of the foods that have been recommended include any foods that are high in antioxidants. Kale, peppers and cabbage are good examples. Berries such as acai, goji, and blueberries are also recommended. Carrots and carrot juice contain ingredients helpful to improve vision, especially when mixed with celery, cucumber, parsley and spinach.

Another type of remedy for astigmatism is herbal. These herbs can be applied to the eyes topically or as teas and other concoctions to be sipped. Two to three drops of rosewater mixed with lime juice in the eyes several times daily is one herbal example. Gentian root, pine bark extract and grape seed extract are examples of herbal remedies.

An astigmatism cure should be undertaken as early in life as possible to avoid further deterioration of eyesight. Some of the more exotic cures rely on mind body interaction that may not be realistic for young children. Changes in diet and doing the exercises can be done with help from a parent.

Overcapitalisation – Why Cost Does Not Equal Value?

If you are unaware of the real estate terminologies then you might be wondering what overcapitalisation is. Basically, overcapitalisation refers to an overspend on construction or renovation costs which means the actual cost of a construction/renovation of the property is superior to its real market value. Overcapitalisation is also considered as asset inflation. Confused? Let’s make it simple. For instance, Mr A is planning to renovate his house by remodeling the bathrooms, basement and kitchen; upgrading the living room and bedrooms; adding a porch and swimming pool; installing vinyl siding, fencing front entrance and extending the garden. Mr A decides to use upper end expensive quality materials in the renovation. While doing so, he forgot to consider the real market value and quality of the houses in this area, which was lower than the value of his upgraded house. This is overcapitalisation.

Now the next question is what should be done to avoid overcapitalisation? Simple! When renovators and home builders are planning for home improvements, they must keep in mind some factors which have greater impact on the overall value of the property. For instance, evaluating neighbour’s housing style, demographics of neighbourhood, streetscape, design trends of neighbouring property, and recent resale prices of the homes in the area.

Although generally improvements and renovations add value to a property, it will be wrong to say they will ALWAYS increase its value. The reason is that if renovations and improvements are overdone, without keeping in view the real value of the area where your property is located, you might be overcapitalising your property. This means that your property cost will not equal its market value.

Hence, it is rational that a renovator or home builder is aware of overcapitalisation, and increases the value of the property only to an extent that it can cope up with. Remember, you’ve got to be really careful about overcapitalisation when upgrading or renovating your property.

Often overcapilisation occurs when people are not rational and business minded in their approach. Typically home owners will spend more on fixtures and fittings with the aim to live in the property.

Some cultures often prefer to live in larger homes as status symbols and will opt to spend more on improvements than is the norm in the locaility.

However if you are an investor or builder, it is important to get the mix right as this will result in higher profit margins. Getting it wrong can often mean longer selling periods and discounted prices. Do your due diligence to avoid disappointment.

Raising Swans is Not As Difficult As You May Think – If You Know How

Raising swans is not as difficult as you may think. You only need to have a male and a female, a fresh body of water and feed and you can get started in this venture. There is a bit more to it, but the basics are that you provide water and food for the creatures and allow them to frolic as nature intended. You should not attempt to contain the swans in close quarters or keep them as a domestic pet. Swans are not meant to be domesticated as dogs or cats, but are free birds. They will grace your property with their beauty if you provide for their needs.

One of the first things that you need to know about raising swans is that they are social creatures. They mate for life and will continue to produce baby swans, called cygnets. The mother swan will lay the eggs, nest and both parents will care for the swans when they hatch. You do not have to interfere in the raising of the swan family as the parents will have this under control. What you can do, when raising swans, is to make sure they have plenty of shelter, a warm nesting place and fresh water for swimming and drinking.

Another aspect about raising swans is that you should protect them from predators. If you have a fence around the area where the swans are kept, you can keep out animals that will prey on the swans. This includes coyotes, foxes and even feral cats. By keeping a fence up, you can keep the predators out and make sure that they do not bother your swans. It is very crucial, when raising swans, that you look out for their safety.

Making sure that they have plenty of food every day is one of the best ways of raising swans successfully. Raising swans is like raising any other type of creature and they need to be fed. Food, water and shelter are the natural elements that are needed when raising swans.

After the cygnets have grown and are old enough to fly the nest, you can actually sell them if you decide to become a swan breeder. The swans that you breed will depend on the area of the world where you live and where the creatures are native. In North America, the most commonly found swan is the Trumpeter Swan. In Australia, the Black Swan is found, as well as other breeds. There are many breeds of swans throughout the world and are part of the geese and duck family. Raising swans should entail you opening up a swan sanctuary for the creatures where you can also raise other birds at the same time. Swans will tolerate other creatures such as ducks and geese, that can also be raised under the same conditions needed for raising swans.

Use Private Duty Home Care Instead of Institutional Living for Mom Or Dad

As an adult child, what are you to do when you recognize that your mother or father can not live their life independently any longer? That they are struggling with the activities of daily living or ADLs. Is the only option to move them into an institutional setting? No. Consider home care. Home care provides an alternative to an institutional setting that is flexible, personal and allows the parent to remain in their own home.

So just how is this flexible? Well if you move into an institutional setting, well you live there – 24 hours a day. But say your parent really only needs help getting going in the morning, or Tuesday and Wednesday concern you because you can not go by their house on those days. Hire a caregiver for the schedule that meets your needs. If over nights are a problem, well then problem solved.

But flexibility does not end with just scheduling. You are integral in the development of the care plan that meets the needs of both the client and the family too. This means the level of care – assistance with bathing or not, assistance with ambulation or not. If getting outside the home is stimulating, it should certainly be included in the plan. Also, grocery shopping and going to doctors appointments can be a big benefit of home care services.

Best of all, these services are delivered by your new friends. If you do not end up developing a relationship with your caregivers, you should find a new caregiver. The personal nature of Home Care is perhaps the most important element of it. No one enjoys having strangers help them, especially with activities where you could feel very vulnerable. Your caregivers will become people who you look forward to spending time with.

Finally, do not take it from me, you can refer to any one of the many studies or simply ask a senior where they want to live as they age. At home. So why do we forward thinking people think that it is best to move our elders into an institutional setting. It's just silly really. We love our homes. We have memories in our homes, and we want to stay in our homes as long as possible. Yes there may come a time when it no longer makes sense for us to live in our homes, but home care helps us push that time further out. Usually it is a safety issue that will force a senior to move out of their home, but with the presence of a caregiver in the home, the senior's safety is greatly enhanced. The caregiver can see that the senior is eating properly, taking medications and that the home is clean and free of tripping hazards. This increased safety factor can allow a person to live safely and securely in their home for years longer than they could live their alone.

Home care service providers flexibility and personal Touches help motivated seniors who wish to remain in their home as they age the ability to do just that.

Top Ten Secrets to Explore When Visiting Ruidoso, New Mexico

The resort village of Ruidoso, New Mexico has an unusually large number of all types of restaurants, galleries and shops. You can easily find a wide selection of foods, arts and gifts. There are also some great lesser known businesses and services available that the casual tourist may miss. Here are my top “Ten Best Kept Secrets About Ruidoso, New Mexico” to enhance your visit. We’ll use inverse order to build the suspense!

10. Disco Taco – Yes, we have the upscale Mexican Restaurants. If you want a margarita and to mingle with fellow travelers, forget Disco Taco. If you want good, down to earth Mexican food without a tourist atmosphere, check it out. On highway 70 in Ruidoso Downs.

9. Bad Chili – The phenomenon of the Ruidoso band Bad Chili keeps steaming along! Together only six months, the group is playing to packed houses all over town! Is it their music? Is it their style? Judge for yourself. Catch a serving of Bad Chili when you’re in Ruidoso.

8. Go Ruidoso – The official travel and tourism website or Ruidoso, New Mexico. Chock full of information on local events, business and the community Go Ruidoso can be a life saver when planning a vacation in Ruidoso. Check them out at Goruidoso.com.

7. Ruidoso Convention Center – Nestled in the sleepy little Village of Ruidoso sits the Ruidoso Convention Center. A first rate meeting facility, the convention center is adjacent to the world class Links at Sierra Blanca Golf Course and the Hawthorn Suites. Home to events of all sizes and types the convention center is the idea place to combine business with pleasure!

6. Lincoln County Grill – The grill really isn’t a secret, but many still haven’t tried their tasty and generous menu items. Breakfast is a treat and whatever happens remember this one simple fact about the grill…Chicken Fried Steaks!

5. Vacation Rentals – Accommodations of all types can fill up fast during peak periods in Ruidoso. Because rooms are in great demand, prices rise significantly for holidays and special events. One hedge against the high lodging prices are Ruidoso’s many vacation cabins, condos and home rentals. Private owners only in town for several weeks a year lease their properties out on a nightly basis. Frequently these offer amenities hotels don’t…private hot tubs, pool tables, putting greens, ski equipment racks and even boot warmers. All at a cost less that a room at an upscale area hotel!

4. Chester Fried Chicken – I don’t do fried chicken very often but when I do, Chester’s blows the colonel out of the water! Tender and flavorful, Chester’s is available for take out from the Ruidoso Lawrence Brothers IGA Grocery.

3. Weasel Productions – Weasel Productions is a Ruidoso hallmark in video production and photography. They feature the photographic skills of noted New Mexico photographer John T. Soden. John has been hailed by some as the “Ansel Adams of the mountain”! See his work in Ruidoso at the Hubbard Museum of the West and Josie’s Gallery and Framing. Sample the talent at http://www.weaselvideoproductions.com

2. The Club House – A small, comfortable lounge tucked away behind a gas station. Relax with a libation, visit with friends or watch their big screen TV. This favorite “watering hole” is located at the intersection of Mechem (Hwy 48) and White Mountains Drives.

Finally, the very best kept secret about Ruidoso…

1. Visiting Ruidoso, New Mexico … the Ruidoso blog!

Plan on exploring some of these rather unique Ruidoso attractions. You’ll have a great time discovering new favorites during your visit.

WHEDA Loans – A Unique Opportunity for 1st Time Home Buyers in Wisconsin

History of Why WHEDA was Created

The Wisconsin State Legislature created the Wisconsin Housing and Economic Development Authority (WHEDA) in 1972 to meet a vital need for affordable housing for low and moderate income residents. Further legislation in 1983 broadened WHEDA’s mission to include both small business & farming financing options.

Who they are & What they do!

WHEDA is an independent authority, they are not a state agency. WHEDA is a lender, they are not a granting Agency. WHEDA issues bonds and notes for sale to finance housing development for homebuyers at attractive rates and terms.

WHEDA Programs

HOME Loan

Offers low cost, fixed interest rate financing to low-to-moderate income first-time homebuyers.

HOME Loan for Veterans

Offers low cost, fixed interest rate financing to military veterans purchasing a home.

HOME Plus Loan

Provides financing of up to $10,000 for down payment and closing costs and, a line of credit for future home repairs.

Partnership for Homeownership

A partnership between WHEDA and the US Department of Agriculture – Rural Development that provides affordable home financing for Wisconsin’s rural residents.

Lindsay Heights

A unique homeownership opportunity in the City of Milwaukee.

There are income limit and purchase price limit eligibility requirements for the WHEDA Loan Programs. Furthermore it is easier to qualify for a HOME Loan if the property resides in a designated Target Area.

WHEDA Grant Opportunity

Funding WHEDA grants was made possible through a grant WHEDA received from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago (FHLBC). Grants are available on a first-come, first-served basis and are designated to be used for down payment and closing cost assistance to first-time home-buyers in specific urban and rural markets. Down payment assistance is in the form of a 0% interest, no monthly payment, 5-year forgivable grant of $5,000 per household.

Am I eligible for a grant?

  • Available to first-time homebuyers that meet specific income requirements and use a WHEDA HOME Loan
  • All borrowers must participate in six to eight hours of face-to-face homebuyer education
  • Borrowers must invest a minimum of $500 into the loan transaction
  • Borrowers cannot receive cash back at the time of loan closing
  • These grant assistance dollars cannot be used with other FHLBC funds, such as Down Payment Plus
  • Disbursement of the grant assistance funds will come from a designated FHLBC grant administrator
  • WHEDA standard HOME Loan underwriting guidelines apply

For more info on WHEDA’s 1st-time Home-buyer programs and for current WHEDA rates – Wisconsin residents can contact Shannon.

Die Casting Terms and Definitions

Die-Cast Terms & Definitions (Reference Aid Only – Uncontrolled)

Aging

A change in the metallurgical structure of an alloy occurring over a period of time following casting, which affects the properties and dimensions. Heating accelerates aging.

Alloy

A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more chemical elements, of which at least one is metal. Alloy properties are usually different from those of alloying elements.

Anode

The electrode in a plating bath at which metal ions are formed, negative ions are discharged, or other oxidizing reactions occur.

Anodic Metal

Any metal that tends to dissolve, corrode, or oxidize in preference to another metal when the metals are connected electrically in the presence of electrolyte.

Anodizing

To subject a metal to electrolytic action as the anode of a cell in order to coat with a protective or decorative film.

As Cast

Condition of a casting that has not received finishing (beyond gate removal or sandblasting) or treatment of any kind including heat treatment after casting.

Atmospheric Corrosion

Surface corrosion caused by exposure to gasses or liquids that attack the metal.

Barrel Plating

Plating in which the work is processed in bulk in rotating container.

BHN

Brinell Hardness Number

Biscuit

Excess metal left at the end of injection cylinder of a cold chamber machine, formed at the end of the plunger stroke, also called a slug.

Blister

A surface defect or eruption caused by expansion of gas, usually as a result of heating trapped gas within the casting, or under metal plated on the casting.

Blow Holes

Voids or holes that may occur due to entrapped air or shrinkage during solidification of heavy sections.

Bright Finish

A finish with a uniform non-directional smooth surface of high secular reflectance.

Buffing

The smoothing of a surface by means of a rotating flexible when the surface of which fine abrasive particles are applied in liquid suspension sion, paste, or grease-stick form.

Cass Test

(Copper accelerated salt spray) An accelerated corrosion test for electroplated substrates (&_STM 369-68)

Casting Yield

The weight of casting or castings divided by the total weight of metal injected into the die, expressed as a percent.

Cathode

The electrode in the electroplating at which metallic ions are discharged, negative ions are formed, or other reducing actions occur.

Cathode Robber

An auxiliary cathode so placed as to divert electrical current to itself from portions of the articles being plated which would otherwise receive too high a current density.

Cathodic Metal

Any metal that does not tend to dissolve, corrode, or o daze in preference to another metal when the metals are connected electrically in the presence of an electrolyte.

Cavity

The recess in the die in which the casting is formed.

Charpy

Name of an impact test in which the specimen, forming a simpt beam, is struck by a hammer while resting against anvil supports spaced mm apart.

Checking

Heat-crazing of a die surface, especially when subjected to repeated heating by molten alloys at high casting temperatures. The resulting fine cracks produce corresponding raised veins on die castings.

Chromate

A conversion coating consisting of trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds.

Chromating

The application of chromate coating.

Chrome Pickle

A chemical treatment for magnesium in nitric acid, sodium dichromate solution. The treatment gives some protection against corrosion by producing a film that is also a base for paint.

Cold-Chamber Machine

A die casting machine arranged so that the me chamber and plunger are not immersed in molten metal.

Coldshut

A lapping of solidified metal that sometimes occurs in the formation of die castings which constitutes an imperfection or near the s face of the casting.

Combination die

A die with two or more different cavities each producing a different part.

Composite Plate

An electro-deposit consisting of two or more layers of metal deposited successively.

Compressive Yield Strength

The maximum stress that a metal, subjected to compression, can withstand without a predefined amount of yield. (normal 0.2% of die castings).

Contraction (Shrinkage)

Tile volume typically occurring in metals and alloys on solidification and cooling room temperature. Cooling channel See Water line.

Core Pin

A core, usually of circular section. Core pins may be fixed or movable.

Core Plate

The plate to which the cores are attached and which actuates them.

Kesternich

An accelerated corrosion test for electroplated substrates (ASTM 380-65).

Corrosion

Destruction of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment.

Corrosion Endurance

Resistance to corrosion as a function of time.

Cover, Cover Die

The stationary half of a die casting die which forms the exterior or appearance surfaces of the casting.

Cover Gas

A mixture consisting of sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide and air, used to protect and minimize oxide formation on the surface of molten magnesium.

Creep Plastic

Deformation of metals held for long periods under stresses less than the normal yield strength.

Creep Strength

The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified amount of creep in a given time at a constant temperature.

Current Shield

A non-conducting medium for altering the current distribution on an anode or cathode.

Damping

Ability of material to dampen vibration in components and thus lower noise levels.

Deburring

The removal of burrs, sharp edges, or fins by mechanical, electrochemical or electrical discharge means.

Dendrite

A crystal that has a tree-like branching pattern most evident in cast metals slowly cooled through the solidification range.

Dichromate Process

A chemical treatment for aluminum, magnesium and inc alloys in a boiling dichromate solution, resulting in a surface film that resists corrosion.

Die

A metal block used in the die casting process, incorporating the cavity or cavities that form the component, the molten metal distribution system, and means for cooling and ejecting the casting.

Die Casting

The metal on the surface of a die casting, to a depth of approximately.020 in. (o.8mm), characterized by fine grain structure and freedom from porosity.

Die Insert

A removable liner or part of a die body.

Die or Steel Safe

A technique employed in close-tolerance die casting in which exterior surfaces of the casting are deliberately made slightly under size, and the interior surfaces slightly over size. After a trial casting run, all dimensions are brought within specified tolerances. This technique ensures that all final die modifications, no matter how slight, are made by removing, rather than adding metal.

Dimensional Stability

Ability of an alloy to retain its size and shape unchanged with time.

Dolomite

A mineral made up of calcium and magnesium carbonate.

Dowel Pin

A guide to ensure registry between two die sections.

Draft

A taper given to cores and other parts of the die cavity to permit easy ejection of the casting.

Drag-Out

The solution that adheres to the objects removed from cleaning and plating baths.

Dross

Metal oxides in or on the surface of molten metal.

Dull Finish

A finish virtually lacking both diffuse and secular reflectance

Ejector, Ejector Die

The movable half of a die casting die containing the ejector pins; this half forms the interior or non-appearance surfaces of the casting.

Ejector Marks

Marks left on castings by ejector pins, frequently including a light collar of flash formed around the pin.

Ejector Pin

A pin actuated to fore the casting out of the die cavity and off the cores.

Ejector Plate

The plate to which the ejector pins are attached and which actuates them.

Electrolyte

A substance, usually liquid, in which the conduction of electricity is accompanied by chemical decomposition. An electrolyte is one of the factors required for electrolytic corrosion to occur.

Electromotive Series

A list of elements arranged according to their standard electrode potential.

Electroplate

An adherent metallic coating applied by electro-deposition on a substrate for the purpose of improving the surface properties.

Fatigue

The phenomenon leading to fracture Linder repeated or fluctuating stresses that have a maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material.

Feeding

The process of supplying molten metal to the die cavity to compensate for volume shrinkage while the casting is solidifying.

Fillet

Curved juncture of two surfaces; e.g., walls that would otherwise meet at a sharp corner.

Flash

The thin web or fin of metal on a casting occurring at die partings, air vents, and around movable cores. The excess metal is due to the working pressure and operating clearances in the die.

Flux

A substance such as Halide salts used to protect and minimize oxide formation on the surface of molten metal. Also used to refine scrap metals.

Fracture Test

Breaking a specimen and examining the fractured surface. -To determine such things as composition, grain size, soundness, or presence of defects.

Galling

Tearing out of particles from a metal surface by sliding friction.

Galvanic Corrosion

Corrosion associated with the current of a galvanic cell consisting of two dissimilar conductors in an electrolyte or two similar conductors in dissimilar electrolytes.

Gate

The passage connecting a runner or overflow with a die cavity. Also, the entire ejected content of a die, including the casting or castings and the gates, runners, spur (or biscuit) and flash.

Gooseneck

In hot-chamber die casting, a spout connecting a metal pot or chamber with a nozzle or spur hole in the die and containing passage through which molten metal is forced on its way to the die.

Growth

Expansion of a casting as a result of aging, intergranular corrosion, or both.

Hardware Finish

An especially smooth, as-cast surface requiring no polishing and little buffing in preparation for plating.

Hardware Finish

An especially smooth, as-cast surface requiring no polishing and little buffing in preparation for plating.

Heat Checking

See Checking.

Hot-Chamber Machine

A die casting machine arranged with the metal chamber and plunger immersed in the molten metal.

Hot Short

Brittle or lacking strength at elevated temperatures.

Hot Tear

A rupture occurring in a casting at or just below the solidifying temperature by a pulling apart of the soft metal, caused by thermal contraction stress.

Impact Strength

Ability to resist shock, as measured by a suitable testing machine.

Impression

A cavity in a die. Also, the mark or recess left by the ball or penetrator of a hardness tester.

In-gate

The passage or aperture connecting a runner with a die cavity.

Ingot

A pig or slab of metal or alloy.

Injection

The act or process of forcing molten metal into a die.

Insert

A piece of solid material, usually metal, that becomes an integral part of the casting. Inserts are commonly set in the die so that metal is cast around that portion left exposed in the die cavity. Alternatively, inserts are often applied subsequent to casting. (Note: inserts become a part of the casting, whereas die inserts are a part of the die.)

Intergranular Corrosion

A type of corrosion that preferentially attacks the grain boundaries of a metal or alloy resulting in deep penetration.

Izod

Name of an impact test arid testing machine in which the specimen is clamped at one end only and acts as cantilever beam when struck by the hammer.

Knockout, Loose Piece

A core position by the riot fastened to a die and so arranged as to be ejected with the casting. The knockout is subsequently removed and used repeatedly.

KIS

PSI (pounds per square inch) expressed in thousands.

Leveling Electroplate

An electroplate that produces a surface smoother than the substrate.

Metal Distribution Ratio

The ratio of the thickness of metal upon two specified areas of a cathode. (See Throwing Power.)

Metal Saver

A core used primarily to reduce the amount of metal in the casting and to avoid sections of excessive thickness.

Microthrowing Power

The ability of a plating solution or specified set of plating conditions to deposit metal in fissures, pores, or scratches.

Miniature Die casting

Die cast processing on specialized hot-chamber machines which can produce very small complex parts, from a fraction of an ounce up to 16 ozs, to net shape and flash free, requiring no trimming operation.

Multiple-Cavity Die

A die having more than one duplicate cavity.

Net Casting Yield

See Casting Yield

Nozzle

The outlet end of a gooseneck or the tubular fitting that joins the gooseneck to the spur hole.

Overflow

A recess in a die, connected to a die cavity by a gate, remote from the entrance gate (ingate).

Overflow Gate

A passage or aperture connecting a die cavity to an overflow.

Overflow Well

A recess in a die connected to a (lie cavity by a runner to assist in proper venting).

Parting Line

The join between the cover and ejector portions of the die or mold. Also the mark left on the casting at the die joint.

Pickling

Removing surface oxides by chemical or electrochemical reaction.

Pin

A core usually circular section normally having some taper (draft). Also a dowel (or guide pin) to ensure registry between two die sections.

Pitting

The appearance of small depressions or cavities produced during solidification or corrosion.

Platen

Portion of a casting machine against which die sections are fastened, or of presses against which trim dies are fastened.

Plating Rack

A frame for suspending and carrying current to articles during plating operations.

Plunger

Ram or piston that forces molten metal into a die.

Polishing

The smoothing of a metal surface by means of the action of abrasive particles attached by adhesive to the surface of wheels or endless belts usually driven at high speed.

Porosity

Voids or pores, commonly resulting from solidification shrinkage, air (primarily the nitrogen component of air) trapped in a casting, or hydrogen exuded during electroplating.

Port

Opening through which molten metal enters the injection cylinder of a hot-chamber machine or is ladled into the injection cylinder of a cold chamber machine.

Pouring Slot

Port through which molten metal is ladled into the cold chamber of a casting machine.

Rapid Prototyping (RP)

A range of processes by which prototypes are built by machine, usually in a special plastic resin, using equipment interfacing directly with CAD data. Includes the following process names: sterolithography, soldier processing, selective laser sintering, laminated object manufacturing, and fused deposition modeling.

Refine

In magnesium melting practice, the removal of magnesium oxide and other suspended non-metallic matter by use of flux that preferentially wets the impurities and carries them to the bottom of the pot as slude.

Remelt

Sprues, gates, runners, and defective casting returned directly to the melting pot.

Robber

See Cathode robber.

Runner

A die passage connecting tile sprue hole or plunger hole of a to the gate or gates where molten metal enters the cavity or cavities.

Runaround Scrap

See Remelt.

Salt Fog Test

An accelerated corrosion test in which specimens are exposed to a fine mist of a solution usually containing sodium chloride.

Satin Finish

A surface finish that behaves as a diffuse, reflector, which is lustrous but not mirror-like.

Segregation

Non-uniform distribution of alloying elements, impurities, microstructures.

Semi-Solid Metal Casting

Casting process using semi-solid raw material with relatively slow ingate veloctieis, minimum turbulence and high pressure throughout solidifcation to produce high-integrity castings capable solution heat treatment.

Shot

A die filling or part of the casting cycle in which molten metal is forced into the die.

Shrinkage

The total reduction in dimensions of a casting from the mol liquid to room temperature.

Shrinkage, Solidification

Dimensional reduction that accompanised the freezing (solidification ) of metal in passing from the molten to tile solid state.

Shrink Mark

A surface depression, often called a shadow mark that sometimes occurs at a thick section that cools more slowly than adjacent sections.

Slide

Portion of a die generally arranged to move parallel to the partin line. The inner end forms a part of the die cavitiy wall and sometimes includes a core or cores.

Soldering

Sticking or adhering of molten metal to portions of the die.

Split Gate

A gate of castings having the sprue axis or plunger axis in the die parting line.

Sprue

Metal that fills the conical passage (spur hole) that connects the nozzle or hot chamber to the runners of a hot-chamber die casting machine. (Most cold-chamber machines form a slug and have no sprue.)

Spruepin

A tapered pin with rounded end projecting into a sprue hole and acting as a core to keep the casting in the ejector portion of the die.

Squeeze Casting

Casting process using molten metal with relatively slow in-gate velocities, minimum turbulence and high pressure throughout solidification to produce high-integrity castings capable of solution heat treatment.

Standards

NADCA Product Revised specifications, published by the Die Casting Development Council of the North American Die Casting Assn, detailing dimensional variations that should be considered in designing die castings, many expressed as “Standard” and “Precision” product tolerances.

Stress Corrosion Cracking

Crackin due to the combined effects of stress and corrosion. Usually this type of failure occurs as a fine hairline crack that propagates across the section without any exterior sign of corrosion.

Substrate

Material upon which coatings are deposited.

Sufur Hexafluoride (SFG)

A gas used in low concentrations (usually less than 1%) with carbon dioxide and air to form a protective atmosphere over the surface of molten magnesium to minimize burning and oxide formation.

Surface Treatment

A general term denoting a treatment involving a modification of tile surface.

Tensile Yield Stress

The stress at which a material exhibit’s a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of 0.2% is used for die casting alloys.

Throwing Power

The improvement of the coating distribution over tiloe primary current distribution on the cathode in a vigen solution under specified conditions.

The Bar, Tie Rod

A bar used in a die casting machine to hold dies locked against pressure and in general also serving as a way along which the movable die platen slides.

Tolerance Limit

The specified critical amount of an impurity element which if exceeded results in degradation of material properties.

Trim Die

Die for shearing or shaving flash from a casting. Either the die is forced over the casting, or the casting is forced through the die.

Undercut

A recess in the sidewall or core hole of a casting so disposed that a slide or special form of core such as a knockout is required to permit ejection of the casting from the die.

Six Basic Vegetable Cuts

The right cut can make a world of difference. Certainly, a carrot is a carrot, and it will always be a carrot. It looks like a carrot and tastes like a carrot. Right? Sort of. The way the carrot is cut can give it a different look and texture. It will even change how the carrot’s flavors interact with the other flavors. So a carrot – or any vegetable – might be more or less itself based on now it is prepared and then used.

The following six cuts are the basics, though they do have French names. Don’t be intimidated by the names. These cuts are actually quite simple. Though it will be helpful to know some of the basic knife skills as I will be referring to them by name below.

Chiffonade

It’s is a cut specifically for leafy vegetables and herbs. It involves chopping the leaf into extremely thin slices. Each slice should be only about 1mm wide. This cut is used to prepare herbs for seasoning, to chop veggies for a salad, or to make a light garnish.

To make a chiffonade cut, place the leaves to be chopped in either a stack or rolled tightly. Then use a smooth rock chop to slice very thin strips. If this motion is new to you, it’s best to start off slowly to get a consistent size, and then speed up as you master the technique.

Julienne

This cut is typically used for firm vegetable like carrots, cucumbers, or celery. It means to cut thin strips or sticks to be used as both ingredients and garnish. The exact measurements of julienne should be 5cm to 10cm long, 4mm wide, and 4mm thick.

To cut julienne, follow the following steps:

1) First cut your vegetable into the desired length (either 5cm or 10cm).

2) Then cut the vegetable into flat, lengthwise slices 4mm thick. This is usually easiest by standing the vegetable up on one of the cut ends and cutting down its length.

3) Lay the slices flat on on cutting surface either individual or in a stack for faster cutting.

4) Then use a rock chop or draw slice to cut them into 4mm wide strips. Go slowly at first to be sure you’re cutting each the same width.

Brunoise

A brunoise is a very fine diced cut. It results in tiny cubes 5mm on each side. Brunoise cut are often used in sauces because the tiny pieces cook down well and release a lot of flavor quickly. Alternatively, a brunoise can also be sprinkled on a dish as a nice colorful garnish.

To prepare a brunoise, follow these steps:

1) First julienne your vegetable.

2) Then take the julienne and cut it into tiny cubes, taking care to make them into very small cubes.

Jardiniere

These are sticks or batons cut from the vegetable of choice. Jardiniere are typically shorter than julienne, but much thicker. There is some debate on exactly how big a jardiniere should be, but they typically range from 2cm to 4cm in length. They are anywhere from 4mm by 4mm thick to 10mm by 10mm thick. At their smallest, jardiniere look like short julienne. At their largest they look like the vegetables used in a veggies and dip platter. Vegetables cut this way may be used to add texture to a soup or stir fry. They may also be prepared together as a vegetable side dish.

To make these cuts, follow the instructions for julienne, with the following adjustments:

1) Cut the vegetable into whatever length you need.

2) Then cut the vegetable into lengthwise slices of the desired thickness. It’s easiest if you cut down the length while standing the vegetable on one end.

3) Set the slices long-side down on your cutting surface.

4) Chop or slice the vegetable into widths equal to the thickness.

Macedoine

This is larger, thicker cubes. Like brunoise is based on julienne, Macedoine is based on jardiniere. Macedoine cuts are usually 1cm cubes used in soups, sauces, and anywhere you’re looking for a chunkier texture to the vegetable component.

To cut macedoine, first prepare your vegetables Jardiniere. Then lay the stick or sticks out flat and chop them into cubes (a tap chop or a rock chop works well). Work carefully to make nice cubes of equal size on each side.

Paysanne

Another cut based on Jardiniere, Paysanne is a wide, thin cut. It differs from Macedoine in that it isn’t a cube, but a thin slice. It’s used when a chunkier texture is desired from small vegetable chunks that cook down quickly and release a lot of flavor. A Paysanne often used in Mirepoix, sautéed vegetables used as a base for sauces, soups, stocks, and anywhere else the veggies are needed for texture and flavor.

Like Macedoine, Paysanne needs vegetables first cut Jardiniere. Then using a rock chop or a tap chop, cut the batons into thin slices, anywhere from 1mm to 5mm thick.

These are a few of the basic cut used in cooking, but it isn’t a complete list. There are a variety of more complex cuts, many of them similar to those preparation listed here with slight variations. There will be posts on more advanced techniques coming up soon.