Making Money Sports Betting Requires A Plan

Millions of people the world over bet on sports. Most of them have no idea what they are doing. They bounce from one system to the next hoping for some miracle that will win every time. Or they spend hours looking at stats hoping to find some intangible edge they can bet. They would be better off flipping a coin, or not betting at all.

Making money betting on sports requires a plan. And that plan should not include reliance upon a betting system that promises you will never lose. Even the best picks lose about 40% of the time. Accepting your losses should be part of the plan. The goal is not to never lose, just to win more than you lose.

Winning requires that you pick the winner 53% or more of the time. That requires you bet only on games that have at least a 53% probability of going your way. In the NFL and NBA, known edges can be found in certain point spread situations. In other sports you must be able to identify motivated teams to bet on in advantageous situations.

However you decide to do it, making money betting on sports requires a plan to be successful. You can’t do the impossible, so why waste your bankroll trying when all it really takes is smart betting?

Your plan should be to bet only on games where you either have a known edge, or very good reason to believe an edge is there. The best sports pick is nothing more than a guess that has at least a 40% chance of losing. Those guesses are not beyond the average bettor with a plan.

Cisco CCNA Certification – Cisco VTP VLAN Trunking Protocol

(VTP) is a Cisco Layer 2 messaging protocol that manages the addition, deletion, and renaming of VLANs on a network-wide basis. Virtual Local AreaNetwork (VLAN) Trunk Protocol (VTP) reduces administration in a switched network. When you configure a new VLAN on one VTP server, the VLAN is distributed through all switches in the domain. This reduces the need to configure the same VLAN everywhere. VTP is a Cisco-proprietary protocol that is available on most of the Cisco Catalyst Family products. VTP ensures that all switches in the VTP domain are aware of all VLANs. There are occasions, however, when VTP can create unnecessary traffic. All unknown unicasts and broadcasts in a VLAN are flooded over the entire VLAN. All switches in the network receive all broadcasts, even in situations where few users are connected in that VLAN. VTP pruning is a feature used to eliminate (or prune) this unnecessary traffic. By default, all Cisco Catalyst switches are configured to be VTP servers. This is suitable for small-scale networks where the size of the VLAN information is small and easily stored in all switches (in NVRAM). In a large network, a judgment call must be made at some point when the NVRAM storage needed is wasted, because it is duplicated on every switch. At this point, the network administrator should choose a few well-equipped switches and keep them as VTP servers. Everything else participating in VTP can be turned into a client. The number of VTP servers should be chosen so as to provide the degree of redundancy desired in the network.

Modes of OperationServer

In VTP server mode, you can create, modify, and delete VLANs and specify other configuration parameters (such as VTP version and VTP pruning) for the entire VTP domain. VTP servers advertise their VLAN configuration to other switches in the same VTP domain and synchronize their VLAN configuration with other switches based on advertisements received over trunk links. VTP server is the default mode.


VTP transparent switches do not participate in VTP. A VTP transparent switch does not advertise its VLAN configuration and does not synchronize its VLAN configuration based on received advertisements. However, in VTP version 2, transparent switches do forward VTP advertisements that they receive out their trunk ports.


VTP clients behave the same way as VTP servers, but you cannot create, change, or delete VLANs on a VTP client.

Advertisements Summary Advertisements

When the switch receives a summary advertisement packet, it compares the VTP domainname to its own VTP domain name. If the name is different, the switch simply ignores the packet. If the name is the same, the switch then compares the configuration revision to its own revision. If its own configuration revision is higher or equal, the packet is ignored. If it is lower, an advertisement request is sent.

Subset Advertisements

When you add, delete, or change a VLAN in a switch, the server switch where the changes were made increments the configuration revision and issues a summary advertisement, followed by one or several subset advertisements. A subset advertisement contains a list of VLAN information. If there are several VLANS, more than one subset advertisement may be required in order to advertise them all.

Advertisement Requests

A switch needs a VTP advertisement request in the following situations:

The switch has been reset. The VTP domain name has been changed. The switch has received a VTP summary advertisement with a higher configuration revision than its own. Upon receipt of an advertisement request, a VTP device sends a summary advertisement, followed by one or more subset advertisements.

Configuration To configure an IOS based switch to be a VTP server, issue the following commands: SwitchA# vlan database

SwitchA(vlan)# vtp domain CiscoKits

SwitchA(vlan)# vtp server

SwitchA(vlan)# exit

These commands configure the switch to be a VTP server in the VTP domain CiscoKits. The changes are saved and the revision number is incremented when the exit command is issued. To configure a VTP client, run the following commands:

SwitchB# vlan database

SwitchB(vlan)# vtp domain CiscoKits

SwitchB(vlan)# vtp client

SwitchB(vlan)# exit

To disable VTP, set the vtp mode to transparent as such:

SwitchC# vlan database

SwitchC(vlan)# vtp transparent

SwitchC(vlan)# exit

To monitor the VTP operation and status, use either:

SwitchA# show vtp status

SwitchA# show vtp counters.

The Achievements of Sultan Akbar in India

Galal El Dine Akbar was one of the most prominent rulers of the Moghul Empire. He lived over India from 1556 till 1605 and was largely mentioned in history for his architectural and political achievements. A large number of tourists who travel to India.

Akbar had good relations with various religious groups and sects. He had his sons and daughters marry from various ethnic groups to maintain good relationships with them, the fact that all historians found to be very smart.

Sultan Akbar was also a great fan of culture, arts, and architecture. One of the most remarkable constructions in India is the Red Fort of Agra, the capital of the Moghuls which he established. The Red Fort is one of the most remarkable monuments that welcomes numerous tourists from all over the world to enjoy a holiday in India.

When Akbar became the Sultan of the Moghuls in 1556, the empire was still not really well established. During less than half a century, the Moghuls were able to conquer and take control of serval parts including Sind, Kabul, Bengal, and Kashmir. Today, the establishments of the Moghuls amaze tourists who travel to India.

The first significant architectural projects Akbar led was the construction of the mausoleum of his father, Humayun, in Delhi. The construction works began in 1562 and the project was completed in 1571. Akbar also constructed the great palace of Agra, which became the capital of his empire. Agra is actually added to several travel packages to India due to the fact that it hosts many historical buildings of the Moghuls.

Sultan Akbar also established many buildings around other cities in India. This includes the construction of many forts in Ajmer, Rajasthan, Lahore, and Allahabad. Tourists who visit India fall in love with the magic, culture, and architecture of the country.

Among the most interesting buildings constructed by Sultan Akbar in India is the Jahangir Mahal, an elegant palace for the residence of ladies. The façade and the interior courtyard were both constructed out of sandstone. The different styles of the palace reflect the cultural diversity of the period of Akbar. Many places around India grab the attention of numerous tourists who travel to India.

Another wonderful example of the architecture of Akbar is Fatehpur Sikri, the city he established to the on the rocky edge located to the South of Agra. This city reflected the syncretic ambitions and plans of Akbar. The ruins of the city receive some visits by tourists who enjoy their vacations in India.

In 1569, Akbar had another remarkable construction established. In thanksgiving, Sultan Akbar, in this occasion, named his son, and future Sultan of the Moghuls, Jahangir, Salem. He also built a shrine for Sheikh Salem, whom he named his son after, a close friend of Akbar and one of the most renowned Sunni saints. A few number of vacationers who visit India would explore such monuments.

See The Benefits Of Welding Safety

Welding is much more than taking two joints and soldering them together. It's a prerequisite trade that requires proper training and education to perform safely and accurately. There's nothing "simple" about welding and, in fact, it can be quite a dangerous undertaking. Considering this, welding safety, including proper gear such as welding helmets, is vital for getting the job done right.

The process of welding is especially dangerous for the eyes. This is so for several reasons, including the brightness of the arc, the ultraviolet and infrared rays it emits and the fact debris can sometimes fly loose. Inasmuch, no smart welder gets started without a good helmet.

Knowing you need a welding helmet and choosing one that's appropriate for you can be two different things. The sophistication of the helmet needed will, of course, depend on the type of welding being done and how often you need it. If you just need to do a solder once in a while, a basic helmet will do. A pro, however, will likely want a more sophisticated piece of protection.

Here are some features to look for in a helmet:

* Comfort. A welding helmet should be comfortable to wear and lightweight. If it's not comfortable, or reasonably so, it can get in the way of the job, which can lead to accidents.

* It should be easy to use. A helmet should not be so difficult to use that welders try to avoid them or go without them when making a solder.

* Visibility. Being able to see what you're doing while working a weld is vitally important. The helmet should not block all fields of vision.

* Degree of protection. Welding shields must block ultraviolet rays to be considered effective. These are not sunglasses and the arc you're dealing with will not even begin to compare to a 100-watt light bulb! They should also block infrared wavelengths.

The type of helmet necessary will depend on the job being done and the kind of weld being made. Depending on the materials, lung protection might also be needed as some fumes created during the welding process are toxic. There are some other features welders can look for in a helmet to help them with more advanced jobs. They include:

* Auto-darkening helmets. These are great for shop situations where being able to see more clearly when the arc has not been stuck is important, but taking a helmet on and off is not always practical.

* Solar and battery powered helmets. These help control the auto darkening features on some helmets and some other processes as well. Either is suitable, as long as a solid helmet is chosen.

* Fixed and variable shades. The fixed offers a single darkness factor on the shade, the variable features different settings to be chosen.

* Other features in helmets can include: adjustability to make it easier for a person who wears glasses to find a comfortable fit, sensor bars to assist in determining when a helmet's features should be automatically turned on, curved shields and so on.

The key to welding and doing it safely is to not only understanding the process and the equipment, but to also have a good helmet. The helmet is vital for protecting the eyes and the face from harmful light rays, burning and flying debris.

IPv4 Vs IPv6 (Advantages and Disadvantages)

We can see the rapid growth of internet users in last few years and this increase also create challenges for internet management groups, stake holders and service providers. Day by day infrastructure of internet is expanding and we can even enjoy the service of internet in villages and remote areas. Increased of usage also increase online devices. In start internet protocol addressing (a specific IP addressing for each online entity) was designed on 32 bit and this scheme IP version called IPv4.IPv4 addressing is like decimal is used to make the IPv4 addresses more palatable for humans and a 32-bit address becomes 4 decimal numbers separated by the period (.) character. If we calculate these decimal values and we can get the total number of devices can be participate on this protocol (256x256x256x256) = allows for 4,294,967,296 addresses. It is about 4 billion of addresses and in early days of internet no one can think, 4 billion slot will be full. here we shall discus some disadvantages of IPv4 as we have seen addressing capability problem and after that we shall go through the solution which will replace IPv4 and addressing structure of the new addressing scheme. we shall go through some disadvantages of IPv4 and new features of IPv6.

Rapid Growth of the Internet and the Exhaustion of the IPv4 Addressing

IPv4 allows for 4,294,967,296 addresses which is about 4 billion and IP allocation limits the public IP addresses to a few hundred million. Cause of this limitation companies using NAT (Network Address Translator) to map single public IP to multiple private IP addresses.

IPv4 Security at IP Level

When we communicate at public medium we need to encrypt data to maintain security and privacy. After a passage of time we have now security for IPv4 packets. This security knows as internet protocol security or IPSec but this is an optional for IPv4.

Internet Backbone Maintaining Large Routing Tables

In IPv4 network IDs allocation is very critical and currently more than 87000 routes in the routing tables of internet backbone routers today. The routing infrastructure is based on flat and hierarchical routing.

Quality of Service Concern in IPv4

Now a days internet users are not only limited with browsing and searching data. Current users are well aware of text and voice and video chat and video conferences and online video libraries. This kind of communication need real time data transfer for quality of service. Normally for these kind of services we use UDP (User Data-gram Protocol) or TCP (Transmission Control Protocol).IPv4 TOS field has limited functionality and, over time, has been redefined and locally interpreted. Additionally, payload identification that uses a TCP or UDP port is not possible when the IPv4 packet payload is encrypted.


As we can see we have some basic problems in practice of IPv4 now we will check some new features of IPv6. here I like to describe the some of basic features of IPv6. Deployment of IPv6 is a big challenge for internet management groups, stake holders and service providers. It is difficult but not impossible. We can see benefits of IPv6 here. Biggest upgrade jump from IPv4 32 bit to IPv6 128 bit.

IPv6 Header Format

New header is designed to minimize header overhead. by moving both nonessential and optional fields to extension headers that are placed after the IPv6 header. IPv6 header is more efficiently processed at intermediate routers and that generates efficiency. IPv6 is 4 time larger than IPv4 and its header size is twice than older version.

IPv6 Large Addressing Space

In IPv6 source and destination addresses is based on 128 bit. 128 bit addressing can produce over 3.4 x 1038 possible combinations. Currently we can say this is enough but who know about future may be it also face same problem like IPv4 after some decades. 128 bit addressing allow us multiple levels of sub-netting and address allocation. So we can say that we have plenty of address for use in future.

Addressing and Routing Infrastructure Efficiency in IPv6

IPv6 designed to create an efficient, hierarchical, and summarize able routing infrastructure that is based on the common occurrence of multiple levels of Internet Service Providers. It reduce the size of routing table of backbone routers. Which is can cause of efficient internet experience.

Security features is now built-in

IPv6 has been design to support IPsec (AH and ESP header support required) also support mobility version Mobile IPv6. IPSec based on two types of extension headers and a protocol to negotiate security settings. The Authentication header (AH) provides data integrity, data authentication, and replay protection for the entire IPv6 packet. It is better form developers who built-in security features in development of IPv6 rather we bolt on later.

Quality of Service (QoS) of IPv6

As we have already seen about the UDP and TCP protocols for streaming and other multimedia services on internet. Cause the usage of these services are increasing day by day IPv6 have a flow level field in its header which make better and special handling for packets from source to destination. Data traffic is identified in the IPv6 header, support for QoS can be achieved even when the packet payload is encrypted with IPSec and ESP.

Increase Computer Speed: Parts You Need

Increasing computer speed can often mean hardware changes. Even an older computer's performance can be improved through upgrades that are often simple to perform. Here is a list of possible changes you can make, and criteria to base your decision on.

RAM: Dollar for dollar, you'll see more improvement in your computer's performance by adding RAM, than any other upgrade. Before you buy, open up your PC's case and check the sticker on its memory modules to see exactly what kind it is. If you're running an old OS, like Win98SE, remember that 512 MB is the limit. With XP and Vista, your only limitations are your pocketbook, and the number of slots on your motherboard.

CPU: You may be surprised that a faster CPU is second on the list. Your computation speed often is not a problem, the way having log jammed memory is. But if your motherboard can accept a faster processor, gains can be made. The gains can be thought of as incremental, rather that the dramatic sort you'll have by increasing RAM from say 256 MB to 1 GB.

GPU: People want to play their games at the highest settings, but many times can not because their graphics card is just too puny. Even if you're not a gamer, and you have a system with video on the motherboard, getting a GPU would free up RAM that has to be shared with video. Ideally, you'll have a motherboard with a PCI-E slot, but do not fret if you've got an AGP, or even all PCI slots. There are a lot of good, fast cards out there for all of them.

SATA: By all means, if your motherboard has SATA ports, get a SATA hard drive. But if it does not, you can still get some of the speed gains by installing an expansion card. It will plug in to a PCI slot, giving you 1 or 2 interior ports, and one external. (You can get a PCI-E version, but if your motherboard has PCI-E it's almost sure to have SATA ports. In this case, the only reason for a card would be if all the ports were in use, and you wanted to do something like connect to an external drive.)

Motherboard: I'm putting motherboards last on the list, not because of performance improvements, but because of the difficulties involved. Indeed, a board with a faster bus can do wonders. The trouble is that a new motherboard may require you to get a new CPU and RAM just to match socket types. This may be more expensive than you're willing to take on. Also, a lot of stuff will have to come out of your case to swap motherboards. If you've never done it before, you'll want plenty of time so you will not be rushed.

Billboards Basics

Billboards are becoming more and more popular today. Perhaps it's because they reach more people for cheaper prices than any other type of media. Or because it's because people are spending much more time in their vehicles now than ever before. Since billboard advertising is increasing so much, I think it is very important for all business owners and everyone involved in advertising to know the basics of billboards

Painted Billboards

Painted billboards are the oldest form of outdoor advertising. This concept originally came from the drawings on cave walls. Since the cave drawings, billboard advertising has adapted to technology and grown phenomenally.

Billboard companies use a special outdoor paint for their signs. This special paint is weather resistant, and it also has an ultra-violet absorber that will resist fading.

Painted billboards are also known as painted bulletin boards or paintings. We recommend painted bulletinlets for signs that do not have complicated graphics but do have long contracts.


  • Long Lasting – Painted Bulletins can last from 12 months to 36 months.
  • Quick – On average, it takes 7 days to produce a painted bulletin.
  • Rain Resistant – Unlike vinyls or posters, the rain will not damage painted signs.

Unfortunately, painted bulletin boards are almost a thing of the past. Today most billboards are either vinyls or posters.


A majority of the billboards with complicated graphics have vinyls on them. These vinyls are printed on a wide format printer. All of our vinyls are protected with a special Ultra-Violet coating that allows the vinyls to last for years. This is by far the most popular type of billboards today.

Types of Vinyls:

Adhesive – These vinyls have sticky backsides. Adhesive vinyls can be used to attach a photograph on a painted bulletin or the entire sign can have an adhesive vinyl placed on it. Since adhesive vinyls have sticky backgrounds, they can not be moved.

  • Pressure Sensitive Adhesive (PSA) – This is the type of vinyl that is used on tri-vision billboards. PSA's can also be used to cover up parts of vinyls. For example, let's say a new franchise restaurant will soon open a store in a brand-new location and they want a billboard that says "Opening Soon." After the restaurant opens, they will want their sign to say "Now Open." PSA's allow us to print the vinyl with "Now Open" and print a cover that says "Opening Soon" which will be placed on the vinyl when it is first installed. When the restaurant opens, the "Opening Soon" cover can be pealed off to reveal "Now Open." This method is a lot more time and cost effective than ordering a new vinyl.

Flex vinyls are the most common type of vinyl. These vinyls do not have sticky backs like adhesive vinyls, rather they are "hung" on the edges of the boards. Flex vinyls can easily be moved to several different locations.


  • Long Lasting – Vinyls can last years.
  • Flex vinyls can easily be moved to several different locations
  • Your imagination (& the law) are the only limitations to what you can put on billboards with vinyls.
  • Colors matching: it's extremely easy to make a vinyl's colors match anything you have.


Poster Panels are very common along secondary roads. Posters are very similar to wall paper. They are printed on several sheets of paper and glued on a metal faced sign. Posters are printed on paper in either 8 sheets (junior posters) or 30 sheets (10.5 feet by 22.8 feet standard posters.) Below are examples of posters.

Poster panels are also known as papers, paper bulletin boards,

30-sheets, or junior posters. Since posters must be installed on metal faces, you can easily identify poster signs by the thick metal frame around the edges.


  • Rotation – Due to weather conditions, posters only last for 30 days. This allows advertisers the opportunity to change locations and designs every 30 days.
  • Flexibility – The contracts can be long term (12 months) or short term (30 days)
  • Time Sensitive Material – Posters are great for companies that want to remind potential customers of their current specials, birthday wishes or grand openings.

Gross Rating Point (GRP)
GRP is the total number of postings in a marketing schedule versus the population. The GRP is calculated by dividing the traffic count by the population.

Posters can be purchased as 25, 50, 75, or 100 GRP (shows). For example, if you want a 50 GRP (showing), than 50% of the population should see your billboards every single day.

Studies have shown that in a 100 showing, advertisers can reach 88% of the adults 28 times a month. In a 50 showing, advertisers can reach 83% of adults 15 times a month.

Common Billboard Terms
Spectaculars – stacked billboards or when two billboard faces that are on top of each other are combined to make one big billboard. Below you will find an example of a spectacular

Copy – All wording (text) on billboards

Bleed – The edges of a flex vinyl that is used to wrap around the sides of the board. We normally use a 6 "bleed with 4" pockets on our vinyls.

How to Plant Hanging Upside Down Tomatoes

Have you ever thought about planting tomatoes hanging upside down? Well, do not be surprised, because this is becoming one of the most popular ways of growing tomatoes. The best part about this method is you do not have to worry about weeding and dealing with pests and diseases that are so common when you grow them in the ground. Do you want to know how to plant upside down tomatoes? Well, here is how you can easily do it.

If you are already a tomato drawer, you already know most varieties of tomatoes require a large container. Get an empty 5 gallon bucket with a lid. You can save some bucks if you can find it lying around the house or just head over to the nearest hardware store and get one. Once you find your container, you need to clean the bucket thoroughly to remove any debris or harmful chemicals that may exist inside.

Now you need to drill a hole in the middle of the bucket's bottom. Make sure that it is about 2-3 inches big. You will also need to drill smaller holes in the lid so you can water it easily when the plant is placed inside.

The next thing you will need is material you can use to anchor the tomato plant. Newspaper is ideal for this purpose. Just place several layers at the bottom of the bucket.

Now it is time to add the soil. Fill the bucket to about an inch from the top. Nutrients are essential for the growth of a seedling into a healthy plant, so add some to the soil and secure the lid tightly on the bucket.

Now you have the soil inside the bucket and it is shut with the lid. Simply turn the bucket over and plant the tomato seedling. To do this, just cut a few slits into the newspaper you placed at the bottom. You can access it through the 3 inch hole that you drilled at the bottom of the bucket. Once the slits are done, gently place the seedling into the hole. Make sure about 3 inches of it is coming out of the hole. If you require something extra to anchor the seedling, just use some extra soil.

Now your hanging tomato plant is ready and all you need to do is to hang it at appropriate place. Make sure the structure you use to hang your 5 gallon bucket is strong enough to handle the weight. And remember, tomato plants need space to grow, so they should not be hung too close to the ground. Allow at least 5 feet space between the bucket and the ground to have room for the plant to grow.

While choosing the location, make sure your plants get sufficient sunlight. Plants need adequate lighting to grow and produce fruits. So, having a hanging logo planter makes it ideal for you to move it with the sun.

Now the only things to care are watering and fertilizing the plants regularly and wait for the blossoms to appear and turn into fruits. Are you ready to eat fresh and ripe tomatoes from your upside hanging tomato plants?

Floor Lamps – One Easy Way to Inexpensively Change the Look of Your Room

Floor lamps add beauty, charm and eloquence to any room in your home. They are probably the most versatile lamps available and an inexpensive way to change the look of any room. They come in many smashing colors and designs. These would include Tiffany, Rustic Lodge, Mission, Contemporary stained glass, and more.

Balance Your Light

Create a balance of light between different fixtures such as Tiffany style stained glass floor lamps, torchi floor lamps, wall-mounted sconces, ceiling pendants and chandeliers so that the light is spread evenly and flows in between rooms.

To figure out the amount of illumination that you will need to use the formula: Length X Width X 1.5. For example, if your room measures 12 X 18, your room needs about 325 watts. However, you do not want to get that all from one fixture.

The best way to light an area is to layer the light sources. You first need to survey the space and determine what the areas where tasks will be performed are; what the focal point of the room is.

Next, consider any dark spaces in your lighting scheme, in other words, in places that need the most light. Floor lamps are usually used for task lighting. The light shines down and is most commonly used for reading. This is where Tiffany lamps would fit right in. Not only do they light the dark area, but also give it a splash of color. The shades of Tiffany lamps allow the light to shine through casting beautiful colorful lighting.


Floor torchi lamps, used as ambient lighting or mood lighting cast their light upwards. They are a great addition to any decor where existing overhead lighting is not sufficient, or provide a more indirect light as desired. Originally candelabras, torchieres give a distinct look to any room. Available in the many styles, torchieres are a decorative accessory in its own right.

Bridge Arm Lamps

A bridge arm is a lamp with an arm that supports its shade. It is used for reading or lighting a dark area of ​​a room. Bridge arm lamps are mostly used for reading or could be placed by a desk.

Add Floor Lamps To Your Décor

The best way to buy a floor lamps is to pick the use of the lamp, then choose the color, style and design of the glass shade and metal base to fit your décor.

Floor lamps are available in many styles and themes to complement your décor.

Along the typical Tiffany style designs, floor lamps follow other patterns and designs that emerged through the Twentieth century. These touched on many natural motifs. The shades come in many styles; the most popular is Tiffany stained glass for the traditional touch. Mission, Rustic Lodge, and Country styles compliment the trendy country or cabin look.

Versatility is the hallmark of the floor lamp. It is reliably inexpensive and a type lighting that is largely ignored. Floor lamps are available in many styles and themes to complement or accent your décor. Stained glass makes a smashing accent in any room.

Outdoor Lighting – Lighten Up Your Home

The benefits of outdoor lighting systems offer increased lighting for safety and security, as well as adding beauty and elegance. It is also a great way to make use of your garden after dark, and highlights your landscaped spots.

There are different kinds of lighting called task lighting, and accent lighting. Task lighting is more inclined towards practicality. It may be used to light your landscape to help you move safely around, when preparing food, or as a safety measure to view level changes and stairs.

Accent lighting on the other hand, highlights your favorite landscape spaces such as sculptures and trees, while drawing attention away from something like a garden shed.

Solar power and electricity are the two power sources you can consider for outdoor lighting. Undoubtedly, solar energy is better for the environment since it is a renewable resource. The solar energy charges the lights during the day, which can then be used after sunset. Furthermore, the fact that there are no ugly looking cables around, make them a popular option. The disadvantage though, is that they are not as bright as electric light; therefore they can not be utilized as spotlights or in places that tend to receive little sunlight.

Electric lighting on the other hand, requires wiring and cables which you can actually install yourself. If you choose a 12V transformer, it must be used for electric lights as it acts as a power board. It is plugged into the power point and the lights are plugged into it.

There are two types of outdoor lighting options which are Halogen and Light Emitting Diode (LED). Halogen lights are meant to be used as landscape lights. However, the yellow light that they produce uses much more energy than LED lights, and they become very hot to touch. LED's emit a purer white light which in fact helps portray the actual color of the landscape. Furthermore, they are a lot cheaper and do not get hot.

There are a variety of creative lighting designs to have you spoiled for choice. Some of the main ones include uplighting, which directs the light upwards to highlight a feature and to some extra light up a bit of the surrounding areas.

Spotlights are bright lights aimed at one particular feature, which could be a sculpture, water feature or tree. Downlights are positioned at a high level and focus downwards. Path lights are mainly used as a safety and security measure, and should be placed at intervals along the pathway.

Surface lights are those that are built into walls, or used to highlight the deck and step surfaces. They assist visibility and security to some extent. Wall lightings are flat panels that are built into the wall which can light up any features on the wall, as well as highlight your boundary, giving added security.

So now there should be no more stumbling around because it's too dark to see, and you can now entertain family and friends in your backyard, even after it gets dark.

Things to Do When You Travel to the Land Down Under

Surely, Australia is the smallest continent and can be described by many other superlatives. It is known as the flattest contributor as well as the driest occupied continent. To counter these implausible descriptions, this country and continent is the home of the world's largest coral reef, that is, the Great Barrier Reef. It is also where Mount Augustus can be found, which is known to be the world's largest monolith.

Together with this country's rich history is their rich natural resources. When Australia is mentioned, we immediately think of cute marsupials such as koalas and kangaroos. But more than that, its alpine heaths, tropical rainforests, and marine life boast of a large biodiversity. In fact, it has the largest number of reptiles of any country, with 755 species.

It is indeed a shame if you visit the country and not experience its natural wonders. Here are just a few of the things that you can do to experience Australia's mega biodiversity:

1. Be in the company of the ever lovable koalas. As a child, you certainly have a favorite teddy bear. You choose to keep it even though it is already old and dirty. Why not live again those sweet childhood memories by being in the company of live teddy bears, which are, the koalas. You can go to Kangaroo Island to meet these cute creatures. In this place, you will also meet other lovable animals such as sea lions, wallabies, platypus, and bandicoots.

2. Swim with the world's biggest fish. Many people are scared at the mere mention of the word whale shark, which is known as the world's biggest fish. If you are one of these people, shake off your fear as whale sharks are actually gentle underwater giants. You can do this by swimming with them on Ningaloo Reef.

3. Visit at least one national park. A nature trip in the land down under will not be complete if you do not visit at least one of its natural parks. One good example is the Kakadu National Park where you can have a first-hand experience of the beauty of the country's rainforest. This place is also the right place to go if you want to have a first-hand look at the Aboriginal cultural artifacts.

4. Experience the underwater spectacle of the Great Barrier Reef. Australia's natural wonder will not be the same without the famous Great Barrier Reef, and you just can not afford to miss and experience the spectacle it brings, especially if you are a lover of marine life.

If you are a person who just loves to travel, there are indeed lots of reasons why you should get yourself an Australian tourist visa. Along its natural wonders, Australia also boasts of vibrant and classy capital cities, which include:

1. Sydney, NSW. This city is a combination of urban lifestyle and natural wonder. It is where the world renovated Opera House is located and it is filled with world-class shopping centers. In Sydney, you can also go kayaking under the Harbor Bridge.

2. Melbourne, Victoria. The city prides of known shopping precincts, sophisticated restaurants, and a flourishing art scene.

3. Brisbane, Queensland. It is a melting pot of the old and new. In this city, you will find gardens, sandstone cathedrals, and skyscrapers all together. Some of the activities that you can do include riding a bike through the City Botanic Gardens and exploring urban villages.

4. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory. The capital city of Australia, Canberra is the place where you can find more about the country's sport heroes by going to the National Institute of Sport and Science, or explore its political history at Old Parliament House.

Pump and Dump Email Scams – Should You be Worried?

A “Pump and Dump” is the name given to a email scam where spammers will send out spam email about a company, with the aim of inflating interest and price of a companies stock or shares.

The idea is that the scammer will first buy a large number of shares in a low-valued company. The company will often be a failing company with no chance of making a good return for the share price.

Once the scammer has a large holding in the company they will send out millions of spam emails with a hot tip about the company – to show that the share price is going to shoot through the roof in the next couple of weeks and we should all rush out and buy the shares now whilst the price is so low.

Once the interest in the shares has been raised but before the scam is realised, the scammer will sell the shares he has pre-purchased for a massive profit, leaving the people who have been duped with worthless shares when the price crashes.

These scams often operate without any knowledge of the company who the shares are being targeted… that is until they realise their share price is soaring!

So next time you receive an odd email message from someone you don’t know, offering you a tip on a share, you know what it is!

This is a relatively new type of spam email, and one that is quite difficult to trace back to the scammer. Because there is no direct product for sale, the spammer does not need to leave a website address or phone number. The emails are often sent out from a army of zombie PC’s – computers that have been hijacked by the spammers, leaving no trace back to the original sender.

Lean Consulting – How It Can Help Your Business

If you feel that your company is not running at optimum efficiency then you have to bring in the experts, especially from a lean consulting firm, who can point you out in the right direction. There are many interesting management practices in use these days. Once implemented correctly they will help eliminate waste and increase productivity. However, it takes a lot of skill and knowledge to use these practices correctly.

It is perfectly understandable that you do not have the time or knowledge to move your business in the right direction, especially if you are involved in the day to day running of the business. Beside, you might have become used to doing things in a particular way even though it might not be the most efficient way. If you bring in a Lean consulting firm then it will analyze the various processes involved in getting your product across to the customer and will suggest better ways of getting them done. The consulting firm will also help you come up with a strategic plan for the future after taking your company's business environment and capabilities into account.

Many companies find it increasingly difficult to comply with government regulations while still maintaining profitability. At the same time, there are always competitors snapping at their heels. If this is the position that your company is facing then you certainly need to start applying sophisticated management practices to your company's style of operating.

Once you make changes that have been proposed by a Lean consulting company you will see significant changes in performance. You will be able to achieve increased productivity at lower costs and your employees will also feel a lot more motivated to work than before since many unnecessary processes will be eliminated. There will also be improved safety at the workplace. If you are able to retain employees by offering them a better workplace and also be increasing their motivation levels then you will be able to get better work done by them.

A very good Lean consulting firm will spend sufficient time with your organization in order to understand various processes better. It will also try to understand what your employees' capabilities and expectations are. As a matter of fact, the various solutions that it proposes will come from your management and workers teams itself. Your business will make remarkable progress and you will be able to move far ahead of your competitors.

Three Easy DIY Tasks to Add Value to Your Home

The DIY industry has long been popular in the UK and it's a great way to add a little extra value to your home. Whether you're planning on selling, or just looking to add a little luxury to your property, investing some time in a DIY project can be well worth the effort. Some popular projects include:

Renewing Your Bathroom

Spending a little time renewing your bathroom can make for a fun and potentially easy task. The bathroom tends to be one of the smaller rooms in the house, so it makes for a more manageable DIY project, and there are a number of quick jobs you can do. Replacing taps or showerheads, installing new towel rails and replacing old cabinets are all reliably easy tasks. Repaining old paintwork and cleaning tiles and grouting can also help improve the overall look. If you're looking for a larger project retiling / tiling walls or floors can make a large impact and can be completed over a weekend.

A Lick of New Paint

For many, the thought of repainting fills them with dread, but you do not need to make a major project of it. Ignoring the walls for the moment, repainting woodwork around the house can help overall looks immensely, touching up the skirting and removing and repainting flaking paintwork on windows. Repaining flaking paintwork on exterior woodwork is also worth spending a little time on, as it helps maintain the condition of your house. When it comes to the walls, it's worth breaking the job down into smaller projects, tackling a room at a time and taking the time to do it right the first time.

A Little Landscaping in the Front Garden

Taking a weekend to improve the looks of any space out front really adds to the first impression of the house, improving both its value and providing an added level of satisfaction every time you approach the front door. Doing a little weeding, brushing out, putting in a couple of new potted plants and repainting the front door are all easy tasks. If you have grass out the front of the house taking the time to mow the lawn and re-seed any bald patches can make the difference, it's also worth taking the time to edge the lawn and give it a neat finish.

Investing a little time in your home really does pay off in the long term and, by doing little DIY projects often, it does not feel like a chore either!

Learn to Play Craps – Tips and Strategies – Bridge Or Heel the Don’t Pass Bet?

Be smart, play smart, and learn how to play craps the right way!

If the payoff for a Don’t Pass Odds bet equals the amount of the Flat bet, then the Odds bet is bridged. The part of your Odds bet that’s equal to the Flat bet is placed directly next to the Flat bet. Then, the rest of the Odds bet is placed on top “bridging” them. For example, suppose you make a $5 Don’t Pass bet and the shooter rolls a point of 8. Knowing the true odds for the 8 are 6:5 (i.e., six ways to make a 7, and five ways to make an 8), you then lay $6 in Odds with the hope of winning $5. In this example, if you win the $6 Odds bet, you win $5, which exactly equals the amount you win with your $5 Flat bet (i.e., your $5 flat bet is even money, which means you win $5). Therefore, since your Flat bet and Odds bet win the same amount (i.e., $5 each), you bridge your $6 Odds bet by placing a $5 chip directly next to your $5 Flat bet, and then placing the $1 chip so it bridges the two $5 chips.

If the payoff for a Don’t Pass Odds bet doesn’t equal the amount of the Flat bet, then the Odds bet is heeled. This means you place the bottom chip of your Odds bet chip stack directly next to your Flat bet. Then, place all remaining Odds bet chips on top of that single chip but offset and leaning on that bottom chip (i.e., your Odds bet chip stack is crooked because it’s leaning on the bottom chip).

Confused? That’s okay, don’t get nervous. The dealer is always willing to help if you forget. After a couple of times, it all makes sense. It won’t take long before you’re a pro. If you’re not sure what to do the first time you try it, simply tell the dealer, “I want to lay some Odds but I don’t know if it should be bridged or heeled.” The dealer asks, “How much do you want to lay?” Suppose you say, “Fifteen dollars to win ten.” The dealer asks you to drop your chips on the table (dealers aren’t allowed to take anything, especially chips, directly from a player), and then he properly heels or bridges them based on the amount of your Flat bet. You’ll quickly get the hang of it. Just don’t be afraid to ask the dealer questions. His job is not only to deal, but also to be friendly and help the players.

Now you know! Remember, learn how to play craps the right way.