Migraines and Legs – Is Your Leg Length Difference Causing Your Migraine Headaches?

Migraines can be caused by having a short leg. According to a study by the US Army, approximately one out of ten people have an actual leg length difference.

Myofascial (muscle and soft tissue) pain experts Drs. Travell and Simons said that a leg length difference of 1/8 inch or more puts you at risk for pain and dysfunction. Why? Because your body does things automatically to try to correct or adapt or accommodate that difference such as tilt, twist or rotate. These positions can cause a migraine.

There are two types of “short legs.” Both can cause migraines.

One is an actual anatomical difference which could be caused by severe injury or polio or nature and is measurable on x-rays. It could be either the upper or the lower leg bone.

The other type is a functional leg length difference. That means the bones are all the same length but muscles in the body cause one hip to lift. Your hip bones can move independently of each other so it is possible to have one hip that is higher or more forward than the other.

People with a leg length difference often have migraines because walking with a tilt puts a lot of strain on the muscles at the base of the skull. It causes a rotation (slight turning) of the head. That can affect the nerves and blood vessels which play a part in migraines. Those people can have other pain, too, such as hip pain on the short leg side or low back pain pain or TMJ dysfunction.

What’s the fix?

Good news! There is a relatively easy fix so you don’t have to go through life “out of balance” and with migraines.

Anatomical short leg:

Lifting your entire foot on the short leg side enough to level your hips will go a long way in helping you feel better, have fewer migraines, and fewer problems with your neck and muscles.

This requires that you only wear certain shoes. They must have a solid, thick hard rubber sole. A shoemaker can split a firm rubber sole and add a layer of neoprene rubber to lift the short leg. This doesn’t work with air or gel type shoes.

Also, if you have a really skilled shoemaker or cobbler, he might be able to remove your whole sole and replace it with a new, thicker sole.

It may seem like a lot of work or you might not want to give up your stylish shoes but the benefits to your body are huge.

Functional short leg:

A skilled massage therapist can help relax and release the tight out-of-balance muscles that are pulling your bones out of neutral.

How do you know if you have a leg length difference?

Perhaps one pant leg is always longer than the other. That was the clue for my 91 year old client who had back pain and migraines for over 70 years. His doctors never looked for or told him he had a leg length difference but he told me, “My tailor always told me I did!” His anatomical leg length difference was about 2 inches.

Maybe when you look in the mirror you can see that one shoulder is higher than the other or that your head sits off the side instead of dead in the middle of your body. That’s a clue, too.

Or, as you look in the mirror, does your belt line always sit lower on the same side?

How do you know how much lift you need?

A doctor can take x-rays of your legs and hips and measure for you. Or, you can “guestimate” by placing notebooks or magazines under your short leg and adding or removing pages until you feel level and look level in the mirror. Many neuromuscular massage therapists are trained in measuring leg length differences also.

When you get rid of an actual leg length difference and stop the tilting and twisting that your body does to try to make corrections, you can have fewer migraines.

What else can I do?

There is a lot of information and misinformation about migraines. Doctors mostly look at trying to help you get rid of them rather than figure out where they come from. Here’s a clue: There are things your body likes and things it doesn’t like.

In addition to getting your hips level (which your body likes) you can take steps to relax the muscles around your head and neck (which your body also likes.) You can also do simple, gentle movements to help correct your posture and relax your back (which your body likes. too.).

There can be multiple causes for your migraines but the more causes you can get rid of, the less pain you will have.

PLEASE NOTE: Whenever you do movements for your neck, always do them carefully, slowly and thoughtfully. Pay close attention to what’s going on so you don’t aggravate your touchy neck and cause a migraine.

A Business In One Sentence

Marketing expert and author, Geoffrey Moore, has a useful
fill-in-the-blank method for creating a theme and
positioning statement for your business. I prefer to use
his same system for creating clarity for myself in what I'm
selling, creating an elevator or introduction speech, and
also material for my website, brochures and business card.

Using this same method for each niche I have also keeps me
focused and on target for where I am going and what comes
first. I know it will do the same for you. As a public
speaker, I also like to use the same exercise to create a
one-line message for each workshop or engagement. This way
the participants and I start from the same page. I like to
say it provides the tree trunk that all the branches stem

This exercise is designed to be simple and achievable in 15
minutes. However, if this seems somewhat daunting, see if
your beliefs are still in the clouds of wanting to deliver
too much to too many to soon. If this is the case, there is
a great book I recommend that will support you in narrowing
down: Niche and Grow Rich, by Jennifer and Peter Sander.
This book will support you understanding the market place
you want to enter and in narrowing your thoughts.


For ___________________________

(Hints: Who is your target customer, your niche? Is there
a geographic relevance? If so, add it. Examples: Seniors,
women business owners, teens between 13 and 18. If a
specific geographic area: Writers in the Washington DC
metro area.)

Who ___________________________

(Hints: This is where you qualify your target customer and
time of need. Examples: Who are obese. Who are 62 and
older. Who own a business. Who are in high school and take

Our product / service is ____________________________

(Hints: What is your product or the service?
is a line of workshops. Our service is training. Our
service is executive coaching. Our service is training or
engineering or accounting.)

That provides ______________________________

(Hints: What are your key features of this product / service?
What are the major benefits of this product or service?
What are the tradeoffs? That provides shortcuts (software
training) at a discount / premium price. That contains no
chemicals. That contains no hidden costs. That contains
no markups. That contains life support.)

Unlike ____________________________________

(Hints: Who are your competitors? What are the products
not serving the needs of this particular niche? Unlike
other retail sellers, which have …. Unlike store-bought
goods, these …. Unlike other coaches …. Unlike other
workshops ….)

Our product / service _______________________________

(Hints: Your product / service serves this niche by doing
what? Our product / service helps this group increase theirs
personal leadership skills. Our product / service helps this
group overview …. Our product / service helps this group
reap the rewards of ….

Taking This Forward

Once you have completed this exercise, whether it is for
your overall business theme or better yet a narrower one,
you can move this information forward into all your
marketing information.

Create a paragraph with this information, then edit and
refine the language so that it fits your customer's reading
style. This is especially important if your style is
different. Each word you use has an energy attached to it.
This energy either detracts or joins customers.

Signs That Say He’s Just Not Into You – How to Spot Mr Wrong So You Can Make Room for Mr Right

Every woman has had her eye on or dated the type of guy I’m talking about here. You are never really sure where you stand with him or what his interest level really is. Call him Mr. Flake, Mr. Player, Mr. Self Absorbed or Mr. Afraid of Commitment. Whatever his romantic style, it’s just leaving you confused, frustrated and wondering what’s really going on in his mind. So, let’s spotlight the warning signs to look out for when a guy simply is not that into you or playing you.

The Physical Signs

He’ll avoid eye contact, his body is positioned away from you, his arms are folded tightly over his chest, he does not encourage conversation or volunteers anything about himself. He maintains his distance.

The Emotional Signs

You’ve been dating for at least 6 months. He still can’t say he loves you or wants to talk about his feelings in regards to you. If you have a guy who is constantly telling you that he does not love you, is not in love with you, is not sure how he feels and does not see a future with you after the 6 month mark, believe him. I feel that is a good marker of time for him to know where he sees this going and if he is developing strong feelings for you or loves you. When a guy is into you, he’ll want to let you know how he feels when he is sure that you feel the same way. If he can’t do that, start re-assessing what you are still doing with him.

He Ignores or Shows You Disrespect

If he is ignoring you or disrespects you by putting down your values, thoughts and ideas, he’s just not interested in you or in a relationship with you. Don’t waste your time on a guy who does that and focus your attention on a guy who focuses on you.

He Shoots Down Your Social Invitations

This should be a clear sign to about 99% of women out there that he’s not interested in getting to know you better or pursuing anything further. Trust me ladies, the first time he declines your offer to hang out you could give him the benefit of the doubt. But when it’s many times in a row, he’s usually not that busy, he just doesn’t want to see you and is trying to be nice about it. If a guy is interested, he’ll be happy to schedule a rain check or follow up with an invitation of his own. He’s never too busy to make time for someone he really wants to have in his life.

Mr. Player aka The Honeymooner

I call this guy the honeymooner because of how long things remain fabulous while dating this guy. The first few weeks or month is sheer bliss. This guy starts off real aggressive, hot and heavy. He can’t see you often enough, calls all the time and declares his love for you early on. He’s so romantic, thoughtful and attentive that you think you’ve hit the love jackpot and won. He woos you with promises of a happy future together, taking you to great hotspots, cooking you dinner, and being that great listener who wants to share your hopes and dreams. You think he seems too good to be true. Well, he is. This guy is a classic neophiliac. He loves the thrill of the chase, and is enamored with the novelty of you. Once that has worn off and he has gotten what he wants, he sets his sights on the next pretty girl. How to protect yourself from this guy? Don’t fall for the lines and behavior right away. Take your time before investing your heart and proceed slowly. Make sure that he means what he says. And the best way to do that is to let time be your guide. Usually these guys don’t want to put in the work to develop anything long term so you’ll know in a short period of time if his words mean anything.

Mr. Flake

This one is characterized by constantly flaking out on you at the last minute. If a guy stands you up, blows you off or shows up late, he does not have respect for your time and plans. Bottom line, he does not respect you and does not care whether or not you are in his life.

Mr. Afraid of Commitment

You go on a great couple of dates, things are going wonderfully, you feel the chemistry, you click on so many different levels and then you never hear from him again. He’s never able to discuss his feelings or freaks out and distances himself when you express how your feelings for him have grown. He’s truly afraid of intimacy and what follows with it. So, you try not to pressure him and accept the flow of things because you think maybe if you give him time he’ll come around and choose you. You may be involved with a guy who falls in this category for months or even years and whenever the subject of a future pops up, he asks you what’s the rush, says he’s not ready, he needs more time, etc. Whatever his excuse for not committing, it’s tying you to a relationship that has hit a brick wall. It either moves forward or it does not. It’s his right to stay in limbo but it’s also your right not to have to wait around for him to commit. You can move on or at least date others in the interim until he does figure out what he wants. He may never figure it out or choose you but at least you aren’t wasting good dating years on an emotionally stunted and unavailable guy. Some men just can’t commit, are players, have fears of commitment due to bad past relationships, want to remain bachelors, or like you but not enough to choose you for a committed, long lasting relationship. If only we could tap into the mind of his therapist for his reasons for pushing away many good women who have loved him. But, the real deal is, when a guy is head over heels for a woman and loves her fully, he does not want to lose her and would rather step to the plate and commit than risk her walking out of his life. If he’s willing to watch you walk away, you know it’s time to kick him to the curb and keep on stepping.

Mr. Taken

Whether this guy is involved in another relationship with a girlfriend or wife, he should be off limits. Yet so many women are lured by the seduction of his words and think he’ll eventually dump the other woman and choose them. They are told the other woman is a witch, mean, does not understand them, is psycho and won’t leave him alone. Or, he says to you that their relationship has a lot of problems, they fight constantly, he is no longer sleeping with the girlfriend or wife, he’s staying only for financial reasons or the children. The best lie of all: he’s planning on divorcing or leaving his wife or girlfriend very soon, just be patient. Now, months or years are passing by and his promises are not worth the paper they were written on. Women are natural nurturers and they want to take care of other people. Many feel that they can prove that with affection, attention and caring that they are different than the other person in his life and that is what he really needs. They believe his lies. A relationship based on a deception is not one that can have a real future because if he can cheat or lie to someone else to be with you, he can also do the same thing to you in the future.

If you fool yourself into believing you are special and the exception, then you are living in a fantasy world. And the only happy ending that can come from living in an alternate reality is creating a relationship with a guy who never existed in the first place. If he truly cared about you, he’d end his other relationship before beginning one with you. Best way to avoid this scenario? Tell him to contact you once he’s ended his other relationship and not a day before. And, stick to that. Don’t be afraid to tell him that if he continues to contact you that you will tell his girlfriend or wife about the two of you. That fear is enough to make most taken guys run for the hills. If you find out later in the relationship that he is not single like he claimed, end it immediately and don’t look back. It’s called dating with integrity. If you can’t end it on your own or he keeps trying to draw you back in with false promises, seek the help of a therapist to regain your strength and courage to end a toxic relationship that will only erode your self-esteem, confidence and self love. When you allow yourself to enter a relationship based on a deception where you are not his main priority, you are setting yourself up for being used. He’s not into you, he’s just into how he can use you to give him what he is not getting at home from the girlfriend or wife.

You Never See Him More Than a Few Days in Advance

This means he is trying to keep his schedule open in case something better comes along. The classic MO of a player. A guy who’s really into you will want to keep you off the market a week to 2 weeks in advance because he can tell you’re a great catch and does not want anyone else to occupy your time. If he’s never available on the weekends or occasions that are reserved as date nights, know you’re just a passing phase or flavor of the moment.

He Only Comes to See You Late at Night

Ah, the definition of a booty call: the guy who is too busy to see you during daylight hours but has time to swing by for a quick hook up. Unless he’s a workaholic that only gets out of work at midnight, don’t fall for it. Even then, he can still afford to take you out during his day off or on the weekend. If you are not seeing a guy who works crazy hours and it’s just the time he sets aside to see you, then be forewarned that you have a booty call pattern on your hands. It’s a way for him to get his sexual needs met and not commit to a real boyfriend/girlfriend relationship. You deserve to be taken out properly to restaurants, movies, and shows. You didn’t sign up to be kept in the closet. So, make sure you let him know that by not accepting meetings that only occur behind closed doors in the A.M.

Friends with Benefits

A step up from the booty call based relationship but still not what most women want when they get involved with a guy they see a future with. A friends with benefits relationship is when

you both agree to be sex buddies with no strings attached and can both see or date other people. If you are looking for a serious relationship, don’t accept or settle for this type of arrangement. He’s just keeping his options open and eyes peeled for the right woman, while using you for a fun romp in the sack. He’s letting you know clearly that you are not the “one” but instead are Ms. Right now until someone better comes along. Also, it’s very rare that a friends with benefits arrangement does not lead to one person walking away hurt because one person always develops stronger feelings and wants to change the relationship dynamics. Why settle for a regular hook up when you can hold out for a guy who is sure about you and wants you around exclusively?

You Never Meet His Friends or Family

Some guys will wait at least 6 months or more of dating to make sure that you are someone special before letting his entourage meet you. If a guy is serious about you, he’ll want everyone to know about you and will have no problem introducing you to his friends, coworkers and family. If you watch the calendar months go by and this still has not happened, you are being kept a secret and you have to wonder why. Is he really single or is he still unsure about your future together? You owe it to yourself to find out what’s going on.

He Does Not Call You Back the Same Day or Answers His Phone When You Call

When a guy is really into you, he does not screen his calls for your number. He’ll pick up on the first ring or call you back within hours. When you see a pattern of days going by without a return phone call, you are not high on his priority list. Basically, you are being avoided. Another sign of a player or guy who is not invested in your relationship is one who never answers the phone in your presence. If you see his phone constantly on vibrate or you visit his place and his answering machine is set to low volume or mute, he’s definitely still playing the field and chatting up new women.

Internet Communication Siberia

Before, he used to spend hours chatting with you online and writing you great emails. Now you realize that not only are you blocked from his buddy list but he also does not respond to your emails. Enough said.

He’s Hitting On or Hooking Up with Other Women

If you’ve been seeing a guy for a little while and you are hearing rumors or catching him hooking up with other women or still maintaining inappropriate contact with exes, then you know he’s not ready to settle down and choose you. If he’s also hitting on your friends or asking you if your friend is available to go out with him, it’s a surefire way to know without a shadow of a doubt that he’s not interested in being with you.

He Disappears for Days, Weeks or Months at a Time

This sign is usually self-explanatory but I cannot begin to tell you how many readers of my advice column find themselves in this predicament and think that he still is invested in their relationship and cares about them. Any guy that does not make time for you and pulls a disappearing act on you is not that into you, is seeing other people or is not ready to commit to one person. So, if you find yourself dealing with a guy who comes and goes from your life without a word, give him the boot once and for all and don’t look back. Your time and energy is better spent on a guy who wants to stick around and be a part of your life.

You Are Never Invited Over to His Place

Either he is living with someone or is not invested in a relationship with you. Any guy who is interested in a woman will bring her over to his place so she can see his private sanctuary away from the daily grind.

He Never Discusses Your Future or Makes Vacation Plans

Every guy has a life before meeting you. They schedule trips with their buddies, have guys nights out and are living the bachelor life. When a relationship is getting serious and has a future or is getting serious, he’ll start talking about the things he wants to do with you, places to go together and makes plans to manifest those dreams. His buddies take up less of his time and he’ll put you on center stage. If he does not even bring up future plans or where he sees your relationship headed, realize that this may just be a seasonal romance.

He Encourages You to Date Other People

If he encourages you to date others and not wait around for him, it’s because he does not see a future with you and wants to be free to date others as well.

He Does Not Share in the Dating Expenses

If you are the one footing the bill for all of your events and outings, the guy is only into you for what he can get out of you.

He Does Not Remember or Celebrate the Events or Dates that Matter to You

Some guys really do have a bad memory but if it’s important to you, he will make a real effort to remember the big moments. They’ll do whatever it takes: post it notes, birthday alarms, etc to make sure not to forget. When he does not take the time to acknowledge and celebrate your birthday, anniversary or a major event in your relationship with a gift, a call, flowers or even candy, it shows that he is just not into you. No one says he has to shell out a lot of clams to make the day special but the planning and effort to do what is within his budget and time is what counts. It’s all about creativity!

Silent Treatment

The king of all signs is the silent treatment. It begins by pulling away slowly, by emotionally or physically withdrawing from the relationship. When a guy is just not interested in a future, he stops calling (if he ever called at all), changes his phone number, the visits become less and less frequent, and emotionally he has already packed his bags and booked the flight to singlesville.

If you are recognizing many of these symptoms in your guy, it’s time to move on. Actions speak louder than words. If he’s just not putting in the effort he used to to make your relationship work, it’s time to sit up and take notice. When a guy is telling you with his words that he’s not interested or ready for what you need and showing you in his actions that you are not his top priority, don’t ignore the message. Hold your head up high and keep moving forward with your life, without him. Time is so precious and time waits for no one. Once it’s lost, we cannot get it back. So make sure you are giving your time to men who are worth the investment. At the end of the day, it’s about finding a love match that treats you right and wants to spend quality time with you. When you settle for less than that and waste your time on Mr. Wrong, you are selling yourself short on what you deserve.

Child Safety Gates

By nature, children are playful. So, it is downright harsh and unfair to tell them to sit tight during the times that you can not watch them play. Of course, keeping them on a leash would make the social welfare people come knocking at your door.

It is a good thing that child safety gates have invaded the market. Parents would not have to resort to ruthless options just to keep their children at bay while they are busy doing their tasks.

Stairs are a big threat to the children's safety. Even if you explain to them how much it hurts to have a fall, sometimes they want to find out for themselves what you mean exactly. This is why child safety gates are necessary. They should make the stairs off-limits to your children.

Children are all driven by their curious minds. So it should not surprise you to see them tinkering with the electric sockets, stove, fireplace, and other potentially dangerous things. It would not be such a problem if you are going to be able to watch them every move and be able to explain to them the dangers of the things that they may come in contact with. However, if you are going to leave them even for just a short time, make sure that they do not have access to anything that might bring injury to them. Use child safety gates to fence them around their play area. Check that the gates would not give them the opportunity to play with electrical devices and sockets. The child safety gates should not be anywhere near the kitchen where anything on the stove could spill on your child.

There are several types of child safety gates available according to one's needs. If you are putting up child safety gates on top of the stairs, choose one that screw to the walls. This will prevent the gates from falling down with the child in case he tries to lean hard on it.

The child safety gates are also handy during parties involving plenty of kids. Parents are usually too busy to attend their children and will not be able to check on them too often. Some kids may take this opportunity to wander off and do the things that moms would never like them to.

Choosing child safety gates would mean checking if they are certified and have the certification seal to prove it. This would tell you that they have met the quality and safety standards and are the safest ones to use to protect your child. Old child safety gates can be reused provided that they do not have gaps that are large enough for a child's head and neck to fit into. Otherwise, they would only defeat their purpose.

Recycling Tips for Plastic Bags and Paper

Recycling programs have been started by many cities around the United States as well as around the world. Some places, like Toronto, Canada, for example, are very strict, to the point that misplaced waste results in a fine. Garbage is also collected only once a week to encourage people to produce less trash.

Back when I lived in New York City, we had a good recycling program. I remember, as a child, there would be separate baskets for paper, bottles, cans, and other trash. Recently, we moved to the Chicagoland area, where our home wasn’t under any municipal recycling program. Trash production shot up! It was quite shocking. I’d wish many times that there was a recycling basket, especially for paper and cans. Living there, we came up with neat innovations about how to recycle things.

Plastic bags: every time we went shopping, we would end up with a ton of plastic bags. These would usually be reused only once, fitted on to garbage cans. One way to recycle plastic bags is by not changing plastic bags in trash cans that are used for primarily dry waste, such as the one in the office or den. These can then be emptied into the one large kitchen bag. Another way is to reuse them as packing materials. Instead of breaking out lots of bubble wrap for more sturdy items you want to put in longer term storage, you can wrap it up in plastic bags by bunching them up and wrapping with them. This also provides a decent cushion. You could, of course, take your own bags when you go shopping to solve the problem all together.

Paper: It seems we throw out paper way too easily. If a sheet doesn’t print out properly, turn it over and put it back in the printer! For most non-formal/official needs, this is fine. No one is going to look at the back of the sheet anyway. Instead of using notepads near the phone, or on the fridge, use small blackboards. I once saw a really cool gadget called a boogie board at a Brookstone store. It uses LCD technology, so you can write on it, and erase it again with the push of a button!

Also, this is the digital age! Smartphones are very efficient note-keeping devices. Apps like EverNote shine in this category. Instead of leaving post-its, you can leave text messages(or emails, if you have an unlimited data plan on your phone). I can’t even remember how many times I check my phone every day!

Recycling paper is also excellent for crafts projects(if you have kids, or have an artistic bone). Paper also makes great packing material for cartons instead of styrofoam nuggets.

I hope you can find these tips useful. The possibilities are endless! I will try to post new tips time and again. Good luck with going green!

4 Tips On Creating Your Healthy Eating Plan

To be healthy, the first and most important steps are to accept that you need to make changes to your present lifestyle and eating habits. Once you understand that, the next step is to come out with an action plan to follow.

This action plan should be based upon your personal fitness goals.

Implementing this plan is an important step in your journey towards fitness and health.

By making your goals concrete will help you to be more motivated and sticking to your plan.

Create your personal healthy eating plan by following the 4 tips given below;

1. Be realistic in setting your goals

Do not make the common mistake of setting unreasonable and difficult goals for yourself. Once you are unable to reach your goals, you will feel discouraged and might even give up on your diet plan.

Be more realistic when setting up your goals but that does not mean making it easy for yourself.


If you work long hours, you cannot expect to cook healthy meals all the time.

When creating your goals, think about all this details. Decide exactly how much weight and amount of fat you want to lose. Make them reasonable, neither too easy to achieve nor too difficult to attain.

It is difficult to accurately determine your body fat percentage without using expensive medical equipment, it is better to monitor your change in body fat or muscle with measurements.

Before you start your healthy eating and exercising plan, record the measurements of your waist, hips, thigh and upper arm. And check them again every two weeks or so to monitor your progress.

It is also difficult to accurately determine your caloric needs without using medical equipment. To be sure how much you should be consuming, consult a professional or your personal trainer.

2. Proceed gradually

After you have developed your goals, implement the changes gradually.


Your goal is to stop your habit of eating chocolate with munching on carrots or bananas. But do not cut off your chocolate completely from the first day of your diet plan.

Think on how to gradually reduce the amount of chocolates you eat. This will prevent you from your irresistible cravings.

Eating foods that are both healthy and yummy, encourage you to follow through with your plan. Prevents mindless eating by taking your time when eating and enjoy every bite of the food you eat, helps you realize when you are full.

3. Be honest to yourself

Whenever you concede to your cravings, be honest about it.

Admit that you have eaten things you were trying to avoid and make the effort to make up for it in your next meal. Your integrity helps to cover up for times when you conceded to your craving in foods you had decided not to eat.

It can help you to monitor what you eat everyday and be accountable to your diet plan can also help you to stay on course with your diet.

4. Snacking on healthy foods

Munching on snack between meals help to increase your metabolism but ensures that the snacks you eat are healthy. They help you burn more calories and keep you from overeating.

Snacking on healthy foods also gives you a constant supply of energy throughout the day.

Coming out with an eating plan can take time.

Follow the 4 tips given above to reduce your planning time and by using the ideas to help you create and stick to this plan.

After you have perfected it and vigorously sticking to your healthy diet plan, you will reap the benefits that come with eating a healthy diet.

From Iron To Steel – The History Of Iron And Why It's So Popular In Wrought Iron Designs And Decor

Most of what we learn in high school history about Thomas
Edison is all about his successful inventions. Thomas Edison
electricity, the phonograph, and on and on.
We know that Thomas Edison held over 1,093 patents for
a number of different types ofventions. What we do not know or we very seldom hear is about his failures. One of the most noted failures was his inability to find an
effective way to mine iron ore.

Iron is the cheapest and most common metal available for
mining. Iron is used for making steel. Steel, at the time
that Edison was working on his invention, was very expensive.
The world now and during the life of Edison is very dependent
on steel.

If Edison was successful in creating the extraction process
he would have earned billions of dollars in income,
The possibilities that would extend from that success
would also create millions of jobs, and spur other

Iron is useless in its pure form. Iron is brittle and can not be used to manufacture any products because of this
and other characteristics. Iron in its pure form is a
silver color. The gray that we see in iron comes from
combining iron with oxygen. But iron is not adaptable to
any practical applications on its own.

That is why the discovery of an effective extraction process
was important. Edison worked on this extraction process
from 1880 to 1890. For over ten years, he performed experiments,
hired scientist, and other experts to perfect his extraction
process. The impetus was to provide iron ore to the Pennsylvania
steel mills.

Edison moved his office from a comfortable building to actually
work in the old iron mines to find an economic process to satisfy
the insatiable demands for steel. The testing and processing of
His experiences was very expensive. To finance his invention
Edison sold all his stock in General Electric. His heirs still
regret that to this day.

Edison was never able to find a way to extract the iron from unusable,
low grade ores. Edison ever abandoned the project. He never
recouped his money that he had invested. Fortunely for Edison,
he continued his work on the phonograph and motion pictures,
and remained finanally intact.

Finding a cheaper way to produce steel was not only important to the
financial enhancement of Edison but important to the American
economy. After 1840 the American iron industry was experiencing
a revitalization but American was not the major steel producer in
the world.

In 1844, government surveyors found a large iron ore deposit of
anthracite in the Great Lakes area. Pennsylvania became the nation's
leading supplier of iron and steel. With the discovery of the rich
iron ore around Lake Superior and the ability to transport the
bounty the mine produce by water, Pennsylvania became the center
of American iron and steel production.

British engineer Henry Bessemer perfected a steel extraction
process. He completed the work that Thomas Edison had started.
Bessemer developed an iron smelting process that made it possible
to produce large quantities of steel. Some manufacturers of steel
use his process to this day.

The invention was an economic and an efficient process to make
steel from iron ore. But a better process was introduced
By Abram S. Hewitt who became a steel magnate that rivaled
Andrew Carnegie was the first American to try the Bessemer
process. He then improved on the process to develop the
the open-hearth converter. American steel makers preferred
the process of Hewitt to that of Bessemer.

The low cost of steel production after this discovery
changed the balance for American industries. American
Industry could now lead the world in steel production.
In 1873 the United States, produced nearly 115,000
tons of steel. As the price of steel continued to drop,
It was possible to use steel in several industries.

Over 70% of the finished steel that is produced in
the United states goes to automotive industry.

Child Safety Gates

By nature, children are playful. So, it is downright harsh and unfair to tell them to sit tight during the times that you can not watch them play. Of course, keeping them on a leash would make the social welfare people come knocking at your door.

It is a good thing that child safety gates have invaded the market. Parents would not have to resort to ruthless options just to keep their children at bay while they are busy doing their tasks.

Stairs are a big threat to the children's safety. Even if you explain to them how much it hurts to have a fall, sometimes they want to find out for themselves what you mean exactly. This is why child safety gates are necessary. They should make the stairs off-limits to your children.

Children are all driven by their curious minds. So it should not surprise you to see them tinkering with the electric sockets, stove, fireplace, and other potentially dangerous things. It would not be such a problem if you are going to be able to watch them every move and be able to explain to them the dangers of the things that they may come in contact with. However, if you are going to leave them even for just a short time, make sure that they do not have access to anything that might bring injury to them. Use child safety gates to fence them around their play area. Check that the gates would not give them the opportunity to play with electrical devices and sockets. The child safety gates should not be anywhere near the kitchen where anything on the stove could spill on your child.

There are several types of child safety gates available according to one's needs. If you are putting up child safety gates on top of the stairs, choose one that screw to the walls. This will prevent the gates from falling down with the child in case he tries to lean hard on it.

The child safety gates are also handy during parties involving plenty of kids. Parents are usually too busy to attend their children and will not be able to check on them too often. Some kids may take this opportunity to wander off and do the things that moms would never like them to.

Choosing child safety gates would mean checking if they are certified and have the certification seal to prove it. This would tell you that they have met the quality and safety standards and are the safest ones to use to protect your child. Old child safety gates can be reused provided that they do not have gaps that are large enough for a child's head and neck to fit into. Otherwise, they would only defeat their purpose.

Your Intuition is Asking – Can You Hear Me Now?

"Trust yourself and you will know how to live."

~ Goethe

There are three things that a soul-based business owner needs to have to be successful in business (and in life, really): knowingness, trust and traction. And the first one is a whopper … so how do you know what you know?

Let's look at what happens when you do not know what you know … sometimes it's easier to learn something by what it is not than what it IS. So, you will likely find yourself in messy situations or relationships that could have been avoided, you have "loose ends" that seem unimportant but threaten to "take you down" when they come up, you want to kick yourself for not thinking your decisions through, or you put off making a decision to the point that That is what makes the decision. Any one of these can become complicated to resolve, so you lose time, energy and resources to address them. And this is just the SHORT list!

Now that you understand the consequences of not knowing what you know, let's look at what happens when your linear mind is engaged. Your linear, or left-brain, mind is all about sorting out conflicting information, protecting you from danger based on past experience, and tossing out anything that does not make sense in a direct and practical way. If your linear mind can not make the jump from A to G, for example, it invalidates G as a viable solution. And, in actuality, that is it's job – to get rid of things that do not make sense.

The problem with that is that your intuitive, or right-brain, mind does not work in a systematic process that makes sense to your linear mind. That results in internal conflict that is sometimes powerful enough to literally kick you out of your body to get away from the experience (which is a completely different topic).

Anyways, your intuition will come up with a solution that your linear mind invalidates, eliminates or tries to reconfigure into something it can understand. That shows up as self-sabotage, thinking that you "just made something up" or other negative self-talk, or analysis paralysis in taking action. Essentially, the linear mind will block messages from your intuition that it does not understand, which means that you are not accessing the deeper part of your non-linear wisdom – your knowingness.

Some messages will come in as "Trojan horses" from your linear mind. In this case, the message will have some quality of creating a win-lose or no-win scenario, where someone has to "lose" or get hurt intentionally to create a specific exit. These pseudo-messages can also come across as old patterns playing out as a "re-tread", referring to what you want vs. what is actually real in the present moment, or assigning qualities to a person or situation that are not the highest truth but are projections of your linear mind.

A true message is one that is supportive, feels good, comes from abundance, takes into consideration the best and highest good for everyone concerned and "flows" from where you are to where you need to go with it. Most recently for me was my message to move, deciding to rent again (against buying, since I do not have time that I want to devote to a house right now), finding and touring a walk-through of an apartment within two hours of that decision (which was not the one), which led me to a complex that I had no idea realized five minutes from my current place, which never has openings because it's so amazing and that had an opening for exactly what I wanted – the net result was that I had secured an amazing new living space within 36 hours of receiving my message! Beyond that, I have a friend who needed a living space – turns out that my current one is now waiting for her! It all flowed easily and effortlessly once I got the message, trusted it and took immediate action on it. (And now I get to make the big move – yay !!!!)

Three Things You Can Do Today:

1. Pay attention to your attention. That is, follow your attention and observe what is pulling you because that is a clue to a message that is trying to come in to you. Consider what is showing up in the media, who you meet and who is calling to connect with you, and what you want to learn about in the moment. This is NOT about paralyzing you with analysis – this about taking 5 minutes at the end of the day to consider what new interests you have or where you have or would like to focus more time or energy. Keep it simple …

2. Pay attention to synchronicities and / or coincidences. I believe that we are continually creating that which we need to get to our next level. One way that we can know that is to pay attention to the confluence of events; that is, what seemingly unrelated thing that we were just thinking about suddenly shows up somehow? What billboard do we see? What chance encounter do we have that has the message about changing our future?

3. Ask for information and listen. As simple as this one is, it is often overlooked because it looks too easy. Ask for guidance, a sign, a direct to come to you – you can even ask for it to be specific, such as validation of a message by seeing an angel (then watch for greeting card / commercial / store window for your angel) Egypt through your dreams. Once you ask the question, be sure you're ready to receive the answer – and trust it when you get it. Remember that we can not make the message be something other than it is, so if you really do not want to hear it somewhere in your being, you'll either block it, sabotage it or try to make it into something else. Again, KISS it … (keep it simple, sweetie!).

When you know what you know by receiving and trusting your messages, you will discover a natural rhythm to your life and business that was right below the surface of your previous way of being. May your messages bring you much joy and abundance.

Lighting People for Stock Photography

Taking pictures of people in stock photos can be very tricky. There are many different factors that come to play in order to make a photo look sells worthy. Stock photos of people need to have lighting that looks perfect and is perfectly lit. Harsh shadows are a definite no in stock photos unless you are specifically trying to get that specified look.

If you take a look at stock photos of people they all usually have diffused lighting. The transition from light to dark is seamless and very soft. The lighting is usually very even through the entire picture. Shadows are never present unless desired. Stock photography will require some good knowledge of lighting properly.

A good start for lighting people would be the key light. This light will be the main light of illumination of your person of interest. Placing the key light on the same axis of the lens will make less shadows and a more flat picture. This type of light placing will make for very even lighting and can reduce blemishes and such. Another option is to place the key light to the side of the subject thus creating side lighting. Side lighting can be very harsh and very diffused. It all depends on the fill light.

The fill lights primary purpose is to fill in the shadows that are cast from the key light. An actual fill light can be used or reflectors can be used as well. The fill light is placed usually on the other side of the subject. It is on the opposite side of where the key light is at. The fill light must have a light intensity that is either equal to or less than the key light. If it is more than the key light it becomes the key light.

A back light can also be used to create a halo effect around the subjects outline. This will distinguish the person from their background. A background light also can be used to light the background. You can have many lights for a single photograph. It all depends on the desired effect you want.

When lighting for people in stock photography or any type of photography you can always default to the high key lighting with even balance of light and such. However, is this really going to help show the subject better? More advanced lighting actually is for the purpose of showing the character of the person being photographed. You can use lighting to make a person look scary, powerful, weak, happy, etc. Lighting can make a person look like they have more of a personality. Using lighting to add impact to your stock photos will be very beneficial and can make your photo much more high quality and profitable.

The color of light used is very important as well. Using the right color of light can make a subject look healthier and more vibrant. Using the wrong light hue will result in a sickly looking person. Do not simply skip out on the details of light when taking stock photos.

Top 3 Risks of NOT Replacing Your Timing Belt

The timing belt in a car is very important to the car’s proper operation. It controls a lot of the basic functions in your car, like water pump, air conditioner compressor, alternator, and much more. In the top 3 risks of not replacing your timing belt, you are putting in danger all of those important tasks that have to be accomplished for your car to function properly. It is not the most important thing in a car, but because of how pivotal it is in its operation for the car, it can cause a lot of headaches and trouble if it is not properly maintained and replaced.

Of the top 3 risks of not replacing your timing belt, if it wears down, and eventually breaks while you are driving, it can not only cause the whole car to die where you are at, but it can also cause a lot of damage in the engine bay area. This is because it is traveling at such a high rate of speed, at such a high rate of stress and pressure, that when it finally does break, there is a lot of force and momentum that causes the rubber and metal of the belt to slam against various engine parts.

Another important reason to replace your timing belt is so your can operate at optimum efficiency. This is because with an old or worn out one, you can put yourself in a position that the belt is not running as efficiently, and thus make your car run poorly. And depending on what type of engine you have, a busted timing belt, or a poorly maintained one, can cause an piston rod to slip or bust through the engine case itself.

This may not seem like much, but when it happens, the car is totally done for.

When a piston rod breaks through anything, the whole engine has to be scrapped. And considering the cost of engines, it would not be worth it to even have the engine replaced, but rather buy a whole new car. This is because engines can cost a lot. And this could have all been prevented with a new timing belt, which would have cost a fraction of what it would have cost if you would not have followed the top 3 risks of not replacing your timing belt.

After reading this article, you know three big risks of not replacing your timing belt.

What is the Best Printer Purchase For Old People?

As we all know, old people have their life on earth halfway gone. They don’t need to strain doing daily activities. Nevertheless, don’t they also need to have a taste of technology? I sure agree with this rhetorical question. An old man’s general daily schedule is: waking up, reading the news paper; going to jog at the track then attend to business partnership meetings. A person whose age ranges from 60 to 100 is already an old man.

A nursery kindergarten schoolteacher once asked her toddler students. “what do old grand fathers do?” then they all answered, “They sit on the chair the whole day and smoke a tobacco pipe.” This is a very funny assumption. Some old men are still strong and ambitious for their short-lived future.

The Canon Pixma iP100 printer is a printer that I highly recommend to be used by old people. It has a digital photo printer. This printer is suitable for the aging since they may be able to organize their daily appointments. It could be an appointment with the doctor or a businessman. An old aged person can be able to use this type of a printer to prepare a program chit that may be his/her daily reminder in doing the daily activities. The canon printer is quality-made, with a maximum resolution and a high-speed black print speed. This feature enables you to produce black print documents within that instant. Moreover, it has a wireless network adapter that enables one to receive information through airwaves and not computer cables.

The other printer suitable for this type of an age group is the portable laptop printer. It is efficient in terms of mobility and it also has long pattern duration and blue tooth. This enables the user to receive already processed data to the printer. It also has original inkjet parts that are mainly shipped directly from Africa. As if that is not all, the printer is also thermal in nature and produces heat due to the intensive processing of files.

A real old man is the one who keeps himself busy. He/she needs to get a portable printer that is highly convenient to his or her daily activities.

Parenting Secrets Revealed

So your little Susie wants to join a competitive gymnastic club? You conclude that this is going to be great fun! Maybe, you even think this is just the ticket your bouncy little girl needs to get rid of her pent-up energy while meeting other little friends. Initially, all looks well as you proudly watch your Susie happily driving to achieve equilibrium success. However, as the first competitive trial draws near, Susie is apprehensive and fearful. She does not appear quite as secure as she did during the training classes. Why not?

You're thrilled! Your ten year old son Randy wants to play on the little league baseball team. You think this is perfect. He can learn the importance of being a team member while gaining some confidence participating in a sport that he enjoys. His father is delighted to see that his son is taking after the old block. Dad begins the push for his son's success by providing daily points of the game. In the beginning, everything seems dandy until Randy starts to evolve aggressively for unexplainable reasons. How come?

The school exams are only two months away. Your sixteen year old has been listening to you preach the virtues of being number one since school school began countless years ago. I mean, after all, getting into the top-ranked university is important stuff. Your family's reputation is at stake. Andrew is fully aware that he has to measure up in the Harvard family tree. The school year appears to go smoothly until Andy slumps into an appropriate state of exhaustion. He barricades himself in a locked bedroom, refusing to get up to go to school or speak to anyone. What happened?

You've always loved attending the ballet. You think it would be fabulous if your youngster took an interest in your passion. As a well-intentioned parent, you encourage your Sarah to take a few dance classes as a way of introducing her to classical repertoire. Over the course of time her interest grows and she appears to blossom under the guidance of the tutor's instructions. This pleases you immensely which makes your budding ballerina work even harder for acquiring your continued praise. Within two years, however, you notice your daughter's always argumentative and bites your head off when you question why. What did you do to deserve this?

It's really quite simple but nobody wanted to talk about this controversial subject. These youngsters are having a difficult time coping with the pressures that they maintain from performance activities. How did this happen?

Unfortunately, too few parents recognize the dangers lurking in the wings for our children. I did not. We can accept the insulting, reprimanding remarks by a teacher, the often foul-mouthed, screaming outbursts by a coach, and the demeaning, belittling comments made by instructors. Admittedly, we want to see our kids succeed in life, but at what cost? All too often, parents' disregard the consequences of their well-meaning actions and many youngsters pay dearly to achieve our expectations. We fail to recognize that youngsters are not emotionally or psychologically admitted to contend with the daily bombardment of negative comments to their impressionable psyches. They are still too immature and therefore; ineffective deal with the constant assault on their suggestible minds. They lack the ability to define what constitutes a winner or a loser. Their interpretation of this attainment is solely a reflection of their parents, educators, and instructors alike. Their vulnerability can even extend to the media that dictates what is attractive, fashionable, and acceptable in our success driven society. Sad, but true.

As well-intended parents we want the best for our children. We conscientiously attempt to provide them with a variety of avenues to explore, academically, athletically, and in the arts. Many parents believe that competitive endeavors build character, focus, and determination. For others, performance activities may provide a vehicle for talented children to discover their own self-worth in society. Additionally, some parents view performance activities as a venue for a potential career, ie, hockey, acting, basketball, swimming, dancing, gymnastics, etc. However; If truth be known, many unwitting parents inadvertently set these kids off on a path of stress, insecure, and low self-esteem, particularly when youngsters enter turbulent addiction.

Even though chaotic addiction can play havoc in a family's life, it is not the sole culprit. The "pressures to perform" can play an equally significant role during this volatile period, affectionately referred to as "the insanity of discrimination". It can account for initiating some real life issues such as bulimia, anorexia, depression, rage, drugs, cutting, and potential suicide.

How do I know these things? Because my family was a casualty in this war of pandemonium with a pressurized adolescent seriously committed to a highly competitive endeavor. We lived the nightmare many parents would like to avoid.

I'm going to ask you some questions. Think about them for a moment and answer them honestly:

1. How do some youngsters comply with the pressures that they maintain from performance activities?

2. What are their deepest, darkest, fears?

3. What are some of the methods that they may employ when dealing with their mounting adolescent insecurities?

4. Why do some talented kids feel like failures, regardless of their successes?

5. Have you ever considered that their rebellion, inappropriate behavior, and negative acting-out may stem from the pressures to perform?

6. Could the rage they exhibit be only symptomatic of a defect frustration youngsters endure?

If you were able to answer any of these questions due to your insider knowledge of what I'm referring to; Bravo! You're among a handful of enlightened parents that understand this new age dilemma. You're fully aware of the negative repercussions that a family can encounter when an adolescent is confronted by the mounting pressures of performance activities. You're part of a select group of parents that realize the today's youngsters face personal challenges and societal issues that past generations rarely needed to address. A case in point would be the rise in eating disorders among girls in performance activities such as gymnastics, dance, and swimming.

It is estimated that up to sixty-two percent of females who participate in "appearance sports" such as gymnastics, figure skating, dancing, and diving are suffering from an active eating disorder. World-class gymnast Christy Henrich died after her struggle with anorexia and bulimia. In the late 1980s, Christy was 4'10 ", weighing ninety pounds. After one of her competitions, she was told by a US gymnastics judge that she needed to lose weight if she was taken to make the 1988 Olympic team. died of multiple organ failure at twenty-two, weighing less than sixty pounds.

Lea Thompson, from the hit TV sitcom Caroline in the City, commented on eating disorders in the dance world today, recalling that during her days as a dancer, she was told by a theater company that at 5'5 "tall and ninety-six pounds, she was too "stocky" to be considered.

If you do not have a clue what I'm talking about, please read on. And, do not think for a minute that girls are exclusive to the pressures from performance activities. Here is a sampling of one heartfelt letter I received from one of my readers.

Dear Karen,

"My fifteen year old son was a star goalie on the local hockey team. a light went on in my head and I sat him down for a fatherly talk. I was amazed to discover how badly he felt about losing a "game" and letting his mother down and me down. really teasing this kid up inside. Talk about a reality check. for himself, not for us or anyone else. Thanks a bunch for setting me straight. "


Fort Myers, Texas

I know that the subject matter in this article is a tough one to swallow; soonheless, I also know that it's important that you learn the truth about this modern day misconception.

As the mother of a stressed-out high achiever who spent nine years in highly competitive professional dance institutions, I consider myself an authority on this subject. As an unsuspecting (and well-intented) parent, I was unaware that the combination of adolescent instability and the pressures within the dance environment sparked a ticking time-bomb with my volatile daughter as the detonator. I found it discomforting to consider that I may have unconsciously contributed to pushing the explosive button.

The world of competitive activities is not all that it's cracked up to and "success at all cost" may be too high a price to pay for underlining the psychological well-being of impressionable teens.

What happened to us can happen to any well-intentioned family with children who are pushed to perform in academies, the arts, or athletics.

The Famous and Lovable American Painter & Illustrator – Norman Rockwell

American painter & illustrator of 20th century, Norman Percevel Rockwell was born on February 3, 1894, to Jarvis Waring and Ann Mary (Hill) Rockwell, in New York. His grandfather, Thomas Hill, was an English artist, who was known for his animal drawings. His father was a businessman and liked to copy illustrations from magazines. Apart from his artistic lineage, Rockwell's friends too were instrumental in his growth as an artist. The painter was a gawky, skinny child with pigeon-toed feet & spectacles, and with a nickname "Moony." Norman Rockwell made up for his lack of interest in sports by painting for his friends. At the age of five, the artist would make cardboard cutouts of ships and paint them, which made him popular among his peers.

Owing to his interest in art, Norman Rockwell joined the Chase School of Fine and Applied Art at the age of fourteen. Later, he joined the National Academy of Design, but their rigid schedule didve to join the Art Students League in 1910. It was here, at the age of sixteen, the artist received his first paid assignment, where he painted four Christmas cards. In 1912, the painter had his first job as an illustrator for the "Tell Me Why Stories." These illustrations made him very popular. At the age of twenty-one, Norman's family moved to New Rochelle, New York, where he set up a studio along with the cartoonist Clyde Forsythe. There the illustrator began a series of freelancing work for magazines, such as "Life," "Literary Digest," and "County Gentleman."

On May 20, 1916, Norman's first cover of Saturday Evening Post made its appearance. This work was titled, "Mother's Day Off." The same year, the artist married Irene O'Connor, which though, ended in 1928. Rockwell published 321 covers for the Saturday Evening Post over a period of 47 years. Some of his famous pieces of work include "Circus Barker and Strongman," "Gramps at the Plate," "Redhead loves Hatty Perkins," "Man playing Santa," "Mother tucking children into Bed," "The Willie Gillis series, and "Saying Grace (1951)." In 1930, the painter married Mary Barstow. During this period, Norman was asked to illustrate Mark Twain's "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" and "Tom Sawyer." The perfectionist that he was, Rockwell traveled to Hannibal, Missouri to get a feel of the place in order to make his illustrations optimal close.

During World War II, in1943, the artist painted the "Four Freedoms" series, which deputed President Roosevelt's principles for universal rights. These paintings became so famous that they raised $ 139.9 million in an exhibition for the war effort. The same year, Rockwell's studio was engulfed in a fire, where he lost all his paintings and his props. In 1958, after the death of his wife, Norman Rockwell started work on his autobiography, "My Adventures as an Illustrator," which was published in 1960. In 1961, Rockwell married Mary L. "Molly" Punderson. In 1963, Rockwell ended his association with Saturday Evening Post and started working for "Look" magazine. It was here that he was able to express his concerns on civil rights and poverty. "Southern Justice (1965)" and "The Problem We All Live With" are a few provocative creations of the painter.

In addition to the above, the artist did advertisements for AT & T, Campbell Soup, Coco-Cola, and Ford Motor Company. He also made movie promotional booklets, murals, posters, six United States postage stamps, and an album cover for Mike Bloomfield & Al Kooper. Rockwell used to make nearly $ 40,000 in a year. His last published work was the cover of "American Artist" in 1976. In 1977, the artist was conferred the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Norman Rockwell died on November 8, 1978, at the age of 84 at Stockbridge, Massachusetts. His illustrations continue to fascinate and inspire the next generation of artists worldwide.

Kayak Transport and Carriers

Ok, you did your homework and got the right kayak – now you need to make another decision. How are you going to transport your new kayak?

Some kayaks are heavy and cumbersome – especially rigged fishing kayaks. You’ll need to put some thought into what will be the best transport method for you, your kayak, and your vehicle. Various vehicles will create different situations to contend with. For instance, if you have a very tall vehicle it may not be practical for you to load your kayak on the roof – maybe a trailer is the way to go, or a Hullavator. Maybe you have a health problem or an injury that will prevent you from lifting a kayak. Or maybe you just don’t feel like lifting a 60+ lb kayak over your head. All of these issues can be addressed.

Let’s go over some of the different methods to transport your kayak(s).

Transport Methods

Rack Systems

Most kayak transport needs can be satisfied by adding an after-market rack system. A rack system includes the bars and feet (adapters) that attach the system to your particular vehicle. The bars can be used alone or they can serve as the base for additional kayak carriers and accessories. The most widely used systems are made by Thule and Yakima. These types of racks offer the most weight capacity and are the safest way to transport kayaks on a vehicle.

Factory Racks

Many vehicles come with factory bars (usually the flat oblong shaped ones) and these can work fine to transport your kayak and can usually be fitted with most kayak carriers, but they lack the carrying capacity and long term strength of a good after-market rack system. So if you need to carry multiple kayaks or even one heavy single kayak, investing in a good rack system will be your best option.

Foam Blocks

This method is kind of like the duct tape approach to kayak transport. With this system the foam blocks are placed on the roof of the car and the kayak is strapped down sandwiching the foam between the roof and the kayak. The reason foam blocks are so popular is that they are a very economical transport system. However, care needs to be taken to make sure the kayak is secured properly to prevent any problems and or damage to your kayak and/or vehicle.


Car with with foam block carrier system

Trailers: This is fast becoming a popular alternative for individuals who are tired of lifting or for the family that needs an easy way to haul the fleet. Many trailers are well made, perfect for kayaks, and in some cases can be close to cost of an aftermarket rack system. We recommend Trailex Trailers.

Trailex makes a single kayak version that is light enough to unhook and use as a dolly to get right up to the water. For those who want to carry more than one kayak they also make multi-kayak trailers.

Rack Accessories

Rack Pads

Rack Pads were originally designed for surfboards but work well for kayaks. The pads wrap around your factory or after-market bars and are held in place by Velcro straps. Rack pads are a very good choice if you transport you kayak face down (the seat area facing the roof), by carrying face down you are placing the load on the gunwales (the strongest part of the kayak) and it is the way many kayak companies recommend to carry the kayak to prevent distorting or damaging the hull.

Pros: Like foam blocks, it can be a very economical set up, especially if you already have bars on your vehicle. Unlike foam blocks rack pads can’t fly off the vehicle.

Cons: Pads usually don’t have a lot of cushion and can dent some kayaks if transported with the hull down or if you over tighten the tie-down straps.

Cradles and Saddles: A very popular way to carry a kayak designed to carry the kayak right side up (just like it is on the water). Some examples of these are the Thule Set-To-Go and the Malone Seawing.

Pros: These tend to keep kayak in place and protect the hull from damage. These systems usually work well with other pieces of equipment that aid in getting your kayak on your vehicle like rollers and glide pads (we will discuss these later).

Cons: These set-ups are designed to transport your kayak right side up, not the ideal way to avoid distortion, but with care this will not be an issue. Also, if you are going to transport 2 kayaks, cradles do limit the usable space on your rack bars.

J-Carriers: These work by carrying your kayak(s) on their side in J-shaped racks.

Pros: J-carriers work well to protect the kayak hull from damage when tightening the straps. They will also maximize your roof space to allow for extra kayaks or other accessories.

Cons: It can be tough to maneuver the kayak on top of your vehicle and into the side position of the J-carrier, especially if your vehicle is tall. Also, be careful in parking garages as the added height could be a problem. Some examples of J-carriers are: Thule Hullaport and the Malone Autoloader.

Vehicle types


Cars with short roofs can be a challenge – especially 2-door cars. The shorter the distance between the straps/bars the less secure the system will be. Always, use bow and stern lines when transporting by car or any vehicle with a short roof span – a favorite of ours is the Thule Quickdraw.

While foam blocks will work, we strongly recommend putting a rack system on your car – this will make life easier, protect the roof of your car, and leave you more room for other accessories & gear. Most rack manufacturers make special rack adapters for 2 door cars with shorter roofs. Both Thule and Yakima make good system for cars.

SUV’s and Mini Vans

The longer roof frame of an SUV or a Mini Van does give you some advantages over cars, but sometime the added height of an SUV can make getting your kayak on top a little harder. Most SUV’s come with factory racks that work well to receive most kayak carriers and transport accessories. Factory racks systems do have weight limits, but most can handle 1 or 2 medium to light weight kayaks without a problem.

A popular way to transport two kayaks with a factory system is to transport one in a J-type carrier and the other flat or face down on the bars. You can really maximize space by using two J-Carriers.

Of course, adding a quality rack system to a SUV or Mini Van will offer the most room for accessories and carrying capacity. Note: It’s OK if the bars extend out past the roof. According to the law, they can extend as wide as your side-view mirrors. On tall vehicles this works well, on shorter ones make sure you won’t be hitting your head on the ends of the bars when you enter or exit the vehicle.

Pickup Trucks

Nothing is easier than strapping a kayak into the bed of a pickup and hitting the road. If the kayak is hanging over the end of your tailgate you must hang a flag on it for safety. Another option which makes this method of transport safer and more practical is a bed extender. An extender is a device that plugs into a standard 2- hitch mount and will give you up to 4′ more of support under your kayak. (An extender can also be reconfigured to support your kayak over the bed, with one end resting on the cab roof and the other on the extender in the vertical position.)

Helpers & Load Assist Devices

No matter what system you are using you will still have to physically set the kayak into or onto it. This may seem difficult and awkward at first, but you will find that it will get easier with repetition and ultimately you will find what works best for you and your situation. But a little help doesn’t hurt. So here is a list of products that can help make bearing the weight a little easier.

Thule Hydro Glide: helps when loading your kayak from one end of your vehicle and also acts to hold the kayak during transport. The kayak slides easily on felt covered pads.

Thule Roller Coaster: a roller attached to a set of saddles that allows you to push the kayak up onto the roof from the rear of the vehicle.

Loading Bars: Thule as well other companies make a bar that extends out so you can lift one end of the kayak on the bar and then lift the other side onto your rack. Thule makes the Outrigger

Lift Assist Accessories: Companies now make accessories to help you get your kayak unto your roof. One such product is the Hullavator by Thule, this hydraulic assist rack folds down the side of the vehicle where the kayak is loaded at waist height and the whole thing folds back onto the roof with the aid of mechanical assistance – Nice! We’ve had many customers tell us that without this system they wouldn’t have been able to continue kayaking because of physical limitations brought on by age or injury. Sure it’s expensive, but worth every penny.

Roller Loader: This little device works to help you get your kayak up on your vehicle. It basically is a dolly that suctions on to the back of your vehicle and you just roll the kayak on or off.

A very low-tech option that works particularly well with mini-vans, SUV’s and station wagons is a rubber backed bathmat. Just to place the mat (with rubber backing down – so it won’t slide) on the rear of the vehicle and place one end of the kayak on the mat and slide onto the rack. Here is a video clip of a kayak being loaded using a bathroom mat.

Tips for Transport:

Always give the kayak a good push and pull before driving away to make sure you are secure. As a general rule if you can rock the vehicle without the kayak shifting on its perch than you are fine. If the kayak is sliding back and forth on the bars or in the carriers than you need to go back and tighten the straps.

If using straps with auto-lock buckles, always put a half hitch in the strapping after tying down to insure that even if the buckle loosens the strap will not come lose.

If using ratchet style tie downs it is very easy to over-tighten and do damage to the kayak. So make sure that the kayak is snug, but don’t go overboard.

When transporting in a flat bed pickup don’t choose places on the kayak to fasten to that can fail – like the handles. We recommend passing the straps through the scupper holes of the kayak and tying that off in the bed of the truck.

Some cars roof areas can compress/dent in when using foam blocks, these dents usually pop back out. Always try to place foam blocks on the strongest part of the roof (this will be the areas closer to the front and rear windows)

Also, if you find that some part of your kayak is making contact with the roof after you tighten it down then placing a piece of rug or padding there is a good idea to protect the car from scratching.

Racks and kayaks will decrease your vehicles MPG. If you are not using your racks on a regular basis, it may be a good idea to remove them. Quality rack systems, such as those made by Thule and Yakima are often as easy to remove with the turn of a key. (Bars can even be kept in the vehicle so they remain handy, but won’t be affecting your mileage)

With the right equipment and techniques, loading, transporting, and unloading your kayak is very manageable.