Part One of the Early History of Subwoofers – 1950’s-1970’s

Anyone who is a car audio fan or who has come by it in passing will know what a subwoofer is. Subwoofers are used to generate that intense and deep feeling of bass, which is normally out of the range of most average speakers. Subwoofers are used not only in car audio, but in home stereos too to give ultimate bass within a small area, such as a room or car.

Although subwoofers may seem simple enough, there are in fact not quite as simple as they seem. Over the years, they have been researched, tested and developed in order to get the best sound out of them as possible. However, like any product there are varying degrees of quality of subwoofers as well as types, which are suited to different requirements and situations.

The first company to introduce decent subwoofers was Acoustic Research (AR), who in 1954 introduced the AR-1W – a system that could extend its bass to 20hz without any help from equalization and was literally a woofer efficiently closed in an enclosure. The AR-1W was unsurpassed in design for years, and in fact is still very influential upon modern subwoofer design by its use of the acoustic suspension principle. The AR-1W was a compact subwoofer that could be easily fitted onto a bookshelf in pairs, unlike the monstrously sized enclosed loudspeakers which had been previously on the market.

Dr Harry Olsen was also a major contributor to the design of audio systems that we have today. In the 1930’s/40’s, he was the first to assert that speakers are in need of a back as well as a front, as otherwise sound waves from the back will interfere with the front ones. He also designed the passive radiator, which was design meant to be a substitute for the vent – a system that had a great number of faults at the time. The vent design needed a large duct in order to avoid wind noises, which often meant the duct was larger than the vent itself. Olsen, instead used a diaphragm with suspension whose mass was equal to that of the air column in the vent, thus it was much smaller and much more efficient than the other design.

Jensen’s James Novak, a highly gifted research engineer and mathematician, was to come up with the bass reflex design. Through his knowledge as a mathematician and experience as an engineer, he was able to create and synthesize ideas for what today is known as the closed, vented and passive speaker systems.

Although considered an essential component today, bass extension was still a relative luxury in the 1950’s and 1970’s. The film businesses were the main guys interested in bass extension, which was first used commercially for the 1977 big hit, Star Wars.

Of the last century, these master engineers and mathematicians have been probably the most influential on the excellent acoustics available in car audio systems and home stereos today.

Construction Practices – Foundations


After the footing concrete cures we are ready to start with the cmu foundation block for a home with a crawlspace. Make sure that the footing concrete is clean and all of the 5/8 "all threads are upright. The first course of cmu block should run straight and level and be started at the lowest" step down. "Once the low point terminates into a step then the second course of block should be run. The second course on the lowest step down will, if footing correct, run right in line with the next height of feet for its first course.

This process repeats until all of the step downs are filled and the block has a level run around the perimeter of the structure meaning that all of the blocks are consistently level around the perimeter. Determine the venting necessary for the crawlspace and install sideways block to allow airflow or use bricks laid in a soldier course (vertical) with gaps between them. Proper venting is usually measured as 1 sqin per 1 sqft. Once the cmu blocks are laid in a level position around the perimeter – a crawlspace height should be determined.

A crawlspace height should usually be a consistent 24-36 "from ground to bottom of low horizontal framing member. This practice typically ends up preventing the proper amount of air flow in the crawlspace. Keep this in mind when determining the height of the perimeter block. Construct the cmu piers to a height equal to or below the level height of the perimeter block. A structural engineer or state licensed architect will determine this with the floor layout and girder placement. (dropped girder or inline girder). Piers are generally, by code, supposedly to be filled solid with concrete as well as the cells containing the 5/8 "all threads around the perimeter.

Significant Benefits of the Mini C-Arm

Ever since digital technology came into being, it has given rise to numerous amazing innovations in the medical sector. One of those innovations is the mini C-arm, which functions on the basis of digital electronics while offering such benefits that did not exist years back. The advanced C-arm possesses special features such as digital imaging technology, easy portability and image accessibility at varied spots at once. Also, this technology allows transmission of images from one place to another without hampering the image quality.

The C-arm system is based on fluoroscopy imaging. DNA may be transformed by the x-rays, which lead to atom ionization that results in free electron movement ie produces current. Around 3-6mA current value is used to conduct the fluoroscopy, which uses around 80-125kVp voltage. How the x-ray is produced depends on the current passing through x-ray tube, but an increase in voltage may increase the sensitivity.

Components of Fluoroscopy

The voltages and currents can be adjusted through the x-ray generator's x-ray tube, which works to turn electrical energy into a beam of x-ray. The collimator uses blades to determine this beam, while the patient table along with pad supports the patient's body, minimizing the x-ray attenuation alongside. X-rays are converted by the image intensifier and the image quality is improved.

Electromagnetic radiations are dubbed x-rays, which when hit a tissue end up infiltrating completely or get absorbed wholly or partially with disperse. The former indicates production of an image, while the latter hints to no image production. With partial absorption, it means an image that comes out with scattered radiation that may harm the theater staff. C-arm technology was brought out with the same purpose.

Significant advantages it provides

Fluoroscopic imaging systems use X-rays for image production. However, mini C-arm offers more advantages as compared to the standard C-arm technology. Being smaller in size, this technology paves a way for better access to workplace.

Various benefits it offers include:

  • Easy to operate
  • Does not require radiographer
  • Cuts cost
  • Cuts delays
  • Reduces screening time
  • Cuts risk of radiation with scatter
  • Immediate printout facility
  • Enhanced maneuverability
  • Better accuracy

Mini C-arms have shown the potential to cut scattered radiation dose to surgeon, patient or any theater personnel.


A diverse range of medical procedures, complying ankle, hand, or foot surgery, requires a C-arm. Stress views, bunion surgery, fracture dislocations, intra-articular injections, and fracture fixes can be easily detected with the mini version of this technology.

Wasp Stings; There May Be An Upside

Can we use WASP venom to spur on and activate certain proteins, which are found in the human brain to increase cell growth, brain capacity and neuron transmissions? The reason I ask is that every poison to man seems to stimulate a reaction to fight it. And the old adage "That which does not kill us makes us stronger". Here is some interesting thoughts on the actual known and studied effects and concluding.


Now then is such a difference. We know that the venom in WASPS is fundamental. And we know that there are about 10,000 known chemicals in the brain. 2000 very loyal and 200 or more acting in significant amounts during normal brain activity operations. Now then if these chemicals are increased in the brain they will change the current thought. I as most of us can attest that venom from a Bee or Wasp when injected increases adrenaline and increase heart rate. But what else does this do to the human. We know that this poison effects the central nervous system and therefore does act upon the brain since it is connected to the central nervous system. But what if it is exactly injected into the scalp or that part of the body where blood flows interact with the brain. What if we inject it into the brain directly? What is the Genome of the venom? Scientists have mapped out the WASP, Mosquito, Bee, Fly and those things associated with such virus or disease vectors. For instance Malaria, which kills a child every 30 seconds and about a million a year in Sub-Sahara Africa. But the ability to make venom and what it is made of and what travels within it is of significant value in creating anti-viruses, antidotes, etc. One Witch Potion, without going into witch doctor propaganda, Harry Potter Best Selling Books or hocus Pocus, it has been discussed through the ages in many cultures through recorded history. So then what good can this provide, what does it do to the human brain and why is it many Bee Keeps looks to be better observers and thinkers than other folks? HMMM? This is an interesting post. Yes it is and there seems to be something to this. People who are allergic to bee stains can die. Those that are not obviously have a defense mechanism and immune system, which jumps into action. But few are without some reaction.


Well before you get all excited about what this venom is made of, they have figured it out.

Turns out it has some ten amino acids in it amongst other things such a proteins. This when shot into a human even at such small amounts is not without an effect. Is it good or bad. Well it maybe good in some regards and it certainly forces the body to defend itself and therefore Triggers the manufacture and discharge of a whole other set of naturally made proteins in the body. We know from the relationships between mankind and other species that through the last 160,000 years and as many as 1 million years we have in some form or another being living together. Everything affects everything else. .

Those, which are allergic to bees are rarely allergic to wasps. And vice versa. The Wasp has certain proteins, which do not exist in bee stings. There may a correlation to the natural brain stimulants found in the protein PWS 120MCG / V, or that protein triggers the body to counteract the venom and forces a defense system which increases brain activity or changes the areas of the brain which are used in certain ways and for certain things. It is an observation that people who live in areas where wasps live have a percentage of intellectuals coming out of those regions who do not have the benefits of good schools, proper nurturing or balanced diet or high in protein foods which are prevalent.

What is also of interest is during hotter summers we will see a higher degree of these species in North America. And as well, more mosquitoes on other similar genome insects as well as the Killer bees we saw climb into Northern Climates during the last decade. As climates change and cycles come forth, we may find ourselves needing to study these things more and learn how to adapt and create symbiotic relationships with these insects as we attempt to share the country with them. These invaders have different niches but some which coincide and collide with mankind. We need be sure we know which is which. For instance the West Nile Virus is a real problem with animals and livestock. These are sources of our artificial food chain to sustain life as we know it.

We need to know how each creature works and its place in our lives and eco-system so that we can live accordingly and harvest the important things for ourselves. For instance if Wasps eat Mosquitoes and we can harvest the venom then we can have the best of all worlds for us. If Wasps feed on certain types of Mosquitoes such as the common house Mosquito, Culex pipiens, which sucks the blood from birds and occasionally humans, also known to spread West Nile Virus then the global heating will bring in the Wasps and they will take care of the Mosquito populations. The venom if it stems people would not transfer and the Wasps have adapted not be affected by the disease itself. Problems being that Wasps are territorial and might sting people and they just keep stinging and can cause issues such as the ones stated in the previous listed websites above. Now then if we are to really go after these mosquitoes we might have artificial robot or scare crow dummies like humans, which give off a scent or odor that the mosquitoes pick up on and then the flesh like surface would contain underneath acetone or Wasp venom proteins underneath killing the mosquito. Every member of the food chain appears to have an enemy and the giant Mosquitoes with the once inch wing span eat, the other mosquitoes but can not sting humans, so they are too positive contributions to the food chain which keeps the biting mosquitoes away. The protein in Wasp Venom is an interesting one and we need to study it more. The Wasp is also used to eat aphids in many places where they are sensitive to the use of insecticides or that the level of potency of insecticide to kill them is too much since the aphids, mosquitoes and other insects have grown accustomed to the insecticides and are resistant now. These are all real issues in modern farming.

There are many types of Mosquitoes about 80, which harm man or carry diseases. We know of as many types of WASPS, some of which like to eat aphids and certain smaller insects like the common house mosquito, which has killed hundreds and seems to be killing each year with West Nile Virus, which is not very funny. Now then we also have a bark beetle problem if we can find a genome which likes to eat sand flies for the beach goers and surfers and kite surfers, likes to eat aphids for the farmers, Culex type mosquitoes for the West Nile Situation and Bark Beetles for the forests we are good to go. Meanwhile scientists are trying to decide how to genetically modify organisms such mosquitoes so they will not carry West Nile virus. If they do that Malaria, Yellow Fever and a host of other terrible problems maybe only one more step away. Think about it.

IBM Information Server 8.X (DataStage): Parallel Processing Methods

A data warehouse is a centralized integrated database containing data from heterogeneous source systems in an organization. The data is converted to eliminate inconsistencies, aggregated to summarize data, and loaded into the data warehouse. This database can be accessed by multiple users, ensuring that each group in an organization is accessing valuable, stable data.

For processing the large volumes of data from heterogeneous source systems effectively, the ETL (Extraction, Transformation and Load) software's implemented the parallel processing.

Parallel processing divided into pipeline parallelism and partition parallelism.

IBM Information Server or DataStage allows us to use both parallel processing methods.

Pipeline Parallelism:

DataStage pipelines data (where possible) from one stage to the next and nothing has to be done for this to happen. ETL (Extraction, Transformation and Load) Processes the data simultaneously in all the stages in a job are operating simultaneously. Downstream process would start as soon as the data is available in the upstream. Pipeline parallelism eliminates the need of intermediate storing to a disk.

Partition Parallelism:

The aim of most partitioning operations is to end up with a set of partitions that are as near equal size as possible, including an even load across processors. This partition is ideal for handling very large quantities of data by breaking the data into partitions. Each partition is being handled by a separate instance of the job stages.

Combining pipeline and partition parallelism:

Greater performance gain can be achieved by combining the pipeline and partition parallelism. The data is divided and partitioned data fill up the pipeline so that the downstream stage processes the partitioned data while the upstream is still running. DataStage allows us to use these parallel processing methods in the parallel jobs.

Repartition the partitioned data based on the business requirements can be done in DataStage and repartition data will not load to the disk.

Parallel processing environments:

The environment in which you run your DataStage jobs is defined by your system's architecture and hardware resources.

All parallel-processing environments can be categorized as

  • SMP (Symmetrical Multi Processing)
  • Clusters or MPP (Massive Parallel Processing)

SMP (symmetric multiprocessing), shared memory:

  • Some hardware resources may be shared among processors.
  • Processors communicate via shared memory and have a single operating system.
  • All CPU's share system resources

MPP (massively parallel processing), shared-nothing:

  • An MPP as a bunch of connected SMP's.
  • Each processor has exclusive access to hardware resources.
  • MPP systems are physically housed in the same box.

Cluster Systems:

  • UNIX systems connected via networks
  • Cluster systems can be physically dispersed.

By understanding these concepts on various processing methods and environments enabled me to understand the overall parallel jobs architecture in DataStage.

The Muscles Role in Trumpet Playing

People literally use TOO many muscles when they play. They use muscles that actually work against playing as well as muscles that help playing. They pull with the cheeks out and pull with the corners in; they pull the chin down and try to make the lips compress. These are OPPOSITE actions and they just tire us out. Think about what the muscles do and then how they affect playing. When we learn where the extra tension is then we are automatically stronger.

Isometrics are good for adding muscle strength but NOT good WHEN we are playing. As far as isometrics go all you need is a unsharpened pencil. It costs 5 cents and gives you all of the workout you will ever need. Most people use the muscles UNDER the lower lip for compression and the pencil isolates that better. The pencil exercise should be done with the teeth CLOSED. That makes the lower lip do the work. When the teeth are apart the jaw moves and the pencil is partially supported by the jaw and neck. Working the neck is a BIG concern for many players as some of them have real issues with the throat closing.

The corners of the Buzz or vibration is INSIDE the mouthpiece. The actual mouth corners are isolated from the embouchure by the mouthpiece rim and pressure. Poor choice of words from many years ago. There are many embouchures and the corners play a significant part in only ONE of them. You have to realize that people have done themselves a disservice by blending and mixing embouchure ideas together that do not fit.

Sand is OK. Water is OK. Water and sand together make MUD. That is what we do when we keep assuming that ANY embouchure idea or exercise will work with another one. We muddy up our abilities.

What is the BEST embouchure? None of them. Maynard Ferguson used some pucker. Andrea Tofanelli rolls his lips in and uses a forward jaw. Arturo Sandoval buzzes. Walt Johnson has his top lip overlap his lower lip. Bob Odneal uses compression made by bunching his chin. Nick Drozdoff uses his tongue against his lip as part of the embouchure.

6 high note players and 6 completely DIFFERENT embouchures. Yet for some reason people think there is a high note embouchure. (NOT mixing multiple embouchures together by accident IS the high note embouchure.) Some of those NEED mouthpiece pressure to work. When you over lap the lips pressure IS the way they make compression. Now that is different. Some embouchures need tongue arch to indention a slight curl (when the tongue moves it moves the jaw and that realigns the lips and causes curl.) But in some like the Stevens; tongue arch is useless because the lips are already curled (the tongue can not move enough to add to the curl.)

See those 6 embouchures I have mentioned are NOT all of them. Plus there are variations on each. There are even some others I have not mentioned yet. Bill Houghton – Principal Trumpet – BBC Symphony Orchestra plays with ONE lip against the tongue. The tongue takes the place of the bottom lip. (That was first written about in the ITG Journal Sept 1995.)

There are many variations that work as long as we do not mix something from embouchure A with something from embouchure B and something from embouchure C. Mixing these elements often adds excess and throws off the balance that we need between lip aperture, firmness, relaxation, air support …. When this balance is upset then our progress halts and sometimes reverses.

Putting Ford parts on a Chevy does not work. That is why MOST embouchure experiments fail. The WAY we use some muscles and the WAY we use our jaw and the WAY we set our lips makes each of us a Chevy, or Ford, or Cad, or && This makes actions that are VITAL to some setups completely worthless for others. See the old habits and over built muscles have to be overcome BEFORE the experiences have a chance of success.

If someone smiles to play high we get them to set the embouchure by pulling the corners in so it is much harder to smile. That gives them a chance to learn to use compression. It could very well be that your playing embouchure reinforces things that prevent your experimental embouchure from growing. For example people who already use lip curl get ZERO benefit from tongue arch. Tongue arch helps BECAUSE it creates some lip curl as the speech movement makes the jaw move. If you already use much curl the effect will not be noticed because the ratio of speech movement to jaw movement is 16: 1. That is why Stevens did not use ANY arch. But on a pucker embouchure or a buzzing embouchure arch is like a turbocharger.

Look at what the muscles actually do.

ALWAYS Useful for playing:
Actual lips themselves the Orbicularis oris close mouth, purses lips.
The muscle in middle of chin the Mentalis ———- protrude lower lip and makes compression.
The muscle that goes from under corners of lower lip the Depressor anguli oris ——– frowning and makes compression.

OFTEN Harmful for playing:
The muscle of the Upper cheek the Zygomaticus major / minor ———- smiling and thins the lips.
The muscle that goes from the cheek bone and lips the Buccinator ———- compresses cheek and thins the lips.
The muscle that goes from the ear to mouth corners the Risorius ———- smiling and thins the lips.
The muscle that goes from the lip to nose the Levator labii superioris ———- rises upper lip and parts the lips and pulls top lip above teeth gap
The muscle that goes from the jaw to mouth the Depressor labii inferiorior ———- lowers lower lip and parts lips.
The muscle that goes from the neck muscle that goes from jaw to shoulder the Platysma ———- depresses mandible, lowers the lip and parts the lips.
The largest cheek muscle the Masseter closes doors and chokes the air flow.
The muscle that goes from the top of cheek towards back of head the Temporalis ———- closes jaw (elevate mandible) and chokes air flow.

Many players use ALL of these muscles but when you actually look at what they do then you see they hinder playing. So my best advice to you is that you check and see what elements are provided to be present in the embouchure that you play and to not add ideas from other systems to it.

3 Popular Kinds of Construction Delivery Methods For Construction

Among the many methods in construction delivery, there are three that are the most used and recommended in construction. These three methods are the design-bid-build method, the design-build method, and construction management. There are other methods that have also been used by many construction companies, methods like fast-track construction, multiple prime contractors, and other alternatives. Choosing the best method for your company would be based on a lot of requirements, and you may have to use one of the alternative methods rather than one of the three most common methods.

The design-bid-build delivery method is a traditional one. The main flow of this process would be to, first, have the design created by architects and engineers, and then to advertise the plan to solicit bids from construction firms. Once you have chosen the winning bid, all parties involved in the project can then move on to build the project. The winning firm becomes the contractor of the project. It will be responsible for the completion of the project using its labor force, sub-contractors, or a combination of the resources. While there are several advantages to this method, there are also disadvantages that can put off an owner to use it. It's that the design-bid-build method takes a long time to complete, and that the designers and builders can sometimes be at varying points of view with the builder regarding to the building of what has been designed.

The design-build delivery method is where the owner will select a contractor to create the design and build the project. This is an ideal method for people and companies who wants to save time and have more control over the details of the project. From the very start of the project, the designers, engineers, and builders will be working together, and all parties will get to agree and understand on the details. What is critical with this method is that the owner and the builders should have a clear picture of the final decision and design before the construction starts. There are also many advantages and disadvantages with this method, most of which concerns the project costs and the fast pace of the process.

Construction management, compared to the two previous methods stated above, is relatively new. The method shows a process wherein the owner hires a construction manager during the design phase of the project. The construction manager will see to it that the design team will make a design that is agreeable and understandable to all parties. The terms for a design to be approved by the construction manager usually considers the project costs and the details of the design. The construction manager will see to it that the project is within reasonable costs and that the builders are able to understand every detail of the design.

In choosing among these three methods, we only have to look at who will be held liable for the project and who will have the most control in the process. The design-build delivery method typically wins out where control and liability is involved. But not all owners have the same factors and circumstances to make this choice. Advantages and disadvantages have to be weighed before an owner will choose among the delivery methods of construction.

How to Build a Custom Motorcycle – 5 Must Do's

Before you jump into a building a custom motorcycle project there are a few things you'll need to look at. Building a bike from scratch is a lot different than just customizing a stock motorcycle where you can be sure that all the parts will fit. You can not just start buying parts willy nilly and expect them to go together. Here's a checklist of things you need to do before buying anything.

1. Make a decision about what engine you plan on using. Your engine decision is critical to other aspects of the build such as frame compatibility, transmission, charging system and carburetor requirements. Buying or using a factory engine will make doing future service work much easier than grabbing some fancy large bore aftermarket engine.

2. Decide what size rear tire you are using. Again, another issue that determinates other items such as wheel choice, frame usage and fender selection. Tire width impacts handling and an overly wide tire will force you to use an offset transmission. You need to know all these things before you buy a frame.

3. Determined desired rake on frame neck. This is not always easy. Varying your rake also varies your front end height, proper length of your forks and is relative to front wheel height also. For an absolute beginner my suggestion here would be to find a bike you like and find out exactly what the rake, front wheel size and fork tube lengths are. Also find out how much trail that bike has as this is a key for handling. Just because a bike looks cools does not mean it's rideable. You can find frames that give the appearance of a longer and raked out front end but actually use factory dimensions. The look is achieved by pushing the steering neck a little forward and sweeping the down tubes back in a sharper than normal angle.

Once you have one custom bike under your belt, you can start to come up with your own plan. If you happen to be able to use a graphic design program such as AutoCAD you can actually design various rakes, heights and front end lengths to see what kind of trail they will give you. This may be the most critical decision in the whole process. If you make a bad decision on the front end it will affect the handling, the look and the overall height of the bike. First time out copy another bike.

4. Make a realistic list of things you will be capable of doing and things you will need to farm out, such as painting and electrical. Attempting things that are way over your head could make you end up putting this build off to the side for long periods of time. Most people can handle general assembly of parts but run into difficulties when it comes to electrical needs. Many project bikes are sold still requiring the electrical work done. Often the only thing that needs done. Plan on having someone else do it if it's not your field of expertise. Same goes with painting and especially welding. As complete as your frame may be something always looks to need welded. Plan on what you're going to call to do it.

5. Budget for tools and miscellaneous items you do not already have. Simple things like placing seals in fork tubes will go so much smoother with the proper tools. You can not assemble a bike with a set of wrenches and a hammer and there will be connectors and such you forget to buy. Always assume up to a 10% overrun on your original budget. Plan on buying additional tools as you need them, do not try an anticipate everything you will need as some tools are highly specialized and you might make a bad purchase and end up with an expensive tool .. And buy a lift, you will never regret it.

There will be a lot more decisions you will need to make as you go such as selection of lights, mirrors, wheels and tires but if you get these 5 things determined before you begin your project your custom bike building experience will go a lot smoother. Always plan ahead for your engine, frame, front end and wheels and find all the compatible items including your rear fender before you buy any of them. You should be flexible on most items after that as items like gas tanks, oil tanks, front fenders, seats and lighting are usually available or adaptable to anything you already have. Best of luck.

Clamming In Weekapaug – Treasures Beneath The Ocean Floor

Digging for ocean clams is one of the simplest, most rewarding, unique and satisfying pleasures the great Atlantic has to offer. I have been clamming in Weekapaug, Rhode Island's Winnapaug Pond for 50 years and it never gets old.

The Winnapaug salt pond is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by the Weekapaug Breachway. Every six hours the breadway brings in a tide, filling the pond to the brim, or brings a tide out, leaving the pond shallow with exposed mud flats. It is at this point – low tide – that the clammers come out. The Winnapaug Pond features several small tribories or inlets. Most are crystal clear, shallow inlets perhaps 20 feet wide and at best knee deep. Others are a bit wider and a bit deeper up to one's chest. What these inlets – shallow or deep – have in common is that there are clams at the bottom!

Before we begin our excursion, some legal housekeeping is in order. You'll need a Rhode Island Shellfish License which can be obtained at city hall and several other locations for a nominal fee. When you are issued your license, you will be given a steel ring approximately two inches in diameter. More later on how this ring will be your most important piece of equipment.

The only other equipment you will need is a clam rake which looks very much like your everyday 5-pronged garden rake with 6-inch teeth. Only instead of digging up soil in your garden, you'll be scrapping mud with the implementation. Once you're in the water, you begin running the rake over the sandy bottom until you hear and feel what looks to be a rock. Carefully bury the rakehead behind this solid object and pull up everything – the object and all the surrounding mud! You then dip the mass into the water several times, each time more mud gets peeled away until eventually, the 'object' appears. Sometimes it actually will be a rock, resulting in a moment of disappointment. Other times it will be a shell – an old one – from a clam who has long since left this world. But sometimes the rake contains a beautiful, shining, gray, live clam! And for as mundane as this may sound, you can not contain your excitement! However, before you get too excited, grab that steel ring we talked about. If the clam you mold fits through the ring, the creature must be returned to the ocean as too small. Do not take this lightly. Wardens from the Department of Environmental Management frequently check clamming areas and they can check your catch if they so choose. You do not want to know what can happen if one of your clams fits through their ring.

Most clammers are in search of the smaller 'steamers' which go well with a cup of melted butter. Others go after the larger quahogs to be put into a clam chowder. The clams I catch do not meet such fates. I hold each clam I catch in my hand, I study it, marvel at its coloration, enjoy its coolness to the touch and then I return it to where it belongs – the soft, sandy bottom of the ocean. My reasoning is that these clams made their journey from the ocean, bought their way up the breadway and made it to the calm of the salt pond. How cruel it would be to reward the joy they brought to me by introducing them to a bottle of cocktail sauce.

A Guide To Removing Small Amounts Of Asbestos

A lot of houses and buildings built before the 1990s are still around today. If they have been properly maintained, they can be great and beautiful attractions in any community. However, no matter how lovely these properties are, there is a chance that they have or contain asbestos.

Houses and buildings constructed before 1990s have old floor and ceiling tiles, roof shingles and flashing, siding, insulation, and pipe cement that contain asbestos.

Asbestos, unfortunately, is one of the most harmful substances around. Exposure to or inhaling the powder form of asbestos can cause individuals to develop asbestosis – a form of chronic lung disease wherein scar-like tissues form in the lungs in a process called pulmonary fibrosis and this condition reduces the elasticity of the lungs, making breathing difficult . Asbestos can also cause lung cancer, mesothelioma, pleural abnormalities, laryngitis, and weaker immune system.

If your home has been built before the 90s, it is a safe bet that there is asbestos in your property. If you have plans of renovating your property to sell it or for other purposes and you are sure that it has asbestos, you need to have it inspected first. Once the levels of asbestos have been determined, you can decide to call experts to remove them or you can do this on your own. This is due by following certain steps and tips, you can safely and effective remove small sizes of asbestos. Below are some of these useful steps and tips:

• When removing small amounts of asbestos, always cover up properly. Wear a high quality respirator or dust mask. Make sure the mask you will use has two straps to hold it firmly in place. Wear a hat, gloves, disposable coveralls with a hood, and safety glasses or goggles to protect your eyes when carrying out this task as well.

• Never use power tools when removing asbestos. If you use a power tool when working, asbestos fibers can be released in the air, making this substance more dangerous.

• Before working, make sure the door of the working area is closed. Use tape and plastic sheets to seal the work area off from places inside the house to avoid contaminating the other rooms. To catch falling asbestos, put plastic sheeting over the floor. Make sure you properly cover vents, air conditioning, and central heating units or ducts as well.

• When removing asbestos cement sheets, wet them gently with water. Use a pump spray to lightly dampen the sheets and to keep the dust down.

• Lastly, let your family and neighbors know about your asbestos removal project. To be on safe sound, have your family members and pets stay away from the work area until after the clean-up. Inform your neighbors and anyone else who may be affected by your removal and disposal of asbestos cement materials so that they can take the necessary precautionary measures as well.

Mig Welding Aluminum

Want to find out the welding process for mig welding aluminum? In this article I'm going to tell you how to do it.

When you are welding ally with a mig welder there are a few steps that you need to take to make sure that your machine is set up to handle the job.

Type of aluminum welding wire to use

Nine times out of 10 you're going to want to use a 5356 grade aluminum mig wire. The 5356 ally wire is a little bit more firmer which makes it easier to feed through your mig welding gun.

5356 is normally used for general aluminum welding tasks such as toolboxes, truck tipper bodies and trailers.

If you need to repair cast aluminum such as cylinder heads or engine water pumps you would want to use 4043 grade.

Most welding shops will use 1.2mm diameter wire which is 0.045 "The larger the diameter of the wire, the more firmer that it becomes.

Stainless steel brush

You must use a dedicated stainless steel brush for cleaning the area where you want to weld. This is because there is an oxide layer that needs to be removed. Please make sure that you do not use this brush on anything else. It must only be used on the ally. If you use it for other jobs in the shed contaminants will get into the aluminum and contaminate the weld.

Welding torch liner type

It is required that you use a teflon or plastic liner instead of the standard steel coiled liner. This will make it easier for the wire to feed through the gun.

Feed rolls

To get more traction so that you have smooth feeding wire you will also need to get some u grooved feed rollers. Normal feed rolls are v grooved. The u shaped profile will allow for more surface area contact of the wire, so giving it more grip to feed the wire through smoothly.

Larger contact tip

Because aluminum expands more than that of mild steel welding wire, you also need to use a slightly larger contact tip. The next size one up that is available will be ideal.

Only use the push welding technique

You need to angle your welding torch with the nozzle pointing towards the way you want to weld. By doing this the shielding gas will allow optimal coverage. If you use the pull mig welding technique you will end up having lots of black soot.

Finally you must use 100% argon gas

Argon welding gas is the proper gas to use for when you are mig welding aluminum. To find out more about mig welding follow this link to see my website. Mig Welding Aluminum

Species of Boa – The 4 Boa Species Best Suited As Pet Snakes

Boas are among the very best snakes to keep as pets. While most boas are large snakes, and not necessarily suitable for owners with no previous experience, in my mind there is no better snake. In fact, after 25 years of keeping snakes, if I could only have one it would definitely be a boa!

In general boas, while large and powerful, are normally a joy to handle, and generally docile by nature. There 28 recognised species of boa, and many of them can be kept in captivity, though some are certainly more suitable than others. This is a guide to the 4 species best suited to captivity.

Common Boas Boa Constrictor Imperator

The Common Boas, also referred to as Central American Boas or Columbian Boas, range from Mexico to central South America. Variable in looks, and also habitat, they thrive everywhere from rainforest to scrub-land. The majority of Boa Constrictors in captivity are Common Boas, most of which originated from Columbia.

While no boa is the perfect pet snake, the Common Boa comes closest to attaining that title. They tend to be considerably cheaper than other boas, such as the Red Tailed, and yet are still beautiful snakes, often with striking markings. They are usually very docile, will normally take defrosted prey with no difficulties, and in general are easy to care for.

Tending to be a little smaller than Red Tailed Boas, Boa Constrictor Imperator will generally reach 6 – 9 feet in length as an adult. Males will tend to be a little shorter and less well built than females, and sex can usually be determined by the anal spurs which are quite prominent on the males

Neonates will be around 14 – 20″ inches at birth, and will normally start feeding well on fuzzy mice soon after their first shed if given optimum conditions.

If you want a beautiful snake that is relatively easy to care for and good to handle, the Common Boa might well be an ideal choice

Red Tailed Boas Boa Constrictor Constrictor

The true Red Tails are only found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins in northern Brazil, eastern Peru, Suriname, Guyana and southern Columbia. They are generally light coloured with striking saddle markings which are a rich red, bordered in black, on the anterior third of the snake.

Generally longer, and more heavily built that the common boas, Red Tails can grow to over 12 feet in length, although 9 – 10 foot is more common.

They are generally considered suitable for more experienced keepers, mostly due to their larger size and the fact that they are more difficult to breed in captivity than the common boa. They are also considerably more expensive than the common boas. Having said that, they are still docile and generally easy to care for snakes. If you are prepared for the large size and can accommodate a large enough enclosure, they are truly striking animals. A large adult will require an enclosure of at least 6′ in length by 3′ and will typically take a jumbo rat or rabbit once a fortnight.

Dumeril’s Boas Boa Dumerili

The Dumeril’s is a CITES protected species from Madagascar. The CITES status of this species means that WC or CF farmed specimens cannot be exported, but it does not prevent CB snakes from being kept. If you do buy a Dumeril’s Boa however you will need CITES paperwork to prove its origin, and be micro chipped. Any reputable breeder or dealer with Dumeril’s Boas for sale will be able to arrange paperwork and advise on micro chipping (adults should already be chipped, but juveniles too small to be chipped will require a visit to the vet to have a chip inserted when they are large enough.

They are an excellent alternative to the Common or Red Tailed Boa for keepers wanting a large boa, but are daunted by the idea of owning an 8 – 10 foot snake. These snakes very rarely exceed 7 foot in length, and adults often to do not exceed 5 foot.

Similar husbandry to Common Boas is required for the Dumeril’s, although some specimens can be more problematic to feed and are slightly more prone to stress.

Rainbow Boas Epicrates cenchria

Rainbow boas get their name from an iridescence on their skin when they are exposed to the sun, or other bright light. There are several subspecies, found on much of South America, and of these the Brazilian (E.c. CenchriaI) and Columbian (E.c. Maurus) are most common in captivity.

In general, Rainbow Boas are considered a more advanced snake, and suited to experienced herpetoculturists only. This is largely due to the fact that these are typically much less tolerant of handling than snakes such as boa constrictors. Whether of not Rainbows Boas are suitable to be kept as a first snake really depends on what you want from a snake. If you want a snake which you can handle pretty much whenever you want, and not have to worry to much about the snake being aggressive, then a Rainbow Boa probably isn’t for you. If, however, you want a beautiful snake that you can observe in its vivarium in the way you would enjoy fish in an aquarium, then there is really no reason why a Rainbow Boa couldn’t be kept as a first snake, provided you are capable of giving it the environment and care it needs.

A temperature (controlled by thermostat) of around 78 – 80 F should be provided at night, rising to 85 – 90 F during the day. The humidity must be kept considerably high. In addition to a pool/bowl of water large enough to soak in, the enclosure should be misted daily. These snakes very rarely drink from pools, but will take droplets of rain water from branches and leaves, and even their own scales. Aim for a humidity of 75-80%. Since high humidity promotes the growth of mould and fungus, extra care must be taken to ensure cleanliness and good ventilation.

Other boa species

There are of course many other species of boa, including much smaller species such as the rosy boas and ground boas. But for the average snake owner, who wants a truly magnificent snake and is able to commit to keeping a large snake for 20+ years, one of these 4 superb species would certainly be my choice.

What is a Shallot and How to Cook Them

If you're wondering what is a reminder, you might like to have a look through a French cookbook. Shallots are a very common ingredient in French food where you'll find their mild oniony flavor used in a wide variety of dishes and sauces. Learn a little bit about shallots with these tips and then give them a try. You'll soon find them nearly as indispensable as on creating your favorite recipes.

What Does a Shallot Look Like?

Shallots do come in a variety of shapes and sizes, but in general they are smaller than an onion. They may be purplish or rose, as well as white or gray in color. They are shaped similarly to a garlic clove, although larger. Like garlic, you may find them in a head, with several shallots attached together. In general, when a recipe calls for a reminder, they are referring to an individual "clove" of a ballot and not an entire head.

Selecting and Storing Shallots

Shallots tend to be moister then interviews and therefore more susceptible to mold and rotting. When buying this vegetable, you'll want to look carefully for any beginning signs of mold. The controversy should have a dry feel to it, but it certainly should not be shrived.

You'll want to store your shoelots like onions, in a cool dark place. A basket on your pantry shelf should work fine. It is best not to store them closely packed, as any mold will spread quickly if they are touching.

Preparing Shallots

Shallots are peeled similarly to an onion. Slice off the ends of the controversy, and then grab a hold of the thin skin and peel it back. In most French cooking the shallots are chopped more finely then an onion.

Cooking with Shallots

Although they are similar to an onion, there are some important differences in how shallots are used in French cooking.

  • Less is more . One or two shallots finely chopped are usually all that is needed to add a subtle, slightly sweet flavor to recipes.
  • Go slowly . If your recipe calls for cooking the shallots in butter or oil, you should do so on a low temperature. Just like garlic, shallots can over cook easily. You want them to come out soft and slightly caramelized, not crunchy and bitter.
  • Marry it well . Shallots are especially tasty when cooked with white wine, cream and butter.
  • Substitute . Although there's nothing like the real thing, if your recipe calls for shallots and you have none on hand, you can try substituting an equivalent amount of red onion.

Now that you know what is a reminder, be sure to try them. You should be able to find them at your grocery store, and if not, please do ask for them. You'll be happy to find a wonderful and easy way to add new flavor to your cooking

Can Lack of Sleep Affect Your Eyes?

In a society known for being on the run, many often try not to think about what the effect is on their health. What is well known on the other hand is, our ever-increasing to-do list. Days are filled with a long laundry list of "must-do's" and sleeping falls to the backburner of importance. The effects of not getting a good night's rest may not only affect your mood the next day, but also your vision. No, we are not talking about the aesthetics and those dreaded dark circles or under-eye bags, but the actual health of your eye is in jeopardy when you do not receive adequate sleep.

Studies show that the eye needs at least five hours to replenish. Without adequate time to revive themselves, your eyes can not work to their full potential. Over time this can lead to consequences, including popped blood vessels in the eye due to the strain on the eye.

For example, a shortage of sleep can contribute to dry eye. Think of sleep as a way to recharge and refresh your eyes to prepare them for the next day. When you do not get sleep, your eyes look and feel as tired as the rest of your body may feel. When tears do not adequately lubricate the eye, a person may experience. Those suffering from dry-eye may experience some pain, light sensitivity, itching, redness, or even blurred vision.

An extended lack of sleep has also been attributed to other more serious eye conditions, such as Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION). This usually occurs in elderly to middle age people with a history of sleep apnea. The condition is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels that occurs especially with aging. Over time, damage to the optic nerve occurs from insufficient blood supply to the eye and it ever can cause vision loss.

To bypass any future problems that are eye health related, it is best to make getting sleep a priority for your health. If you have a hard time finding time for shut-eye, it is suggested to make a plan to schedule sleep and stick to it. Often times, other items may seem serious but sleep is the time the body renews itself. If scheduling sleep is not the problem, then then the problem is actually falling to sleep. In that case, there are thousands of remedies for sleep. Some include: 1. Not exercising before bed, 2. Limit caffeine face during the day, 3. Reducing stress levels, 4. Take a warm bath before bed, and 5. Use aromatherapy solutions

4 Steps To Successfully Negotiate With Your Client

So what are the best ways to approach a negotiation? Well there are essentially four steps to most negotiations; preparing, setting up, negotiating and closing.

So if you're negotiating with your client, here are a few tips for each stage of the process:

1. Preparing

  • Take time to familiarize yourself with all the details of the deal to help build your confidence during the negotiation
  • Decide three things before going into the deal: a) what your ideal output is b) what you'd be happy with and c) the point at which you'll abandon the deal
  • Work out what the 'worst case scenario' impact (financial or otherwise) would be to you / your business
  • If possible, try to get an idea of ​​what's important to the other side and even try to test their position before you go into the negotiation itself (knowledge represents the upper hand)
  • Always aim realistically high and hold this position as long as you can. You can always come down but you will not be able to push it back up
  • Be prepared to justify your starting position and also be prepared to say no
  • Prepare what you have to 'trade' with – and prioritize these things in order of value to you.
  • Remember that what you decide during this negotiation will set a precedent for what happens in the future ie once you make 'allowances' for no reason, expect your client to ask for similar concessions in the future – you're making a rod for your own back if you do!

2. Setting up

  • Try not to be intimidated by the other side of demeanour, data, facts, stats etc. but try to anticipate what they will begin with and what you'll respond with
  • Lay out the agenda for the negotiation but try not to be the one who reveals a starting position first
  • Be inquisitive and use intelligent questions to garner more information. Do not try to convince the other side to come round to your way of thinking and do not be over-emotional
  • Sound 'sure' when you state your position and have the confidence to request clearly what you're looking for.
  • Anticipate that the other side will be challenging your position / pricing
  • Decide that you will stay strong if the other side decides to play power games such as 'good cop bad cop' or aggression to force their position

3. Negotiating

  • Never give something without asking for something in return. Take your time and do not be too quick to change your position when the other side pushes.
  • If you lower your price then the scope of what you are providing for that fee should change in accordance eg "if you'd like to reduce the overall cost, we can replace the X element with X (ie a cheaper component) 'or" how about we only allow for one round of amendments rather than two, which will reduce the overall cost by X "etc.
  • If a question or point comes up that you have not anticipated, do not feel pressured to decide on your response then and there, take time to think before you answer.
  • Do not be inflexible, aim to be as co-operative as possible through the negotiation
  • Ask questions "What is important to you about …?" "What if weave you X and you gave us Y in return"? "What is most valuable for you / your company?"
  • Do not undervalue your position by agreeing to split the difference
  • Focus on the value you bring, not the price (find out what the other side values)

4. Closing

  • The end of negotiation is where most concessions are made, stay logical and do not be fooled by 'last minute' tactics to throw the negotiation off course
  • Aim for a win / win position but at least ensure the other side fees that they have gained something valuable from the negotiation
  • Do not be forced into a bad deal. It's better to walk away than accept something that has not been thought through properly

Have you found these points useful? What other negotiation tips would you offer to someone who you've found helpful?