How Plastic Fabrication Has Shaped Your World

It might not be something you tend to spend much time thinking about, but it is actually undeniable that plastic fabrication has changed the world. If you but look around, you'll notice that the things you use, the things that surround you, and many of the things you take for granted are almost predominately plastic.

It all begins in and around the year 1862, when Alexander Parkes revealed the first moldable plastic at the International Exhibition in London. He called it Parkesine, and it was developed from plants, retained its shape when it cooled, and was the earliest (and more inexpensive) alternative to rubber. While the company that was created to sell Parkesine failed, it still marks a critical moment in history.

Years later, another early plastic that entered the world of plastic fabrication was celluloid. Celluloid, which was synthesized from cotton fiber and camphor, emerged as an immensely cost effective alternative to ivory. While you might simply take products like pool balls, hair combs, and small bowls for granted – they were once much harder to make. With the emergence of plastic fabrication, they quickly became a readily available commodity.

Fast forward to the early 1900's and we see the creation of Bakelite, a plastic made from coal tar that would quickly take the shape of its container. This represents one of the first prominent examples of plastic fabrication . Even under stress and heat, Bakelite would hold its form; ever leading to manufacturers in the 1920's and 1930's using it to fabricate clocks, radios, and telephone cases.

In the 1920s after the development of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) as an alternative to rubber, the plastics industry experienced rapid innovation in a number of areas, leading to the development of more and more materials that would continue to be used in the future, including polyethylene, Teflon, ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), polystyrene foam, and others.

Today, there have been fewer groundbreaking advancement in the world of plastic, but the stage that years of development set for the plastic fabrication industry has changed the way we live our lives. Instead of relying on animal products like ivory and leather, we have come to expect plastic combs, water glasses, sporting equipment, electronics, and more.

For a concrete example of the impact of plastic fabrications on our lives, consider this: when football pads were severely used many years ago – the injury rate was significantly higher than it is today. In fact, President Roosevelt threatened to ban the sport because of too many league deaths and injuries. In 1910, defensive padding was introduced to curtail these calamities. Early shoulder pads were cheaply manufactured with leather and foam, while today's iterations are capable of more advanced technology and consistent quality. Today, players, coaches, and concerned mothers across the country have plastic fabrication to thank for more effective pads.

While this is just one example of the drastic impact plastic fabrication has made on our lives, it's easy enough to see for yourself. Simply take a look around. What do you see that is plastic, and how would your life be different if it was not?

What's Your Future Internet Marketing Plan?

What's your future internet marketing plan? Naturally have one, right? I mean, sure, you have a plan, do not you?

Was that a little heavy on the drama? Sorry. But I hopefully got you to think about tomorrow for a second.

Because while the internet is primarily focused on what happens today, this hour and this split second, tomorrow is not a rumor. Tomorrow's going to be here … and you and I both need to have a future internet marketing plan.

MY future plan is being worked on TODAY. So is yours if you have joined me and the 41,000 other authors here at That's because the words that we research for and sweat over and finally submit are going to be needed someday in the future.

Once the articles that we write become permanent fixtures in and on the servers at article directories all over the world, they stand ready to be called up if someone should type in keywords into Google asking for information contained in YOUR and MY articles.

That's pretty wild, if you ask me.

Next week, if someone types in "biggest lies about bass fishing" and your article has its keywords assembled and diversified in it that answer the need for that information, the person typing in those keywords will see you article.

Depending on your article and how popular a niche you write about and how competitive the keywords are that you use to writer your article … it could potentially be seen by millions.

And the cost for this future internet marketing plan? $ 0.

Article writing is a force to be deal with. And very, very fine people are flocking to it for very, very good reasons.

PVC Clothing and Lingerie Care

Most lingerie sets need particular washing care due to their more delicate quality and material variety compared to other clothing. Underwear care can be divided into three stages washing care drying care and storage care. When you wash your lingerie, remember that underwear items are very fine-spun under garments that involve gentle washing alone. This means that you should not throw your underwear in the washing machine with usual washing.

To wash your lingerie you want to hand wash your intimate apparel using a soft shampoo in the water, and then leave your intimate apparel to soften. After about five minutes, you can lightly wash your lingerie particularly in areas that were most soiled (e.g. in the crotch of your g string).Wash your underwear thoroughly with lukewarm water until all the washing detergent has been removed. several people like to use the delicate or gentle cycle on their washing machine, but be careful because if you wash your intimate apparel in a washing machine the spinning cycle can wreck and destroy your overdelicate underwear sets.

As with all types of garments, you must remember to wash light colours and dark colours separately. You should not combine your White lingerie with red. When preparing to wash your intimate apparel organize your underclothes into various piles e.g. whites pile and colours pile. Hands wash all lingerie sets and wash light and dark colours apart. Another reason why it is not advisable to wash your intimate apparel in a washing machine is because lingerie items can have hooks and fastenings e.g. bras, which can tear other lingerie garments in the wash. For example a bra hook can catch on another item of lingerie causing a rip therefore damaging it. Although hand washing may take some time and seem like an uncalled-for chore, it actually is the superior way to wash your sensitive intimate apparel. Your lingerie sets will last a lot longer.

In our busy modern-day lifestyle some of us just put our clothing garments in the dryer. With lingerie it is wise to let the lingerie garments naturally dry. Try not to tumble dry lingerie garments as this action can harm their sensitive textile.

After hand washing your intimate apparel either fasten them over the bathing tub to drip dry or place them on a laundry line. If possible try not to dry them in straight sunlight as this can fade the colors. The advice for storing underwear is really simpler to other garments. You can fold up your underwear sets neatly and put them in a drawer. To keep your lingerie smelling lovely you can buy some sweet-scented pouches, cushions or flower petals. Position these in your wardrobe and they will maintain not solely your lingerie but also other clothes smelling fresh. You can also store your lingerie by hanging them up on a clothes hanger and putting them in your wardrobe. However you select to store your underwear remember to keep the under garments in a dry, airy area with zero damp and also out of direct sunlight.

PVC wear and lingerie is becoming a fashionable fashion choice. Some women are selecting to wear PVC clubwear and PVC dresses. PVC is another form of fabric that needs extra care instructions.

You should hand wash your PVC dress, PVC clubwear or other PVC garments in warm water with only a small amount of laundry powder. Wash the PVC apparel thoroughly in cool water until all the detergent has been removed. Do not wring out or twist the PVC garment.

PVC melts at higher temperatures. Do not tumble dry. The PVC garment should be hung inside out to dry. Do not iron PVC garments on the outside. Instead turn them inside out to iron and place a cloth over them. Iron on low-level settings. Do not use the steamer.

Store your PVC article of clothing in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight, fires, naked flames etc. Do not fold your garment to prevent creases. Instead attempt and hang your wear in your closet.

Why Light?

Whether you just built a home, purchased a home or have been living in your home for some time, there comes a time when many people, just like you, decide to install landscape-lighting.

We all know that landscape lighting will enhance the beauty, safety and value of your home. Homeowners know the investment of adding landscape lighting will increase the value of the home.

However, their emotions initiate the installation of a landscape-lighting system. Emotions are the mechanisms that start the process and logic locks in the actions for the emotions.

Having said that, the emotions create the design and look of your lighting system. You will create a system that is a reflection of your personality, tastes, likes and creativity. With that bit of information, you now need to answer the question of “why light?” If you cannot answer that question, you do not need a landscape-lighting system for your home.

To find your answers to “why light,” you need to drive through your neighborhood at night and look at homes with landscape-lighting systems. Do your research and due diligence and you will discover the style and mood that fits your DNA. I recommend researching at least 50 homes so you feel comfortable with the style that “fits” for you.

Once you know what you like and want for your home, you can now concentrate on the system for your home. Start with the major reasons for lighting your home and work down to the smallest reason to light.

Of course, the three big reasons to light are: beauty, safety and value. Place these in chronological order starting with the most important to the least important. Naturally, a properly designed system will fulfill all of the three major reasons to light your home.

In addition to the three big reasons to have landscape lighting for your home, you also need to look at the points of interest around your home and in your front yard. Your home is unique and you need to accent the uniqueness so it stands out from the other homes.

What are the focal points in the yard? They can be things like: a fountain, a flowerbed, a waterfall, a statue, an art piece and, of course, the American Flag. If you have the American Flag, you definitely need to shine light on that using a minimum of three fixtures.

Show off the items that you enjoy and are proud to have in your yard. These are some of the reasons that your home is unique and stands out from the other homes in your neighborhood.

Now is the time to let your mind think in an artistic manner. In your mind’s eye, see how your home will look after the installation of landscape lighting. Visualize the finish product. Do you like what you see in your mine’s eye? If so, great, now is the time to put that plan on paper.

Once it is on paper, it can become a reality. After it becomes that reality, you may still change the look if you feel there may be a better look. Fortunately, landscape lighting is versatile in that you can change the look.

Internet Marketing Gurus – What If They Told You To Jump Off A Bridge?

If the Internet Marketing "Gurus" told you that if you go jump off a bridge you will make $ 20,000 dollars a month would you do it? Wait, before you say no. This is exactly what many are doing financially.

Every time the next Guru comes out with the next "Take the world by storm" product, thousands of newbies commit marketing suicide and jump in head first. They are swept away by the launch excitement. Once the dust settles the only ones standing are the "Guru" and a few lucky ones.

What I see in many areas of the Internet marketing community is abusive, distasteful and many times just down right lies. Everyone seems to be a marketing Guru these days.

Is your junk mail as full as mine with this offer and that offer claiming to be the holy grail of making money on the Internet? You must have their one of a kind, _________ (you fill in the blank) secret system to make money on the Internet. Of course only their system will put $ 20, $ 50, $ 100 or more a day into your Paypal account.

Well, I tried something recently …

I got one of these email again from one of these self-proclaimed Gurus that said, "Make 10 Dollar Per Minute on your Paypal."

Of course there "Automated Marketing System" was going to do this for me!

What? $ 10 per minute? Wow! that's unbelievable.

I did the math and sent a reply. I wanted to see if this guy would actually write me back.

Here is what I wrote him.


$ 10 per minute?

That's great!

Let's see …

There's 1440 minutes in a day …

And 30 to 31 days in a month …

So that's 43,200 minutes in a 30 day month …

Let's see … Hummm …

That makes about $ 432,000 per month!


If your making $ 432,000 a month marketing your business
you will probably want more leads to market to.


John Atkinson

(End Of Reply)

I never heard back from the guy and I was not really surprised. He probably stub my email from my website or bought it from some unscrupulous person who claimed to be selling "opt-in email leads." Even though I never signed up to get information from this guy. (SPAM!)

I wonder if he was lying to me?

Listen, do not fall for every new thing that comes down the pipe. It was a good day when I realized that there were basically two fundamental ways to make money. These will never change, Internet or no Internet.

  1. Sell ​​A Product.
    • Purchase Items at a low price then resell them at a higher price.
    • Create a product then sell it for a price you set.
  2. Sell ​​Your Time. Which translates into selling a service

That's it!

In real life making money includes a mixture of both of these. Those who make the most money have learned how to leverage these and create systems that semi-automate the money making process. The goal is to tip the scales toward # 1 and move away from # 2 as quickly as possible.

The Internet makes this process even easier than it has ever been before. Since the Internet is driven by the need and thirst for information the most obvious opportunity for making money is to sell information.

This is where ebooks come into the picture. An ebook can be created once then resold multiple times to maximize # 1 and # 2. But most people do not know where to even start when jumping into this business. Let me help you with this. Here are some basic tips to get you going in the right direction.

  1. Expect to have to trade more of your time for money when first starting out.
  2. Make a budget and live and die by it. Do not spend more than what you have to spend.
  3. Never spend on projected income. In other words what you believe you will make once you start making sales.
  4. Do not jump off every bridge the self proclaimed Gurus tell you to. There are some great Copywriters out there that will pull your heart strings and make you feel like you can not be successful unless you have their product. Do not believe them! People were making money on the Internet long before their product every came around.
  5. Decide on a product and stick with it until it is obvious it will not work. Take things one at a time
  6. The sooner you can learn or develop a personalized system of researching and ignoring products and services people need the better. This is vital! This information is the foundation you will build your business on
  7. Observe everything. Copy other peoples success and avoid their failures. For example if you find yourself really drawn into a sales letter and your about to reach for your wallet to shell out the bucks STOP! Instead of purchasing read, reread and dissect the sales letter and use what you learn to market your products.
  8. Testing …
  9. More Testing … Testing everything is the only way you will find out exactly what works and what works better.
  10. Set a schedule and follow it. Here are a few tips for those who find it hard to live by schedule:
    • Start out broad and develop your schedule over time.
    • Start by setting a time to go to bed and a time to get up.
    • Next divide your day up into blocks of time. For example: 2hrs for research, 1hr for web design, 1hr calling contacts etc …
    • Sometimes you will see that certain things must be done daily dedicated certain times to do those things and find ways to organize and automate these tasks as much as possible.

What about writing an ebook?

Many people do not know where to even begin when writing an ebook. They do not know the subjects that will make them the most money. This is very simple though, look at what problems people have in any given niche or market and that is where you will start. Find a solution to their problem and become an expert in that area. Study everything you can and find the answer then you will have the knowledge needed to write the ebook that brings the solution that people will buy.

Helping people find solutions to their problems is really what it is all about. The better you are at this the more money you will make with any business. In the end we are all in the people business. If you take the people out of the equation you have no business.

Copper Sinks

Constructing or just renovating a home can be tedious especially as regards the selection of materials for home accessories. Each part of the home requires individual accessories that require great care when it comes to selection like tiles for the bathroom and sink for the kitchen.

The sink is a very important fixture of any kitchen or bathroom and the home owner should take great care in choosing the sink for his kitchen or bathroom. There was a time when kitchen and bathroom sinks came in one size, shape and color. Today, the variety of kitchen sink choices available to everyone will test the patience of any person wanting to choose the best sink for his kitchen.

One kitchen sink that has existed for a long time but which is becoming popular today is the copper sink . A person may think that choosing a copper sink is the end of it all. He is wrong because there are a variety of copper sinks that are being sold today. Sinks made of copper can be made of different finish like bronzed, stainless or hammered by hand.

Like all materials, a copper sink is acceptable to a change in quality and color. However, the changes that a copper sink will undergo will depend on the environment where it is used. The good thing about copper is that it ages but it does so beautifully.

An aged copper sink can look more attractive especially with the use of a special wax for copper. Every copper sink should also undergo the basic cleaning methods using the good old soap and water.

The good thing about the modern construction methods is that an individual can have a unique copper sink depending on his preferences. He can have these sinks made in the shape or finish he would like them to be or based on the interior design of the house or the specific part of the house where the sink would be placed.

Having a copper sink installed for the kitchen or the bathroom would add more class and style to the room. There are copper sinks that are made from really thick copper which looks nice when blended with the interiors of the room where it is placed.

Copper sinks sourced from notable artisans would add to the value of the copper sink . Each copper sink contains the mark of the artisan and this would last for a long time.

The advantage of using copper sink lies not only in its aesthetic value but in its durability for wear and tear. Copper sinks do not stain so easily so they are a good investment especially if they are installed in homes where the owner plans to live for a longer period.

Reprogram Your Mind for Success

Super successful business coaches, such as Anthony Robbins tell us that our lives are a result of our thoughts and that in order to change anything we do not like, we must first change the way we think. But, it's tough to change your thinking when your life is in shambles. And, if you do not have extra cash to hire a personal coach, what do you do?

Here are 5 Easy Steps to reprogram your mind for success

The first thing you need to do is get very relaxed. I know it's an oxymoron, but two decades of biofeedback research has revealed that you can create powerful shifts in thought and attitude, when you are very relaxed. In addition, states of deep meditation have been shown to be the key to higher levels of creativity and inspiration. Thomas Edison deliberately went into deeply relaxed states to retrieve ideas from beyond the borders of normal waking consciousness. After long hours of research, he would close his eyes and rest. Being a creative genius, he held coins in his hands, so that when he began drifting off to sleep, the coins would drop, the sound would wake him up and, Eureka! He saw the light.

The point is, when you get relaxed you open up to higher levels of creativity that will open your mind to a larger field of possibilities. Which absolutely will make you far more attractive to a potential employer or investor.

"Your mind is like a parachute, it functions best when open." -James Dewar

If you do not know how to meditate and find it difficult to relax, try a meditation music program to slow down your brain wave activity making it easier for you to enter the trance like theta state associated with deep meditation. Once in a deeply relaxed state follow these steps to reprogram your mind for success:

Imagine -While you're meditating, imagine what your ideal job might be like. You do not even need to know exactly what that job might be, just a few little details, like having a great boss that respects you, or better yet, being the boss and having all your employees respect you. Imagine seeing yourself doing something you enjoy and getting paid well for it. Okay, so you love tennis. Well then, see yourself playing tennis, and by the way, notice that you're wearing a gold Rolex, and you're playing with an affluent client who happens to think you're great. Focus on internal images that make you feel really good. Avoid scenarios that feel like a drag. For example do not see yourself sitting at a desk being all stressed out. Or if you're trying to launch a new business, do not see yourself trying to get funding. See it after the fact. The money is in the bank and you're in Jamaica celebrating.

"Imagination is everything, it is the preview of life's coming attractions." Albert Einstein

Rehearse your Future – Create a defining statement like, "I'm now making $ …. per year, doing what I love to do." Once you've entered a state of deep relaxation to repeat the statement to yourself, while pretending that it's already happened-pretended so well that your body actually feels like it's happening now. It's very important that you influence your biology and feel as though what you want has already happened. It takes a little practice, but after a few rehearsals you'll get the hang of it. Say or think your clearing statement, before going to bed, when you wake up in the morning and periodically through your day.

Visualize – Visualize the perfect job, see your self enjoying work, having fun, and making lots of money. Do not visualize the steps you need to take. Visualize the end result.

"Just take the first step in faith. You do not have to see the whole staircase, just take the first step." –Martin Luther King Jr.

If you're looking at a pile of bills, feeling broke and desperate, take a break from your misery and go test drive a Porsche. I'm not kidding. Do it. You'll love it. If you catch yourself thinking "this is ridiculous" or "I could never afford this." Drop it. Those thoughts keep you stuck in narrow thinking. Stretch your imagination. Play make-believe, even if it's only for a little while. Ask anyone who is successful – they know the secret … and the secret is in believing . "The thing always happens that you really believe in; and the belief in a thing makes it happen." -Frank Lloyd Wright

Go on an open house tour-take a look at 3 million dollar homes. Imagine what it would be like to live in a home like that! Go window shopping-no you do not need to buy any three-care diamonds just now, but why not try them on for size? Get a feel for what you like and then get those images going in your mind. Indulge in fantasies of having wealth and let those images marinate in your mind. Cultivate a palpable sense of what it feels like to be successful! Oh common now … you can do it … it's fun.

Embodiment -Feel your new reality. As you visualize, allow your own to really feel what it would be like. We attract from our inner state of being. If you're feeling like a loser, the fact is people bet on winners not losers. Even if all outside circumstances of your life are making you feel like a failure-you've got to make a concerted effort to change your mood biology, which we'll be getting to in a minute. A positive attitude will get you a higher salary and a better job. It will get your creative juices flowing. And who knows, maybe you'll come up with that single idea that will make all your dreams come true.

Change your Mood

Raising the altitude of your attitude is probably the single most important thing you can do to reprogram your mind for success. Take advantage of natural mood elevators: If you're really feeling low, go to your local health food store and buy some Sam E-it's the most prescribed anti depressant in Germany, it's safe, it's powerful and it's over the counter. It will boost your serotonin levels, which get depleted from too much worry or stress. Exercise and meditation will also boost endorphins and serotonin. But do not just exercise. When you're at the gym or out rollerblading, listen to your favorite tunes and visualize yourself being successful, happy, fulfilled.

You'll discover that when you feel really good about yourself opportunities come to you. People gravitate to you, because you're radiating a winning self-image. And if you think this is all silliness. Just try it for a month as an experiment.

What have you got to lose?

"Ordinary people believe only in the possible. Extraordinary people visualize not what is possible or probable, but rather what is impossible. And by visualizing the impossible, they are beginning to see it as possible." Cherie Carter-Scott

Message From the Universe: Honesty Is Not ALWAYS the Best Policy

“For all of the reasons you might draw someone into your life, one would never be…

To find their faults.

Not always telling people what they want to hear since the beginning of time,

The Universe”

Caring about others feeling should be everyone’s priority. We are living in a society where being too honest can be detrimental. We all have faults, all have weaknesses and this is why it is important to watch your words. There is constructive criticism that should be welcomed by most as it helps the individual correct themselves on existing issues. I personally embrace constructive criticism as it helps me change certain things and become a better person. Honesty is important, especially when it comes to being this way with the people you care about, with your employer as eventual lies will be discovered and the ramifications can be lost of job. We select the lies we feel are important so we can avoid being honest with the other person. Every married men will lie when their wife will ask: “Hey honey, do you think I look good in this dress? Or do you think I am fat? or are you still attracted to me?” These questions may leave the significant other with a huge dilemma. Should I answer honestly and endure her spiteful attitude and having to sleep in the couch for the next week or so or lie and live happily ever after? In this scenario, I would say to use your judgement, as you know your significant better then I do. No one really knows how to react to this kind of feedback, especially women with their weight issues. I am sure that since the beginning of time, with Adam and Eve, that body issues was still prevalent at the Garden of Eden. When Eve ate from the Tree of Knowledge, maybe the snake laughed at her and said: “Hey Girl, you better watch your weight, I am looking at a muffin top right there” and from that comment, we see Eve cover herself because of her being ashamed.

Honesty is crucial in all areas of your life as it is easier to remember the truth than its evil opposite. You can rest peaceful at night when you live honestly and focus your energy in helping people do the same. There will always be liars, cheaters, but that doesn’t mean you need to live the same way. Everyone chooses to live their lives the way they see fit and if others are living life in the Dark Side, you do not need to do the same. I would suggest NOT to deal with them in any shape or form, but you don’t need to act the same. Leave it to Karma to do its job, and just focus on how you can be a better person. No matter how much you invest in yourself, regardless of the result, you can sleep at night and feel like you are making a change, even if it’s a small one. You are climbing your own ladder in life, and NO one is aloud to climb yours. You don’t need to fight for space on that ladder as you are the only one on it. Make sure to look up and aim for the skies.

The Fruits Of Burma, Mango, Papaya And Co Part 2

If you have a soft spot for tropical and subtropical fruits, Burma is the place to be because here they grow. From A as in ‘Awza thee’ or custard apple, as it is called in English, to Z as in ‘Zee thee’ or plum. But there are not only tropical fruits in Burma. Here you get something for every taste even when allowing for the fact that not everyone likes every fruit and that non-tropical fruits like the apple are here not as tasty and juicy as in the countries they are native to.

Grapefruit or shaddock or pomelo is locally called ‘Kyew gaw thee’ but do not be mistaken, although the name pomelo is commonly used for both grapefruit and shaddock there are differences between them what goes for the fruits as well as their origin.

The grapefruit, being smaller and finer than the shaddock/pomelo and a variety that is bigger than the orange, is of yellow colour, globe-shaped, varies from 4 to 6 inch/10 to 19 cm in diameter and develops from large white blossoms and in clusters. The fruit consists of easily separable segments with juice cells and white seeds and a thick rind. Its acid pulp is usually light yellow in colour but a few pink-pulped varieties have been developed.

The grapefruit tree is covered by dense foliage of thick dark green leaves, grows to a height of approx. 20 feet/6 metres and is most probably originated from Jamaica. The grapefruit is readily crossed with other members of the citrus genus. It is a low-calorie food, an excellent source of vitamin C and ‘inositol’, a member of the vitamin B complex.

The grapefruit is common breakfast fruit, salad fruit and/or juice fruit. Since the people of Burma/Burma usually have a soft spot for everything that is sour this fruit is much liked here. The grapefruit is classified as a variety of ‘Citrus maxima’.

The shaddock or pomelo is native to Indonesia. It’s very large fruit that sometimes weighs 14 lb/6 kg and on average 10 lb/4.5 kg develops from equally very large white blossoms. It is roundish and of pale yellow colour. The bitter rind is thick and light yellow; the pulp is slightly acid and aromatic, greenish in colour and watery. It is a pleasant cooling fruit, often used for preserves but also eaten in a fresh state and processed into juice. Both shaddock and grapefruit are often called pomelo or pummelo. The shaddock is also classified as ‘Citrus maxima’.

Pomegranate, its local name is ‘The le thee’, is the common name for a small tree or thorny shrub in the pomegranate family and its fruit. The only genus is native to tropical Asia and is characterised by large solitary flowers. The pomegranate is of bushy growth with glossy leaves and red flowers.

The fruit is about the size of a large orange and filled with seeds. The fleshy outer seed coat consists of a sweet, acid, edible orange-red pulp. The astringent rind is used in medicine and for tanning. The tree is cultivated for its fruit in warm regions throughout the world. Dwarf varieties bear ornamental blossoms. The pomegranate belongs to the family ‘Punicaceae’ and is classified as ‘Punica granatum’. In Burma the pomegranate grows throughout the country. People eat the seeds and it is also processed into syrup.

The avocado, the Burma call it ‘Htawbhat thee’ or ‘butter fruit’, grows in Burma but although it is very nutritious and tasty it is relatively little known.

Avocado, because of its shape that resembles a large pear also called ‘alligator pear’, is the common name for a woody tree or shrub that produces aromatic oil in its tissues and is native to tropical America as well as for the fruit of the tree. The tree propagates by seeds that cannot disperse far as the seeds fall close to the tree/plant and germinate there almost at once.

The fruit is a greenish, thick-skinned drupe of the size of a large pear. When ripe its flesh has the consistency of firm butter and a faint nutlike flavour. The avocado has a high fat content, containing 10 to 20 percent oil that is reach in protein and is a good source for pyridoxine what is needed in proportion to the amount of protein consumed. The fruit is used chiefly for making salads and for soups. It is also eaten fresh with a spoon directly out of the skin.

The avocado tree belongs to the family ‘Lauraceae’ and is as this name implies a genus of the laurel family that has 30 to 50 genera and more than 2000 species. As such the avocado tree, classified as ‘Persea americana’ is related to e.g. the cinnamon and camphor.

The last before last year-round fruit to be included into this chapter is the coconut. Coconut, the local name of which is ‘Ohn thee’, is the common name for the fruit of a tree of the palm family, widely distributed in tropical regions. The tree, called coconut palm, has a cylindrical trunk about 18 inches/45 cm in diameter and can grow up to a height of 100 feet/30 metres. At the summit it bears a crown of about 20 primate leaves that generally curve downward, each of which is about 10 to 15 feet/3 to 4.5 metres long. The fruit grows in clusters of 10 to 20 or more nuts. 10 to 12 of these clusters may be seen on one tree.

The mature coconut is about 12 inch/ca. 30 cm long, is oval shaped, has a thick fibres outer husk and a hard inner shell. The lining or kernel of the inner shell is a white oily meat that is dried to produce commercially valuable ‘copra’. Copra contains 60 to 65 percent oil that is used in the manufacture of soaps and candles. Within the kernel is a sweet-tasting, milky fluid. The meat of the coconut is either raw or prepared an important food in the tropics. Raw and fresh it is soft as butter, very delicious and healthy at that. But be careful. The high contents of fat does – if eaten in too large a quantity – create serious stomach problems. So, do not overdo it. The coconut milk is best when drunk directly from the fresh nut. If you wait too long and drink it after the fermentation process has started you may get a bit tipsy. By the by, a famous local dish is ‘Ohn Thamin’ (coconut rice). It is very tasty; but be careful. Coconut rice raises the blood pressure. If you have problems with that do not forget to take your medicine. Also you will get a bit tired after having had some Ohn Thamin.

The coconut palm’s terminal bud, known as ‘palm cabbage’ is considered a delicacy and trees are often cut down for the sake of it. The central part of the young stem is also succulent and edible. The sap or ‘toddy’ is like that of some other palms a favourite beverage in tropical countries; either in the natural state or after fermentation, which takes place within a few hours. Palm wine, or arrack, also a spirituous liquor is obtained by distillation of fermented sap. The tree’s root possesses narcotic properties and is sometimes chewed. Dried leaves are used for thatch and by plaiting the leaflets, mats, screens and baskets are made. ‘Coir’, the fibre of the nut’s husk is used to make ropes and foot mats.

The coconut palm belongs to the family ‘Areaceae’ (formerly ‘Palmee’) and is classified as ‘Cocos nucifera’. The coconut is eaten in a fresh state, its milk drunken and the copra is shredded and used in candies and baked goods.

The last stop of our journey in the area of ‘year-round fruits’ of Burma is the fig or ‘Tha pan thee’ as it is called here. Fig is the common name of a genus of the mulberry family and the fruits of these plants. The common commercialised fig is native to Southeast Asia and widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries. The fig tree – another fact you may wonder at, a relative of the rubber tree – is about 15 to 25 feet/about 5 to 8 metres high.

The small flowers of it are borne on the inner surface of a fleshy, hollow organ called ‘receptacle’ and the fruit is the result of the further growth of this receptacle. Many cultivated commercial fig variations do not produce fertile blossoms for which reason for their fertilisation pollen of wild figs are used. Fruits of other variations develop without fertilisation. The fruits are usually green, pear-shaped, sweet and slightly aromatic. They contain a lot of small seeds. Figs are eaten in a fresh state, canned, dried and candied. Another member of the genus fig – this one being a very tall one – is the ‘pipal’ (this term has its roots in the Sanskrit term ‘pippala’) or ‘sacred fig’ that is growing in Southeast Asia. The fig – the Indian fig – is known as ‘Bo tree’ and highly venerated by Buddhists as Gautama Buddha is said to have received his ‘bodhi’ or Enlightenment while sitting under an Indian fig tree for which reason the ‘bo tree’ is sacred to his followers.

Bo trees life to a great age, grow to a height of about 100 feet/about 30 metres and their fruits are edible. The ‘Banyan’ is another species of fig that is growing widely in Burma but is native to India. Its fruits are of scarlet colour, only slightly bigger than a sherry, are ovate, heart-shaped and grow in pairs from the axils of the leaves. The banyan tree is believed to be the home of mythical beings called ‘Bilus’. Figs constitute the genus ‘ficus’, of the family ‘Moraceae’. The common commercialised fig is classified as ‘Ficus carica’, the pipal or sacred fig ‘Ficus religiosa’ and the banyan tree ‘Ficus bengalensis’. Two figs, native to tropical America, are classified as ‘Ficus aurea’ and ‘Ficus citrifolia’.

Let us now turn our attention to the category of seasonal fruits.

As for the seasonal fruits of Burma, the first ones to appear after having blossomed from December to March when the first monsoon rains (also called mango showers) have fallen are the mango closely followed by the jackfruit. As said previously, the best – one of which being the mango – we will keep till the end and therefore we continue with the jackfruit, locally called ‘Peing ne thee’.

Peing ne thee come into season at the beginning of the rainy season and can weigh more than 90 lb/40 kg. The fruit is eaten fresh and made into preserves. Like the durian that follows the jackfruit it is very much liked by the locals. Its pulp smells a bit less than durian but even that is still terrible enough.

The next to come are the durian and the mangosteen. Durian, locally known as ‘Du win thee’, is the common name for an evergreen tree native to the hot, humid rain forest regions of Southeast Asia where it grows and is cultivated for its fruit. The common name is derived from the Malaysian term for the tree’s fruit, which is ‘duryon’.

Durian trees grow usually to a height of 80 to 100 feet/24 to 30 metres. The fruit develops in clusters from about 5 centimetre long, white, yellow or pink blossoms and requires some 3 months developing and ripening.

The fruit is egg-shaped or round is surrounded by a thick green-yellowish to reddish-brown coloured rind that is covered with very hard and sharp spikes and weighs usually 6 to 8 lb/2.8 to 3.4 kg.

When ripe, the fruit simply drops from the tree and is often called the world’s most dangerous fruit for when hitting someone who happens to stand under the tree at the wrong time it can easily kill the unlucky person. That is, if the person does not wear a hart head what I believe to be most probably not the case. Inside the fruit that consists of a foul-smelling but by Burmese much liked – and as they say tasty – pulp are embedded 1 to 4 large seeds that are like the jackfruit seeds edible when boiled fried or roasted though they are rather tasteless. I am not a friend of either of them.

Usually, the pulp is eaten in a fresh state but also added to cakes and ice-cream, is cooked into curries and/or made into food preserve.

The durian tree grows mainly in Burma’s Mon State located in the southernmost part of the country, belongs to the ‘bombax’ family ‘Bombacaceae’ and is classified as ‘Durio zibethimus’.

The trouble with eating durian is not only the stench but also that the pulp heats up the body to an extent that some people may not find easy to cope with. But nature being nature it has solved this problem in its own way and the solution has a name: Mangosteen.

The ‘Mangosteen’ or ‘Min gu thee’ as it is locally called, comes into season at the same time the durian is ripe and is the fruit of a tree that is native to the Moluccas, which are part of the Malay Archipelago and a province of Indonesia.

The mangosteen tree that grows very slow and does not bear fruits until having reached an age of 9 to 10 years propagates by seed, grows to a height of some 20 feet/6 metres and the fruit resembles in shape and size an orange. This fruit is an antidote to the disturbing durian side-effect and has the reputation of being one of the most delicious tropical fruits, which is something readily confirmed by those who have eaten it; I am one of them. The only trouble with the mangosteen fruit is that its big seeds are surrounded by a much too thin layer of very delicious pure white pulp. But the reward is well-worth the trouble. The reddish-purple rind surrounding the fruit has medicinal properties as it contains tannic acid effective against diarrhoea and dysentery.

The tree thrives like the durian tree in the Mon State’s areas of Mawlamyaing and Kyaiktiyo as well as in the northerly on the Mon State bordering Kayin State, belongs to the family ‘Clusiaceae’ (formerly ‘Guttiferae’) and is classified as ‘Garcinia mangostana’.

The next seasonal fruits are the guava and rambutan, followed by the pineapple. ‘Guava’ or ‘Ma la ga thee’, is the common name for any of the small trees or shrubs of the myrtle family and their fruits. Guavas are native to the tropics of America but nowadays cultivated throughout the world. The most common cultivated guava bears white or yellow fruits about the size of an orange or apple.

The guava tree can reach a height of 20 feet/6 metres and is native to and cultivated in Florida/USA. Strawberry guava has been cultivated in tropical America since pre-Columbian times and in Florida and southern California it is occasionally grown as an ornamental. The guava is a good source of vitamin C and is in Burma eaten chiefly in a fresh state but can also be made into pastes, jellies and preserves. When eaten with its seeds the fruit may cause constipation. So, if you do not want to run any risk, scoop or cut them out before you enjoy the tasty pulp. Guavas belong to the family ‘Myrtaceae’. While the most common cultivated one is classified ‘Psidium guajava’, the strawberry guava (‘strawberry’ because the fruit tastes somewhat like strawberry) is classified as ‘Psidium littorale’.

Rambutan, ‘Chet mauk thee’ in Burmese, is the name for the Malaysian tree classified as ‘Nepholium lappaceum’ and the fruit it bears.

The pulp of the fruit is white in colour and sweet but slightly acid in taste. It is covered by a medium-thick red-yellow rind with long, soft spines. The name rambutan has its roots in the Malay term for hair, ‘rambut’ with allusion to the fruits spines. Rambutan is eaten in a fresh state or tinned and also processed into syrup.

Pineapple or ‘Na na thee’ in Burmese is distributed throughout Burma but the best, which are a little smaller than other varieties but very sweet and fragrant, come from Myitkyina.

Pineapple is the common name for a flowering plant family which is characterised by unique water-absorbing leaf scales and regular, three-parted flowers.

The pineapple is growing to a height of about 3 feet/1 metres. Its leaves are spirally arranged sheath or blades usually occurring in layers. The plant embryos have one seed leaf. The family contains more than 2.000 species placed in 46 genera.

They are almost exclusively native to the tropics and subtropics of America. One species is occurring in western Africa. The pineapple is widely cultivated in tropical areas in the first line for its – when ripe – mostly sweet and juicy fruit.

Pineapple have several flowers clustered on one stem and although the ovaries develop individually all fruitlets together combine into one single, larger fruit, called multiple fruit. Pineapple makes up the family ‘Bromeliaceae’ and the order of the ‘Bromeliales’. The commonly known pineapple is classified as ‘Ananas comosus’. Pineapple contains vitamin C or ascorbic acid, is eaten in the fresh state sliced or in fruit salads, used as ingredient for cooking and also processed into juice, jam dried slices and made into preserves.

Another tropical, seasonal fruit that that grows and is cultivated throughout the whole of Burma is the ‘Awza thee’ or ‘custard apple’.

Custard apple is the common name for a huge family that, by the by, includes also the magnolia. The family comprises more than 2.000 species of mostly tropical trees and shrubs.

Members of the family have aromatic leaves and fragrant flowers that do typically comprise six petals from which the fruit develops. The fruit is usually global-shaped, brown to yellowish green with a yellow or yellowish-white pulp. The fruits, an aggregate of berries, what is the explanation for its having many small, white seeds are aromatic and sweet-tasting and include the in tropical regions growing sweetsop, soursop and cherimoya. The ylang-ylang tree, a native of Southeast Asia, produces delicately smelling flowers the oil of which is distilled and used in perfume.

In Burma, the custard apple that likes hot and dry climate grows mainly and abundantly in the central dry plane, especially in the Mount Popa area, located about 31 miles/about 50 kilometres southeast of Bagan, where it grows very big and is of extraordinary sweet taste. Another area known for custard apples of high quality is the area around Pyay, which lies between Pagan and Yangon.

The custard apple is eaten in the fresh state only and is not in any form preserved. It perishes very rapidly and can therefore not be stored for long. If you eat the fruit please do not scoop or cut out the seeds as the seed-pods they are embedded in are very delicious and their being eaten is worth the trouble of spitting out the seeds.

The custard apple belongs to the family ‘Annonaceae’. The representative is ‘Annona’. The sweetsop is classified as ‘Annona squamosa’, the soursop as ‘Annon muricata’, the cherimoya as ‘Annon cherimola’ and the ylang-ylang tree as ‘Cananga odorata’.

The custard apple is followed by the orange, locally called ‘Leing maw thee’. Orange is the common name for citrus fruits of several trees. Different varieties include the sweet orange, the sour orange and the mandarin orange or tangerine. The fruit is technically a kind of berry, develops from a white or purplish blossom and consists of easily separable sections, called carpels, each one containing several seeds and many juice cells covered by a leathery skin containing numerous oil glands.

One sour orange species is native to Brazil and is a seedless orange with medium-thick rind. In the ‘navel’ at the bottom of the fruit grows a second, small abortive orange. The orange tree seldom exceeds 30 feet/9 metres in height. Three essential oils are obtained from oranges: ‘oil of orange’ obtained from the rind of the fruit and used principally as a flavouring agent; ‘oil of petigrain’ obtained from the leaves and twigs used in perfumery and ‘oil of neroli’ obtained from blossoms and used in perfumery and flavouring.

Oranges are almost exclusively native to Southeast Asia and belong to the family ‘Rutaceae’ and the genus ‘Citrus’, are a good source of vitamin C and are mainly eaten in the fresh state plain or in fruit salad. They are also canned, processed into extracts, juice and orangeade, made into marmalade and are used as cooking ingredients and dried as baking ingredient.

The watermelon, or ‘Pa ye thee’ in Burmese, is a member of the gourd family and a type of melon that is cultivated extensively for its sweet-tasting and refreshing fruit. Its original habitat is Africa, particularly the Kalahari Desert, and it grows as a trailing wine. Today it is cultivated globally. The fruit is rounded, oblong and berrylike. It grows to very large sizes and can reach about 24 inches (about 61 cm) in length and a weight of about 50 lb (about 30 kg). The rind is quite thick and monochrome green or striped. The watermelon’s pulp is of watery-sweet taste, usually red in colour and contains many white to black, flat and pointed seeds, which dried and roasted, give a nice snack.

To eat watermelon is especially when the weather is hot very refreshing – even more so when the flesh is slightly chilled – and something that should not be missed. But be careful with buying ready sliced watermelon from street vendors as the fruit is an attractor to flies.

Certainly, I do not want to spoil the fun but you can get seriously ill and even die if you take my warning not seriously. That is a price not even the most delicious watermelon is worth to be paid for. The watermelon is not preserved in any way, a member of the family ‘Cucurbitaceae’ and is classified as ‘Citrulla lanatus’.

Now that we are approaching the end we have reached the point at which a show master – accompanied by the roll of the drum – might say: “And now, ladies and gentleman, the moment we have all been impatiently waiting for so long has finally arrived. Let us give a very, very warm welcome and a big hand to the top-stars of the show and highlights of the evening (roll of drum crescendoing and curtain rising) the ‘Mango Sisters’ and ‘Mr. Papaya’.”

And here they are: the ‘Mango Sisters’, ‘Ma chitu’ (Ms. ‘Love’ or ‘Lover’), ‘Sein talone’ (Ms. ‘One Diamond’) and ‘Myakyout’, (Ms. ‘Emerald Stone’) in the flesh.

These three are coming out at the top of their class as no other of the many kinds and varieties of mango are as sweet, tender and delicious as they are.

Mango, locally called ‘Tha yet thee’, is the common name for a tree and its fruit. The mango tree is native to India and widely grown in the tropics and subtropics for its succulent fruit. In Burma mangoes are grown in Upper and in Lower Burma but due to the hot and dry climate in upper Burma the Tha yet thee coming from there are a little bit superior to those growing in Lower Burma although the latter are already a sensation in taste. The best mangoes come from ‘Pyay’ in central Burma. Burma mangoes are truly a class of their own; absolutely delicious.

The mango’s peel is very tough and its stone is flat and quite big but what is between skin and stone is something to kill for. My favourite is Ma Chitu; she is the loveliest of all of them. The fruit, a fleshy drupe, is kidney-shaped and greenish, yellowish or reddish in colour.

Mango belongs to the family ‘Anacardiaceae’ and is classified as ‘Magnifera indica’. There are mainly 2 ways to cut a mango to eat it fresh from the tree so to say. One way is to slice the fruit from top to bottom vertically. This way you get three slices; the middle part comprising to 90 percent of the kernel and the right and left outer slices called ‘cheeks’. You can then simply spoon the pulp out of the peel/skin that so to say constitutes the ‘bowl’. It is important to know that it is not possible to take the kernel out of the pulp the way you may do it with a peach (and even that is difficult enough) because mango kernel and pulp are grown together. The second way is to cut the mango in just the same way and then to cut the pulp (like jelly in a bowl) into cross-sections. Now only the skin ward parts of the pulp are clinking to the solid skin. The next step is to press from outside on the skin so that the pulp is turned outwards. Now you have something that looks (by a little stretch of fantasy) like a hedgehog, the spikes being the pieces of mango pulp. Now you can easily bit away the pieces from the skin. But be careful; the mangoes are very, very juicy and the juice is dripping and running down your hands and wrists; use a tissue to avoid embarrassment owing to juice on your clothes.

Mango is eaten in many forms in Burma. The green mango (unripe), which is extremely sour (by comparison even a lemon is rather sweet), is pounded with matching ingredients such as e.g. onion, chilli and dry shrimp into a shrimp paste. Another form is the preserved mango or pickled mango. Mango is also eaten as side-dish and green mango salad ‘Tha yet thoke’ with onion, bean powder, dry shrimps, pea nuts, white cabbage, garlic and peanut oil (very, very tasty!). It is also processed into juice that is absolutely delicious.

Last but not least, the ‘Tha yet thee’ is – like the banana bud – also an important and often seen architectural design element in Burma. It is called ‘Tha Yet Kin’, which means ‘Small Green Mango’. It is a design that depicts the shape of an unripe mango with its at this stage very apparent curvature at the tip of the fruit and can be found, among others, on the beginning part (the lower part) of railings of staircases leading e.g. up to ‘Payas’, pagodas and ‘Kyaungs’, Buddhist monasteries.

The papaya, its local name being ‘Thin baw thee’, is in contrast to the mango – which is a seasonal fruit – a year-round fruit.

Papaya is the common name for the family ‘Caricaceae’ and its representative genus. Four genera and about 30 species of papaya are placed in this family of dicots, one of the two large groups of flowering plants. The common papaya is classifies as ‘Carica papaya’ and is also called ‘pawpaw’ or ‘papaw’. It is native to the tropical regions of central and South America but its exact origin is unknown. It is however widely cultivated in the tropics and many varieties have been developed. Papaya trees can when growing wild reach a height of only about 6 feet/1.8 metres while when cultivated they may grow to about 25 feet/7.6 metres high.

The papaya fruit, varying in shape from spherical to elongate can weigh up to 20 lb/9 kg and is mainly eaten in a fresh state as breakfast fruit, side dish, in salads or dessert.

Since the sap of the papaya tree and the juice of the papaya fruit contain ‘papain’, a protein digesting enzyme in special latex-producing cells, meat gets not only tender earlier than usual but also more tender as usual when pieces of green papaya are added to the meat while it is cooking. For this reason papaya is also exploited for its latex that contains this digestive aid, which is used in meat tenderiser. Now you know why and how meat tenderiser is working and what you must do next time when the meat is too though.

Papaya also has medicinal properties as it, for instance, promotes digestion. So much so, that I recommend not overdoing it in terms of quantity when eating papaya although I know it is hard to stop once one has started to enjoy the delicious papaya fresh or as salad.

At this time I deem it warranted to warn you. When you are eating papaya salad here in Rakhine State (or e.g. in Thailand where it is called Som Tam/Tum, or Viet Nam where it is called Di Du Du) you need to be aware that it will be very, very hot; my recommendation: When ordering the papaya salad, tell the people to go easy on chilli.

Now we have reached the end of our long journey through the flora of Burma and I hope that you have enjoyed it (I have done my best to keep things entertaining) and on our way developed an appetite for the ‘Fruits of Burma’. They are at their best here in Burma where they grow and are waiting for you. Come and enjoy eating them.

WordPress RSS – How to Generate Multiple RSS Feeds From One Blog

WordPress and RSS

WordPress does not have a lot of cool RSS features built in. That is one reason we love to use wordpress as our choice posting platform here at RSS 3.0

However there are some functionality and abilities that many people do not even know of and this is what we are going to discuss in this article. You can of course tell the feed how many posts to show and if you want your information syndicated as a description or full text and we do suggest that you use the full text of your posts, it's like getting more bang for you buck as far as getting your content out there.

However, What About Multiple RSS Feeds?

This is a topic that very rarely gets discussed, unless you buy some fancy course and that's not what we are about here. We are ready willing and able to share all the ins and outs of the rss world, so here we go!

Yes, wordpress is setup, by default ready to create as many different rss feeds as you could want.

Why would a person want more than one rss feed for the same web site or blog? Well for several reasons, the first and most obvious, being the fact that you can syndicate multiple rss feeds and drive more traffic back to your website by the extra exposure created. The second, may not be as important for smaller sites but is very important for huge sites or any web site with many categories of interest.

If you have a bunch of categories on your site and people interested in one may not be interested in the other, why not give your website visitors the control to choose with section of rss updates that they want to follow? This is a great way to get more subscribers to your rss feed and make sure that your subscribers are only getting the updated information that interests them.

WordPress Multiple RSS Feed – How To

We want to let everyone know that there are some plugins that will allow you to do this, but we have found them to be literal useless and then they want a back link on your site on top of there lack of development. So, that in mind you have been warned and here is what you need to do to create your own rss feeds from your site.

1. Make all the categories you want on the site and make sure that the children categories are named as you would like your rss feed to be named.

2. Go to the category of your blog that you want to make a new feed from.

3. In the address bar of your web browser, go to the end of the web address and add this / feed /

with the forward slashes!

4. Hit the enter key or load this web address you have just created.

5. You should now be looking at the RSS feed of that category, you've done it!

This process can be repeated for as many categories as you like. All you need to do is add the link to the appropriate rss feed where it may be needed. If you want, you may add a new text widget and put the links to all of your rss feeds in it, so the visitors can choose the feed they want. If you use rss submission software, make sure to add each separate rss feed that you have created. If you have any problems setting up your own rss feeds, please contact me and let me know, I would be glad to help in any way that I can.

To Success,

Nick Simpson

A Potted History of Rainscreen Cladding

Norway is the place where rainscreen cladding had its birth. It was not a scientific breakthrough, however, but more a gradual discovery that happened centuries ago in a largely intuitive way. Norwegian builders, probably through trial and error, found a way to utilise drained and back-ventilated cladding with joints that were both closed and open.

The first buildings to have this type of cladding were large barns. This is why they called it “the open-jointed barn technique.” The timber cladding had closed joints with opening at the top and at the bottom of the timber to allow for water drainage, and also for the evaporation of any rain moisture that managed to penetrate inside.

Scientific research of the underlying principles of a rainscreen didn’t start until as late as the 1940s. It was quickly recognised that the principles involved in rainscreen cladding was vastly superior to anything else in use at the time. That still holds true today.

The early research concluded that it is unwise to allow walls made of brick or cement to be exposed to rain over a long period of time without having anything to prevent the porous nature of the materials from absorbing water in a way that is similar to blotting paper.

The idea of fitting an outer screen wall to porous brick and cement walls that could repel rainwater was adopted. It was also easy to make this screen aesthetically pleasing at the same time. Just because its primary purpose is to serve as a rainscreen, there is no reason why it can’t look good too.

The outer screen also needs to have strength qualities and it needs to have an acceptably low cost. The design also needs to be such that it can, through proper ventilation, remove any water vapour that finds its way into the space between the wall and the cladding.

The Alcoa building in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was one of the first very large buildings to utilise modern rainscreen cladding. The 30-story building was built with large baffled aluminium panels. The baffling provided resistance to penetration from water and the ventilation to dry and water moisture was provided in the airspace between the cladding and the main wall.

In the early 1960s the Norwegian Building Research Institute published the idea of equalising the air pressure between the screen and the wall with the air pressure on the outside. This has the effect of preventing water penetrating into the wall. The rainscreen prevents the actual wall becoming excessively wet.

The terms “rainscreen principle” and “open rainscreen” were first used in 1963 by the National Research Council of Canada. Research continued through the 1960s and 1970s with refinements being made principally in Canada and in Europe.

By the 1980s the principles of rainscreen cladding was well understood. Its use has proliferated, especially in Europe, and experimentation with various different materials is ongoing. Today, the potential problems that may arise through the effects of global warming is now being taken into consideration in building techniques and industry standards regarding rainscreen systems.

A Complete Preschool Lesson Plan – Jungle Theme

Hop on the Safari Bus. We are going on a Jungle Tour in the Preschool Classroom. It’s going to be so much fun for the children, and I guarantee you are going to enjoy yourself.

Here are some ideas on how to get your jungle theme lesson plan started and some ideas to keep it going for as long as your preschoolers are interested in the activity.

Here’s how to introduce the theme:

Day 1. Ask the children if they know what the word ‘jungle’ means. Explain what a jungle is for those who may not know, and have a picture of a jungle so they can associate your description with the picture.

Day 2. Have books* in the library on jungles and animals that live in the jungle. They can be a mix of cartoon type kids books and real-to-life kids books. (Your local library should be able to help you out with finding books.)

Day 3. Find pictures* of jungle animals from magazines, books, the internet, calendars, or anywhere you can find them, laminate them, and post them on the walls around the classroom.

Day 4. Place jungle themed toys on the toy shelf and place a few jungle themed puzzles in the puzzle area

Day 5. Find a CD with jungle themed music and play that throughout playtime after you talk about the jungle.

*If any pictures or books you have, show any sort of tribal people, you could make tribal masks for a creative art activity and the children can wear them in the dramatic play centre.

You can also place some paper towel tubes, pipe cleaners, markers, googly eyes, etc., on the art shelf and see which animals they create.

Here are some examples of animals you can introduce through books and pictures:













Feel free to have an open discussion with the children. Talk about the colors of the animals, their teeth, their eyes, which animal does each child like best, etc.

If you want, you can also touch on what the animals eat but make sure you keep it simple. The children at this stage in life don’t need to start learning about the words carnivores, herbivores, etc. Just keep things simple like saying, a panther eats meat, a monkey eats fruit, a giraffe eats leave from tall trees, etc.

The children will probably want to know where the animals homes are in the jungle. This information should be easy to find through the books and pictures you have. If not, the library will have books on the individual animals you are talking about which will give you the information you need.

Here are some examples to get you started:

The animals will find homes within their habitat (the jungle) which they make into a home for them and their animal families.

Animals homes in the jungle could be a nest, a den, a burrow, under a rock, in a hollow tree trunk, up high in trees, etc.

You can then talk about which animal might live in a tree, which one would live under a rock, etc.

To incorporate this theme into the different programming areas of the classroom, some examples could be:

Creating a jungle themed dramatic play center:

Make a jungle jeep, safari jeep or car out of a box or, place 4 chairs together with a stand up steering wheel in front of one chair.

Get some safari looking hats.

Children’s binoculars.

Pretend cameras.

Post jungle animal pictures on the wall and watch your preschool children go wild over this theme. 🙂

Here is a sandy sensory idea:

Place some sand in the sensory bin.

Find some small rubber or plastic sand animals* you would find in the jungle. (Snakes, beetles, insects, etc.)

Place these items in the sensory bin and your done.

*I have had great success finding almost everything I need at dollar stores. Search them out, I am sure you will find what you are looking for.

Just be as creative as you can with this theme. The possibilities are endless if you put your mind to it. When you are listening to the jungle music you can incorporate creative movement into this. Ask the children to pick an animal they would like to pretend to be and move to the music like that animal. There is no right or wrong movement, the children will have so much fun.

You could also move this theme into outdoor gross motor play. You could bring some of the dramatic play items outside like the hats, binoculars, cameras etc. Place some stuffed toys here and there around the play yard (make sure they get washed when you bring them in for the day) and go on an outdoor safari hunt.

The children can ride their bikes and go on their own tour, they can go on a “lion/bear hunt,” you can run from animals ‘scare’ you, you can tip toe and walk around animals that are ‘sleeping’.

Remember to use your imagination and expand on what the children are doing and saying.

Have a wonderful Jungle Themed Lesson and go wild with adventure.

Dangerous Shower Gel? 16 Truly Frightening Additives in Products You Use Every Day

According to the U.S Poison Control Centers, “A child is accidentally poisoned every 30 seconds and more than 50% of all poisonings occur at home with children under 5 years of age.” But of course, you keep your cleaning supplies out of reach, and only use baby products on your young children, and so your family is safe, right? But what’s really in all those products, and what about the chemical residues that are left in your carpet, on your child’s pajamas, in the very air your family breathes every day?

Because young children are smaller than adults, they are exposed to more contaminants per pound of body weight. Their little bodies and immune systems are not yet fully developed, and they are at a greater risk from the cumulative effect of chemicals that are found everywhere, from air freshener to laundry detergent.

I’ve listed below some commonly found ingredients and why you never want them in your home again. Note how many seemingly benign products, like deodorant and shower gel, contain these harmful ingredients. And remember, even though they may be in small amounts, you are putting these on your skin, in your hair, in your clothes and in your air every day, year after year after year.


Ammonia is fatal if swallowed. 80% of all manufactured ammonia is used as fertilizer. It is also used to manufacture synthetic fibers, plastics, and explosives, and it is added to many cleaning products, detergents, window cleaners, stain removers, bleaches, dyes, and floor waxes. Swallowing even small amounts of liquid ammonia in your household cleaner might cause severe burns in your mouth and throat. If you get it in your eyes it can lead to blindness. Ammonia is a corrosive substance that can burn skin, eyes, respiratory tract, mouth, and your digestive tract.


Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless liquid chemical solution that forms when ammonia dissolves in water. It can also release ammonia gas into the air.

It can be found in many industrial products and cleaners such as flooring strippers, brick cleaners, and cements. This chemical can cause breathing difficulty, coughing, severe pain or burning in the nose, eyes, ears, lips, or tongue, esophagus, stomach, or throat, vision loss, severe abdominal pain, vomiting, severe change in pH (too much or too little acid in the blood, which leads to damage in all of the body organs), holes in skin tissue, and other symptoms.


This carcinogenic chemical can be absorbed through skin, and irritates mucous membranes. It is poisonous when ingested, and inhalation of the fumes may be toxic. It is cited by the EPA and OSHA as a threat to public health. This chemical is found in oven cleaners, detergents, furniture polishes, spot removers, and nail-polish removers.

Diseases associated with benzene include Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), Myelofibrosis and Myeloid Metaplasia, Aplastic Anemia, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), Hairy Cell Leukemia, Multiple Myeloma, Thrombocytopenic Purpura, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML), Hematologic Cancers.


This widely used chemical is a suspected carcinogen and certainly a strong irritant, and it is responsible for many poisonings every year. The 1990 Clean Air Act lists it as a hazardous air pollutant… yet you breathe it in every time you use it in your laundry products or tub and tile cleaners. And air-borne residues remain in your toilet paper, paper napkins and paper towels.

Household bleach, used to whiten fabrics or remove mold from surfaces, is a 5% solution of a stabilized form of chlorine. It is a strong corrosive that will irritate or burn the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. It may cause pulmonary edema or vomiting and coma if ingested. Never mix bleach with toilet bowl cleaners or ammonia. The fumes could be DEADLY!


Formaldehyde is highly toxic and a known carcinogen. It is used in the manufacture of glues, and is also a preservative in deodorizers, disinfectants, cosmetics, vaccines and is used for embalming bodies. Formaldehyde is used in shampoo, conditioner, shower gel, liquid hand soap, and bubble bath. Products for children such as bubble bath and baby shampoo even have formaldehyde in them! Some health effects from exposure to formaldehyde include eye, nose, and throat irritation… wheezing and coughing… fatigue, skin rash, and severe allergic reactions. Formaldehyde is also used in permanent-press sheets, mattresses, foams, plastics, and building materials.


Glycol ether can cause irritation of the skin, eyes, nose, and throat. It can also be hazardous to the reproductive system. This chemical can damage the kidneys, liver, and central nervous system. It is quickly absorbed through the skin and is found in some household cleaning products, paints, cosmetics, and perfumes.

Also known as butyl cellosolve (2-butoxy-1-ethanol, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, butoxyethanol, and butyl oxitol).


Hydrochloric acid is a corrosive and eye and skin irritant. It can dissolve and destroy tender tissues upon direct contact. Eyes, nose, and throat are easily irritated by vapors. Contact can cause burning, permanent scarring, and even blindness. This chemical is found in aluminum cleaners and rust removers.


Kerosene (mineral spirits) is an eye and skin irritant, and can damage lung tissues. It is neurotoxic. Kerosene may contain the carcinogen benzene. It is found in all-purpose cleaners, furniture polishes, and waxes.


Sodium hydroxide (also known as lye, caustic soda, and soda lye) is an eye, skin and respiratory irritant. It can burn eyes, skin and internal organs. Lye can cause lung damage, blindness and be fatal if swallowed. It is found in household cleaners, oven cleaners, tub and tile cleaners, toilet bowl cleaners, and drain openers.


Morpholine is extremely toxic. It is irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes, and may cause liver and kidney damage. It reacts with nitrites to form carcinogenic nitrosamines. It can also aggravate pulmonary/bronchial disease or cause breathing difficulty, burn the skin, cause blindness, cause abdominal pain , diarrhea , nausea , and vomiting. This chemical is found in all-purpose cleaners, furniture polishes, and car waxes.


Napthalene is irritating to the eyes and skin, and can cause cataracts, corneal damage, and kidney damage. It is a suspected carcinogen. This chemical is extremely toxic to small children and infants, and can cause blood damage to fetuses. This chemical is found in mothballs, air fresheners, deodorizers, carpet cleaners, and toilet-bowl cleaners.


Organic solvents (carbon disulfide, n-hexane, metyl n-butyl ketone, toluene trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene) are neurotoxins and central-nervous-system depressants. They are recognized as carcinogens. These chemicals are found in all-purpose cleaners, degreasers, metal polishes, varnish and lacquer removers, dry-cleaning solutions, paints and coatings, and adhesives.

Drinking water contaminated with perchloroethylene has leukemia and birth-defect implications. Long-term overexposure may effect the nervous system. This chemical is found in spot removers, degreasers, and dry-cleaning fluids.


Petroleum products (benzene, toluene xylene, benzene, napthalene, and Stoddard solvent) are powerful eye, skin, and respiratory irritants, and are either known or suspected carcinogens. Neurotoxic effects can lead to organic brain damage.

You are exposed to them in many common products including heavy-duty cleaners, stain removers, furniture polish, car wax, lice shampoo, home and garden pesticides, and flea-control products, furniture polish, and laundry products. Don’t assume these products are safe just because they are not banned (yet).


Phenol (alkyl phenoxy polyethoxy ethanol and nonyl phenoxy ethoxylate) is very toxic and is a suspected carcinogen. It can cause swelling, pimples, and hives. If swallowed, it can cause circulatory collapse, convulsions, cold sweats, coma, and death. This chemical is found in all-purpose cleaners, air fresheners, disinfectants, furniture polish, and laundry detergents.


This corrosive chemical is damaging to eyes and skin, and to internal tissues if swallowed. It can cause asthma attacks. Found in toilet-bowl cleaners and deodorizers


Also known as ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic or diammonium, this chemical is found in laundry detergent and is a skin irritant. It also irritates mucous membranes, leading to allergies, asthma, and skin rashes. This chemical does not biodegrade. It binds with heavy metals in our lakes and streams, affecting our water supply.

Now that you are armed with some information, read the labels before you buy! Look for labels that say the product is phosphate-free (phosphates cause excessive growth in aquatic plants, leading to suffocation of fish and other aquatic life). Phosphates are found in laundry detergents, dishwasher detergents, and all-purpose cleaners. Look for products that specifically state “no phosphates”, “no solvents”, “petroleum-free”, etc. Better yet, look for products that contain only ingredients that are plant based.

You can find healthy and natural alternatives, although it isn’t always easy. There are lots of great links on our Organic Eden website, shown below. Look for the Natural Home and Personal Care tabs at the top of the home page for information, tips and links to all natural and safe products, where we’ve already done the research for you.

Be safe and healthy!

Green Roofing – The Breakthrough in Combating Urban Heat?

While it is an accepted fact that a roofs most essential purpose is to act as a barrier against the weather and natural elements, green roofing has created a whole new and diverse dimension in this field. A green roof can offer far more than mere shelter, and has the potential to assist in a range of tasks including providing energy for your utilities and a safe habitat for plants and animals alike. They can even collect water for surrounding gardens, and therefore have the potential to make a valuable contribution to the well being of our environment.

What are the Main Types of Green Roofing?

Green roofs are vegetated and natural roof covers which are built on top of a roof deck, and may also be referred to as an ecoroof or sky garden. It is a relatively modern and increasingly popular construction technique, and fits well with the contemporary drive of governments and citizens to develop sustainable energy and maintain an eco-friendly lifestyle. There are two fundamental categories of green roof types, and each boast different features and benefits to the concerned citizen.

The first is called the extensive type, and this is a non-recreational space which hosts a sustainable biotic community of herbs, grasses, plants and other natural succulents. These are usually planted into a layer of shallow soil which covers some of the roof surface or in single plant pots, and are then allowed to develop naturally in an exposed and dry environment which encourages growth. This type of structure is usually favored in smaller spaces, which is not usually accessible for an alternative or social use.

The intensive option is a far more costly affair, and requires a higher level of planning, commitment and knowledge to construct effectively. These roofs are usually created with recreation in mind, and so can accommodate individuals mixing among the array of plants and living organisms. The entire roof surface is covered in far deeper soil than that which is seen extensive green roof projects, and will often house larger species of plants and even trees in some instances.

The Benefits of Green Roofing and its Pitfalls

Biodiverse roofs offer a further example of these eco-friendly principles, and these may also be referred to as rubble or brown roofs. They boast all of the benefits affiliated with a the green roof, but their main difference is that they are usually designed to fulfill a particular biodiversity project or objective. These can vary depending on the environment and the climate, but may including providing a habitat for an under threat species or featuring as part of a local council or government bodies biodiversity scheme. So while these roofs may borrow much from the typical extensive green roof, the individual choice of soil, plants and growing mediums will be selected with a specific project or objective in mind.

Green roofing has been suggested by many to be a significant breakthrough in resolving global warming, especially as contemporary cities are becoming increasingly shorn of sun reflecting vegetation which cool the earths temperature. If creates an opportunity for households to resolve this issue, and subsequently reduce global warming while actively improving our earths natural environment. In addition to this of course, green roofing also provides the necessary strong barrier to heavy rain and inclement weather, and even retains between 70 and 90 percent of fallen rainwater (depending on the system) to assist with water drainage and local river flooding.

Now although green roofing helps to insulate properties in the winter and helps to make your home more energy efficient while saving money, there are certain financial costs associated with green roofing. Whether you select an extensive or an intensive roof type, they are not especially cheap to install especially as expert guidance is often required to complete the job properly. This problem is even more relevant when you consider the option of installing photovoltaic panels on your existing roof, which help to provide primary or back up electricity to households but currently costs nearly twice as much as traditional utility providers.

Is Green Roofing the Answer to Reducing Global Warming?

Green roofing is undoubtedly becoming increasingly popular in contemporary suburbia, and despite its current cost implications it is expected that government incentives and improved technology will reduce this expenditure significantly in the next decade. With more an more citizens being actively encouraged to create a green roof or implement some form of solar inspired technology on their roof top, then the environment can truly begin to feel the same benefit afforded to the individual household, and in time we may see the threat of global warming begin to gradually diminish.

Is Laser Hair Removal Treatment Possible at Home? How?

What is Laser Hair Removal?

Today laser hair removal has become quite a synonym for permanent removal of hair. The treatment is heavily advertised in all the possible mediums. And you can say that because of producing results it has become popular too.

You too just wanted to go with the flow but before that you should know that what this treatment is all about. This hair removal treatment uses a long pulse laser to remove the hair from its root. From the specific wavelength this beam is delivered into the skin.

The basic idea behind this technology is that the laser targets the dark color materials. The pigment "melanin" is responsible for it and it is present in the hair, so the laser targets the hair and removes it. Laser can only target the hair which is grown, because all the hairs do not grow together at a time. This is the reason why you need so many sentences for this treatment to give optimal results.

Pros and Cons of Laser Hair Removal Treatment

Before trying out any new treatment for your body or skin it is quite obvious that you would like to know about the positives and negatives about it.

Hair removal treatment from laser can give you following benefits:

  1. Permanent hair removal or reduction
  2. Less Painful
  3. Suits most of the skin types
  4. Targets larger area as compared to electrolysis hair removal
  5. Effective treatment for ingrown hairs and laser bumps as well
  6. Best way to get rid of the thick and coarse hair

Even a perfect treatment also has some loop holes in it. Similar is the case with laser hair removal too.

  1. Requires many visits to salon
  2. Expensive
  3. Cant be effective for the hair which are lighter in color
  4. Temporary darkening of the applied area
  5. Temporary swelling and redness

Most of the side effects from laser hair removal are for temporary time period. But you should always test the treatment on smaller body part before applying it to the whole body parts.

Permanent Removal of Unwanted Hair at Home

This treatment demands a lot of attention and time from you and does not forget money too. You know that this way of removing hair is quite effective and you want to try it out too but these are the few issues because of which you are not able to go for it.

Today you can see that the world is progressing quickly and there is an improvement in almost all fields of the life. There are lots of newventions in the beauty products and skin care products too. Home laser hair removal product is one of them.

Now you can get the treatment of laser for removing unwanted hair at home. There are a number of products available in the market for this purpose, it depends on you which product to choose. But do the research about the products first and what is the market value of the product.

Rio Scanning Laser

Rio Scanning laser is a range of laser hair removal products. These products can be used at home only. So the benefit which you get from them is you do not need to go to the salon or clinic many times and the expense will only be the price of the product.

This product work by sending the laser beam to the hair and destroy it from the root itself without affecting the surrounding area. This process of hair removal is called photothermolysis. The best part is there are no painful needles and irritating chemicals.

Rio scanning laser comes in two forms one which removes 20 hairs at a time and the second one Rio Scanning Laser x 60 that removes 60 hairs at a time, 3 times more. This product is apt for removing hair from most of the body areas including legs, arms, bikini line, under arms and facial hair.

With these products you can enjoy the permanent hair removal in much less price as compared to expensive salon treatments.