How Trampolines Work – Physics At Play

If you were to sit your kids down at the kitchen table and tell them that it was time for a physics lesson, they’d probably start displaying signs of torture and agony that only captive souls could rival. However, if you suggested that they go outside and play on their brand new backyard trampoline for a while, they’d probably be gone before you even got the entire sentence out of your mouth. What your kids don’t know is that it’s the boring topic of physics that makes their favorite playtime activity a reality. If you’re interested in learning more about how the motion all the trampoline parts works together to provide this fun experience, here are some facts to get you started.

According to the physicists and engineers that have analyzed the motion of the trampoline during its long and happy existence, there are actually several different forces that create the rebounding motion of the jump: the weight of the jumper to push the trampoline mat down in the initial moments of the jump, the nylon and spring that move to return the trampoline mat to its unusual position after every bounce, and the impulse or driving force that the jumper creates while jumping in a repeated fashion.

Although you might not be able to get a couple of five and six year olds to sit still long enough to consider a physics equation, it’s important to note that the entire process that occurs when you’re jumping on a trampoline mat can be related in a simply mathematical statement: Total E = KE + PE. Unraveled, this equation basically states that when you are jumping on a trampoline you sacrifice some kinetic energy (KE) while gathering potential energy (PE). As you jump harder and more rapidly, you increase all three types of energy for the forces involved. Even though jumping harder is actually more work, it’s also more fun, which is the reason trampoline are recommended as cardio and strength-training tools.

Although it’s muscularly the equivalent of going out for a run, or jumping rope very quickly (two things that athletes do during training all the time) you’ll never have to convince your kids to participate in this exercise. Also, jumping on a trampoline mat is much easier on your hips, knees and ankles, so it’s often recommended for people that wouldn’t be able to even walk on a treadmill or go for a hike.

Carpet Cleaning – Tips on How to Get Your Carpet Spotless Clean

It is always good to remember that if you want something to be done right, then you have to use the right methods and techniques. The same applies to carpet cleaning too; only if you choose the right method, will you be able to get your carpet or rug spotlessly clean and dust-free.

To make your carpet adorn a brand-new look, it is important to choose a cleaning technique that suits the fabric as well as the type of fibers that are used in your carpet or rug. You can either opt for do-it-yourself methods or seek the help of professional cleaners. While the former is cheap but less efficient, the latter is expensive but promises you a clean and fresh-smelling carpet.

Steam cleaning is the preferred method if your rug or carpet is heavily soiled with dust as well as stains. Only cleaning with steam will give you deep cleaning that will be necessary to take out all the stains. But this method cannot be done all by you and requires the hands of an expert carpet technician. Also, you can use steam cleaning for your carpets only once in a year. And remember the golden rule; use steam and not boiling water. The latter will dislodge the glue that binds the carpet fibers together and spoil it irrevocably.

There are many carpet cleaning kits available in the market today. Make sure you get one only after reading the instructions carefully and understanding if it suits your rug type. You need to vacuum clean and rake the carpet first to remove loose dust and dirt before cleaning the carpet with any product. An enzyme-buffer system is used to remove the oily stains and then a non-residue shampoo is used to thoroughly clean the carpet. After shampooing the carpet well, clean it thoroughly with running water and then dry it out. You can either air dry it or vacuum dry it; wait for a day and then vacuum clean the rug once again to ensure that any remaining dust is removed. This method can be used frequently like every three months which will help keep your carpet fresh, clean and stain-free.

An important thing to take care is to regularly vacuum clean your rug every alternate day or at least every week so that dust does not get settled and ruin the carpet. Dry carpet cleaning is another method that you could consider especially during winter when it may take ages to get it dry. The bonnet method is a great technique; in this a cleaning product mixed with carbonated water is sprayed on the carpet and then a buffer is used to brush the rug using a circular motion. This lifts out the dust particles and helps to clean out the rug. The only disadvantage is that this process is quite tedious and tends to take an awful long time to complete. So go ahead and choose your method of choice and keep your carpet clean and fresh always.

9 Wet Carpet Cleaning Myths

Water has damaged your carpets. Maybe you had a toilet leak, maybe your water heater burst, maybe your kid left the faucet running in the sink for hours.

What should you do to dry your wet carpet to minimize damage to your carpet and pad?

First of all, there is some general information about carpets you should know that applies to all the myths .

General Information about Water and Carpets

Residential carpet usually has a pad underneath it. The pad can be anywhere from 1/4 inch to almost an inch thick. The pad provides cushioning and gives your carpet that comfortable, soft feel when you walk on it.

Commercial carpet in offices and stores generally doesn’t have pad underneath it.

Carpet pad absorbs water like a sponge: The problem with pad under a carpet is that it is a sponge and can hold many times it’s own weight in water.

Pad is designed to cushion your feet, so it is spongy by nature and will soak up water like the cleaning sponge in your kitchen sink.

Carpet doesn’t stop or hold much water:

Although your carpet may feel very solid under your feet, it offers very little resistance to water passing through it.

Carpet is actually like a sieve to water. A typical carpet will not hold more than a few ounces of water per square foot of carpet before it is saturated. After these initial few ounces of water have entered the carpet, any further water filters straight through the carpet and into the pad.

Water likes to travel:Water doesn’t stay put, it is always on the move. The rule to remember is “Wet goes to Dry”. Water will automatically move towards a dry building material.

Water at the center of a room will flow through the carpet and across the pad to the walls. It will migrate to the edges of the room in a matter of minutes or hours depending on how much water was spilled.

When you touch the carpet at the edge of the room, it may not even feel damp, but the pad could be saturated. This can be seen using an infrared camera. An infrared (or Thermal Imaging) camera is useful in finding the real area that the water has damaged, even if you can’t see or feel it.

In general I would say that the actual wet area in any flood (found with professional water damage meters) is about twice the size of what the home owner reports.

An infrared camera will show how water travels under the carpet through the pad. Even in a ‘small’ flood, water can migrate through walls and end up 2 rooms away within 12 hours.

Bearing the information above in mind, here are some common myths about wet carpets and how to dry wet carpets

Myth #1. The carpet will dry by itself

This is actually true, just like it is true that you could win the lottery with one ticket.

Yes, the carpet will eventually dry by itself. However, will it smell bad or have mold on it by the time it is dry? What other damage will occur while the carpet dries by itself?

Unless you live in someplace like Arizona or the desert where you have high temperature and low humidity, there is VERY little chance that the carpet and pad will dry before mold starts growing or bacteria start creating that wet carpet, damp smell. Typically you have about 72 hours to dry wet building materials before they start growing mold.

Even if the carpet itself dries, does that mean the pad is dry? There is very little chance that the pad is dry. The pad holds more moisture than carpet and is prevented from easily releasing the moisture due to the carpet above it and the sub-floor below it. So even if your carpet is dry, the pad is probably not dry.

Which brings us to another point. What about the wet sub-floor? Remember that carpet is like a sieve, and the carpet will pass water down to the pad very quickly. A saturated pad can then release water into the sub-floor.

Drying Sub-floors

Sub-floors are usually either wood or concrete.

Concrete sub floors are sponges too, except they are very slow sponges. They absorb water surprisingly quickly, but release it very slowly. So even if the carpet and pad are dried quickly, the concrete sub-floor could still release moisture for weeks.

Wood sub-floors hold water too. If they’re made of chip-board/particle board/press-board (small chips of wood held together with glue) and they are wet for more than a few hours they absorb water, expand, and lose their structural integrity.

When wet particle board dries it has almost no strength and you will find yourself stepping through your floor if you’re not careful.

Plywood or OSB (Oriented Strand Board) are much more hardy choices for a sub-floor than particle board. If they get wet, you can dry them, as long as they haven’t been sitting wet for long enough to warp. This falls loosely under the 72 hour rule. Another concern is dry rot which is a bacterial deterioration that takes 21 days to manifest at lower moisture levels.

Determining whether the sub-floor is wet or not can only reliably be done with a penetrating moisture meter. Different building materials have different acceptable levels of moisture, so you use the meter to tell you if the material is acceptably dry or not.

Depending on the region you live in, plywood is dry at around 20% Equivalent Moisture Content (EMC). In as little as 4 days, mold can start growing on wet plywood if not dried correctly.

So, we know that the carpet and pad are unlikely to dry quickly enough by themselves. But even if they did, is that all you have to concern yourself with when your carpets are wet? No, it’s not.

Like I said, WET goes to DRY. What this means is the water keeps spreading outwards from the source.

On one flooded carpet job we did, the carpet first got wet about 12 hours before we arrived. During that time the home owner used her wet vac to suck up as much water as possible from the wet carpet – about 100 gallons.

She just wanted us to dry her carpets. However, using the infrared camera and moisture meters, we found that her walls were wet, in some places to almost 12″ above the carpet.

Wet drywall, is that a problem?

The problem with wet drywall is the usual 72 hour problem.

In as little as 72 hours mold can start growing on that wet dry wall. Mold especially likes dark, warm places with no airflow. That describes the wall cavity – the perfect place for mold to grow.

So that’s the problem – wet carpet creates wet drywall which can create mold. Below is a picture of a wall after water had been standing for a long time.

To summarize. Yes, the carpet will eventually dry by itself. But you’ll more than likely have mold and smells by the time it is dry, and then you’ll be ripping walls and carpet out to fix the problem

Myth #2. You have to remove the wet pad underneath your carpet

There is a myth that you can’t remove water from a wet pad, even with commercial extraction equipment. People who say this are talking about the standard carpet cleaning ‘wand’ shown on the right. It is what is commonly used to clean carpets. It sprays hot water onto the carpet and then sucks it back up again.

The wand is designed to pull water out of the carpet fibers, not the pad and it does a good job at that. So if you have water damage on commercial carpet without a pad, the wand is a good tool to use.

However, on residential carpet with a pad, it extracts almost none of the water from the pad.

So how do you get water out of the pad so you don’t have to remove and discard the pad?

There are a number of new commercial extraction tools that will remove water from the pad. Our favorite is the FlashXtractor. It is a wonderful piece of equipment, probably my favorite tool. (We have no affiliation with the makers of this tool, and receive no compensation for mentioning it)

The FlashXtractor will pull buckets of water out a carpet that has been wand extracted to death!

Before tools like the FlashXtractor came out, there was a technique called “floating the carpet” which was used to dry carpet and pad due to the poor job the wand did of extracting water from the pad.

To float a carpet, you pull up a corner of the carpet and stick an air mover or carpet fan under the carpet to blow air under the carpet and onto the pad. While this method still works it is slower, less effective, and often stretches the carpet so that it doesn’t fit properly when restretched.

Floating the carpet is an old school technique that is unnecessary if you have the right tools, ie a deep extraction tool such as the FlashXtractor.

To complicate matters, bear this in mind. While you can dry wet pad, it doesn’t always mean you should.

If you have contaminated water in the pad you can dry it, but you will be leaving at least some contamination in the pad and over time, it will start to stink and rot. In contaminated water situations you will have to remove the pad because you can’t effectively decontaminate it while it is underneath the carpet. In the water restoration industry, contaminated water is called Category 2 (gray water) or Category 3 (black water).

Myth #3. You can’t dry a wet pad under a carpet

The truth to this myth is the same as for the question above. Basically, you can dry a wet pad, even without floating that carpet, but that doesn’t mean you always should. See the answer above for details.

Myth #4. You have to lift the carpet and ‘float’ it using blowers

The answer to this question is in the answer to question 2 above. To summarize, you don’t have to float carpet if you have a deep extraction tool and know how to use it.

Myth #5. You have to remove and discard wet carpet.


If you have a black water situation (Category 3 water – contaminated water such as sewage, toilet leak or rising ground water), according to the industry standard IICRC S500, you have to discard the carpet. I believe this is because there is no EPA registered disinfectant for carpet.

However, if you have Category 2 water (gray water such as washing machine waste water, shower runoff,etc) you have to discard the pad, but you can clean the carpet and keep it.

Category 1 water (clean water – toilet supply line, fridge ice maker, etc), and it hasn’t been sitting for more than 48 hours, then you can extract the water and keep the carpet and pad.

The other reason water damage restoration technicians sometimes believe they should discard wet carpet is because the backing of the carpet will de-laminate when it is dried. The backing is the lattice webbing on the back of the carpet that holds the carpet fibers together. It is glued on. If it gets wet and stays wet for a long time it can separate from the carpet fibers and start to disintegrate.

How long is a long time? It’s hard to predict – depends on the carpet, the temperature, how wet it was, etc. Normally by the time the carpet de-laminates you’ve got a black water situation anyway, so the carpet has to go.

Myth #6. Professional Carpet Cleaning will dry your carpet and pad

No. Not unless they use a deep extraction tool that is designed specifically to remove water from the pad. A regular carpet cleaning wand will not remove significant water from the carpet pad.

Myth #7. To remove the wet carpet smell, you should have it professionally cleaned.

Yes, with a ‘mostly’ attached to it. The carpet cleaning machines and methods available to most home owners aren’t very effective. Compared to commercial carpet cleaning equipment, the carpet cleaning machines you rent from the local supermarket are like a moped is to a Harley. They’re the same thing, but not really.

Getting anything other than a light smell out of a carpet requires the high pressure and suction of a commercial machine. It also requires the expertise of a trained and experienced carpet cleaner. There are many causes and solutions to different smells in a carpet and knowing what to do and when to it requires training and experience.

If baking soda and vacuuming don’t work, your best bet is to call an trained and experienced carpet cleaner, preferably one that is also an IICRC certified Odor Control Technician.

Myth #8. If you dry a flooded carpet, you will not get a moldy wet carpet smell

Depends. If a carpet is dried quickly and properly there will be no smell. In fact, if anything, there will be less smell because the carpet has effectively been cleaned.

If the carpet and pad are not dried quickly and properly you will probably have a problem with lingering musky smells and mold.

See myth #2 for more details.

Myth #9. You have to use a truck mount carpet extractor to dry or clean a carpet properly

False. This is an ongoing debate that I don’t think will ever be resolved completely. Portable carpet cleaning machines have the advantage of short hose runs while truck mounts have the advantage of high power.

What it comes down to is really the technician holding the wand. A good technician on a bad machine will get a better result than a bad technician on a good machine.


If you’ve had more than a few gallons of water spilled on your carpet, you’re better off calling a professional water damage company to properly dry your home if you can afford it, or if you have insurance. As you leaned above, the problem is that if the carpets and walls aren’t dried quickly you could face a mold situation which is much more expensive to fix than drying the carpets.

Oriental Rug And Carpet Cleaning Without Vacuums – It’s A "Green" Sweep For Lovers Of The Art Form

Do you love your oriental rugs and carpets? If you say yes, then more likely than not, you hope to extend their beauty and useful lives as far into the future as possible.

After all, you’ve made a significant financial investment in a traditional hand-loomed original that fits your unique personality and lifestyle, or you’ve inherited one or more and there exists a deep and abiding emotional attachment. Either way, you probably feel that good care of an artful object matters and that as a good steward of the rug-making craft you are doing right by your carpets to vacuum them regularly.

If so, you may be surprised by what I have to tell you, which is that your housekeeping effort is probably accelerating the demise of your rugs and carpets, generating more dust in the house and costing you more money than you need to spend on upkeep. There is a better method. It’s effective. It’s gentle. And, it’s respectful of our shared resources.

All conservators know that objects deteriorate when subjected to use, atmospheric conditions, insects, microorganisms and the like. The process of deterioration is especially acute in objects, such as textiles, produced from animal and vegetal fibers. As natural fibers age, they become increasingly dry and brittle. When subjected to stress, such as abrasion, wool, silk and cotton fibers break. Fresher fibers, like those found in new carpets, are more resilient and can better withstand abrasive action than old fibers, but all fibers begin to break down when assaulted continuously by the likes of foot traffic, or worse — the modern household vacuum cleaner.

The truth is that modern vacuums, chiefly those with powerful rotating brushes, harm all oriental rugs and carpets, but especially old and antique specimens whose wool fibers tend to be dry and brittle. Pushing and pulling an upright vacuum or canister vacuum wand across a carpet with high speed brushes turning literally breaks off minutely fractional amounts of wool fiber together with the other stuff the brushes are meant to dislodge. The bottom line? Years of useful life are being sucked from your carpet into the vacuum bag or canister. There’s a better way. I promise.

Vacuum cleaners also cause structural damage to rugs and carpets. Their powerful rotating brushes “grab” and tear at fringe and can even rip off critical side selvedge, resulting in the need for expensive restoration.

Too, vacuums dust up household air. Even vacuums equipped with HEPA filters are only as good as the dust particles they trap inside the vacuum. I have been around a significant number of vacuums, but I haven’t seen one whose rotating brushes feed into the vacuum 100% of the fiber, dust, lint and other allergy-feeding rubbish they dislodge. What goes up is breathed in before it settles down.

Yes, the brushes, on some models, can be disengaged. Some vacuums automatically adjust for pile height, or can be adjusted manually to minimize and even eliminate aggressive sweeping action, but pushing and pulling a vacuum in suction-only mode is a chore over thick, plush wool pile and it, too, is invasive.

Let’s face it. Vacuums are cumbersome in use and in storage. They’re destructive. And, they consume electricity.

If you cherish your carpets, vacuum them rarely, perhaps no more than once a month. Then, after two to five years, depending on use and traffic patterns, have a true oriental rug cleaning specialist give your rug for a thorough restorative cleaning. In between the monthly vacuuming regimen, pick up dust and dirt using the method I recommend to all my clients. It will minimize damage to your precious rugs and carpets, reduce the level of microscopic particles generated by vacuuming and save time and electricity; plus, my recommended method is quiet, lightweight, easily stored in a small closet and is less cumbersome than a standard household vacuum.

Sometimes the best solutions to problems are the simplest ones. Certainly this is true regarding the routine light cleaning of oriental rugs and carpets. The simple solution to effective carpet care is the traditional hand-powered, mechanically driven carpet sweeper. Invented in 1876 by Melville Bissell, the manual carpet sweeper is still the most efficient, least invasive, and less costly approach to daily maintenance of oriental rugs and carpets. I insist that my clients get into the habit of using one on carpets they purchase from me.

Essentially, the sweeper is a small dust box on wheels connected to a rotating brush. When the turning brush rubs against the carpet fibers, an electrical charge builds up and it literally pulls much loose material into the sweeper. The turning brush sweeps up heavier material, like sand. The critical difference between the brush that turns by hand power and the brush of the power vacuum is velocity and torque.

Use the traditional hand-held carpet sweeper with electrostatic action and see how it literally picks up dust, pet hair and sand and deposits them with ease into its small, easy to empty bin. It will take you less time to sweep than to vacuum and you will be amazed by the results, as I was when I first experienced the efficacy of the carpet sweeper on surface dust and dirt and realized the added benefits of a low impact, non-electrical approach to oriental carpet care.

Your handmade carpets are more than decorative objects to be used up and cast off. They belong to the ancient traditions of culturally diverse ethnic groups who, in part, express their unique human qualities through their textile objects. Love your carpets and respect their makers by giving better carpet care with and for less. Leave your vacuum in the closet and reach for the traditional carpet sweeper the next time your fine orientals need grooming. It’s a good thing you can do for yourself, your carpets and your local and global neighbors.

Carp Bait Pellets And Their Stimulating Recipes And Most Effective Applications!

Pellets are amazingly successful carp baits and the diversity and potential uses of them are very exciting! Pellets range from pet and animal and fish feeds to proprietary carp pellets. They can differ greatly from boilies and from other baits such as particle and seed baits because their modes of action and soluble characteristics can be so uniquely powerful. Pellets can be formulated especially for carp and be composed of specific ingredients, additives, enhancers, colours, flavours, enhancers and so on to specifically improve numbers of bites when used in fishing for carp and improving readymade pellets and being able to make homemade pellets are a great competitive edges indeed!

Pellets may range for example from the following: halibut, trout, salmon, and corn steep liquor pellets etc. Salmon fry crumb is a very popular product applied in carp fishing too. Pellets such as these catch loads of carp just used as free baits in volumes and as hook baits. They all can be sourced in a range of sizes which is a great advantage. The carp bait industry has now such a diversity of pellets designed specifically for carp dietary requirements and this is important as these improve carp health and condition and immunity all year round and are very digestible so you can get more bites using them.

Pellets are usually cylinder shaped but they can be other shapes. Ellipse shaped carp pellets are especially attractive because when disturbed by feeding fish they can raise and flutter off the lake bed and stimulate fish more. Carp pellets made using a high percentage of very buoyant ingredients are excellent for warier fish as these can hover in the water at different depths and make it more difficult for carp to distinguish which baits are attached to a hook.

Pellets are most commonly based on a carbohydrate binder. This makes them more cost effective than many protein rich baits; however these often benefit from further enhancement. Cereal and grain based pellets are great carriers for flavours for instance which increase attraction and they can also be dyed bright colours using edible dyes to stimulate sight feeding more. Since these carbohydrate binders teamed with other ingredients such as fish meals are fairly soluble and break down relatively easily they can be exploited in many ways.

For instance you can make a mixture of many different pellets so you have baits that break down over different time spans so prolonging attraction and stimulatory impacts of soluble substances in your swim. Also pellets can have very different characteristics nutritionally and functionally and can be exploited in ground up powder form in endless ways. Many people have used ground up trout pellets for instance as a beginner base for boilie making. These work well and are nutritionally stimulating; however trout pellets are designed to put weight on farmed trout for profit and are not optimised for feed triggering.

Many anglers think that just using salmon or trout pellets dry straight from the bag is ideal and of course this format is very convenient and easy to use. However you are not going to get most bites possible by using a single form of pellet like this. In my experience pellets work best when you have a mixture of pellet types, shapes and other formats and characteristics that incite far more intensive and prolonged feeding.

For instance I might fish a PVA bag filled with trout pellets in spring using boilies on my rigs, and this catches plenty of fish, but this can be improved upon massively! I might used chopped up or shattered 21 millimeter halibut pellets in big PVA bags and use a homemade pellet-based boilie that is not made a round shape but is a rectangular or other angular shape to match the irregular shapes of the broken up free baits.

Carp can become wary of one type of pellet if used very frequently. Of course using mixtures of type of pellets both as loose feed and as part of your hook bait approach makes it difficult for fish to avoid your hook baits. Hemp pellets are very useful for forming a fine carpet of bait that forms a fine sediment layer on the bottom which easily clouds up and hangs in the water very attractively. The rate a pellet dissolves often depends upon the percentage of soluble components used, the texture of the pellets, the binders used, level of oils used and way pellets are extruded under pressure and heated to make them bind.

Adding a layer of oils to pellets can not only improve attraction and nutritional content by prolong break down so they dissolve more slowly. This is very useful in summer and warmer water temperatures above around 15 degrees Celsius for example when high carp metabolism requires more energy and when digestive enzymes can break down oils best in to energy and for nutrition etc.

You can make pellets break down faster by simply soaking them in water for a short period of time. One simple method of making paste is simply to soak pellets in water for anything from a few hours to 24 hours depending upon the pellets being used and then squeezing the wet pellets together. To do this best you need to test small batches and record your results and times but once refined this is a very good fast way to make basic pastes for many applications. This type of paste can be improved in a vast number of ways to achieve more bites including using a percentage of more protein-rich and betaine rich pellets alongside trout pellets for instance.

When actually fishing and camping on the bank of a lake, making soluble paste fast can be a challenge if time is vitally important. Scalding pellets using boiling water is just one method and of course the boiling water will make the binders in the pellets bind better. The ways you can experiment with pellets is endless. This is particularly so when you are adapting uses and applications of pellets for different conditions, times of year and temperatures and depths etc. For instance using a mixture of corn steep liquor pellets and hemp pellets in winter exploits the fact that these pellets do not have the kinds of oil contents that trout and salmon and halibut pellets often have.

These types of ‘salmonid’ pellets often contain a high level of oils because not only are they attractive and stimulate feeding, but they are there to supply the high energy needs of these fish. But fish such as trout, salmon and halibut have a higher energy requirement than carp. Carp certainly do not require high oil levels outside of optimum water temperatures from around 12 to 15 degrees Celsius plus. In fact using high oil pellets in low water conditions is detrimental as these congeal and lock up the soluble components of baits that are vital to be released to actually attract fish to the baits.

You need to remember that oily pellets are not suitable for low temperatures. They are simply not the best option because they will slow down fish metabolism as carp enzymes will struggle to break down such bulk oils. Not only does this slow down fish activity but of course this is not good because it can vastly reduce fish feeding and lower your chances of getting the most bites possible. For these kinds of reasons I do not use oily salmon, trout and halibut pellets in low water temperatures. Sure you might catch some fish but nowhere near as many as if you have specifically chosen bait which is optimised for low water conditions.

Of course the premium grade winterized trout pellets etc which are lower protein, very low oil and optimised for digestion containing wheat germ and other factors to improve digestion are far more ideal for winter and spring fishing.

The number of carp pellets you can use in low temperatures and all year round is simply staggering. When pellets have been made specifically for carp dietary requirements they tend not to be very oily at all reflecting the fact that carp metabolism is not as high as that of most sea fish and trout and salmon for example.

Many carp pellets are designed to deliver optimum nutritional levels in digestible forms. Salmon, trout and halibut pellets often contain a level of predigested or enzyme-treated fish proteins in the fish meals used and this reflects that these fish have a higher requirement for protein in the diet than that of carp. Of course predigested and enzyme-treated additives are beneficial because of their rich amino acid profiles that easily become solution, so delivering a stimulatory concentration of free amino acids into the water so triggering fish feeding. Carp pellets have this kind of effect and impacts but these can differ in the degree of impacts they have on fish senses and the degree of digestibility and nutritional profiles they offer.

Some carp pellets are claimed to be bloodworm pellets for instance and of course the stimulatory profile of bloodworm is very well proven in carp fishing. But some carp pellets are simply cheap carbohydrate or fish type pellets soaked or coated in a layer of liquid blood worm. You need to beware that you get what you pay for and the best pellets are actually composed of the real protein-rich substance right through the bait. For instance the CC Moore bloodworm pellets are composed of a high percentage of real bloodworm for maximum feed-triggering impacts!

Pellets are very useful as free baits on their own, or used in ground bait mixtures for instance. You can mix them up, break them up use them alone or with particle baits such as seeds, beans, pulses, grains and cereals etc. you can use very fine pellets that dissolve very fast in an hour teamed with pellets that may take 4 hour or much longer. The choice depends upon the impacts you want to deliver to your fish and the applications you are using.

In summer pellets break down fastest so why not choose them specifically and use them with this effect in mind for maximum impacts on fish senses!

If you want a layer of fine bait on the bottom then fast dissolving pellets are great. If you want to spod baits out that dissolve fast and cloud the water then choose very soluble and fine pellets suitable for this effect. If you want fish to feed for very prolonged periods and keep them in a swim but not satisfied choose pellets that are going to break down but release attractors into the water and into bottom sediment on the lake bed to keep fish rooting around for prolonged periods.

Hemp pellets and more buoyant pellets such as CC Moore Milkimin pellets are great. Some of their pellets contain substances which have a cumulative impact on fish feeding so that the more that is repeatedly consumed encourages even more repetitive feeding. The betaine HNV and Cantax Red type pellets are just a couple of great examples.

Pellets can be treated in a vast array of ways to improve feed-triggering effects and to boost solubility and intensity of impacts upon carp receptors and internally on many levels. Many anglers overlook using essential oils and additional flavours with dry pellets as well as additional bulk oils and liquid foods. When treating pellets with liquids heating the liquids helps their penetration into the baits. Pellets can be treated with any powder you want for any specific effect. For instance coating pellets in chilli powder, fish meals, or milk powders is just a starting point to improve impacts in the water.

I hope you see how versatile pellets really are. Here I have just offered a few tips to possibilities and uses and effects. The most effect way to use pellets is to buy the very best quality you can and experiment using these in as many different ways as you can – and actually write down what you do, the levels of any liquids or additives and the methods that you use and the catch results you achieve.

This will give you the ‘bigger picture’ as fast as possible and give you the greatest appreciation and understanding of how best to exploit pellets for maximum fishing results! If in any doubt just remember that your confidence comes from actual feedback from your fish; your fish will soon tell you which pellets, methods and applications of uses and preparations are most effective.

Using pellets as carp bait is no random chance exercise but simply all about methodically experimenting what you do and use and recording your catch results so you can constantly refine and better what you are doing and get better and better results! I have found over the decades that this is how true confidence is achieved with all carp baits! Revealed in my unique readymade bait and homemade bait carp and catfish bait secrets ebooks is far more powerful information look up my unique website (Baitbigfish) and see my biography below for details of my ebooks deals right now!

By Tim Richardson.

Product Label Types and Uses

One of the most common permanent product identification techniques is through the process of product labeling. There are a number of different types of labels with the most common being branded product labels and eco or information labels.

Branded Product Labels

Products need to be branded to help with identification and play a major part in company brand building exercises. These labels need to be securely bonded to the product surface in a way that is best suited to that product. There are two types of branded labels, removable and none removable labels. With permanent labels the bonding has to be permanent and the label must be difficult to remove and resistant to a number of factors. A good example of this is a beer label. It must be waterproof, hardy and resistant to cold. This includes the actual printing, the material that the label is made of and the adhesive that binds it to its product.

Removable product labels on the other hand need to adhere to the product only until they need to be removed. A good example of this sort of label is a cleaning instruction label on any product manufactured out of a fabric such as an item of clothing. This product needs to be easily removed and must not leave a mark on the garment.

Eco or Information Labels

An eco or information label is used mostly on consumer products such as food stuffs and fast moving consumer goods found in supermarkets. They are used specifically to impart information to the consumer about the product. Often these type are made out of eco friendly substances so that they do not interfere with the products they are associated with.

Other Product Label Types

There are a number of different label types that are in common usage around the world that are regularly mass produced by specialist printing services. These include, but are not limited to, the following product label types:

Piggyback: These are labels made of different adhesive substrate. They are often used as stickers on express mail envelopes.

Asset Labels: These are usually tamper evident and are used for marking company or business assets.

Blockout: These are none see-through labels that are used to conceal what lies beneath them. They are normally made of a strong blank grey adhesive strip.

Radioactive: These are specialist labels that use radioactive isotopes to allow the specific vivo tracking of chemical compounds.

Laser: These labels come in a variety of sizes, materials and shapes. Laser label material is extremely resistant to heat so that it can withstand the high temperature laser printing process.

Silverfish Don’t Hurt Your Health, They’re Just Unsightly and Destructive to Your Possessions

Silverfish aren’t really a threat to your health, so who cares if you have them in your home?

Let me give you a few reasons you don’t want these insects in your world.

  • The silverfish eats materials that contain high levels of starch. This includes dextrin, which you find in glue, paper, pictures, your hair, sugar, and cereals.
  • Silverfish are unsightly creatures.
  • Silverfish are fast, and hard to catch.
  • Sometimes you’ll find them in your bed.
  • They’re tough to control, and get rid of.
  • The female lays one-to-four eggs every day.
  • They live an average of two years, and sometimes as long as 3-years.
  • They’re a native of the northern continent, and found around the world.
  • They live in most any building, occupied or not, and favor kitchens and bathrooms where the environment is warm and damp.

Silverfish hide during the day, mostly inside walls or behind furniture and appliances where it’s dark. They are most active at night.

Since they eat dextrin they’ll show up in your cereal sometimes, but they don’t really threaten your health so much as your possessions. A large population can destroy your library by eating the glue that binds the books together, and when the glue is gone they’ll start on the paper itself.

These bugs normally don’t bother you, unless they move into your bedroom and crawl across you as you lie in bed at night, but they’re ugly bugs. Guests might question your housekeeping skills when they see these creatures scampering around your walls.

As the female lays so many eggs each month, the population grows fast if left untreated. The silverfish is hard to control because of the rapid growth in population, the speed of the bugs, and the fact that pesticides only kill the adults. When the nest is inside walls treating the hatching young is an even more difficult task due to the difficulty of getting the chemicals into the proper locations.

Look for pheromone traps designed to capture silverfish. These are toxic so make sure you place them out of reach to children and pets. These traps still won’t affect eggs, but by catching the live bugs you shrink the number of females that lay those eggs.

Since silverfish prefer (and require) moist areas for survival, make sure you eliminate any leaks and other sources of dampness.

The best treatment I know of is dusting the nesting area with chemical powders.

Find the area where the most silverfish activity appears. Usually this is near a wall, and the nest is most likely inside that wall. You want to spray the powder inside the wall such that it creates a cloud of dust in the wall cavity. Just dumping a pile of powder on the floor only gets the bugs that actually crawl through the pile, getting the powder on their legs as they walk through. Spreading a cloud inside the wall puts the chemical in the air, and they inhale it as they breathe.

Start with a spray every couple of days to kill any eggs a week or more old. Eggs take 2 – 3 weeks to hatch, so some of the eggs there are up to three weeks old. Widen your spray schedule out to once a week two times, then spray one month later. Your problem should disappear. If not, start your dusting process again, and continue the procedure until you see no more silverfish.

Persistence is key for controlling these bugs, as it is in many of our successes in life.

Difference Between T304 and T316 Waterless Stainless Steel Cookware

When shopping for waterless cookware, it is important to determine your priorities. What cookware pieces are you most likely to use? What type of steam control mechanism would you like-steam valve or thermo control knob? To be classified as waterless cookware, the cookware must be at least 5 ply (layers), have some type of steam-control valve and have a flat, encapsulated bottom that contains the metal layers enclosed in stainless steel. Waterless cookware is typically sold on the Internet, home parties, or state and county fairs. The cookware sold in department store environments is generally 3-ply. Waterless cookware because of its composition and construction is more expensive than conventional cookware. However, even within the waterless cookware market, there is quite a price range between competitors. Most waterless cookware is T304 surgical stainless steel. T304 cookware has the following advantages including corrosion resistance, temperature resistance, flavor protection, and ease in cleaning. With proper care and maintenance, this cookware will keep its shine and beauty for a lifetime. Recently, a few companies have started to use T316 in their cookware. While there are some distinct differences between the two, the visible eye cannot detect any difference between the two. Further, there is not a distinguishable difference in taste either. What then is the actual difference between the two grades of stainless steel?

Type 304 contains 20% chromium or more and 10% nickel, comed with 0.08% carbon. It is used for chemical processing equipment, for food, dairy and beverage industries, for heat exchangers, and for milder chemicals. In the cookware industry, the 304 steel is most often used in the manufacturing process. T304 has the ability to withstand the corrosive action of various acids found in fruits, meats, milk, and vegetables. Therefore, it is often used for sinks, tabletops, coffee urns, stoves, refrigerators, milk and cream dispensers and steam tables.

Type 316 contains 16% to 18% chromium and 11% to 14% nickel. Type 316 also contains 2% molybdenum. The molybdenum is added to help resist corrosion to chlorides (like sea water and de-icing salts.) Type 316 is the main stainless steel used in the marine environment, with the exception of screws, bolts, nuts, and other fasteners where strength and wear resistance are necessary. Then Type 304 is typically used.

Do the differences specified above justify spending over $3000 for Saladmaster that now uses 316 stainless steel? Saladmaster offers a great product but many people simply cannot afford such an investment in cookware. When comparing the two grades, the differences are negligible. When exposed to harsh sea salt conditions 24 hours a day for 7 days a week, T316 would last longer under those conditions. If exposed to high concentrations of sodium chloride, T316 is definitely preferable. Therefore, if you are were to put one cup of sodium chloride (table salt) into 4 ounces of water on a daily basis, you would benefit from using the 316 stainless steel over the 304.

If you are considering the purchase of this cookware, two of your primary questions should be: (1) Which cookware set offers the pieces that I would most likely use? (2) What type of steam control valve would I prefer-the steam-control value that has an open/shut lever or the Thermo-control value that has a color-coded dial that visibly shows the cooking temperature.

Waterless cookware is a lifetime investment. While T316 cookware might be the best option for marine use, the majority of cooks can feel comfortable using T304 surgical stainless steel. If you can’t afford several thousand dollars for state-of-the-art cookware, don’t be dismayed. You can still buy quality waterless cookware at a fraction of that cost.. Check out our site-The Gourmets Cookware for some great deals on waterless cookware. In addition, we offer tips for cooking with waterless cookware, cleaning your stainless steel cookware, and great recipes to try with your waterless cookware.

Learning All About Blue Pearl Granite

Blue pearl granite is a beneficial and useful choice when people want to install granite worktops in their kitchen. Granite is perhaps the second strongest stone in the world and is a popular building material. Blue granites are the rarest and therefore the most expensive of the granites that can be found all across the globe. This granite belongs to this colour family and has a silvery blue shade which makes it beautiful and prized. Norway is from where this particular store is quarried and is distributed throughout the world as a raw material for making tiles as well as countertops.

Exploring The Characteristics of Blue Pearl Granite:

Although a blue colour is indicated by the name of the stone, in actual, the stone is not true blue and looks more metallic or silver blue. People can obtain a sample to check the colour in a proper manner. The stone is comprised of excessive amounts of quartz and mica in the stone and when it is polished, they give the stone a pearlescent sheen which has contributed to its name. White, black, gray and blue grey flecks make up the surface colour of the stone. A tightly flecked pattern of colour can be found in this granite instead of veins of colours which are often seen in many stones.

When people check out a blue pearl granite company, they will find that the colour of this stone can vary from piece to piece and even vary in one single piece. Some slabs have a blue cast while some are closer to silver in terms of shade and tone. Instead of having a tightly packed pattern throughout the surface, this granite might have large sections of black and white concentrated in one area. Slabs of blue pearl might be lighter on one end and darker on the other and may have splashes of black quartz within their surface and can be used for making unique kitchen worktops.

Types of Blue Pearl Granite:

There are several types of blue pearl granite and their price varies according to the type people select. Depending on the location from where it is quarried, the shades of this form of granite can vary. One of the brightest, bluest and expensive stones is the Blue Pearl GT whereas Royal blue has a lighter background and also has deep blue crystals in its surface. A variation which is closer to gray or silver rather than blue is defined as Marina Pearl. Also, instead of a polished surface, it is also possible to find this particular type of stone honed to give a matte finish. The price varies according to your selection.

Because of its special properties, the stone is extremely expensive and therefore not entirely affordable for everyone. People often have to give up this option when designing their worktops. However, they should find a manufacturer who can offer them a reasonable price for it. We are a company that charges a competitive rate and can provide you with all types of blue pearl granite.

10 Safest Neighborhoods to Rent Apartments in Birmingham

Birmingham is the cultural and also the entertainment center for the entire state of Alabama. Birmingham apartment listings are extensive. This is a city rich in experience and culture. It, like many other cities across other states, does have crime. You do not need to panic, however, because if you are looking for Birmingham apartments that are rid of the criminal element, you will most likely be successful, but you will need to do a little research to find the safest neighborhoods.

You may feel a little apprehensive about the city if you heard about the homicide statistics and how those numbers for a number of consecutive years were above the national average for cities across the states. However, the city of Birmingham and its residents have joined forces to cut down the criminal element in their communities. It has been working recently with the city of Birmingham, now living below national averages for homicide. So what do you do? Well, you should still consider Birmingham as a potential possibility. One can’t escape crime entirely no matter where you decide to put down roots. As with all cities, you need to be careful when choosing the location of your apartment. Let’s take a look at the top 10 safest neighborhoods in Birmingham.

1. Vestavia Hills

2. Camp Horne / Rocky Ridge

3. Overton / Brentwood Hills

4. Meadowbrook

5. Country Club Highlands

6. Lake Purdy

7. Bluff Park

8. Watkins / Simmsville

9. Glencoe

10. English Village

In Vestavia Hills, there is an average of 2 violent crimes and 35 property crimes annually. The Camp Horne / Rocky Ridge neighborhood has an annual average of 4 violent crimes and 49 property crimes. Overton / Brentwood Hills averages 3 violent crimes and 93 property crimes per year. Meadowbrook averages 9 violent crimes and 123 property crimes annually. Country Club Highlands averages 4 violent crimes and 71 property crimes. Lake Purdy averages quite a bit more with 22 violent crimes and 558 property crimes. In Bluff Park, there are 13 violent crimes and 250 property crimes annually. These rates might seem high, but compared to Avondale, one of the most crime-prone neighborhoods, they are fairly low. Avondale experiences 136 violent crimes and 652 property crimes annually.

You can also drive through the neighborhoods in question to determine other social and economic factors that might lead to criminal activity. For instance, if the general income level is low and it looks like there is a sizable portion of the residents in relative impoverishment, you may surmise that the environment may not bode well. These signs are not a given that crimes are being committed in that area, but they do provide a fairly hospitable foundation for these crimes to grow from. You can also interview people that live in the area to see how safe they feel as they walk around the neighborhood and sleep in their beds at night.

If you need apartments in Birmingham and you want to live safely, take this advice into consideration. You may find that you not only discover the gem of the Birmingham apartment listings, but you will have also picked a safe haven for both you and your family.

Horseshoes – Pitching 1 and 1 Quarter Turn

If you are just a beginner to the game of horseshoes then the first thing you need to do is learn how to throw them. If you are a professional horseshoe pitcher, then it never hurts to revisit the basics and get your game back on track. For the purpose of this article we will assume that you are right handed. If you are left handed, just apply everything in the opposite way.

A key thing to remember when reading this is that horseshoes is just like any other skill in life. It takes practice to become accurate. So if you are serious about developing this skill, be prepared to invest many hours practicing your pitching. However, unlike many other sports, this game can be fun for everyone even if you can barely hit the pin!

So it is time to pick up the horseshoe. But before you go and throw it at the pin, take a good look as to how you are holding it. What you want to do is hold the horseshoe on its side like a backwards “C”. Grab the bottom side of the horseshoe so that the last knuckle by your fingertips is on the inside edge. This will let your fingertips curl up from the inside edge of the horseshoe. Your thumb will be on the flat side of the horseshoe so that the tip of your thumb meets up with the tips of your index and middle finger.

The placement of your grip should be roughly in the middle of the leg, or shank, of the horseshoe. This type of grip is called the 1 1/4 turn. This is one of the best grips to use for a beginner. This grip requires much less wrist motion than other types of grips. This lets the pitcher focus more on the throw than the wrist action which usually gives you more control. When throwing a horseshoe with the 1 1/4 turn you want to let it have a little more speed during the throw. The best way to get a ringer with this throw is to have the horseshoe come in and hook the stake from the right side. It will be able to hook that stake well and help you get those ringers landing throw after throw.

The most common mistake when throwing a horseshoe is forcing it to turn in the air. When thrown correctly, the horseshoe will do the work for you in the air. If you force it to turn you are not only losing accuracy on the throw, but you are also causing an unusual turn in the air which can cause the horseshoe to land on its side and roll. The object here is to get the horseshoe to land flat or “dead” around the stake.

Now that you have a grip on the horseshoe it is time to look at the swinging motion of your pitching arm. Hold the horseshoe out straight in front of you at eye level and aiming at the stake. Your feet position is really optional. You can either stand with your feet together or with your left foot about 6 to 8 inches behind your right foot. In either case, you want the majority of your weight to be on your right foot. As you begin your backswing, you want to take the horseshoe and turn it into a vertical position (like shaking hands). The horseshoe should stay in a vertical position for the entire backswing. On your upswing, as the horseshoe passes your right leg, bring the horseshoe back to the level or horizontal position. Release the horseshoe when it gets back to a line between your eyes and the opposite stake. Keep your wrist locked and straight and release the horseshoe in a level position to have it land flat or “dead”.

Now before you swing away here, we need to talk about your feet positioning during the throw. Regardless of how you started (feet together or left foot back), you want to have a gentle transition of weight from your right to your left foot. When your backswing is at its peak, begin shifting your weight and stepping forward with your left foot. As your upswing starts to pass your knees you should have most the weight on your left leg. This way your arc isn’t solely dependent on your arm muscles, but also the spring motion from your body and legs.

The most important part of your swing is then the follow through. After you have released the horseshoe, continue your throw. You will end up with your right arm almost straight up in the air and all the weight on your left foot. Just like any other sport or skill, the follow through can make or break your shots.

6 Things You Must Consider Before a Canadian Motorcycle Ride

If you plan to cruise the highways and drive a motorcycle in Canada the following information will be useful to consider both for your own safety, and for your own piece of mind.

Canadian Highways and Rural Roadways

Whether you decide to rent a motorcycle or drive your own, Canada has a massive system of well managed city streets and highways which will bring you just about anywhere you want to go.

The main highway throughout Canada is the Trans-Canada Highway, which goes coast to coast. The distance from the east coast to the west coast is about 8000 km or around 4,900 miles. You could go on a Canadian motorcycle ride for weeks and never get to see everything.

Motorcycle Rentals

Renting a motorcycle in Canada may be something you want to consider. Canada has several motorcycle rental companies found near the major cities and towns. Rates vary depending on the season, type of motorcycle and length of rental. The minimum age to rent a vehicle in Canada is usually anywhere from 21-25 years old. If you plan to travel through the western provinces on your motorcycle you might want to look into the many popular tourist attractions, and the great roads to travel.

In order to rent in most cases you will need to have a major credit card. Requirements may vary from each province. Be sure to reserve your motorcycle ahead of time during peak travel times, which are usually from mid May to November.

Camping With Your Motorcycle

Most Canadian provincial and national parks, private campgrounds and other conservation areas allow you to camp with your motorcycle.

All of the Canadian provinces have a government agency that is responsible for tourism. You should check their websites or call for information to get get maps, and possible promotional offers, and maybe even some more Canadian motorcycle information. If you plan to stay in a campground near a popular park like Banff, Whistler, and Fundy National Park you should book in advance.

Driving Laws- Canadian Motorcycle Driving

In Canada the road laws are very similar to the rules in most US states. Most road safety laws and regulations are determined at the provincial and territorial level, so make sure you know the particular rules for the province you plan to be visiting. One rule for motorcyclists throughout all Canadian Provinces is that you must wear a motorcycle helmet if you are driving a motorcycle in Canada.

Other things to consider while driving throughout all the Canadian provinces on a motorcycle are that you are allowed to make a right turn on red lights in most cities throughout the country after coming to a complete stop. Be careful though because in some areas of Quebec you are not allowed to do this. For more information, check with the Government of Quebec’s website.

In all Canadian provinces pedestrians have the right-of-way and you must yield to pedestrians at crosswalks. The speed limit on the most rural highways is usually around 90-100 km/hr or about 55-65 mph. Speed limits are enforced mainly by the RCMP in rural areas, and municipal police in most major cities throughout Canada.

If you are pulled over by a police officer you must provide proof of insurance, driver’s license and registration.


Many people who are not from Canada picture the country as having vast piles of snow and snowmobiles as the main mode of transportation. Nothing could be more false. In most provinces you can ride a motorcycle 8-9 months out of the year. In Vancouver British Columbia and other western cities and towns, people drive year round. The summer months can get very humid in Canada, and there are many Canadian motorcycle events held across the country on an annual basis.

Motorcycle Insurance Canada, Driver’s License and Permit

If you plan a ride a motorcycle through Canada and you are from the United States., your driver’s license is valid in Canada. Be sure to bring proof of motorcycle insurance by talking to your insurance company for a free Non-resident Inter Provincial Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance Card before you leave, or carry your policy itself.

If you’re driving a borrowed motorcycle, you should bring a letter signed by the owner that says you are allowed. Also for a rented motorcycle, carry a copy of the rental contract.

Electronic Keyboards – Their History and Development

The term “electronic keyboard” refers to any instrument that produces sound by the pressing or striking of keys, and uses electricity, in some way, to facilitate the creation of that sound. The use of an electronic keyboard to produce music follows an inevitable evolutionary line from the very first musical keyboard instruments, the pipe organ, clavichord, and harpsichord. The pipe organ is the oldest of these, initially developed by the Romans in the 3rd century B.C., and called the hydraulis. The hydraulis produced sound by forcing air through reed pipes, and was powered by means of a manual water pump or a natural water source such as a waterfall.

From it’s first manifestation in ancient Rome until the 14th century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument. It often did not feature a keyboard at all, instead utilizing large levers or buttons that were operated by using the whole hand.

The subsequent appearance of the clavichord and harpsichord in the 1300’s was accelerated by the standardization of the 12-tone keyboard of white natural keys and black sharp/flat keys found in all keyboard instruments of today. The popularity of the clavichord and harpsichord was eventually eclipsed by the development and widespread adoption of the piano in the 18th century. The piano was a revolutionary advancement in acoustic musical keyboards because a pianist could vary the volume (or dynamics) of the sound the instrument produced by varying the force with which each key was struck.

The emergence of electronic sound technology in the 18th century was the next essential step in the development of the modern electronic keyboard. The first electrified musical instrument was thought to be the Denis d’or (built by Vaclav Prokop Dovis), dating from about 1753. This was shortly followed by the “clavecin electrique” invented by Jean Baptiste Thillaie de Laborde around 1760. The former instrument consisted of over 700 strings temporarily electrified to enhance their sonic qualities. The later was a keyboard instrument featuring plectra, or picks, that were activated electrically.

While being electrified, neither the Denis d’or or the clavecin used electricity as a sound source. In 1876, Elisha Gray invented such an instrument called the “musical telegraph.,” which was, essentially, the very first analog electronic synthesizer. Gray discovered that he could control sound from a self-vibrating electromagnetic circuit, and so invented a basic single note oscillator. His musical telegraph created sounds from the electromagnetic oscillation of steel reeds and transmitted them over a telephone line. Grey went on to incorporate a simple loudspeaker into his later models which consisted of a diaphragm vibrating in a magnetic field, making the tone oscillator audible.

Lee De Forrest, the self-styled “Father Of Radio,” was the next major contributor to the development of the electronic keyboard. In 1906 he invented the triode electronic valve or “audion valve.” The audion valve was the first thermionic valve or “vacuum tube,” and De Forrest built the first vacuum tube instrument, the “Audion Piano,” in 1915. The vacuum tube became an essential component of electronic instruments for the next 50 years until the emergence and widespread adoption of transistor technology.

The decade of the 1920’s brought a wealth of new electronic instruments onto the scene including the Theremin, the Ondes Martenot, and the Trautonium.

The next major breakthrough in the history of electronic keyboards came in 1935 with the introduction of the Hammond Organ. The Hammond was the first electronic instrument capable of producing polyphonic sounds, and remained so until the invention of the Chamberlin Music Maker, and the Mellotron in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. The Chamberlin and the Mellotron were the first ever sample-playback keyboards intended for making music.

The electronic piano made it’s first appearance in the 1940’s with the “Pre-Piano” by Rhodes (later Fender Rhodes). This was a three and a half octave instrument made from 1946 until 1948 that came equipped with self-amplification. In 1955 the Wurlitzer Company debuted their first electric piano, “The 100.”

The rise of music synthesizers in the 1960’s gave a powerful push to the evolution of the electronic musical keyboards we have today. The first synthesizers were extremely large, unwieldy machines used only in recording studios. The technological advancements and proliferation of miniaturized solid state components soon allowed the production of synthesizers that were self-contained, portable instruments capable of being used in live performances.

This began in 1964 when Bob Moog produced his “Moog Synthesizer.” Lacking a keyboard, the Moog Synthesizer was not truly an electronic keyboard. Then, in 1970, Moog debuted his “Minimoog,” a non-modular synthesizer with a built-in keyboard, and this instrument further standardized the design of electronic musical keyboards.

Most early analog synthesizers, such as the Minimoog and the Roland SH-100, were monophonic, capable of producing only one tone at a time. A few, such as the EML 101, ARP Odyssey, and the Moog Sonic Six, could produce two different tones at once when two keys were pressed. True polyphony (the production of multiple simultaneous tones which allow for the playing of chords) was only obtainable, at first, using electronic organ designs. There were a number of electronic keyboards produced which combined organ circuits with synthesizer processing. These included Moog’s Polymoog, Opus 3, and the ARP Omni.

By 1976, additional design advancements had allowed the appearance of polyphonic synthesizers such as the Oberheim Four-Voice, and the Yamaha series CS-50, CS-60, and CS-80. The first truly practical polyphonic synth, introduced in 1977, was the Sequential Circuits Prophet-5. This instrument was the first to use a microprocessor as a controller, and also allowed all knob settings to be saved in computer memory and recalled by simply pushing a button. The Prophet-5’s design soon became the new standard in the electronic keyboards industry.

The adoption of Musical Instrumental Digital Interface (MIDI) as the standard for digital code transmission (allowing electronic keyboards to be connected into computers and other devices for input and programming), and the ongoing digital technological revolution have produced tremendous advancements in all aspects of electronic keyboard design, construction, function, sound quality, and cost. Today’s manufactures, such as Casio, Yamaha, Korg, Rolland, and Kurzweil, are now producing an abundance of well-built, lightweight, versatile, great sounding, and affordable electronic keyboard musical instruments and will continue to do so well into the foreseeable future.

Compare DSL, Leased Lines and Ethernet Circuits

Businesses are fortunate to have a fairly wide range of options when it comes to choosing a dedicated internet access solution. Of course, each potential service poses its own particular set of technological challenges, key features and costs. As in many other areas of the information technology sector, traditional higher-priced dedicated internet access services have recently been challenged by lower cost, technologically innovative alternatives which are gaining serious ground in the UK market.

The gold standard of business connectivity has for many years been the dedicated leased line. A leased line (also known as an E1, E3, Frame Relay or OC line), is a permanent connection established between two distinct geographical points, such as two offices of the same company, or a bank and a remote financial institution. This connection is not shared with any other users on the telecommunications company’s network, and as such it guarantees stable bandwidth and excellent data security. It is an ‘always on’ proposition and is one of the most reliable ways for a business to either transfer data or access the internet. Leased lines can be configured to handle a variety of different transfer speeds, and usually feature excellent support and Service Level Agreements (SLA) from the provider. A leased line can also be part of a Wide Area Network access solution, which allows a Local Area Network (LAN) to connect to other LAN’s and the internet at large.

Unfortunately, the costs associated with leased lines are some of the most expensive in the industry. The installation lead-in times, cost of installation and the maintenance and access fees imposed upon the line subscriber can be daunting for many small businesses. The distance between the business, the provider, and the sites that are to be linked together also play a significant role in increasing the price of a leased line. These factors, combined with recent innovations in connectivity technology, have allowed for several viable leased line alternatives to make their way to the fore.

Digital Subscriber Lines (also known as DSL, ADSL, SDSL, and ADSL Max) have long been avoided by companies seeking quick and reliable internet access and data transfer. Originally positioned as a consumer technology, DSL is based on a switching data connection technology that shares its bandwidth with a host of other customers accessing the provider’s network. However, Bonded ADSL uses multiple DSL circuits working together as one in order to get around many of the traffic congestion issues typically associated with this type of connection. Bonded ADSL is now offered with the robust SLA that businesses require, as well as excellent transfer speeds. Installation is also quicker and more flexible than that of a leased line. In addition, costs are significantly lower when compared to standard leased lines. The recent infrastructure upgrades made as a result of Local Loop Unbundling (LLU) and the emergence of next generation ADSL services such as Annex M DSL means that bonded DSL will continue to improve in terms of bandwidth and availability.

Ethernet circuits are another less expensive option for those who seek a high bandwidth corporate connectivity solution. These Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are built over Ethernet links forged from point-to-point on either a city, regional or national scale. The primary advantage of a VPN is that it enables a company to offer the same level of broadband connectivity to as many offices and remote workers as necessary, as well as provide access to geographically-specific resources from anywhere within the network – including internet access. Bandwidth over this type of connection can be scaled up to a very high level, and it mimics a LAN in terms of functionality. The single connection point design also decreases connection and installation costs.

You can access the full white paper ‘Compare DSL, Leased Line and Ethernet – Dedicated Internet Access Buyer’s Guide’ here

What is the Advantage of Network Cabling?

Networking is a word that has become synonymous with computers. With computers being a part of everyday life, wherever you go you are sure to find a computer installed. And in big organizations where there are innumerable computers, a good network cabling system is very essential for smooth running of business. Data cables used in networking are the only means through which data can be shared between various computing devices.

It is not a simple task to build a proper network cabling structure. Apart from service cables various other software and hardware devices are used such as Network Interface Cards (NICs), hubs, routers, bridges, switches etc. Some of the hardware components used for interlinking devices in networking are Ethernet network cables, optical fibers, wireless LAN, power communication etc. And when we speak of networking, structured cabling is one of the most sought after and effective means of building a networking infrastructure. There are various advantages of installing a proper networking system;

• An efficient networking system helps to design, organize and maintain procedures in an organization.

• If you use structured cabling, it is cost effective as well as very flexible and can be easily removed or reinstalled during frequent relocations

• Structured cabling can also adjust itself to any kind of changes in networking or infrastructure without disrupting work flow and is suitable for both data and voice cables

• A good network cabling can speed up data transfer immensely, thereby reducing costs, saving time and helping in overall productivity of the company.

But while choosing service cable providers you have to be very sure about their services. The wrong use of cabling structure or networking designs can create havoc in an organization. Whereas the perfect and right service cables can go a long way to simplify communication needs, speed up work and help any business to run much faster and profitably.

If you are purchasing wires or cables for the first time and are really confused, try to do some research work before approaching a cable service provider. As mentioned earlier, installing a structured cabling infrastructure has proved beneficial for many companies; whether small or large scale organizations, small compact offices, high rise buildings, residential complexes, warehouses or big industrial belts. A genuine, proper and renowned data cabling provider such as Wire Guys Toronto, etc offers various options to choose from, such as services for data cabling, voice cabling, network cabling, structured cabling and the latest cat cabling including CAT 5, 5e and CAT 6 FT61 and Toronto Cat 5E.

Networking is considered the backbone of any business enterprise, and is the only effective means of communication for all your computer and phone operations and infrastructure. It helps develop potential clients, and retain valuable old clients by means of regular communication and keeping in constant touch with them. Moreover enterprises with numerous branches or departments also need to maintain an effective communication system for smooth workflow and inter personal relations. And this is only possible if the networking system is strong and reliable without regular disruptions.

Apart from providing effectual networking facilities, a first-rate data cabling company will also provide telephone cabling, jack installations, upgrade network cabling, expand existing network, have provisions for installing cable for voice over IP and standard telephone system etc. They should also have very prompt after sales service, with excellent and well qualified staff and engineers.