Search Engine Optimization Action Plan Methods

Everyone's looking for the ideal search engine optimization plan methods to get their website within the highest point on page one of the search engines That simple organic search bump can be the determining factor for thousands of businesses trying to stand out and take their business to the next level. It can be a huge task to locate online resources and strategies that will give you targeted results for your Business long-term. Listed below is a blueprint that will get you off to a great start.

On Page Optimization:

No search engine optimization is as old and well- tested as on-page optimization. On-page optimization is considered the birthplace when it comes to SEO. It also happens to be one of the least useful listed here. Once upon a time, these methods would make all the difference. Today, it makes up maybe 15% of your total search engine ranking and Page Rank. However, if you do not use these methods, it can hurt your site significantly. On page optimization consist of optimized keywords, title tags, alt tags on your images, SEO pleasing links, deep navigation, and SEO friendly code.

Article marketing is another one of the search engine optimization action plan methods many cyberspace marketers utilize that has been around for some time and is exceedingly successful. Essentially, you will release articles with a single keyword focus and a link back to your website. You then input those articles to article directories that post them for free in transfer for the link to your site. Once an article is posted, it signals a back link to your site that the search engines grant. Article marketing is not a one time process, however. You will need to continuously post new articles over time to preserve the SEO value of those links.

Trusted Site Back Linking:

Article marketing generates back links, but if you want truly valuable back links, you need to find trusted sites. Trustworthy sites are those that Google holds in high regard. Anything that ends in .GOV or .EDU (receiving links from these authority sites are huge for your website ranking) is a trusted site. Also, prestige directories like DMOZ and Yahoo! are valuable sites, along with notable forums or information resources.

Link baiting is a search engine optimization action plan method where you produce high quality content that will attract attention on its own. For example, if you had a muscle-building site, you could present an article on the best ways to build muscle naturally.

Social media is a familiar tool today, though many marketers misuse it. The objective is to utilize sites like LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook to separate yourself and your entity up as a confident personality and imprint that can be trusted for niche awareness.

Viral marketing, like social media and link baiting, focuses on drawing people to you. As a search engine optimization strategy, viral marketing is the least measurable, but can be the most effective. Examples of viral marketing consist: sending out free e-books, creating squeeze pages, video distribution through YouTube, and providing free software. No single tactic is going to make the difference between a infancy site and the number one page in your niche. However, if you're not using the search engine optimization action plan methods above in tandem, you're missing a terrific opportunity to get costless targeted traffic for your site. These targeted actions start with a long- term, elaborate plan on how to get your site to the top. Use multiple strategies, test constantly, and adjust when necessary – only then will you find the free targeted traffic you've been looking for.

Learning About Credit Counselling As a Debt Relief

With personal debt problems and obstacles affecting the way that we live good lives, many are now turning to effective debt relief options available to them, and credit counseling is among the best ways to help us turn our debts around for the better. Although there are other attractive options as well, such as debt settlement, debt relief loans, bankruptcy, and others, credit counseling is one alternative that really sits down with them and take time to talk things over and find realistic solutions that people deep in debt can achieve satisfactorily.

Credit counseling is a debt relief option for those with serious financial problems that stemmed from a lack of a positive mindset and discipline in handling their finances and monthly obligations, especially those without a proper plan on how they would go about their money and their regular expenses. Most firms offer this particular service with the objective of helping individuals cope up with their debt problems; they may encourage debtors to make one direct payment to them which will then be distributed to creditors.

The significance of credit counseling services cannot be stressed well enough. People unwillingly (and at times unconsciously) caught with their heavy credit card debt problems can benefit much from undergoing credit counseling so they can finally find their way back to debt relief and get out of that deep debt hole they are in. This is very important so it will not affect their lives, especially that of their families.

Nobody would ever want to see their families suffer and lose everything just because of their financial or debt problems. Credit counseling works by providing specific plans and strategies customized to their individual situations so it will have greater chances to succeed.

If you look around, you can get hold of so many credit-counseling providers available in the market these days that offer solid debt management programs those who needed it.

Credit counseling agencies specifically function by lowering the monthly obligations through interest rate concessions presented to creditors and other financial institutions. Credit advice is structured to solve various financial problems with levels of success. What you must be aware of in this arrangement though is that even with the counseling effort, you are still bound to pay all your debts, though you will not be having a hard time with it anymore since you will be presented with lower monthly payments and obligations that will work well with your current situation.

A standard counseling program usually takes about five years for full implementation. This will never be an overnight activity. Going through counseling would not affect your credit report of course, even though the debt management activity will be seen in the report.

A good credit counseling service provides real assistance in any case so you can finally have debt relief and get your life back on track again. It helps to check things out and do your research on these various credit-counseling firms and services so they will take advantage of your situation.

Beginner's Guide to Online Share Dealing

Dealing shares over the web has never been simpler – or cheaper.

Execution-only brokers have driven down costs to as little as a fiver plus stamp duty and many have done away with the old percentage based way of calculating commission in favor of an easy-to-understand flat fee.

That said, there is still a bewildering array of alternatives offered by the High Street banks and the scores the bespoke internet dealers – and all of them vying for your business.
Since plumeting fees and increased transparency, there are a number of potentially costly pitfalls awaiting the unsuspecting trader new to online investment. Below I show how to avoid them:

Choosing a broker should be easy and based on the best available deal. But you may wish to pay a little extra for a reliable service. By this I mean a website that does not crash or freeze as soon as you log in, and is simple and easy to use. As a rule of thumb, do not pay more than £ 12 per transaction. And look out for the hidden charges such as annual administration fees that push up the cost of the service.
A good piece of advice is to open accounts with two competitive brokers and chose the most impressive. Among the hidden costs of trading is tax. Every time you trade you are liable to stamp duty, which is charged at 0.5pc. And if you are lucky enough to make a profit of more than £ 8,500 in any one year you will be liable for capital gains tax, which is charged on a sliding scale from 10pc-40pc.

Signing up is simple enough. Most sites have a wizard that will guide you through the process of opening an account in just ten minutes. Ironic then that you may have to wait a week before the service is fully functioning because the paperwork has to be filled out, signed and returned with proof of identity. Most brokers require a utility bill and banks statements and one even requests for your national insurance number. So have these to hand. With some electronic brokers you may have to deposit cash – usually around £ 500 – and purchases will be funded from this. Others simply debit and credit your account.

Once you've signed up you will be issued with a password and username that gives you access to the trading screen. Log on to the active area of ​​the website and your senses are immediately assorted by all sorts of information.

First step is to decide which country's stocks you want to trade. It is fair to say most people will opt for UK. It is then a case of deciding which particular share you want to buy or sell. It would be straightforward to if you just entered the company name and hit the return key. But instead most sites will insure you provide the a two or three letter letter – called an EPIC – that identifies that company. You'll find a search facility that allows you to look it up. Make sure you enter the correct EPIC, otherwise you'll end up buying shares in the wrong company. Believe me, I've done it and it costs me about 30 quid to sell back what I bought.

Once you have entered the unique company code, you will be presented with two prices for shares in the company. The lower of the two is the bid price – the amount per share the broker will pay for your stock. The higher figure is the offer price, or what you will pay to acquire shares. The difference between the two is called the spread and it is the profit the broker makes buying and selling shares. Again you must be careful to enter the correct number of shares – count the zeros. You do not want to be buying 60,000 shares at £ 1 each when you intend to sell 6,000 at 10p. Thankfully I have not done this yet.

Some basic rules of investment. Always do your research. That means reading the financial pages and book marking sites such as Reuters, ADVFN and the BBC.
Relying a tip from a block down the pub will seriously damage your wealth.
Set a stop-loss. Very simply, if you buy shares you expect them to go up rather than down. If they start to head south then considering selling if the price falls between 15pc and 20pc. Reinvest your dividends. It's a no-cost way of growing your investment. Invest only in companies you understand.

Good luck and be careful out there.

6 Key Benefits of Bluetooth Speakers

The portable Bluetooth speakers are a practical option for those in search of the easy, no wire installation in the home, or want the convenience of listening to music on the go. They are a great choice when there is no electric socket and gives instant access to your entire music collection while in the backyard, the beach or on a picnic. Plus, the speakers are available in many trendy, edgy, curved and sleek designs. The wide range of choices makes it easy to find speakers that complement the existing decor or even the device. Plus, in many situations they can be found at prices that are cheaper than conventional options.

Here are six benefits of the Bluetooth speakers:


A major positive of the Bluetooth speakers is the wireless functionality. There is no need to compromise with placement of the speakers or struggle with wires. The wireless setup is often a lot more aesthetically pleasing compared to the wired speakers. Also, it is quick and easy to get connected to a preferred devise without needing to plugin relevant wires.

Easy to use

They are easy to use with speakers only needing to be placed within a distance of about five meters or so from the sound source (MP3 player, computer, mobile, etc.), which is practical while sat on the beach or out in the garden.


Portability is a great feature of these speakers and the small sizes make traveling with high-quality sound that much easier. The portable speakers are sized to carry to the gym, park, office, or any other place that you want to listen to your favorite tunes.


While a great pair of headphones is appreciated for listening to music on the go, they do limit the use to one person. For those that want to be more social, the Bluetooth speaker offers a convenient solution to share your music collection with your family and friends.

Energy efficient

The power consumption of the Bluetooth speakers is intended to be a lot less than the alternatives to make them truly portable. There is no need to use the mains supply and will operate on rechargeable batteries. A high-quality set of batteries should have the ability to run for a full 48 hours, which is more than enough time while at the park or party.

Seamless streaming

The modern Bluetooth technology has the ability to stream data at very fast speeds which makes it easy to listen to the uninterrupted music once the play button is pressed. This even applies to the largest sound files.

Gone With the Wind: The Zodiacal Parade

On 4 July 1776, the United States was born, declaring its independence and freedom from British rule. One complete Uranus cycle later, on 12 April 1861 at 4:30 am, the first shots of what would be a long and bloody battle rang out in the spring air at Fort Sumter, North Carolina. The Civil War–and the ugliest chapter of American history– had begun. Standing as one of the central issues of this terrible war was slavery. By the time the war had ended, Abraham Lincoln and some 630,000 American soldiers were dead, the highest number of casualities killed in any war in US History.

It is on this grim war and its survivors that Margaret Mitchell based her best-selling, Pulitzer Prize winning novel, Gone With the Wind (published in 1936). Set in the pre-war Old South, Mitchell writes about the fictional life of one of literature’s and the silver screen’s most memorable heroines, Scarlett O’Hara. Scarlett was a sixteen year-old girl living on her father’s plantation when the war broke out. The 1000- page plus, doorstopper of a novel chronicles her life as she struggled not only for her own survival but also for that of her family and other household members (slaves) as they fought off Yankees. Running parallel to this storyline is Scarlett’s rather tumultuous love life (she was married three times) and most famously, the love triangle between Scarlett, Ashley Wilkes and the dashing Captain Rhett Butler.

“If the novel has a theme it is that of survival,” said Mitchell when Gone With the Wind was published. “What makes some people able to come through catastrophes and others, apparently just as able, strong and brave, go under? It happens in every upheaval. Some people survive; others don’t. What qualities are in those who fight their way through triumphantly that are lacking in those who go under… ? I only know that the survivors used to call that quality ‘gumption.’ So I wrote about the people who had gumption and the people who didn’t.”

It is interesting that Mitchell based her blockbuster on the losers of the Civil War, the Southern Confederates rather than the popular winners, the Northern Yankees. But then, as we shall see, Margaret Mitchell was no ordinary woman. Even more interesting is the divided opinion that the book and subsequent movie provokes: is Gone With the Wind one of the greatest love stories of all time or is it the most racist book–with its southern sympathies and portrayal of simple, happy slaves–ever published?

Perhaps for this reason, avid readers have failed to notice that Gone With the Wind is, as Neil Spencer describes: “a thinly disguised astrological allegory. Margaret Mitchell based the characters of her torrid epic on the zodiac, leaving a blatant trail of clues which were only picked up in 1978 when US astrologer Darrell Martinie was shown photocopies of notes from Mitchell’s library.”

Mitchell, using the Civil War as a backdrop, displayed these strong, memorable characters in a potent zodiacal parade that is led, appropriately enough, by the feisty, fiercely independent heroine, Scarlett O’Hara whose determination and energy personifies the sign of Aries.

Mitchell is careful not to beat the reader over the head with astrology and, given the extremes of people’s reaction to astrology, perhaps this is wise. But one first becomes suspicious of her inspiration in the opening pages when one of the Tarleton twins blurts out the gossip, in what could only be true Gemini style, of the engagement of Melanie Hamilton to Ashley Wilkes. Of course, the twins could not possibly know that this news would devastate Scarlett and would affect the central characters almost as much as the war itself (Mitchell had Pluto in Gemini). One thereby can also appreciate the name of Ashley Wilkes’ plantation: Twelve Oaks.

Then there is Scarlett’s land-loving, farm owning, stubborn father, a rather obvious Taurean, who in perfect synastry (as far as star signs are concerned), is married to social do-gooder, Ellen, a very helpful and efficient Virgo. Cancerian Melanie, small of bust and who dies following a miscarriage, is the wife of Scarlett’s true love, Ashley Wilkes whose love of classics and preoccupation with promotion and honour could only be the stereotype of Capricorn. And the star of the show (as he would like to think) is a very dapper Rhett Butler who manages, as a Leo, to get everyone’s attention wherever he goes.

Rounding out the zodiac is Mammy, big, powerful, and controlling and yes, black, representing the sign of Scorpio. Poor Sue Ellen, who waited patiently to be married to Mr Kennedy is the Libran who lost her man to her own sister, the scheming Scarlett. Frank Kennedy, Scarlett’s second husband, whose connections to dubious political organisations refer to Aquarian interests. Dr. Meade, a selfless doctor, Scarlett’s youngest sister, Carreen, as well as Scarlett’s first husband are self-sacrificing Piceans.

There were a few reckless, horse-loving folk but the most prominent was the progeny of Rhett and Scarlett, Bonnie Blue, who was thrown from a horse and died whilst attempting the stunt of jumping a fence on her steed. A true Sagittarian to the end, little Bonnie Blue, with her parents, completed the element of fire.

Spencer had stated that Aunt Pitty Pat and Prissy were “twittering Geminis”. Prissy, a slave who bragged she knew everything about birthing babies and then confessed she “don’t know nothing about birthing babies,” when Melanie went into a difficult labour (leaving the young Scarlett to deliver the baby) displayed the duplicity of the heavenly twins. However, Aunt Pitty Pat whose watery eyes, little feet and fondness for drink–for medicinal purposes, of course–could only belong to an archetypal Pisces.

Mitchell was born at 2:12 am on 8 November 1900 in a segregated Atlanta. Her fascination with the American Civil War can be seen with her moon’s close conjunction with Mars (6 degrees of Gemini) in the war chart. That she grew up surrounded by war veterans all willing to tell their tales is demonstrated by this conjunction occurring in the third house of the war chart, in the sign of Gemini. Mitchell’s sun at 15 degrees Scorpio opposite to the war’s moon at 15 degrees Taurus gives an indication she might find it difficult to identify with the common feelings of the war and take to the opinion of the other side. She had grown up with the glorious stories of the Old South and was stunned when she eventually learned the south had lost the war. Chiron conjunct the IC shows how she may have used the energy of the wounded healer to write about her defeated Atlanta. Perhaps most telling is the war’s Uranus opposing Mitchell’s Jupiter-Uranus conjunction. Also noticeable are the squared Neptunes, perhaps further captivating Mitchell’s imagination as well as the public’s, whose interest and buying-power would eventually boost the book’s sales to the stratosphere in post-war gloom.

Mitchell’s desire to write can be seen with a concentration of planets in the third-ninth house axis. With a third house Mercury, Jupiter and Uranus stellium in Sagittarius it seems a little talking went a long way–or perhaps a lot of talking went a little way.

. “..she (Mitchell) would get up in the middle of the night and write things. She was always obsessed with expressing herself.”

However one looks at it, the presence of a Uranus and Jupiter conjunction would make none of her manner of communicating boring or predictable (and it’s easy to see how Mitchell would have been interested in Astrology). This conjunction created a veritable hot spot in her chart and its activation by transiting and progressed planets featured in many events in her life. By her first Jupiter return, Mitchell had begun dressing as a boy and demanding that people call her “Jimmy.” By her second Jupiter return, the stage was set for her to begin writing her epic novel. And by it’s third return the book had been accepted for publication.

The third house stellium is opposed by Mitchell’s ninth house moon in Gemini (the Gauquelins found a correlation between ninth house moons and writing as a profession). The Moon opposite Mercury shows an argumentative nature, a fact certainly confirmed by members of Atlanta’s Debutante society who were scandalised by Mitchell’s suggestions for the distribution of money raised for charity and then outraged as Mitchell performed a provocative Apache war dance with a male student at one of their social balls. Far too free spirited for the likes of Atlanta’s debutantes, Mitchell abandoned this scene and became a chain-smoking, whiskey-chugging, jazz-loving flapper and danced “the Charleston” wherever, whenever and with whomever she liked.

Mitchell’s Moon also opposed Uranus, again showing emotional stress but this stress manifests through complicated or unusual romances. In her late teens, Mitchell became engaged to a man who was almost certainly homosexual and would have married him had he not been killed in the First World War. This would be the man on whom Mitchell loosely based the character of Ashley Wilkes.

In 1922 as both Saturn and the progressed ASC passed over her natal Venus, Mitchell became involved in a love triangle not unlike the one she would eventually write so memorably about. She eventually married the wrong man, divorced him, and went on to marry the other man all within the space of a few years. And at a time when divorce was not only discouraged but positively frowned upon. Her progressed Sun passed over her Mercury (opposite the moon natally) and her progressed Moon had been visited by a transiting Uranus in the seventh house. As an aside, it is interesting to note that although Mitchell dedicated her novel to JRM, the initials of her second husband, the initials RKB appear on Rhett Butler’s handkerchief and they are the transposed initials of her first husband, Red Berrien Kinnard Upshaw.


During her first marriage, Mitchell began working as a reporter at the Atlanta Journal Magazine, becoming one of the first women to cover hard news for that magazine. But shortly after her second marriage, she had to leave this job because of arthritis in her ankles and feet. Forced to spend most of her time in bed, she used this time to read, leading her husband to joke by saying she would have to write the kind of book she would like to read.

And so, in 1926 and through to 1929, as her progressed sun made its connections to her natal Jupiter and Uranus, Mitchell worked on Gone With the Wind. In between bouts of illness and injury, Mitchell had completed the bulk of, what she was describing to only two of her friends, as “the Great American novel”.

In 1926, the progressed lunar phase was Gibbous, indicating any hard work she invested into her novel would soon bear fruit. By 1929, when the bulk of her novel was completed, the progressed lunar phase was full and this progressed moon was approaching her natal Pluto and MC. Mitchell was truly seeing the fruits of her labour and her progressed sun on lucky Jupiter would have stoked the fire of her writing aspirations. Pluto’s presence showed how much the novel would change her life. To top it all off, it was her Saturn return.

The novel bubbled and brewed. In 1935, Harold Latham of Macmillan Publishing was in search of new writers. A friend asked Mitchell to show Latham around Atlanta and during his visit she mentioned her novel-but she refused to let him see it. After, an acquaintance cattily remarked to her that she is “not serious enough” to be a writer, a furious Mitchell gave in, gathered up her tattered manuscript and drove it to Latham and said: “take the damn thing before I change my mind”. The manuscript spellbound Latham and on 1 August 1935, Mitchell signed the contract with MacMillen publishers as a transiting Jupiter passed her natal sun..

As transiting Jupiter again activated her natal Mercury, Mitchell was putting the finishing touches on her novel. She completed the final revision on 22 January 1936, just in time for her Jupiter return. The book was published on 15 May 1936 and two days later–before the book was made available for sale to the general public–Hollywood producer David O. Selznick bought the film rights for the manuscript for $50,000, top dollar at the time. The book hit the shops on 30 June 1936 and by October that year had sold one million copies. The book had so changed her life that not only was Mitchell besieged by letters but she was unable to use public changing rooms because people kept opening the curtains to see what the now famous author looked like. In 1937, Mitchell won the Pulitzer Prize for her best selling book, just as the P. Sun contacted her IC. Mitchell had matured and quieted much by then and had long since left her flapper days behind. But whether she liked it or not, she was catapulted into fame.

With her progressed Lunar phase approaching Balsamic, Mitchell’s energy was winding down but her progressed Sun connected to Chiron in 1939. Mitchell, who had not actively sought fame, was about to have her private pain, her feelings and reflections for the Old South in the spotlight. The film would become the biggest selling movie of all time and it would defeat movies of that year such as The Wizard of Oz, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington and Good-bye Mr Chips at the Academy Awards.

With Neptune hovering over her ASC, Mitchell could hear the theme tune from Gone With the Wind for the first time along with the cast and other influential people on 15 December 1939. Atlanta rolled out the red carpet for the movie’s premiere at Loew’s Grand Theatre–for the white actors and actresses only. The Black actors, who included the Jazz singer Hattie McDaniel (“Mammy”) and Butterfly McQueen (“Prissy”) were subjected to the ludicrous segregation laws of the time.

“… Selznick learned that southerners were second to none in their affection of Negroes ‘in what they regard as their proper place’. Atlantans would warmly receive Hattie McDaniel and Oscar Polk (“Pork”) and the other actors–but they would not dine with them, invite them to their Junior League Ball in honour of the other Hollywood visitors or sit with them in an auditorium. And since the Grande Theatre was a white’s only theatre, McDaniel and the other black “guests” would have no dressing rooms, no proper place to enter and exit the theatre and no proper place to use the bathroom.”

If there is a small consolation then it must be that a young Martin Luther King sang in the boys choir as part of the evening’s entertainment–and Hattie McDaniel went on to win Best Supporting Actress at the Academy Awards, defeating the popular Olivia DeHavilland (“Melanie Wilkes”).

After the movie, with her progressed lunar phase now firmly Balsamic, Mitchell essentially rested on her laurels and wrote no more. She devoted her time to raising funds for the Red Cross and was also the anonymous benefactor of many college students. On 11 August 1949, Margaret Mitchell, who had been plagued by injury and illness throughout her life, was crossing a street near her home and was struck by a speeding taxi. She died of internal injuries several days later.

Videos and Video Marketing Online – The Many Benefits

How can you use videos and video marketing online? What are the benefits of incorporating it in your business and web strategy? Learn more about using videos and video marketing online to get started.

A recent statistical claimed that over 50% of on line traffic is through video. YouTube videos account for a whooping 12% of all web traffic. The fact is you need to add some component of video to your marketing plan to get the best results possible-it's that simple.

You do not have to spend a lot of money to make the switch to video. You can get a decent recording with any camcorder these days. You may need to learn a little about lighting and background and of course using the camera itself-but really, that's it.

You can get video ideas and templates from other marketer's on line. You want to explain all the wonderful aspects of your products on your video. Explain what your product or service can do for the customer. It is also popular to get video testimonials from satisfied consumers.

There are web sites and ebooks out there to explain exactly how to tape video. Video marketing is as essential tool. YouTube Videos have limits from 3 to 10 minutes. You can send your video to dozens of websites at the same time.

First you will have to get an account with a site but they do the rest of the uploading. There are many web video sites out their like, just to name a few.

Your uploaded video can be ranked on Google within a half an hour. Marketing video work by engaging people with good information and leave them with your web address across the screen (and wanting to visit to learn more). You can even promote affiliate products on videos and send them to your link.

It has been proven if you use a good video along with some great content and / or writing, it really can attract more traffic to your site. The conversion rate will increase drastically in many cases. The conversion rate is the percentage of traffic that goes to the affiliate links and buys something.

Your SEO Video Title should be the same as your YouTube Title. Do not forget that YouTube is the third top visited web site out there. Instructional videos on products are also a good marketing strategy. Show how your tools, information, or whatever your product is … works!

Since YouTube gets millions of visitors a day the visitor can get the copy of your video and publish it somewhere else on your blog or website potentially spreading your affiliate products ad sales. These videos spread so fast that that is why it is called viral marketing.

Google owns YouTube and Google is the top search engine. Getting your video on YouTube will help your website rank higher in the search engines-especially the main player, you guessed it, Google. There are plenty of other video sites where you can upload your videos though. Just a few include Yahoo Video, MetaCafe, MySpace and Daily Motion. The more places you send your videos the more they will be seen.

There are some other basic things to think about when making your video. You want to dress appropriately and act professional. Make sure the content is clear and informational. You are on your way to more traffic and more money with video marketing.

Three Points to Consider When Purchasing Recessed Down Lights for Business Premises

There is any number of options available when it comes to choosing a lighting system on the grounds of appearance, but lighting concerns extend beyond that. The practical role of lights means that wholesale lighting stores will always provide efficient and safe options, rather than just the aesthetic.

When it comes to recessed lights, meeting with the set safety regulations is perhaps even more essential as the entire fixture fits within the surface, be it a wall or a ceiling. However, for all types of lights, whether fluorescent, flood or track lights, this is not the only consideration that comes into play when choosing the recessed option.

The Necessary Amount of Light

Options in style are so varying that often the practicalities of lights are forgotten about. When it comes to recessed lighting, attention has to be paid to the depth of the recess and the strength of the light. Remember that recessed lighting will direct light in one direction, not radiate it in all directions like the everyday light.

With that in mind, in some cases it will be necessary to offset any such lighting loss with the inclusion of more lights. Typically, the rule is to space these lights approximately seven feet apart. It may also be necessary to strengthen the power of the bulb to ensure that sufficient light is provided. However, bare in mind that light that is too strong can be counter productive.

Low or Line Voltage

This is especially important because of the perpetual desire to keep costs down, and electricity costs can be debilitating when not controlled. So, there is a choice to run a lighting system off a low voltage system or off the line voltage. Low voltage generally means powering the system on 12 volts, with a transformer fitted to change the 120 volt current that is predominant in main power supply to a tenth of that energy. This type is recommended when there are a large number of lights being used, reducing to increase lighting bills.

The alternative is to run the system off line voltage, but the addition of dimmers can also help to reduce energy consumption while also allowing one the freedom to set the lighting tone. For that reason, it is a particular favorite amongst bars and restaurants, serving to create intimate in the evening while properly lighting the awards during the day. Generally, incandescent lamps are used but halogen lamps are growing in popularity because of their greater efficiency.


As with all recessed lighting systems, insulation must be considered. It relates to fire and safety, which means it is essential that corners are not cut and that the required standards are met, so it is wise to take a careful look at what insulating measures need to be taken. Know what the ceiling insulation status is as this may affect the type of housing needed for the light so as to to fully comply with the set standards. It may also be necessary to install fireboxes so as not to jeopardize the fire rating of the ceiling or wall itself. The length of time that it would take a fire to structurally damage a building can be reduced significantly when a ceiling or wall has been cut into. Fireboxes maintain the rating by serving to contain flames in the event of a fire. Depending on the business of course, there may be a need to take dampness and moisture into account. This may be the case in a kitchen of a restaurant, or the bathroom of a hotel, for example.

It is important that moisture is kept out of all electrical items and so checking the rating of the recessed lights that are being considered is important. Style will always play a part in decision making, but it should not be the first to mind. Sometimes what looks best is the worst option, with insufficient attention paid to efficiency and safety often proving to be very costly. Just as recessed and track lights may appear to be perfect for a concessions, it is essential that the right questions are asked and the right advice is collected before making a final decision. Never be shy to ask a local wholesale lighting expert what needs to be asked.

Getting Ready For Cabinet Installation – 5 Tips To Prepare Your Kitchen

If you are planning a cabinet installation in your kitchen, it is important that you have the area prepared. There are a few things you need to have completed before the workers come in to set up your new cupboards. Let's take a look at some of the steps you can take to prepare your kitchen.

Prepare The Area

The first thing you want to do before the cabinet installation is to remove the old cabinetry. Make sure you clean the floors and surrounding areas, removing dust and debris from the kitchen. If there is any damaged flooring under the space, this is the time to repair it. You can also touch up paint, install a backsplash, or add any other decorative touches you desire.

Make Sure The Floors Are Even

Next, check to see if your floors are even. You can do this by using a traditional level, but most installers recommend that you use a laser level to ensure the floors are completely even. Level floors are important because there may be gaps benefit some areas of the new cupboards if the sections of the floor are too low. On the other hand, you may not be able to fit them in properly if the floor slopes unevenly.

Make Sure The Walls Are Even

Walls have a tendency to sag over time, which can affect your cabinetry. Some cupboards have diagonal notches that require the walls be even and straight. You may have to add filler pieces to certain areas to even the walls before your new fixtures are put in.

Install Flooring If Necessary

If you are installing new flooring with your cabinet installation, you should do that before the cupboards arrive. This will save you from making odd cuts or dealing with other difficulties that arise when measuring the flooring around counters. This also allows you to have fresh flooring under your new cabinetry and appliances.

Install Appliance Outlets

If they have not already been installed, be sure to install all of the envelopes for your appliances before your cabinet installation. The company that sets up your new cupboards should provide you with a blueprint of the project so you will be able to see where these outlets belong. Be sure to contact an electrician or someone with expertise in outlet wiring to help you with this.

Cabinet installation can be a daunting process, but preparing ahead of time can prevent many headaches. Finally, make sure you have contingency plans, because you will likely be without use of the kitchen for a week or more.

How To Quiet A Noisy Aquarium

An aquarium represents a small, contained segment of the great ocean, a raging river, or a tidal pool teaming with life. It’s like taking a cube of the underwater environment, and containing it so that we can unlimitedly enjoy all of its complexities, while still being able to breath!

And understanding that the underwater environment is silent (actually it’s very noisy, but we perceive it to be silent), the last thing we want in our display is a noisy aquarium. Or aquariums. I say that as we currently have 4 active aquariums set up in our apartment.

We are surrounded by life. Fish, plants, and a big, crazy, Peaches & Cream Tabby cat. And after twenty some years of tanks, large and small and everywhere in between, I finally answered the problem that perplexed me since the beginning – “Why is my tank so noisy?!”

What causes the noise?

We’ll get to the big answer in a moment. First, here’s a bullet list of things to look for that could possibly be your noise problem.

Air Equals Noise: Air stones and air tubes all give beautiful effects to your underwater environment. They also add power to those ornaments that require the pressure from bubbles to function. The little treasure chest with the hinged lid needs a certain amount of air to function properly. But overload it, and all the excess bubbles popping at the surface will create constant, loud noise.

Current Equals Noise: Second to air movement, we like a lot of water movement (simulated natural currents) in our tanks. Fish need it for growth, and fro pleasure. We have one Guppy tank where you could almost paint a treadwheel on the side of the tank in grease pencil. The fish swim against the current, diving and rising in unison. They love the current. But add Powerheads, and overpower the size of the tank, and you’ll have noise problems.

Equipment Equals Noise: Pumps, filters, sumps, even plumbing can all yield noise. Sometimes too much noise. Most pumps have built in sound deadening. But if you defeat it when custom installing your system, the vibrational hum will very soon be noticeable. And not in a good way. Just as important, the surface you have the items secured to, or merely sitting on, can as easily be the culprit.

Furniture Equals Noise: I’ve built all my aquarium stands, and structural built ins. As soon as I skinned the top of one with plywood, I noticed a horrendous buzz. The air pump’s rubber feet was transferring the vibration through the plywood skin, and the open underside of the built-in was becoming an echo chamber. Placing the air pump in a more substantial place on the cabinet solved the problem.

Design Equals Noise: And finally, even your design can be a big, noise culprit. Air moving over rocks, currents and eddy’s going around fixtures and decorations, even the placement of your pump’s intake and output all go into the formula for noise abatement in an aquarium.

What can I do?

Tone It Down: The quietest aquarium would be a simple bowl of water. No air movement, no currents. Just a container of water sitting in silence.

If you are using multiple air pumps, especially the small ones with a single outlet, opt for a bigger pump with multiple outlets. The rule of thumb – the pump should supply all your air needs for that one aquarium. Not only do you only then have one noise maker, the bigger pumps have better sound deadening.

And if your pump is more than a few years old, trash it. Even if it’s still functioning. The old parts, especially the rubber ones are probably your chief source of noise. The now hard rubber feet, are doing nothing to deaden sound. They may even be adding to it.

And use gang valves to specify the air volume going to your accessories. That little air stone with a single line coming to it from the pump is a major noise issue. And it will look just as nice with half that air volume going through it. Maybe even better.

Listen To The Effect: Most power accessories you purchase to add to your tank have some adjustment feature to them. Get your ear down next to the current the powerhead is creating, and listen as it quiets when you adjust the outlet. It may be a volume issue, or simply a direction issue. It may even be vibrating against the tank, or rocks. Adjust it as necessary.

Adjust your gang valves on your air lines the same way. Put your ear to the surface of the water, and listen while you adjust the flow. When you find a suitable level of quiet, look at the effect it has on the appearance. Then make small adjustments to reach a happy medium of appearance versus noise.

Design With Consideration Of Noise: It’s easier to set up a quiet tank, then try to achieve one afterwards. Remember the bowl of water, sitting silently? Keep that in mind as you add accessories or plan the placement of your necessary equipment. Which brings us to the big problem I solved after 20 years of aquariums.

Not everything works together

I love Bubble Wands at the back of my tanks. They are virtually invisible, yet put out great amounts of bubbles. I like oxygenated tanks, so I like a lot of air movement. That rotates the food in the tank, and helps with currents for the fish to be happy in.

But because of space and budget limitations, I’ve always relied on saddle tank filters, not the canister type. There are only so many places you can place the saddle filter, and thus, only so many places the inlets can sit in the tank.

The noise from my filters have always drove me nuts. They have been, by far the noisiest filters of all my friends. And recently, my other tanks. That’s when I figured out the problem.

My wife set up the three other tanks, and isn’t as huge a fan of Bubble Wands as I am. Her filters were silent, their flow every bit as powerful as mine.

Yet my filter sounded like the impeller was coming apart. I had pulled the whole system, checked all the parts, and made sure everything went back together easily. As had always happened in the past, my filter rattled away.

That’s when I figured it out. I pulled the airline to the Bubble Wands and the noise stopped. The airflow from the wands was going past, and into my filter inlet tube. The filter was trying to fill with water. It couldn’t because the wands were filling it with air.

And so, the filter would forever sound like the filter when it first starts, and self primes. Problem found! Now, to solve it. I didn’t want to get rid of my Bubble Wands.

I took a drinking straw (clean and new) and cut it in half. Then I sliced the pieces lengthwise, to create an opening. I wrapped the straw over the Bubble Wand, under the filter inlet. It left a slight opening that air escaped from, so I positioned the second straw over the first, with the slit 180 degrees opposite the first. Problem solved, air stopped in that area.

And no bubbles getting to the filter inlet. I even saw a slight increase in water flow through the filter, which means better filtration.

Less may be better

In this case I found that just because accessories really give me the look I want in my ‘natural’ environment, certain things don’t work with others. You can modify them. But the lesson is that not all accessories in your tank are best for the tank, and your fish. And especially, your ears.

Diet Plan For Building Muscle Mass

If you are already reading this article, it means you have your head on right. For most people, building muscle is a real struggle because they simply do not know how to eat properly. In this article, I'm going to outline the basics of a proper diet plan for those looking to build muscle mass. It's not rocket science, but if you do not have it right from the beginning, you're fighting an uphill battle.

The first thing you need to worry about is how much you eat. If you do not eat enough, you will not gain any weight and that is not what you¡¯re after, is it If you are the type of person who has always been skinny, you can get away with eating as much as you like. If you are one of these people and you do put on a little bit of weight, then you will lose the fat a lot sooner than you earned it.

On the other hand, if you are a person who gains weight easy, but finds it hard to make lean gains, you have to be a lot more careful with how you go about your diet. I fit into this category and when I first began weight training, I weighed around 77kg and was eating around 2200 calories a day. This allowed me to gain lean muscle, without putting on loads of lard too.

The second thing you need to worry about and this is just as important as how much you eat, is what you actually eat. Eating lots of hamburgers will make you put on weight, but not the kind of weight you want. So you need to be smart. Of course, if you are one of those people who finds it really hard to gain any sort of weight at all, then you do not have to worry quite so much. You can eat just about anything and not worry about getting really fat and bloated.

But if you're not one of those people, listen up. You want to restrict yourself to eating only quality foods. I've written an article on this topic, but I'm just going to list the main foods you should be eating down below.

As far as proteins go, you want to be eating lots of chicken breast, turkey breast, lean cuts of steak, tuna is also fantastic, just about any fish is also good and protein shakes can be helpful if you are low on time.

Carbohydrates. You obviously want to be eating lots of good, healthy vegetables. Stay clear of sugary, processed carbs like white bread and white rice. Instead, stick to wholesome foods like wholemeal bread, pita bread, oats, brown rice, etc etc.

And fats, well, I love eating peanut butter because it tastes great and is also good for you too. Other nuts are also great, like walnuts, almonds and good old peanuts. Just be careful about the amount of nuts you're actually eating. Fat is very calorie dense, so it's easy to over indulge.

So there you go, a quick and easy guide to creating the perfect diet guide for building muscle mass. Make sure you read over and understand all of what has been written.

Why Is It Important to Have AA Certification?

The AA is known as being a road side assistance company. When you are a member you can call them if your car breaks down and they will come to your rescue by towing your car to the nearest repair centre. On the other hand, the AA plays a role in the regulation of the motor industry by performing due diligence on automobile repair companies and giving them an AA certificate.

You probably noticed that there is an AA certification badge on certain vehicle fitment centres’ websites or a certificate in a certain automobile repair company that you’ve visited. This certification means that they have been approved and recommended by the AA. You can be assured that you’ve stepped into an automobile repair centre that offers quality products and services as well as excellent customer service.

So how does an automobile repair company obtain AA certification?

The company has to adhere to a list of rules and regulations in order to receive the AA certification. There is a long list of items that are considered and checked before approval is granted. Some of the rules that a motor vehicle company, such as a brake and clutch fitment centre, needs to adhere to are the following. It must have a presentable reception area which is neat and tidy. The workshop must be clean. All tools and machines must be neatly stored away. All vehicle repairs must take place within a workshop and not in a parking lot or on the pavement. Health and safety rules must be followed throughout the company. The bathrooms must be accessible to customers which must be clean and hygienic at all times. These are only some of the criteria that need to be adhered to. There are many more rules that an automobile repair centre is subject to before accreditation is granted. The AA looks for professionalism and quality customer service.

The AA takes this task very seriously and does not grant this accreditation to all companies who apply. For this reason, not every automobile repair centre that requests AA accreditation gets it. From a customer point of view this is very good because you know that the automobile repair centre promises to give you good customer service within a professional environment. If you take your car to a brake and clutch repair centre to have the brakes or clutch replaced, and they are AA accredited, then you know that you will receive quality car parts which will be fitted by qualified mechanics.

Who Is the Holy Spirit? And Two More Poems

Who is the Holy Spirit?

The Holy Spirit is Kyrios
(Master and Lord)
He is the gift of Christ risen …
The counselor who opens up
The mind and heart to faith in Jesus!
Out of him flows: love, joy, peace,
Longsuffering, gentleness, goodness,
Faith … (Galatians 5: 22-23)
He speaks on behalf of the Father.
He is the third person of the trinity!
He is the living water, Jesus speaks
Of (in John 4: 10-26).

Written 2-12-2014 / No: 4182 (Galilean: 549)

Note: Kyrios: Lord / Master (also spelled: Kurios); also used as an expression in Christion Churches, "Lord, have mercy"

Bridges (Haiku)

We are bridges, are we not?
Bringing others to Christ …
Living luminous stones!

Written 2-11-2014 / No: 4181 (Galilean: 548)

The Moabite Tale (A Poetic Prose Tale)

"There was an old Hebrew who had killed a good man"
(now remembered from those far-off ancient days)
So explained an old codger, to the young lad!
"And the old Hebrew, he prayed to his God to not rebuke him!
"For out of anger, and anguish did he slew the Moabite?
(A mason by trade)
"The white haired old man, of power, and renown, and
a poet to some!
"Had now committed both murder and adultery to add to his
legacy! At the age of seventy!
"Here, with grief and tears, the old man died shortly thereafter."
Ask the young lad, far-off in Africa,
"What were his poems about?"
"A cry of man seeking his God!" said the old codger. Adding:
"The Moabite now dead and his unloving children suspected so
"Children who lived far-off in a land called Moab,
"Once an ancient kingdom east of the Dead Sea-suspected so,
"For it was only rumored, he was dead, and sometimes hoped he was
"Dead, did not ask for his remains, only what his possessions and his
"Property understood of …, this was the gravity of it!
"So the Moabite was buried by strangers, in a strange land where
"He worked, year after year, and in time his grave was filled with rubble,
"But not the old white haired poet, regardless of his wrongs,
"They sang his poetic songs."
"Why?" asked the young lad, far-off in Africa, feeling dismayed at such a tale! "Why does the poet live on and the Mason be long forgotten?"
The old codger took but a second to reflect, "A man must not
"Waver too long between two Gods, in this case Baal and Elohim.
"If he does, he is lowly bewildered, bewitched, wind-swept, and none
"Will recognize him, the false, the demon, and the real, and this was the" Moabite's ways, unt his death! "

Written 2-11-2014 / No: 1029

Note: A Moabite was a native inhabitant of Moab, Moab being an ancient kingdom east of the Dead Sea in present-day southwest Jordan, descendants of Lot.

In part, inspired by James A, Michener

Is Your Stucco Leaking?

The problems with synthetic stucco claddings are well documented. Lawsuits involving Internal Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS) have been common knowledge among the home inspection community for years.

Most home inspectors, however, are ignorant of the problems that are occurring in high priced sub-divisions with both coat plaster stucco and the newer one coat stuccos. I believe that the number of homes with extensive rot and mold reflected within the walls is fundamental.

Traditional three coat stucco is a mixture of Portland cement, lime and sand. In older applications it is generally installed over some type of sheathing material such as plywood. More recently stucco has been applied over foam sheathing or engineered Oriented Strand Board panels known as waferboard or OSB. A water resistant barrier, usually building paper or a house wrap, is applied to the sheathing and then wire lath is attached to the framing. The stucco is applied in three coats, the scratch coat, brown coat and finish coat.

Stucco is actually a porous material and designed to allow the absorption of water. The water restive barrier acts as a drain plane and as the stucco dries water flows down the building paper and weeps out the bottom of the stucco. As long as the wood sheathing holds dry and water does not get trapped in the wall cavity problems will be rare.

One relatively recent noteworthy change in practice is the use of OSB sheathing rather than plywood. OSB panels have very poor moisture resistance qualities and tend to easily delaminate when wet. When OSB gets wet, it swells and rots at a much faster rate than plywood.

Another change is the use of house wraps such as Tyvek HomeWrap rather than the heavier felt building papers as the water resistant barrier. There is evidence to suggest that when stucco is applied directly over house wrap there is a chemical bond which can occur between the house wrap and the stucco. When this occurs the house wrap loses its ability to prevent water from migrating through the water resistant barrier. The 2006 International Residential Code and Dupont, the manufacturer of Tyvek, no longer support one layer of Tyvek HomeWrap as a water resistant barrier. Dupont now recommends StuccoWrap which is correlated to allow drain. A layer of building paper is also recommended as a bond breaker between the Tyvek and the stucco.

By far the greatest problem is the improper flashing of windows. Water runs down the window frames and if the window is not properly integrated with the water resistive barrier large quantities of water will get into the wall assembly. Unfortunately it is nearly impossible to determine if the window is flashed properly after the stucco has been installed. Sometimes the only visible clues are the stains at the stucco and trim junctions.

An infrared camera can be used effectively to diagnose leaks behind stucco. Areas of the stucco which retain large quantities of water such as around window flashings and roof wall connections will appear cooler than dry areas. Ultimately some type of invasive testing will be required to determine if the sheathing is water processed.

Problems with both traditional three coat plaster stucco and one coat applications are far more widespread then most home owners realize. Often what appears to be a small crack or stain adjacent to a window can be indicative of a far deeper problem. Too many times when the problems are readily apparent the damage is so severe that rot and mold will be present within the wall assembly. Many times well meaning contractors are not aware of the issues surrounding the improper flashing of windows and consider small cracks and stains to be normal.

Contractors may often recommend band aid solutions such as caulking and elastomeric sealers. These measures rarely resolve the problem and many times make the situation worse by sealing water into the wall assembly.

An Introduction To Stereos

Before we exactly tackle what the stereo is, let us have a peek at its modest beginnings. In the early 1930s, Harvey Fletcher, a scientist at Bell Laboratories, experimented with the formation of sound through stereophonic recording and came up with the concept of "Wall of Sound." Hundreds of microphones are placed side by side in front of an orchestra, and act as loudspeakers for the benefit of listeners.

But it was during the late 1950s, when the idea of ​​creating sounds was brought to new heights.

Monaural recording (a single-channel method of recording sounds) was introduced to the public. The method of simultaneous playing and recording sounds was still unheard because of the limited technology of the time. But still, it was a great invention, since it served as the fuel for manufacturers to further improve the system.

Later on, an assembly of amplifiers and speaker systems that played two or more channels at the same time was introduced to the public. The device is called a stereo. It can imitate quality sounds through multi-channel audio recording and playing.

A stereo is a device that reproduces sound through two audio channels or speakers. Depending on the way it is built and the features it comes equipped with, stereos can play music, record sounds or play and record – known as the dual channel sound reproduction system – all at the same time.

The basic elements of a stereo are a CD or cassette player, amplifier designed to deliver balanced electrical impulses to the speakers that come out as audible sounds. Speakers produce the sounds that you can hear. They come in various shapes and sizes – from the dynamic loudspeakers down to tiny earphones, tuners and equalizers.

The height of satisfaction and entertainment a stereo provides depends largely on the functionality of the stereo system that you have. Although, all stereos are designed to mimic a pleasant sound quality that you will enjoy listening to.

Considering the amount of avant-garde technology we have now, you can expect added features and functions incorporated in stereos that are all designed to further enhance your listening experience. Take for instance the different types of music systems like home theaters, digital sense-surround systems and audio technology designed for cars and those that come with USB ports and plug-ins.

How a DC Magnetic Motor Controller Works – Basic Troubleshooting of an Old DC Motor Starter

As manufacturing and industrial facilities evolved over the years, so have the ways we power the machinery. By power, I am referring to the controlling or initiating motion to perform a process. The key here is the industrial motors themselves. Whether they’re small, medium, or large, motors need to be controlled. They need to be started, stopped, and varied in overall speed for safety and also to properly perform their selected function. A motor rotating at unsafe speeds can be hazardous to personnel and dangerous to the equipment to which they are connected. The motor controller comes into play to do just that. Control of the startup as well as the acceleration to an appropriate speed, then the monitoring of the motor to ensure it is operating within its power rating, and of course the stoppage of the motor.

For decades, a magnetic dc motor control was the most efficient way to get the job done. These sometimes complex circuits composed of relays, contactors, timers, and resistors could be found anywhere there was an industrial electric motor. At the time, they were new technology replacing drum controllers which used the human element to control a motor’s acceleration. on these controllers, an operator had the responsibility of turning on the motor and bringing it up to its proper speed using a handle attached to a drum of contacts. The faster the operator turned the handle, the faster the motor accelerated. Operating speed for the motor could also be controlled using the handle by stopping at a certain position short of full deflection. Motors could also be reversed using these controls by turning the handle in the opposite direction. Drum controllers relied too much on an operator’s gentle touch to be efficient and safe. The dc magnetic controller easily became the accepted method of motor control in its time.

The controlled acceleration of a dc motor and its controlled top speed made these controllers ideal for industrial machinery. The names Cutler Hammer, Westinghouse, Allen Bradley, and General Electric were synonamous with motor control. They all consisted of similar circuitry but various manufacturers had their own improvements and idiocyncrasies. The motor is usually started and stopped from a normally open and normally closed push button assembly. This controls a relay typically labeled CR, for control relay. The control circuit was also interfaced with overload and overtemp contacts for protection of the motor, the machinery, and human personnel. An M contactor indicates a main contactor. These dc contactors are designed with large current carrying contacts because they are responsible for applying and disconnecting the main circuit for the armature. Once the control circuit is energized, the accelerating of the motor is initiated using a series of resistors and contactors. These contactors are typically labeled 1A, 2A, 3A, and so forth. Accelerating contacts are opened and closed based on the armature current draw in some controllers and by timers in others.

Another contactor called the FA contactor, or field accelerating contactor, remained closed during the acceleration of the motor. This contact assures that full power is applied to the shunt field of the motor until it is operating at a constant speed. It imay also be called the FF contactor, or full field contactor by some manufacturers. Once the motor has achieved its appropriate speed, the FA or FF contactor would open and speed control of the motor would be handed over to a rheostat. The rheostat would be in series with the shunt field. By varying the current flow through the shunt field, motors could be regulated for speed. Some forms of protection in these motor starters were added in case of motor winding failure or excessive mechanical loading. The FL contactor, or field loss contactor was typically designed with line coil in series with the shunt field. An open in the shunt field circuit would cause the field loss contactor to open and disable the control circuit acting similar to pressing a stop button. The other form of protection would be and overload circuit. The OL contactor or the OLX contactor were used to monitor an overload condition. These contactors also would act as similar to pressing a stop button. an overload typically senses too much current flow through the armature of the motor caused by internal motor winding shorts and opens, motor brush failure, a mechanical problem due to worn motor bearings, or a mechanical failure in the equipment to which the motor is coupled.

Other optional items added to these magnetic motor starters were components like external current meters for personnel to observe. A load meter is a good example of current monitoring modified to display the load on the motor in real time to the operator. There were also reversing options which enabled the direction of the motor to be changed with a switch or by turning a mechanical handle. With a familiarity of magnetic dc motor starters and basic electrical skills, troubleshooting the control circuits of any of these manufacturers becomes easier with experience because the concept and basic schematics from Cutler Hammer, GE, Allen Bradley, and Westinghouse were always similar.