Top 10 Engineering Feats

Everyday the boundaries of engineering are challenged with new amazing projects being undertaken and completed to fulfil the needs of modern day life. This article celebrates some famous engineering feats that have helped shape society today and other feats that are simply marvelous in the audacity of the challenges they resolve.

1) Moon Landing – Moon landings can be classified as manned or unmanned landings, but when you mention the ‘moon landing’ then most people think of the first manned landing on the moon when the Apollo 11 mission placed two astronauts (Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin) onto the surface, leaving us with the immortal phrase: ‘That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind…’ The pursuit of placing a person on the surface of the moon began in earnest in the 1960s and was completed within a decade on July 20th 1969. This event marked a definitive point in the 20th Century and at the time helped cement the United States above Russia as the ‘greatest superpower’ whilst firing the imagination of generations of children.

2) Panama Canal – Opened in 1914 this man-made canal joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The Panama Canal was a colossal engineer project which resulted in an enormous impact on shipping between the two oceans by reducing the journey time immensely. For example a journey from New York and San Francisco via Cape Horn is around 14,000 miles whilst the same journey but instead utilizing the Panama Canal is less than half the journey at 6000 miles. Average journey time through the canal is between 8-10 hours and the largest ship that can travel through the canal is classed as a Panamax. This size of the ships that can travel the canal are restricted by the maximum size the locks. The max length of a ship allowed to travel along the canal is 294.1 meters with a Draft of 12.0 metres.

3) Burj Dubai – is a skyscraper which holds the record for the world tallest building. The Burj Dubai towers above the surrounding landscape at a huge 818meters tall and has been built as a centerpiece of an urban development that will include homes, hotels and parkland. The previous record holder for the world tallest structure was the KVLY-TV mast located in North Dakota, United States, however the Burj Dubai breaks this record by a long way. The more you read about the Burj Dubai the more amazing the whole structure seems, with many of the building’s sub-systems being record breakers themselves, such as the observatory lifts breaking the record for the longest travel distance between lowest and highest stop. These elevators also travel at 40mph or 18 meters per second which sounds like a fast ride! At the time of writing there are no structures under construction that can challenge the Burj Dubai for the world tallest building, but there are some buildings that have been proposed and have potential funding, such as the Mile High Tower, but those projects still have a long way to go before they are even started.

4) Millau Viaduct – The Millau Viaduct may not be the longest bridge in the world but it is current the tallest vehicular bridge standing at a whopping 353 meters which is taller than the epitome of French symbols- the Eiffel Tower. The bridge was opened in December 2004 and crosses the Valley of the River Tarn close to Millau in the South of France. The bridge was designed by structural engineer Michel Virlogeux and architect Norman Foster and possesses both an engineering wow factor and an audacious design. The architect Normal Foster was quoted as saying that the bridge looked ‘impossibly delicate’ and was a ‘dialogue between nature and the man made.’, after looking at this elegant structure it is hard to disagree.

5) Supertankers – Behemoths of the ocean, the supertanker is the largest class of ocean going oil-tanker. The largest ever tankers were the Knock Nevis (in length at 458.4m long) and the Batillus Class Supertankers, which amongst them hold the records for the highest gross tonnage of 275,276 tons. All four Batillus supertankers have now been scrapped, whilst the Knock Nevis has now been classified as a floating storage and offloading unit therefore these great ships that were built throughout the 1970’s have not been surpassed in size since. To make a comparison in size the Knock Nevis is slightly longer than the height of the Empire State Building in New York (443m high)

6) Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche) The Channel Tunnel is the longest tunnel with an undersea section in the world. The length of the Channel Tunnel is 50.5 kilometres in links Folkestone, England to Coquelles, France. The tunnel itself was bored through a chalk marl stratum which was deemed a good material for tunneling as it is both strong and easy to excavate. The actual tunnel consists of three separate tunnels connected together by cross-passage links. The two main tunnels which or rail tunnels are 7.6 metre in diameter, whilst the service tunnel is 4.8 metre in diameter. Construction of the tunnel began in 1988 and opened in 1994 and has been rated as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers.

7) Three Gorges Dam – Another huge feat of engineering the Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric river dam that spans the Yangtze River in China and is the largest hydroelectric power station in the world with a power output of up to 22,500 MW. It is hard to envision the scale of the dam at 2309 metres wide and 101 metres tall. As with most projects there is an environmental impact and this ensures that the project is controversial as it has a negative impact on the wildlife, landscape and local culture, however from an engineering point of view it is hard not to be impressed by what was achieved by the project.

8) Concorde – Between 1976 and 2003 the only way to fly transatlantic between London and New York (if you were lucky enough to be able to afford it) was by flying in Concorde- the world’s most successful supersonic passenger airline. Concorde was able to cruise at an average speed of Mach 2.02 (1,330 mph) and had a maximum cruise altitude of 60,000 feet making the flight time from London to New York only 3.5 hours long. The designers of Concorde had to pioneer and over come many engineering and technological challenges to make the airplane able to travel at such speeds and altitude. The aircraft enjoyed many successful years but was finally retired in 2003. A number of things coincided with the demise of Concorde, in part a change in the economic climate made the cost to fly transatlantic at supersonic speeds less viable, a crash of one of the Concorde fleet temporarily grounded the airplane and the design was showing signs of age approaching thirty years in commission. Due to the lack of competition Concorde didn’t benefit from many upgrades over the years so the technology ended up being slightly dated. However, as dated as the engineering may have become over its life cycle the fact remains that the concept of a supersonic commercial airline and the design that resulted from that concept hasn’t been surpassed and one could say that technology and engineering has receded with Concorde’s demise as no viable replacement has been put in place. Today high-class commercial passengers are restricted to the same lower speeds achievable by traditional aircraft. The days of supersonic passenger aircraft zooming across the Atlantic have therefore been grounded for the foreseeable future.

9) Langeled Pipeline – On the surface a long pipe may appear boring, but under the surface (no pun intended) the Langeled Pipeline which helps make million of Britons make their tea in the morning is quite the engineering feat. The Langeled Pipeline was built to bring natural gas from Norway to the UK the Langeled Pipeline in the longest underwater pipeline in the world stretching 1,200km from Nyhamna in Norway to Easington, England. Gas from the Langeled equates to 20% of Britain’s gas supply making it an integral part of the Britain’s energy infrastructure and the pipeline can carry 70 million cubic meters of gas per day. The project was finished in two stages with the second half of the project opening in October 2006.

10) TauTona Mine – The TauTona is a gold mine in South Africa which is now the deepest mine in the world at 3.9km deep and can be described by three ways, deep, potentially dangerous and lucrative. The TauTona mine had been challenging for the record of the deepest mine for a while but when the mine’s owners AngloGold Ashanti decided to expand the mine then it took the record from the East Rand Mine which was 3,585m deep. The mine was originally sunk in 1957 with operations starting in 1962, however since the original construction two additional shafts have been created. The mine has around 800km of tunnels and Working in the TauTona mine can be dangerous with miners occasionally losing their life. Workers in the mine have to travel for up to an hour to reach the rock face, which can reach temperatures of 60°C

It is hard not to be impressed by the scale of all these engineering jobs and the vision engineers had when conceiving the ‘almost impossible. Boundaries are constantly being pushed and the ‘largest’, ‘longest’ or ‘fastest’ are constantly challenged and superseded by new engineering and technology.

Lessons from the Successful Egyptian-Israeli Peace Process

The experience from the negotiations that follows the Camp David Accords of 1978 provides some important lessons that are relevant to any successful peace process concerning the longstanding Arab-Israeli dispute. The leaders' motivations, their negotiating tactics, and the authority of their negotiators are essential to accommodating a successful outlet. Throughout the process, various risks or emerging issues would need to be addressed if a successful outcome is to be realized.

On September 17, 1978, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, with mediation from US President Jimmy Carter, agreed to a framework that provided upon completion of a peace treaty, "normal relations will be established between Egypt and Israel, including full recognition, including diplomatic, economic and cultural relations; termination of economic boycotts and barriers to the free movement of goods and people; and mutual protection of citizens by the due process of law. " Separately, the parties committed themselves to completing the peace treaty by December 17, 1978. Following a period of sometimes difficult negotations and a break in the process, a treaty was signed on March 26, 1979.

Three factors played an important role in ensuring the successful completion of the Egyptian-Israeli peace process. First, the Egyptian and Israeli leaders were sufficiently motivated to allow them to sustain their efforts even during periods of great difficulty. Second, the negotiations were conducted in a direct and bilateral fashion. Third, the negotiators had the capacity to speak for their respective leaders.

Following his unexpected electoral victory, Israel's Prime Minister Begin expressed his aspiration to be a peacemaker. Upon taking office, he explained to confidants, "I must bring peace to my people." It did not matter that his predecessors had failed in this quest. He was determined to somehow bring about peace. He believed that he could if the opportunity were available.

His Egyptian counterpart was at least as determined to pursue peace. Although Egypt had regained a measure of pride following the 1973 War, the demands of maintaining a wartime footing was breeding worsening poverty in Egypt. By 1977, large-scale riots were occurring in parts of Egypt. President Sadat also came to believe that his presidency could not last without Egypt's regaining the Sinai Peninsula and, following the 1973 War, he understood that only peace could bring about that opportunity.
Once the two men undertook the peace process and had concluded the Camp David Accords, the pressure on them to succeed had grown. They had "developed an ultimate personal stake in what had become their joint venture," The New York Times explained, adding that having established such a stake, failure "would have destroyed the future of them all." The combination of personal aspirations, a personal stake in the outcome of the negotiations, and the realization of vital national goals provided the foundation of the kind of motivation that was essential to breeding and sustaining the flexibility and commitment necessary to overcome the challenges that areose on the path to peace.

Early on, both leaders chose to conduct direct bilateral negotations as opposed to an international conference or some other internationally-created approach. "Direct confrontation is the closest and most successful method to reach a clear objective," Sadat told the Knesset in his historic November 1977 address that kicked off the start of the peace process. Sadat rejected the idea of ​​a Geneva conference that would have brought a larger number of players and issues into the mix and thereby made the possibility of achieving peace more complex and more unilaterally. In other words, the larger the number of parties and the larger the number of issues, the more likely it is that something could go wrong.

"[M] odern diplomatic history contains no successes in the settlement of long-term political conflicts by mediation that seeks to replace direct discourse," Israel's former Foreign Minister Abba Eban explained. Later, as it turned out, the world received a glimpse of what might have been rejected from an international approach as the United Nations General Assembly repeatedly ignored the progress made in the Camp David Accords and often denied Egypt's pursuit of negotiations with Israel. There, the environment grew so hostile that Andrew Young, the US Ambassador to the United Nations complained that the UN was only hinder the pursuit of peace.

In the days leading up to President Sadat's visit to Jerusalem, President Sadat appointed Hassan el-Tohamy, his closest ally, to represent him in laying the groundwork for the visit, while Prime Minister Begin appointed his foreign minister Moshe Dayan. Both men had the authority to speak for their leaders. This capacity facilitated the process, as their agreement on issues was all but binding. Later, negotiations mediated by US Secretary of State Cyrus Vance floundered due to the Egyptian and Israeli representatives lacking the necessary negotiating authority to conclude an agreement. In addition, it is sometimes necessary for the parties to negotiate at the highest levels.

The same principle also holds true for those playing a mediation session. The final breakthrough that led to the historic peace agreement occurred on account of President Carter's personal diplomacy. He traveled to the Middle East to break a negotiating impasse, stressed the importance of compromise on the sticking points, and told both President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin that he would leave region if the necessary concessions were not made. With the finality of the President's decision setting in, both parties cave ground and reached agreement. That agreement still holds today.

What is Guitar Tablature?

As a guitar player and teacher I almost always use guitar tablature. I do not even know how to read sheet music to be honest with you and you if you are just starting out on guitar or want to learn, it will not take long to find that most other guitar players do not read sheet music either.

The reason is that guitarists around the world have come up with a better more practical way to read music in a way that is specifically geared for guitar players. Guitar tablature is the prominent way for guitarists to write and read music for the guitar without having to know how to read music in the traditional sense.

It may seem difficult at first but it will only take a little while to get used to it and it will soon become second nature. When I am teaching guitar lessons I tend to implement tablature because it shows the guitar student exactly where to play each note or chord on the guitar. On the guitar keyboard it is possible and even common to be able to play an identical note and even chord on a different string or part of the neck. So tablature allows you to know exactly where you should be on the guitar neck.

Guitar tablature (tab for short) is basically a diagram and simple number system that will allow you to easily read and play any riff, song, or solo you can imagine on the guitar.

The Strings:

Here is an example of a blank guitar tab sheet.

E | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

B | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

G | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

D | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

A | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

E | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

The strings here are named to make it easier to decipher which string is which. The bottom string represents the low E string which is the largest and thickest string on the guitar. All the strings go in the same order that they are on the guitar all the way to the high E string which is the thinnest string on the guitar.

Here is a diagram of a D major chord:

E | ———- 2 ————————————- ————————————————– ——-

B | ———- 3 ————————————- ————————————————– ——-

G | ———- 2 ————————————- ————————————————– ——-

D | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

A | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

E | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

The numbers here represent which fret you will place your fingers. As you can see, on the G string your will hold down the 2nd fret, the B string – the 3rd fret, and the E string – the 2nd fret. When all the numbers are in line or on top of each other like in this diagram it means that your strike all the strings at the same time and play them simultanously. So in this diagram you would play the D major chord by strumming it once.

Here is an example of tab where you do not strike all the strings simultaneously:

E | ———- 2 ————————————- ————————————————– ——-

B | —————– 3 —————————— ————————————————– ——-

G | ——————— 2 ———————- ————————————————– ——-

D | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

A | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

E | ———————————————— ————————————————– ——-

In the diagram above, you would strike each string individually. This is still a D major chord but you would play it one string at a time. So you would start on the high E string, then play the B string, and finally play the G string. The distance between the numbers on the tab will help you determine how long of a pause to take between playing each string.

Tab Symbols:

Here are some symbols that you will regularly see after numbers on the tab diagram:

h – hammer on, p – pull off, b – bend string, up r – release bend, / – slide up, – slide down, v – vibrato (sometimes written as ~), t – picking hand tap, x – play ' note 'with heavy damping or do not play at all

Some of these terms we will cover in more detail later but for now it is good to have a reference so you know what they mean.

We will be using tab a lot while we learn how to play guitar so do not get discouraged if it looks a little confusing. It gets easy and soon it will not be any harder than reading a line in a book!

Fun Facts About Thailand


Thailand is bigger than the United Kingdom, Iceland, Belgium and Austria combined.


Bangkok is the capital city of Thailand. Bangkok is one of the most beautiful places in Asia, a city where East meets West.


Her Majesty the Queen Sirikit was one of the most beautiful women in the 20th century.


Different from Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam,Thailand is not among the Asia´s poorest countries.


Thailand is famous for its hospitality, and the average visitor will have no difficulty in adapting to local customs.


Pornthip “Bui” Nakhirunkanok became the second Thai to win the Miss Universe title after Apasra Hongsakula in 1965. The year was 1988.The place was exotic Taipei, the capital city of Taiwan.


Thailand has hosted the Asian Games four times in the past century: 1966, 1970, 1978 and 1998.


Miss Universe 1992 Pageant was held at Queen Sirikit National Convention Center, Bangkok, Thailand. Miss Namibia, Michelle McLean, was crowned Miss Universe 1992.The judges were: Khunying Sasima Srivikorn (businesswoman), Luis Enrique (singer), Miriam Makeba (singer and anti-AIDS activist), Ron Duguay (sportsman), Vijay Amritraj (sportsman), Kim Alexis (supermodel), Robin Leach (actor), Estelle Getty (actress)…


UNESCO has declared Historic City of Ayutthaya (1991), Historic Town of Sukhotahi and Associated Historic Towns (1991), Thungyai-Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Santuaries (1991), Ban Chiang Archaeological Site (1992), and Pong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex (1995) World Heritage Sites. Certainly, Thailand is a country of ancient culture, history and beautiful landscapes.It is a world in a country.


In 1984, Pope John Paul visited Thailand.


Between 1970 and 1996, Thailand´s economy was one of the most dynamic in the world.


Thailand has great athletes:Paradorn Srichaphon (tennis), Kamsing Somluck (boxing), Wijan Ponlid (boxing), Manus Boonjumnong (boxing), Udomporn Polsak (weightlifting), and Pawina Thongsuk (weightlifting).


Thai cuisine is famous all over world.There are many Thai restaurants in New York, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Buenos Aires, Tokyo, Rome and London.


Thai boxing is the national sport in Thailand.

What Worms Tell You About Your Soil

When you see worms in soil you can be sure that the quality of the soil is excellent. It will be rich in organic matter and valuable nutrients. It will be well aired with good drainage.

Where there is an abundance of worms in the soil plants will be healthy and sturdy, flowers will be more colorful and plentiful and fruit and vegetables will taste better and be more nutritious.

The question that is sometimes asked is this – is this good soil the result of the worm population or are the worms there because the soil is good quality?

There is no clear answer to this because the two are so inter-dependent; they are like the chicken and the egg dilemma. One is not possible without the other.

In soil where worms are absent you may have assumed that the soil is poorly drained and lacking in organic matter. You may also assumed that the nutrient content was poor.

These assumptions are probably right but the other possibility of course is that the soil is of good quality but the worms have been removed or destroyed by the New Zealand Flat Worm. This worm thrives in the climate of the British Isles and has done untold damage to the native earthworm population here.

The Flat Worm has not posed the same threat in its native country because it can not tolerate a hot climate and exists there only in shook and damp areas around trees and bushhes. Unfortunately no such restrictions apply here and the flat worm has been free to move and breed at reasonable speed.

Talking to local farmers they have told me how the sea gulls used to follow the plow for the rich picking of earthworms. But the sea gulls do not do this any more because the worms are not in the ground.

Whatever the reason for a lack of worms in your soil adding worms will bring benefits. The benefits will be increased where organic matter such as compost or manure is added. The worms can be placed in the soil about three quarters of a spade in depth with some worm bedding. For more details on adding worms to your soil you can read the article "Worms – Fertilize your soil the natural way with burrowing earthworms!" on our site.

Another excellent feed is worm cast – it is excellent for breaking up heavy clay soil and aerating the ground. You will notice when you added worm cast to your ground that after a while it sinks down a couple of inches as it makes it way down into the earth.

Worm cast is also excellent mulch. It will help keep weeds down and it gives the flower beds a fresh well groomed appearance.

The Role of Back Exercises in Your Bodybuilding Program

There are two primary reasons for getting into a bodybuilding program: Trying to increase muscle mass, or trying to increase functional strength. Key to both of these is building core strength, which lies in the abdominal muscles, and, just as importantly (and often neglected) the muscles of the upper, middle and lower back.

Your back (and spine) are the primary stabilizing muscles in your body, and the ones easiest to injure when lifting weights. From a biomechanical perspective, your back consists of the spine, the ribs, the scapula and the ligaments that string them all together, like parts of a mobile or kinetic motion structure.

Injuries to the back are almost always compression or rotation injuries – they're damage to the soft tissue that lets your back move. Good weight lifting exercises (and muscle group isolation) are key to avoiding back injuries, many of which will not show up for years after you've done them to yourself.

Muscle groups that you need to work on in the back are your traps, lats and deltoids, and you need to take them slowly. Yes, you can get a ripped looking back by overdoing it, but it's better to focus on practical strength increases over physical appearance and muscle building when dealing with your back.

The trapezius muscles (traps) are the ones that form the bulk of your back; the basic exercise for them is a shrug motion, where you take a pair of dumbbells, one in each hand, and shrag your shoulders as high as they will go (and do not roll them – go straight up) and hold them for a breath , then let them down slowly.

A related motion, which helps the traps a bit, but mostly works on your deltoids, is a straight-arm lift. Hold a dumbbell in your hand with your elbow at your side, and your forearm out level with the map. Extend your arm until it's at height, in one fluid motion, and look down your arm at the dumbbell, like you're sitting on a pistol range. Then bring it down slowly. (This is a common exercise in martial arts groups that emphasize punching). This will work on your deltoids and the yoke of muscle linking your shoulders.

To build up the lower trapezius muscle (the part of the trap that runs down your ribs), you're going to want a sitting down 'V-bar pull down', where you're pulling down against resistance; This is better than a straight pull up because it isolates the muscle thoroughly.

Building definition, and most importantly, strength, in the lower back requires shoulder arches. Hold a light dumb-bell over the back of your neck and lay down on your front. With your hands clasped, arch your back, lift, and hold for a count of three, then lower slowly. Do these sparingly; it's very easy to overdo them.

As with all muscle building exercises, it's important to do stretches and a bit of cardio before and after doing them to maintain flexibility.

New Products From Dedicated Micros

The EcoSense DVR Series is a new entry level lineup of digital video recorders from Dedicated Micros. They come in 4, 8, or 16 channels with up to 240pps. The EcoSense Series can be controlled by a mouse, keyboard (optional KBC2 joystick keyboard or KBC1 touch keyboard), or by the all new touch sensitive control panel on the front of the unit. All control options are able to be accessed from this unique feature. Color coded menu structure makes for quick and easy option selecting from the on screen menus. A DVD-RW allows for recorded footage to be transferred from the DVR to a DVD for use on other devices. It also has PTZ dome protocol support for Pelco P, Pelco D, Pelco C, Samsung SCC-641, and Phillips 232 PTZs. The EcoSense Series contains the NetVu Connected technology that is available in other Dedicated Micros Digital video recorders. NetVu Connected allows for seamless integration of all the products that have it.

The Centralized Management Tool (CMT) is another new product from Micros. The CMT software can control up to 500 digital video recorders individually or in groups from one central location. This software allows a person to update, configure, and sync units for DVRs at one location or DVRs at multiple locations at the same time. This is the quickest and most efficient way to manage multiple units from one screen and that alone makes the CMT an amazing tool for surveillance needs.

DM has produced a new line of license plate capture cameras that are made with their HyperSense technology. This technology is able to remove any detail such as ambient light (DSP ambient light rejection) from an image that it records. This gets rid of the headlight glare and allows for a clear image of only the license plate. The invisible IR LED pulse shows only objects that have an extreme reflection to the IR light. These cameras come in either analog or IP and all come in aluminum, weatherproof housings. 18-50mm lens and 0 lux sensitivity allows for greater visibility even in the darkest of settings. Parking lots and toll booths are places where the HyperSense cameras are very effective.

Campfire Meals – Champagne Anyone?

Great campfire meals are the champagne of a family camping experience at any campground! Yet the majority of campers manage hotdogs or marshmallows on the fire but have limited success with proper meals or more difficult to cook proteins like chicken. Our concern, therefore, has to be demystifying the delight one gets from food cooked on an campfire. So get your taste buds salivating and set in to a trail of basic tips to appetizing, tasty pleasures. As we begin, though, we remind you that the possibility of fire bans in a given campground at any time requires that you also travel with a camp stove ..

The first thing you will want to do is build a cooking fire. Most campgrounds provide a fire pit and even a grate or grill upon which they would like you to cook. You will likely find, however, that the grating provided by the campground is dirty and more than a little rusty. Using it exclusively to grill food would surely result in unappealing if not unhealthy food. So bring your own metal grill. It should have a larger surface than the volume of food you expect to have on it at any time. Extra surface area allows you to move food to the edges of the grill thereby creating an "off the direct heat" space that is useful in cooking without burning the food.

A larger grill will also enable the campfire to be smaller and in better control when bound to the back or center of the provided area. Indeed, a campfire made of hardwood burned down to coals need not be large to be exceedingly hot where one made from softwood will produce a greater volume of ashes rather than coals and will be less hot for cooking purposes. Hardwoods are oak, maple or fruit trees to name a few while pine is an example of a softwood .. Almost all campgrounds will have a hardwood supplier nearby or sometimes even circulating within the grounds daily. Or there may be dead falls in nearby woods you can pick up. Remember, apart from the prohibition on cutting down trees in most campgrounds, fresh-cut standing timber makes a crummy campfire if you can even get it lit before you run out of matches!

Now that we have a bed of coals with a grill on it that is clean and can be kept that way, we're off to the races. Most of us grill at home and cooking on a campfire is little different. Your full attention is required when there is food on the grill to keep it burning at worst and drying out at least. Have a good set of long -handed utensils to avoid burning yourself when turning the food and make sure there is a full pail of water in the immediate vicinate in case the campfire gets outside the pit. In addition, if you are worried about getting food cooked before it burns, par-boil it before grilling!

It's important to remember that not all cooking is grilling even though this is a campground kitchen! Make sure that your equipment includes a limited number of pots and pans of specific sizes (a fry pan, a pasta pot and a slightly smaller one for veggies sounds right). Inexpensive is OK here because you will be paying enough attention to the food while it is cooking to avoid sticking. And do not worry about the fire blackening and thus "ruining" the pots. Rub a handful of ordinary dish soap on the outside of each pot before it goes on the fire. You will be amazed to see the black goo just rinse off in the clean-up! Remember. Soap the outside of the pot so you make sure the pasta is tasting smoky not soapy!

The result is campfire cooking at it's finest? A little knowledge has led to proper use of a fire pit and a safe, hot fire. A little know how has prompted careful cooking. Applied energy has ensured you accord due attention to quality of the product you brought to the campground. And at every step, the time you invested in acquiring and packing the right equipment paid off! Food now looks and smells appetizing and the taste, you'll agree … champagne! So take the time to seek out proper equipment for the task and revel in the results. You'll be glad you did!

Many Articles Contain Unexpected Cookery Terms, Have You Ever Wondered What These May Mean

European cookery is dominated by French terms but there are also Italian-derived and Spanish-derived terms within cookery's repertoire. As recipes also derive from places all across the world terms and names have come into cookery from a range of languages ​​and cultures. For instance, did you know that the name "ketchup" is derived from the Asian palm sugar flavored sauce Ketjap Mais.

Below is a short glossary of cooking terms:

  • Abats – The French for offal (hearts, livers, brains, tripe, pancreas, thyroid, kidneys etc) which are sometimes term 'variety meats' in America.
  • Al dente – An Italian phrase literally meaning 'to the tooth' and it describes the perfect texture of cooked pasta, which should be tender on the outside but with some resistance when bitten into.
  • Bain-marie – This is a method for the gentle cooking of delicate dishes. It can be something as simple as a perspex bowl set within a saucepan (hence the common name of 'double boiler').
  • Bard – Barding is the process of layering or tying bacon or pork fat over a joint of meat, a game bird, poultry etc which is to be roasted.
  • Baton – A baton is a way of cutting vegetables where they are cut into a long, thin rectangle shape.
  • Batterie de Cuisine – This is the French term for the essential equipment that every good cook needs to prepare food in the kitchen.
  • Beurre noisette – Literally 'brown butter', a classic French accompaniment to fish (especially skate) and is simply made by browning butter in a pan so that it develops an nutty taste and turns a light brown before adding lemon juice and pouring over the fish.
  • Bouillon – this is a simple stock or an un-clarified broth. The name derives from the French verb bouillir – to boil.
  • Carpaccio – This is a classic Italian starter made from very thin shavings of raw beef fillet and which is served cold with olive oil and lemon juice as a dressing.
  • Chiffonade – These are strips or fine shreds of vegetables (classically sorrel and any type of lettuce) that are either lightly sautéed or used raw as a garnish or topping for soups.
  • Crotete – A crotete is literally a crust. Usually this is pastry that's used to entirely cover and wrap the food, as in boef-en-croute.
  • Dariole – Dariole molds, also known as madeleine tins are small steep-sided metal molds (usually steel or aluminum) about 8cm in height that are conic sections (ie the sides are flared and narrows at the bottom than the top).
  • Deglaze – The process of deglazing is that of adding stock, wine, or other liquid to a hot pan or roasting tin in which food has been roasted or sautéed.
  • Dépouiller – This is the process of skimming-off the scum from a sauce or stock.
  • Escabèche – This is a traditional spicy Spanish pickle made from herbs, spices, vinegar and olive oil.
  • Farce – this is the French term for stuffing.
  • Fines Herbes – Fines herbes is the classic French mixture of chopped aromatic fresh herbs frequently used in egg-based dishes, sauces, salads and soups. The classic 'fine herbs' are chives, chervil, parsley and tarragon.
  • Fumet – Fumet is the French for 'aroma' and refers to a concentrated stock that is added to sauces to enhance their flavor.
  • Garam Masala – Garam Masala is an aromatic mixture of ground spices that's used as the base for many Indian dishes (the literal meaning of the name is 'warm spice'. , cloves, nutmeg (and / or mace), black pepper and green cardamom seed or black cardamom pods.
  • Gratin – A gratin is and dish that's been topped with cheese or breadcrumbs mixed with knives of butter and which is then heated in an oven or under a grill.
  • Harissa – This is a hot red sauce popular in North Africa which originally derives from Tunisia. It is made from smoked chilli peppers and garlic though coriander, cumin, caraway and olive oil are frequently added.
  • Ile Flottante – This is a classic French dessert. The concept is fairly simple: a very light meringue floating on a bed of custard sauce.
  • Julienns – this is a classic way to cut vegetables, where they are cut into thin matchsticks or very fine shreds, each about 4cm long.
  • Jus de BissapJus de Bissap is a tea made from the red calyxes of the roselle hibiscus Hibiscus sabdariffa . This infusion is often termed the 'national drink of Senegal'.

As you can see cookery terms are many and varied and the selection given above is only a small selection of all possible terms. I hope that these are useful to you and show you that a little understanding can greatly enhance your understanding of recipe instructions and gives you a better grant of basic cookery techniques.

Consolidation Loan and Using Plastic

For families and individuals faced with credit debt, a credit consolidation loan can help on the road towards financial recovery. It will simplify the reimbursement process and correct poor spending habits.

Credit card debt is the greatest financial burden facing many today, and a credit card consolidation loan, which has many benefits, can go a long way towards alleviating the problem. It can be a great tool to help one get back on the right financial path.

While most people have some form of debt, it is probably shocking to learn that the average family in the United States has over $ 7,000 in credit card debt. This debt carries several negative situations.

Many, when faced with mounting debt, resort to a credit card consolidation loan and and more credit cards as a way to pay the debt off. This only increases the financial burden in the end and can result in bad credit when the individual is unable to make payments because the debt has become too great.

In addition, penalties and late fees for tardy payment can accumulate with alarming speed, leaving the debtor even worse off than before. Rather than taking out loans or getting another credit card, those in financial crisis should consider a credit consolidation loan. It is a real solution that may leave one better off than before.

Be aware that a credit card consolidation loan is not a magic little pill that will make your debt or bad credit history go away. Rather, it will help you reduce your overall monthly debt, save on high interest fees, and encourage you to develop a monthly budget.

You will also notice that your score score will improve, as agencies notice your new ability to pay your bills in a timely fashion. Expect those annoying calls from collection agencies to stop.

So, how much will you likely have to pay each month? Once you have decided to pursue a credit consolidation loan, your monthly payment will be calculated based on the lowest payment amount that your creditors will accept.

At this point, all you have to do is make the payments to your consolidating company, and the company will be responsible for distributing your money to your creditors.

Once on the road to financial recovery through a credit consolidation loan, it is best to eliminate the use of credit cards. Bad credit is extremely frustrating, and borrowing money to pay debts is an exercise in futility.

The temptation to pay with credit will be strong (it is the great American addiction, after all), but the penalties for out-of-control charging outweigh the temporary pleasure of the purchase on plastic. Learning to manage one's finances responsibly is far more rewarding in the end.

Hit The Slopes Fit, Not Fat

You've book your winter vacation. You're excited about your upcoming ski trip over a long weekend. You can almost hear your ski's driving through the snow as you rush down your favorite run. Then it hits you! You have not skied in a year and as a matter of fact you have not spent all that much time staying in shape either. You've earned a few pounds since last years trip and you've been starting to notice your stamina is not what it was a year ago. You used to hit the gym regularly a few times a week, but this past year work as been crazy, the kids seem to have more going on and the gym has just gotten pushed to the back burner. To put it bluntly, you've gotten fat.

The following 4-week plan is designed to improve your fitness level, increase your strength and stamina and get you back in shape so you can enjoy more time on the slopes and less time recovering in the lodge.

The following program is designed as a 4-week program. The exercises are focused around the muscles and movements used in skiing. Not only are these exercises designed to increase your strength and stamina; they also will help protect you against injury.

This program will start with a dynamic warm-up, then move into some core and strength work and finish up with a high-intensity interval finisher. In Week 1 you are going to perform both Workouts A and B once. Weeks 2 and 3 you will perform Workouts A and B twice each. Week 4 you will perform Workouts A and B once each leading up to your weekend.

The Workout

Dynamic Warm Up – perform this warm-up before each workout.

Foam Roll (Glutes, Hamstrings, Quads, IT Band, Inner Thigh, and Back)

10 reps each area

Hip Flexor Stretch with Overhead Reach

30 seconds each side

DBL Hip Bridge

10 reps

Forward and Backward Jumps

10 reps over and back

Prisoner Lunge with Rotation

10 reps each side

Side-to-Side Jumps

10 reps over and back

Wave Squat

10 reps

Triangle Jumps

5 reps clockwise, 5 reps counter-clockwise

Speed ​​Skaters

10 reps over and back

Workout A – perform 3 sets of 10 reps for each exercise. Performing A1 then A2 once each followed by a rest period of 60s and then repeated for two more sets. Do the same for groups "B" and "C".

A1) Kettlebell Swing

3 x 10

A2) Single Arm Push Press

3 x 10

B1) Kettlebell Goblet Squat

3 x 10

B2) TRX Row

3 x 10

C1) Single Leg Deadlift

3 x 10 each side

C2) Front Plank

3 x 60 seconds

Finisher: Squat Matrix

2 sets

Workout B- perform 3 sets of 10 reps for each exercise. Performing A1 then A2 once each followed by a rest period of 60s and then repeated for two more sets. Do the same for groups "B" and "C".

A1) Split Squat

3 x 10 each side

A2) 3 Point Dumbbell Row

3 x 10 each side

B1) Single Leg Hip Bridge

3 x 10 each side

B2) Push Ups

3 x 10

C1) Side Plank

3 x 30 seconds each side

C2) Inch Worm

3 x 5

Finisher: Bike Sprint Intervals

5 sets of 30 seconds work, 30 seconds rest

Exercise Descriptions

Kettlebell Swing – Start in shortstop position with hips hinged, back flat, and head up. Place hands on the handle of kettlebell. Place the kettlebell about 12 inches in front over your body on the floor. To start the movement pull the kettlebell back between your legs, as is you are snapping a football. From there explode your hips forward allowing the kettlebell to rise to chest height. Once there pull the kettlebell back down and between your legs by hinging your hips. Do not squat the swing.

Single Arm Push Press – Select a dumbbell that is slightly heavier than what you could stand and press with one arm. Starting with the dumbbell at your shoulder, slightly dip your hips and explode up pushing the dumbbell to the ceiling. Lock out at the top, and then slowly lower the dumbbell back to the starting position. Perform all repetitions on one side before switching to the other side.

Kettlebell Goblet Squat – Holding the kettlebell by the horns tuck your elbows to your rib cage. Hinge your hips back and sit down into a squat until your elbows reach your knees. Push through your heels and stand up.

TRX Row – Using a TRX Suspension Trainer grab the handles with a neutral grip and walk your feet in until you reach approximately a 45-degree angle with your body. Lower your body down slowly by straightening your arms and then pull yourself back up. Do not allow your shoulders to shrag up to your ears.

Single Leg Deadlift – Start by standing on one leg with arms at sides (you can hold dumbbells is needed). Hinge your hips and lean over keeping the knee of the leg you are standing on slightly bent and the opposite leg straight and horizontal with the floor. Once your hands reach knee level stand back up. Perform all repetitions on one side before switching to the other side.

Front Plank – Start on the floor supported on your forearms and toes. Clasp your hands together with your elbows under your shoulders. Keep your back flat with a neutral spine. Hold for 60 seconds.

Squat Matrix – Perform 20 seconds of bodyweight squats, immediately followed by 20 seconds of squat jumps, immediately followed by a 20 second squat hold. Rest 20 seconds. That's one set.

Split Squat – Start in a lunge position. Lower your back knee to the floor. Do not let your front heel lift off of the floor. Lift up by pressing your heel into the floor. Keep legs in split position until all reps are completed on one side, then repeat on opposite side.

3 Point Dumbbell Row – Place one hand on a bench and both feet square on the floor. Keep a flat back and pull the dumbbell up toward your body and pull your shoulder blade back. Do not shake shoulders. Do all reps on one side and then repeat on opposite side.

Single Leg Hip Bridge – Start by lying on your back with your right leg straight and left leg bent with foot on the floor. Press your left foot into the floor and lift your hips and right leg up from the floor. Do all reps on one side and then repeat on opposite side.

Push Ups – Start on the floor in a push-up position. As you lower your body to the floor keep elbows at 45 degrees. Push yourself back up.

Side Plank – Start by lying on your side with your elbow under your shoulder. Plank up on your elbow and forearm and outside of you bottom side foot. Keep your body in straight alignment.

Inch Worm – Stand with feet shoulder width apart. Touch your toes and walk hands out to just beyond a push-up position. Walk feet back to hands, keeping legs straight. Walk hands back out and repeat.

Bike Sprint Intervals – Pedal for 30 seconds as fast as possible and then rest for 30 seconds. Repeat for prescribed sets.

Low Carb Diet Plan – The Fastest Way to Start

Any time you try to start a low carb diet plan it can be overwhelming at the beginning. Today's we're going to look at some simple guidelines you can follow to make sure you get going quickly, with the perfect blend of food ingredients to supercharge your low carb diet plan fat-burning potential!

Low Carb Diet Plan – The Fastest Way to Start

Just switching to a low carb eating system is not going to let you drop inches around your waist or thighs. And if you somehow do manage to make it happen, you'll snap back even when you come off the carb-restricted diet and likely gain MORE weight than you were carrying previously!

This is one of the hidden lies the weight loss industry puts out endlessly, they never want to talk about what happens after we go back to our normal lives after suffering through an impossible eating routine that only served to create massive cravings and binges.

Knowing this, one of the most important things I can give you regarding any low carb diet plan is making sure you have the right balance of food types to ramp up your metabolic rate and lose weight quickly WITHOUT triggering powerful desires that will sabotage your efforts once you go back to normal.

Asian Women Know The Secret Mix

This may surprise you, but Asian women have traditionally practiced a version of the low carb diet plan for generations, even before the word "carbohydrates" was first discovered.

They knew to mix specific foods together simply because they just worked, and because their Mothers, or Grandmothers, had passed the knowledge down to them as children. This is actually the exact way I personally first heard about what I later learned was a low carb diet plan, as a teenager in Taiwan. My Mom never used the Chinese word for carbohydrates, she instead called these meals "small belly" recipes. 🙂

Here's how Asian women quickly modify their diet to quickly get their system into a low-carb mode, which lets them quickly drop weight even right after giving birth.

One Simple Rule

Use this one tip at every meal and you'll be on the road to weight loss faster than you think possible … without going hungry:

Eat twice as big a portion of a natural protein (eggs, fish, lean meat, tofu, chicken, etc) as you do non-"white" carbohydrates (bread, pasta, rice, sweets) at every meal. Limit the protein portion to the size of half a typical 10-inch dinner plate.

Meaning that if you're going to eat a chicken breast for dinner, limit yourself to half the chicken breast's size worth of a non-white-carb side-dish. Make the side-dish a vegetable or fruit (which are natural and GOOD carbohydrates) as long as you follow the size ratio rule.

The mix of protein and a natural smaller carb portion vegetable or fruit actually work together to increase your body's fat burning potential to a much greater degree than a zero-carb or no-carb diet.

You'll Need To Do More To Make It Work

You're not going to discover the true low-carb secret to Asian weight loss from just a quick article or short write-up. In order to really understand how Asian women are able to easily get their incredibly skinny bodies, even right after giving birth, requires a look at ALL of their hidden techniques and simple weight loss methods …

Setting a Home Network System

A Home network system come in two basic types. These are cabled (or wired) or wireless. Whichever type home network system you opt for, you basically find out that they both will have some of the same types of equipment, although the specifics will differ between the two.

For any two parts of the network to talk to each other, there has to be a route between them. In a wired network, this is done by physical means – the cables (generally cat 5 or Ethernet cables). These cables come in lengths varying from a few feet to hundreds of yards long. There is a limit to how long a cable can be before a router or a switch must be put in between cables; however, this is a lot longer than most people setting up a home network will need to be concerned with.

With a wireless network, you can not see the path between components, but they are no less real. Instead of cables, radio waves carry data. Although they may be affected by interference, just as a radio or TV signal, this is almost never an issue in a home network, almost never. Be aware though that metal inside your walls, microwaves, solar flares and the like can interfere with a wireless signal. Even walls can reduce the strength of a wireless signal.

When setting up our home network, you'll need some equipment to send and receive the signals that will be carried, whether by radio or cables. A network interface card (or NIC), typically an Ethernet card is one component that you will need. These are common and very inexpensive and come in different range of speeds, anywhere between 10MB and 1 GB. The speeds depend on the card you use – a 802.11g wireless network works at 54MB per second, while a 802.11b network runs at 11MB per second. As prices keep decreasing, the lower speeds are becoming less commonly seen.

A network interface card can be either cabled or wireless. The cards in two different devices on a network are hardly ever connected directly by cables, but rather are connected to a switch or a router.A switch is a simple device; it's like a box with ports for the Ethernet cables to connect to. They are extremely inexpensive and work well for networks which do not need an internet connection. Routers are more commonly used these days though; sometimes multiple routers will be used by home network builders.

A router does exactly as the name implications; it routes network traffic. It fulfills this function by means of IP addresses and software created for sending and receiving data between devices. Routers can be either wireless or cabled. Each can be found in many different models from different manufacturers. There are different built in software with different functionality; some feature antivirus software built in. These routers differ in their number of ports (which decides how many devices can be plugged in to the router). There is also a difference in the impulses at which they operate; they may not run at the speed they are rated at. For instance, a router rated at 54MB may actually run at 6MB.

There are other components which will be part of your home network, such as cable, DSL or satellite modem for internet connection. The devices listed above are what you'll need to get started though with the basic set up of your home networks system ..

Job Interview 101 For Law Students – The Screening Interview

What does it take to ace a job interview? Put on a good suit, pop in a few breath mints, and making sure your tie matches your shirt?

These are tough economic times. Fewer and fewer firms are hiring new candidates, choosing to invest in experience than youth (if they’re investing at all). In this tide of economic depression, great grades, strong extracurriculars, and a great school history might not be enough to land you that plum position at that prestigious law firm.

Enter the job interview.

If there’s one place where you can rise above your resume and show your prospective employer where you shine, give him one more reason to hire you over others, its the job interview. The job interview is all about leaving an impression, and we’ll tell you how to make the right one in both rounds:

The Screening Interview

The screening interview is the first round of evaluation when your prospective employer tries to see if you, the candidate, match up to your credentials. Depending on your law school, there might be a lottery system to sign up for a screening interview. In this lottery system, you can’t be rejected outright based on your resume, so it is possible that even mediocre students with weak resumes will get their 15 minutes with a recruiter – and perhaps impress him enough for a call back interview.

Tip: If you don’t win a scheduled appointment with a firm of your choice, persistence – a call to the law firm, for instance – should get you a spot.

Do Your Homework

Before the big day, do your homework. Research the law firm – their practice, history, and if possible, the attorney you’ll be talking to. You can usually get all this information in the hospitality room (or waiting room, if you prefer), or on firm’s website.

Learn as much as possible about the kind of work the firm does. Interviewers are usually happy to see that a candidate has shown interest in their firm. Moreover, it’ll help to check what you talk about: your interviewer won’t be thrilled to hear you talk on and on about an area the firm doesn’t deal with.

Also, check out the National Association for Law Placement (NALP) form on the particular office of the firm at which you are interviewing. Many firms’ branch offices have different stats from the headquarters, especially when it comes to practice areas and attorney demographics. Your career services office should also have some useful material, such as employer evaluations from years past.

And don’t forget your classmates and the alumni. Talk to those people who’ve worked at your target firm. This will give you the real take on the firm – its practice, area of expertise, history, the work atmosphere, and even the less desirable aspects.

Dress Up

Your suit alone won’t bag you the job, but it can never hurt to dress up professionally. While employers may state that students can attend the interview in business-casual attire, they really want to see you dressed up in a suit – as a real lawyer would have to in a court room. Moreover, clothing preferences might vary from interviewer to interviewer, and thus, your best bet is a classic suit, preferably in a neutral color like charcoal or brown.

Carry your documents in a leather portfolio, don’t strut around carrying them in your hand.

And don’t forget to carry additional copies of your resume and transcripts.

Sell Yourself

You usually get 20 minutes with the interviewer. More often than not, the interviewer has already decided if you should be invited to the firm for a call back – based on your resume, transcript, etc. even before you’ve walked into the room. If your resume and transcripts go heavily against you – low grades, no extra-curriculars, then there’s little you can do to salvage the interview. However, for borderline candidates, a good show can really boost your chances of landing a call back.

As cliche as it may sound, try and be yourself. Remember that the interviewer has probably seen hundreds of candidates. He can see right through any facade you might have built up to fit into your perceived image of what the firm wants.

Fight the urge to discuss law-related topics only. If your interviewer seems interested in opera, you might be better off discussing Pavarotti than your law journal work. Keep in mind that the interview is designed to gauge your personality, not your grasp on law – your transcripts are enough proof of that.

Be Flexible

So you walk into the interview room, fully prepared to answer anything thrown at you. You sit, straight backed before the interviewer, thumbing through your answers in your head, smiling confidently.

But then the interviewer leans back in his chair and asks you, “So, what do you want to know about this law firm?”

And suddenly, all those scripted answers fall apart and you mumble a response.

Don’t let this happen to you. Interviewers have a tendency to begin with random, off topic questions. In such a scenario, be prepared to give a 3-5 minute narrative answering the question (or asking questions), and gradually steering the topic of discussion to yourself – who you are, and what interests you in the law firm.

Try and incorporate elements that interest you in your narrative – a particular question that daunted you in moot court, a paper you’re writing for the law journal, your 1L summer internship. You can use the same story, but present a different version each time. It’ll keep you from sounding scripted.

But most importantly, learn to answer the interviewer’s questions in a way that your answer blends in with your narrative.

Be Location Aware

You’ll have firms from all over the country coming to your law school for the job interview. This can cause a problem if say, you’ve lived in New York all your life, and your target firm is based in L.A. You’ll have a hard time convincing the interviewer about your sudden desire to move to L.A.

Remember that the firms are making an investment in you. They’ll train and groom you for the first year. They want to be sure that you’ll stay the course and not leave them midway. If you’ve lived in New York all your life, a firm will be (rightly) skeptical of your decision to stay in L.A. to work for them.

Confront this problem by visiting the city where your target firm is located. Arrange for a meeting with them. A casual meeting will make it appear as if you’re really interested in moving to their city to work for them – factors that will go a long way in strengthening your resume when it comes to the interview.

It shouldn’t appear that you simply signed up to be interviewed by every firm that came to your campus. When the inevitable question: “Why did you sign up to interview here?” pops up, be prepared with an arsenal of firm and location specific comments to make your interview seem more genuine.


So you hate your professor, your classmates are all idiots, and the campus cafeteria never has good coffee.

Great. But just don’t tell the interviewer.

The interviewer doesn’t want brutal honesty from you. They’d much rather listen to you describe that insightful professor or that wonderful course you took last fall. Interviewers are very wary of any hint of negativity and can and will latch on to it, severely impairing your chances for landing a job (and this applies to any job, not just a law firm – a negative attitude can be a major turn off).

Smile, and talk about your great experience during your 1L summer internship, the intelligent discussions after moot court with your classmates. Show them a happy face, and they might show you your interview date for a call back.

What Are the Various Uses of Silver?

We have always known silver as metal used in the making of jewelery. Silver jewelery has always been popular among women. Apart from the jewelery aspect, silver bullion coins have been considered as the great investment. Also, they are an excellent collectibles. From Silver Britannia, American Eagle and Silver Canadian Maple, people world over invest in silver coins as they offer great returns on investment.

Apart from these uses silver is also used in various industries due to its unique properties. Silver is a precious metal, we all know that. But it is a noble metal as it resists corrosion and oxidation. Not just that, it is the most excellent thermal and electrical conductor of all metals, so it is ideal for electrical applications. Its antimicrobial, non-toxic qualities make it useful in medicine and consumer products. It can easily be malleable, which means it can be easily flattened into sheets. Also, it's ductile, which allows it to be drawn into thin, flexible wire. This is the reason why it is the best option for various industrial applications. Not just that, its photo sensitivity has given it a place in film photography.

Silver will not lose its precious status in jewelry and coinage. And due to its unique properties like it can be powdered, made into paste, shaved into flakes, converted into a salt, made into alloy with other metals, flattened into sheets, drawn into wires, suspended as a colloid, or even used as a catalyst. These qualities make sure that silver will continue to be the king in various industries.

As Investment

As a precious metal, silver bullion coins is rare and valuable, making it a popular investment option. People invest in silver bullion coins and bars. Its malleability makes silver a great option for designing and minting local currency. Many people invest in silver by buying and storing 99.9% pure silver bullion bars, coins, or medallions.

As Jewelry

The qualities of being Malleable, reflectivity, and luster make silver a great choice for making jewelry and silverware. As silver is less expensive than gold, silver is the first choice for jewelry and a standard for fine dining.

As an Electronics

The top most use of silver in industry is in electronics. Its unmatched thermal and electrical conductivity among metals means it can not easily be replaced by less expensive materials. Silver is used in electrical switches. Electronics demand silver of the highest purity: 99.99% pure.

Other Uses

Traditional film photography relies on the light sensitivity of silver halide crystals present in film. The silver halide crystals alter to record a latent image when the film is exposed to light. It then is developed into a photograph. Silver is also used brazing and soldering while silver paste is used to make solar panels. Nuclear energy also uses silver. It is used in chemical production as well. Silver plays a major role in medicine since ages due to its antibiotic property and non-toxicity. It also act as a catalyst by absorbing oxygen, which kills bacteria by interfering with their respiration.