An Overview of Drill Rods

A drill rod, made from high carbon steel, is used for manufacturing taps, drill bits, roller bearings and dowel pins. Drill rods are also needed for producing files, punches and hammers. The harness of steel used for the purpose varies with its carbon content. Typically, drill rods have a length of thirty-six inches with a diameter ranging from 1.5 millimeter (1/16 ") to five centimeters (two inches), although you can also get these in longer lengths. a square design.

Generally, we get two kinds of drill rods, namely oil or water hardened. The latter is used for the manufacturing of files and hammers, as the drill rod does not contain many alloys. This facilitates the machining of materials, compared to the oil hardened variety. However, water hardened rods are not very suitable for welding jobs. Drill rods which have been oil hardened can be welded, as well as machined easily. Its enduring hardness makes it very suitable for the making of general tools.

The water hardening treatment involves the heating of the rod until it becomes cherry red, followed by dipping it in a container of water where it gets cool. This process creates a long lasting product which can be machined easily. Steel that has been heated to attain a cherry red color by being pushed into warm oil gives it an extremely tough surface, strong enough to break the majority of the cutting tools. That makes it imperative to give a machine finish to all such rods before pushing them into oil for the purpose of hardening.

Some rods need tempering before machining, according to their end use. The tempering of steel requires its reheating after it has been hardened in oil or water. After the steel has been heated to 426º C or 800º F, its hardness is slightly reduced, making it more workable. After the steel has reached that level of temperature and has been cooled in air, it can be polished.

The difference between oil and water hardening is the fact that water, being a far better conductor of heat, facilitates a quick cooling. However, parts should not be churned in water, as this encourages a quicker cooling on that side of the tool which is getting pushed through the water. When the rate of cooling on two sides is different, it results to warping. This plays a significant role when undertaking precision jobs. Steel needs to be dipped in straight up and down fashion for building a knife.

The Most Magnificent YMCA in the World – In Jerusalem

No other site in Jerusalem is as laden with symbols as the Jerusalem Young Men's Christian Association. Reflected on its walls, ceilings, stones and pillows are manifestations of the world's three greatest faiths, a statement of unity that remains stable in a city too often shattered by war. The international YMCA theme in which a triangle represents the body, the mind and the soul is repeated through the building.

In front of the building stand 12 cypress trees, a symbolic number representing Jesus' disciples, the Israelite tribes and the followers of Mohammed. Forty Pillars in its courtyard and portico symbolize the Jews '40 years in the desert and Jesus' 40 days of temptation. Each column is topped by an ornamental capital sculpted to illustrate biblical fauna and flora.

On the floor of the outer entrance is a copy of the mosaic Madeba Map (another is on display at the Roman Cardo in the Jewish Quarter). Over the door which leads into the building is a glass window decorated with an olive branch. In order to keep this symbol of peace from shattering during the War of Independence, the window was removed each time there was violence in the city. One day, in 1948, a shell flew through the hole where the window had been hit the ceiling. Fortunately it did not explode and the ceiling was later repaired.

At the end of World War I I Greek Orthodox Patriarchate began selling some of its Jerusalem property. Land was sold to the Jews – who built in Rehavia; land was sold to the Arabs, who built in Talbieh; and land was sold to the YMCA, so that the organization could build a monument to peace. So impressed with the idea were the Jews of Manchester, England, that they contributed to its construction!

Dr. Archibald C. Harte, General Secretary of the International YMCA, had the vision. He wanted to serve people of all faiths and nationalities in the Holy Land, and impressed millionaire James Jarvie of New Jersey with his ideas. On Christmas Eve of 1924, Harte found $ 400,000 in his Christmas stocking – a gift from Jarvie. Jarvie was eventually to add another $ 600,000 to this sum, dying before he saw the end result of this largess. The architect was Arthur Louis Harmon, whose firm designed New York's world-famous Empire State Building.

Far more modern than other contemporary Jerusalem buildings, the YMCA had the city's first heated swimming pool and its first real gymnasium – complete with a wooden floor. The first concerts broadcast from the Jewish radio station (the Voice of Israel) were transmitted from its stunning auditorium.

Dr. Archibald C. Harte had envisioned a monument to peace that would serve people of all faiths and nationalities in the Holy Land. His dream came true with a vengeance: along a famous swim team and outstanding fitness programs, the YMCA sponsors a leaders' club for youth with a mixed inter-religious membership. Most unusual is the organization's preschool. From the days only a decade or so ago when it operated one bedroom with about 13 Jewish toddlers, the preschool now includes at least half a dozen classes, a plethora of adult staff and 135 Christian, Jewish and Muslim children. In the words of director Len Wilson: "This really is a place where all three religions can meet, work and relax together in harmony without having to play out the hatred and violence prevalent in this part of the world. safe zone. "

Paint Thickness Measurement

What is paint thickness measure? Why measure the paint thickness? May be asking another question would help answer these questions – Why do you paint at all? Now, we are aware of the usual answers such as to protect the substrate from corrosion, to make the product appealing to the eye, to make the product blend into the background or to provide a surface finish which is part of the functionality of the product.

What ever the answer is, painting a product costs cost and cost means expense. The first time around itself is expensive, not to mention the cost you would incur if you get it wrong! It can be anything, excess paint can cause the coating to crack as it dries, or if you paint a small amount then the paint may not be adequate to adequately coat the object and will require re-painting. The ability to paint thickness measurement would aid in cost saving.

Which ever way you look at it, profits will be influenced. And we are still not discussing the actual condition and functioning of the painting. This explains why paint thickness measurement is despite the most significant measurement that is administrated during the coatings process.

The first Elcometer gauge for paint thickness measurement was patented and introduced to the marketplace more than 60 years ago. For that reason Elcometer gauges are considered the industry's best and that phenomenon explain why it has the widest range of paint thickness gauges in the world.

You can save up to 70% of the cost of putting paint on an object, depending on the placement of the painter. The closer the painter better saving you would have. The correct amount of wet film is applied to meet the dry film thickness specification, if the volume to solids ratio of the coating is known.

A powder coating has numerous benefits greater than a wet coating system, to put it exactly, there almost no wastage as any of the excess powder or over sprayed powder can be recycled and reused. And as there is no use of solvents you can administrator tighter environmental controls of VOC emissions and legislation. Measuring the thickness of powder however, is difficult as touching it changes the powder thickness compressing it under the force.

Elcometer offers a range of most sophisticated paint thickness measurement such as the simplest 'pencil-type' gauge and the non-destructive to destructive gauge.

Rawhide Lamp Shades & Antler Chandeliers

It just needed rawhide lamp shades. Sometimes you just can not see it … you know what I mean? A friend who just bought a beautiful log home had a problem because he said we were not much of a designer and did not know what to do next. Have you ever experienced that? I sure have. Sometimes when we are involved in a project we are so close to it that we can not see the obvious. It's times like these when we need a fresh perspective.

A friend or family member might be able to look at our circumstances objectively and see the solution right away. Well that was the case with my friend. He had just purchased this beautiful home in the mountains. It was fabulous with large wood beams and a stone fireplace. The kind of place that anyone would love to decorate but it was just sort of plain. Even though it had large antler chandeliers it was just sort of dull and lifeless.

Immediately it was apparent that he needed rawhide lamp shades on the chandeliers to add warmth, color and a nice glow. All of a sudden the room came to life. The formerly bare antlers were bathed in rich golden light and the room took on an inviting feel.

For a cabin or log home, there is probably no better accessory than antler lamps with rawhide lamp shades. It does not matter if you love the southwestern styles or the heavy dark masculine western look, rawhide shades on antler chandeliers and lamps will bring in the rustic lighting you need. The beautiful shapes and textures of antlers and the hand stitching on the stretched rawhide lamp shades will deliver the look and feel you are after.

You do not have to travel far in Montana or Wyoming to find beautiful ranches and to realize that antler lighting is magical and that there just is not any substitute for leather lamp shades. If you have a log home or even if you just want to bring the rustic mountain lodge look into you family room or den start with rustic lamps and shades and you will be amazed at the affect it has.

There is a balance that is created by using rawhide lamp shades through your room. It's hard to explain but when you see it you can actually feel it. The warm glow from rawhide lampshades on chandeliers and floor and table lamps, or a small desk lamp just tie the room together and bring a sense of unity and also harmony with nature. Because the elements of real deer antlers or moose antlers along with the handcrafted character of rawhide lamp shades the room is drawn together.

You will unduly like the look of rawhide shades on antler wall sconces and small candelabra type lamps. You can also use ideas from the rich north woods style to accent your lighting. Try a pair of snow shoe sconces with rawhide shades.

The light tone of the wooden frame and the leather lacing of the shoe along with the leather binding compliment the hand lacing on the lamp shade and its warm glow make a perfect harmony. Weather you prefer to compliment your antler lamps and chandeliers with southern light rawhide shades or western style dark rawhide lampshades, both are perfect choices for rustic decorating.

Like my friend, if you are unsure of where to start in your special rustic space, you can begin with whitetail deer antler lamps. They are some of the most beautiful while also being some of the least expensive. Antler chandeliers are also made for whitetail antlers. In larger spaces antler chandeliers may have several tiers of huge elk antlers or moose antlers. Remember, it does not matter if you space is large or small. You can use antler lighting with rawhide lamp shades or add them to your own rustic lamps to bring in the feel of the old west, and mountain cabin or a southwest adobe ranch.

The Money's In The List – But How Much?

The internet seems to be full of hyped up business opportunities. What evidence there is to support the feasibility of a business opportunity is often anecdotal – or we may be asked to take the word of a well known internet guru when he tells us that this is the "next big thing". Sometimes he / she will be right of course (that's how they get to be gurus).

And make no mistake about it – we are equally to blame for this hyped up culture. Let's face it, it's so much easier to read or listen to a well presented collection of projected capabilities than it is to do even a little spade work and unearth a few hard facts.

In the first place, we can all be a little lazy. In the second place, it's nice to close our eyes and dream of the ingoing passive income – such a nice visual picture is not it?

And finally, hard facts can be a little bit difficult to come by. Sometimes for genuine reasons – startups often do not have much more than the reputation of the key players and a business plan – and sometimes for more worrying reasons.

One of the enduring mantras which you will almost certainly have heard is that "the money's in the list". All the key players do not only say this but appear to demonstrate it by the simple fact that they all own and operate large opt-in lists. It would seem reasonable to assume that these list make a significant contribution to their profits.

But let's see if we can put a little flesh on the bones. First of all we have an assertion – sourced from – which is as follows:

"…… a well run list can generate $ 1 / month in revenue for each contact on your list."

It does seem reasonable, but it is still an assertion rather than a fact – and it is qualified by both "a well run list" and " can generate". Even if it is not a hard and fast rule, it certainly provides food for thought.

If you build your list up to 3,000 to 5,000 members then you will have a nice income each month. Get to 10,000 members and above and you will be doing very well indeed.

That may sound like a lot to many people – but it should be achievable. Which brings us to a piece of information which can be considered to be a hard fact – sourced this time from Aweber.

"12,561 subscribers in an average customer opt-in newsletter list."

Presumably this is based on AWeber's own user base – but it seems valid to accept this as a legitimate fact.

The implication would seem to be that if you can build your own opt-in list to an "average £ level that you can profit to the tune of $ 12,561 each month. and interesting information to your subscribers) and that you will make $ 1 / month per subscriber.

Even if the $ 1 / month figure is wrong – or if you run your list a little less efficiently than normal – you might still reasonably expect to make a 4 figure sum each month.

So it's true – the money is in the list. How much depends on the size of the list and how well you run it – but the money is there.

One key thing to watch out for is that your list should be your list – the email addresses must be yours and not the property of which company your working with. That way you can promote as many different products and services as you like.

Of course, it takes time and effort to build your list – but it can be done. You can pick up half a dozen new subscribers every day very easily by using nothing other than free techniques. That would take you to over $ 2000 a month in less than a year. Consider using some paid advertising and your list will grow at a much faster rate – and so will your income.

Whichever method (s) you elect to use in order to build your list – the sooner you start the sooner you'll start learning. So get cracking.

Lifting Reduces Breast Size? Oh Come on!

I have lots of female college at my work place. But whenever I ask any of them to go with me to the gym, they shunned me. I admit, I do feel a little sad (hehe).

Why is this so? I've had many of them telling me, "Lifting weights will make me bulk up like a male", "Lifting reduces my breast size". Actually, I do understand their worries.

But I have to be serious, ladies, a bodybuilder's body is impossible to achieve without good genes, strict diet, strict training, supplements and steroids. It is hard to realize that body for a male needless to say, a female. You WILL NOT become like that just because you lift weights!

Myth: Lifting weights reduces breast size

Some facts you might be interested in:

Breast are mainly made up of fatty tissue
This means that building muscles is not going to cause your breast to shrink in size! When you lose fat, you lose fat all over the body. Therefore, if any breast reduction occurs from weight loss, it will be the true size of your breast at your healthy weight.

Fat does not turn into muscle and muscle does not turn into fat
Many people believe that fat and muscle are the same thing. There is a common myth that not working out causes your muscles to turn into fats. How untrue can that be? Fat and muscle are two separate types of tissue in the body! Lifting weights will not turn fatty breast tissue into muscles.

So, what is the reason for reduced breast size?
As your body fat drops, the fat tissue in your breast drops too. And if your body fat is very low, the more likely your breast size will decrease. But do not get too worried. Unless you are a serious bodybuilder like the one in the picture above, your body fat should not drop extremely low.

Women should not shun away from lifting weights. If your aim is to lose weight, lifting weights can be a huge help.

Taipei 101 – 101 Stories of Pride

The journey towards the top of Taipei 101, the current record holder as the world’s tallest skyscraper, begins with a high-speed elevator ride that ferries you up to the 89th floor in 37 seconds. As the sliding doors of the elevator parted ways, two flight of stairs welcome and lead you to the circular outdoor deck that sits on the 91st floor of Taipei 101.

Go in the late afternoon to enjoy the warm embrace of the setting sun, and you’ll notice right away the new condominiums springing up in the east. Far in the south, mountains form tall dark silhouettes, enveloping the precipice of the city. Finally, in the west and north, you’ll find a bustling city center with numerous skyscrapers and endless throng of masses making their way through Taipei. One can’t help but notice an air of irresistible romanticism about gazing at Taipei and all its glory from more than 400 meters high above its urban heart.

When it was unveiled on New Year’s Eve in 2004, Taipei 101 was the city’s way of announcing to the world that it has arrived on the global scene. It represented a metropolis of 6 million seeking its rightful place on the international stage, an instant landmark that’s become a showcase for the city’s global ambition. Various symbolisms highlight the proud heritage behind Taiwan, its oriental influence and the modernization that has taken place throughout the city.

The main tower features a series of eight segments of eight floors each, an obvious association to abundance, prosperity and good fortune. Its shaped like an Asian pagoda, while numerous motif of the ruyi – an ancient symbol associated with heavenly clouds – appear throughout the structure. The structure was engineered to be able to withstand gale winds of 60 mps, and the strongest earthquakes likely to occur in a 2,500 year cycle. This claim was tested when a 6.9 magnitude earthquake rocked Taipei in 2002. Construction was still ongoing, and the tremor was strong enough to topple two construction cranes from the 56th floor, then the highest. Five people were killed in the accident, but an inspection afterwards showed no structural damage.

As I enjoyed a lazy Sunday afternoon sipping authentic Viennese coffee in one of its numerous cafes, a group of Western tourists made their way up with their local guide. They turtled their way up, marveling at the spectacular architecture and snapping pictures here and there. This grandiose structure stood tall as a testament of how far Taipei have come from when the Nationalist government took control in 1949, an achievement they can be truly proud of.

Why The Best Ways To Lose Weight Fast Are not Necessarily The Smartest

When it comes to losing weight, most people want to be thin right away. That's why most doctors are looking for the best ways to lose weight fast. The problem is that fast weight loss does not always equal long-term weight loss and you need to weigh one against the other.

If you are trying to lose weight for a specific event, then it might be okay to take drastic measures like juice fasting and saunas to try to get those pounds off for the upcoming event. However, you must be forewarned that this weight will be mostly water weight and it will come back on quickly.

If you are looking for permanent weight loss, then one of the best ways to lose weight is to practice a form of portion control that I call "eating half".

To do this, you simply eat only half of what you would normally eat. If you would normally eat a burger for lunch, cut it in half and only eat half of the burger. For dinner, fill up your plate as normal but only eat half of what is on there.

This can be a bit of a challenge because the food is there on your plate and it's only normal to want eat it. But if you really want to lose the weight, you need to practice self-control and simply eat less food.

Another of the best ways to lose weight fast is to add in a bunch of exercise to your daily regimen. Exercising will not only burn calories, but it will also raise your metabolism so the food that you do eat will be burned off faster. Try to make a commitment to have an hour of exercise in the morning and evening. During the day you can try to get more walking in – take the stairs instead of the elevator, walk or bike to work if possible and stand instead of sitting if you can.

Losing weight fast can give you the motivation to keep up with your weight loss efforts but you do not want to screw up your weight loss program by using something too drastic that will actually cause cause weight loss stop and, thenfore, loss of motivation .

If you're serious about losing weight, then I think the best thing is a combination of adding in some exercise and practicing proper portion control. You need to be realistic and, in all reality, adding 2 hours of exercise to your daily regimen is probably not something you will keep up with.

Making better food choices such as adding more foods like fruits and vegetables and cutting out fatty and fried foods as well as adding additional exercise sessions to your weekly regimen, and practicing proper portion control instead of back for seconds are really the best ways to lose weight fast.

Five Facts About Vegetarians That Will Impress Your Friends

It's always nice to throw out an interesting fact when you are with friends. Here are some vegetarian-related snippets for you to use, whether you are vegetarian or not.

1. There are a lot of vegetarians out there

If you are a vegetarian you may sometimes feel a little lonely. You scour men searching for the veggie option (expecting it is not mushroom risotto – or worse: vegetable stack) and most of your friends and family eat meat. Yet in actual fact, there are many, many vegetarians in the world. Millions! In India it is estimated that over 350 million people are vegetarian. In Taiwan, around 13% of people are vegetarian.

If you live in the UK you may be interested to know that as many as four million of you are vegetarian. In Brazil 8% of the population (that's 15.2 million people) are said to be vegetarian. In the United States, 13% of the population regards themselves as either vegetarian or vegan.

So you are not alone. Someone just needs to tell the restaurants.

2. Vegetarians do not eat fish (or chicken)

Vegetarians hate being asked if they eat fish. By definition, a vegetarian does not eat animals – whether they are from the land or the sea. Where the problem lies is you may have met a fish-eating vegetarian. Or rather, someone who eats fish and no other animals and then labels themselves vegetarian. They are not vegetarian. Such people are actually called pescetarians.

The fish-eating issue can cause problems for vegetarians as all too often they may be served fish by their host at a dinner party or 'fish' ends up being the vegetarian option on a menu.

So the next time you meet a person who eats fish but calls themselves vegetarian, feel free to correct them.

3. Vegetarians do get enough protein

There's another question vegetarians get asked all too often: where do you get your protein from? People who ordinarily do not care about nutrition feel compelled to worry about a vegetarian's intake of protein. It's the sort of question that feels like the one trick meat eaters have up their sleeve and it's not a very good one. Mainly because they are showing their ignorance of nutrition. Protein is plentiful in a vegetarian's diet. Here's a list to get you started: nuts, beans, textured vegetable protein, tofu, cheese, lentils, peas, yogurt, broccoli, spinach, avocado, soy and quinoa. Rathermore, many people actually eat too much protein (this is the case in Australia at least). So it makes little sense to be worried about a person's protein take, especially when so many people are unable to meet their daily fruit and veg requirements.

4. Vegetarians have a lower risk of developing heart disease

People may be vegetarian for ethical or religious reasons. However, there is a positive consequence to your health if you are vegetarian. Vegetarians are less likely to develop heart disease. This is not the only benefit however. Vegetarianism can also reduce your risk of developing high blood pressure, diabetes and some cancers (including breast, colorectal and ovarian). Vegetarians are less likely to become obese. When you consider how prevalent these diseases are on society, this is good news indeed.

5. Anthony Hopkins is a vegetarian

In my first point I stated that there are many vegetarians in the world. It is not surprising then to learn that there are a whole bunch of celebrities out there who are vegetarian and vegan. Here's a quick list, but there are many, many more. We have: Kate Winslet, Corey Feldman, Sarah Silverman, Carrie Underwood, Casey Affleck, Diane Keaton, Pamela Anderson, Ian McKellan and Natalie Portman. From the music world we have: Kelly Clarkson, Billy Idol, Bryan May, Johnny Marr, Moby, Michael Bolton, Ricky Martin and Nelly.

Reasons to Switch From Power Grids to Homemade Solar Panels

Homemade solar panels and wind power systems are becoming more popular these days, not only because it is financially viable, but also because of the following reasons:

Longevity. Current residential solar panels are known for its longer lifespan and durability. Older bedroom panels have a good 25 years of life and newer models are expected to last more than 30 years or longer if properly maintained. New power systems are also designed to generate more power compared to older ones, which means you can get your investment back earlier.

Environmentally friendly. Solar and wind are renewable energy sources and unlike coal, fossil, and other non-renewable energy, they can be harvested through the years without fear of depletion. There are no harmful gases and elements released in the environment, which is why renewable energy produce what is often called clean electricity.

Maintenance-free. Homemade solar panels, if installed properly, are almost maintenance free. Most manufactured solar panels suited for residential use are made from stronger, more durable materials able to stand severe weather conditions. Some advanced panels even have built-in cleaning systems that automatically rides of dust, dirt, and other debris.

Highly adaptable. Unlike wind power systems where a large area is needed to install the towers, solar panels can be installed in any kind of roof free from shadows and obstructions. Even high-rises can benefit from homemade panels. Solar cells and panels also come in various shapes and sizes, allowing easier installation.

More affordable. Technological breakthroughs give way to cheaper yet durable materials and less production cost. It is expected that panels will become more affordable as demand continues to increase.

You do not need to hire professional solar power installers and pay thousands of dollars on the system's installation. Do-it-yourself solar power systems are available on the Internet. Solar power system kits include printable and viewable instructions that guide you through the installation process.

Products that provide practical guides to panel assembly and installation are easy to come by these days. They help you in things like building a 120 watts panel for not more than $ 100, or even joining together multiple panels to produce 1kW of solar energy to power some parts of your home. Assembling and installing solar panels is not always a breeze, but if the instructions are clear and written in uncomplicated English, you will not need special skills to generate clean electricity from Homemade solar panels. You only need a practicality and an unwavering desire to free yourself from costly electricity bills every month.

Top 5 Exercise Newbie Mistakes

You've done the right thing and decided it's time to start exercising. But you just have no game plan or understanding of what it is you should actually be doing. Well you're not alone. I see some crazy things in the gym everyday. Or I hear people passing along exercise advice that just makes no sense. And once one person sees or hears it, chances are they're going to be making the same mistakes. Here are what I believe are the five most common mistakes made by the exercise newbie.

Mistake # 1: Too much, Too soon. I know. You're eager to get started on this new routine of yours. The more time you put in and the harder you go, the faster results will come, right? Wrong. You have to give your body time to adapt to this new workload. Repetitive strain injuries are very common among people who have tried to increase their workload in a short time span. That, and exercise burnout can also occur. Be patient and make exercise part of your lifestyle, not just something you're going to do for the time being.

Mistake # 2: Cookie Cutter Workouts. What works for one person is not necessarily going to work for the next. Just because Bobby Bicep's routine is giving him incredible results, it does not mean the same thing is going to work for you. We are individuals. Your new workout should be designed just for you.

Mistake # 3: Machine Reliance. I hear it all the time; "I do not want to hurt myself using free weights, so I'm just going to stick with machines." Well, I know this may sound crazy, but you have a better chance of hurting yourself with a machine than you do with free weights. Most machines are designed to take your body through the same plane of movement every single rep. It's the same movement pattern over and over and over. The end result? Repetitive strain injury. Have a qualified trainer show you how to squat or do any other type of free weight movement. You'll be better off in the long run.

Mistake # 4: Crunch, Crunch, Crunch. I'm sure one of your goals is to develop that Brad Pitt type of six pack. So you perform crunches in every possible direction with every type of machine. Two problems here. One, you're reinforcing bad post by constantly flexing your spine and shoulders forward. Two, it does not matter how many crunches you're going to do if your body fat percentage is up. So start off by working on some abdominal stabilizing exercises such as planks, and get your diet cleaned up if a chiseled midsection is your goal.

Mistake # 5: Cool Exercises. This one frustrates me the most. First day in the gym and a new member wants to do some wacky physio ball exercise that they saw in Shape magazine. Never mind that they can not perform one correct push up or bodyweight squat. Go back to the basics (squats, presses, pulls, lunges, etc.) and build your workouts around them.

I could go on and on, but I'm going to cap it at five. And as I said before, do not feel bad if you've made these mistakes. It's just time to correct them.

Cisco CCNA – CCENT Certification Exam Training – Broadcasts, Hubs, Routers, And Switches

In a previous Cisco CCENT certification exam tutorial, we talked about broadcasts and the potential of a broadcast storm. (If you missed that one, visit my website's tutorials section.) In today's tutorial, we'll discuss several different common network devices and how they help to limit broadcast propagation – or in some cases, how they do not help!

In the "do not help" department, we'll find hubs and repeaters. These two devices operate at Layer 1 of the OSI model (the Physical layer), and their sole purpose is to strengthen the electrical signals sent over the cable. They do not have anything to do with switching or routing, and they do not help to limit broadcasts. (A hub is basically just a repeater with more ports.)

On the other end of the spectrum, we have routers. Routers operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model (the Network layer), and by default routers do not forward broadcasts. They can be configured to "translate" certain broadcast types into unicasts, but you'll learn more about that in your CCNA studies.

Since routers do not forward broadcasters, there's a misconception that routers have nothing to do with broadcasts. Routers can indeed generate broadcasts, and they can accept them – but they will not forward them. That's an important distinction.

Between these two extremes, we find switches. Switches operate at Layer 2 of the OSI model (the Data Link layer), and the default behavior of a switch is to accept a broadcast and forward it out every other single port on that switch except the port that first received the broadcast.

If that sounds like a lot of broadcast forwarding, it is! If we have an 80-port switch and one port receives a broadcast, by default a copy of that broadcast is going to be forwarded out the other 79 ports. Most likely, not all of those hosts connected to those switchports need to see that broadcast, and sending unnecessary broadcast results in an unnecessary use of network resources, particularly bandwidth.

Luckily for us, there is a way to configure a Cisco switch to limit which ports receive that broadcast, and we'll take a look at that method in the next install of my Cisco CCENT certification exam tutorial series!

Elegant Real Estate Locations in Paris, France: Avenue Montaigne and the Golden Triangle

In 1649 when the royal gardener Le Nôtre began to lay out the renaissance garden of the Louvre, he also conceived the amazing east-west axis that now connects the Place de la Concorde, the Arc de Triomphe, and "La Défense" with its ultramodern skyscrapers. The most famous stretch is the "avenue des Champs-Elysées" which boasts myriads of cafés, stylish boutiques, and some top floor apartments that offer impressive views.

Fashion lovers find their eldorado on the exquisite "avenue Montaigne" which owes its name to the famous French Renaissance philosopher. From a truly sumptuous town palace at the corner of the "Champs- Elysées" with its ornate stone-carved façade and wrought iron balconies, right down to the Seine river, there is no doubt that this is one of the most prestigious addresses of the city.
Many famous couturiers are established on "avenue Montaigne". Here elegant ladies and gentlemen from all over the world can be seen shopping at exquisite fashion boutiques. The luxurious "Plaza Athenée Hotel" with its handsome freestone facade and the well-known "Théâtre des Champs-Elysées" are located a bit further down on this pretty tree-lined contre-allée.
International business people and famous celebrities have always been attracted to this noble neighborhood and many of them choose to own their Parisian residence here. Interestingly, insiders distinguish between two real estate categories: properties on the courtyard side, and those overlooking the avenue. Understandably, the latter are among the most expensive of Paris.

However, the surrounding neighborhood also offers quite a number of remarkable locations: the so-called "golden triangle" which encompasses the avenues "George V", "Montaigne", and "Champs-Elysées" includes the elegant "rue and place François 1er "with countless stylish fashion boutiques and first-class real estate. The exquisite place "François 1er" with its fine fountain is surrounded by attractive buildings and town palaces. The top floor apartments on "cours Albert 1er" are very much appreciated as they have southern exposure and offer sweeping views of the "rive gauche" riverbank and the Eiffel tower.

Screens for Your Home Theater System

There has been a recent surge in the popularity of the home video projector. No, I am not talking about those things you used to watch filmstrips on in second grade, but the more modern version that uses digital video projection and DVDs. The new models can provide large, clear views for movies and home movies that people enjoy viewing over and over again. Video projections, however, are only as good as the surface that they are projected onto. Many people, when they first buy their new projector want to project the images onto a white wall. This will work, but the picture quality will be poor. You want to match the projector with the screen. Screens come in many varieties, from the DIY bedsheet screen to the most elaborate remote controlled electrical models that are hidden in your ceiling. They also are offered in a variety of finishes to match with the video projector paired with them.

Surprisingly, the home theater projector screen can come in several different surface finishes. The variety that you will need depends on the type of projector that you have. Screen surfaces vary from matte white, slightly gray, to reflected glass beaded models. Glass beaded models increase the effective brightness of your projectors image. This process is similar to the way a highway sign reflects your headlights. Lower light output models benefit the most from the higher reflectivity screens. In the same way, a high light output projector looks best when projected onto a matte finished screen. The glass beads on the higher output models tend to scatter the light waves and distort an image on the brighter projectors. A silver to gray screen will be most beneficial when using an LCD projector because those projectors do not have the best contrast / black levels. Before picking a screen, you must decide on the type of projector that you will use.

Projection screens come in three basic models. Fixed, manual pull down, and electric. The manual pull down models are probably the most common. These models are operated much like a window screen, in that you pull down on the screen to get it in place, and a quick downwards tug retracts the unit back into its housing. The electric models have a motorized mechanism inside that will lower or retract the screen at the push of a button. The fixed screens are just that, fixed to a specific area, usually a wall. Fixed screens provide the flattest surfaces, while manual and electric models are susceptible to waves.

The aspect ratio of the screen is a top priority. The aspect ratio explains to the shape of the screen surface. Screens come in two basic aspect ratios, 4×3 | the normal television ratio, and 16×9 | the normal widescreen ratio. The aspect ratio of your screen is important to make prior to the purchase because you do not want to buy two screens. The fact is, once you buy a screen, there is no way to change the aspect ratio.

By thoroughly researching your screens before your purchase, you will save yourself loads of time and trouble.