Sales Scripts Success Secret For Selling Automobiles

Sales scripts work. Plain and simple. And they are especially effective in automobile sales. Strange as it may be, salespeople in general have pretty bad press. Add automobile sales people into the mix, then you’ve probably got one of the worst preconceived notions of a salesperson that you ever could have. Why? That’s because the stereotype of an automobile salesman is a fast talking, high pressure person, out to make a fast buck, and probably selling something dodgy in the process.

In the car sales arena, sales scripts receive little training and are hardly ever used. Objective studies that have been carried out recently into a salesperson`s patter, regardless of the industry, reveals that a more easygoing, genuinely helpful approach wins more sales than the high pressure approach. So using sales scripts, no matter what niche of the market you are in, could well help increase your sales.

Consider this, naturally gifted automobile sales people are rare. The ones who do have the natural talent for sales tend to be fast talkers who rely on their confident delivery to rush people headlong into a decision. But making a sale doesn’t have to be done this way. As the study suggests, a consultative approach is proven to yield better results. Because this new consultation approach is unfamiliar to most sales hardened car sales people, sales scripts help guide the interaction and steady the pace.

Sales scripts work for automobile sales people in the same way that film scripts work for actors. They are used to maintain excitement, energy, and enthusiasm in the dialogue. More importantly, scripts guide the actors throughout the production. Similarly, sales scripts guide the sales professional maintaining the focus on the prospect and vehicle.

Sales scripting is not a new idea. It was first researched back in 1938 when Elmer Wheeler researched over 105,000 words and phrases over a 10 year period. He published his findings in the book “Tested Sentences That Sell“. He concluded that “There are no magic words that sell, but there is word magic.” Wheeler advocated that using tested “word magic” can significantly increase sales.

Sales scripts are becoming more widely used across a larger cross-section of sales markets, and some leading automobile dealerships are beginning to look at the benefits of employing this sales methodology. In the past, automobile salespeople have been accused of being over aggressive. For example, as soon as you arrive at the store you often get a sales person tagging onto you very quickly, asking you what it is you’re looking for. This can immediately put you on the defensive. You feel under pressure and usually respond with something like “Just browsing”, or you might even leave the store. Whereas it is nice to be recognized when you do arrive, you don’t want to feel that you are being pushed into anything, and this is exactly where sales scripts can really help to change how a sales person interacts with the prospect.

A good example of a scripted opening, and my favorite from Joe Verde, is “Who is the lucky one for the new vehicle, you or somebody else?” This sort of opening makes for an easy introduction, doesn’t exert any pressure, and allows the prospect to easily answer. This scripted phrase has statistically proved to be a winning opening for me.

In summary, the methodology of using sales scripts involves selecting statistically proven winners and involving the sales staff in implementing them. Sales scripting can dramatically increase sales, no matter what the industry. With automobile sales suffering, good sales scripting could really turn your business around. Simply put, sales scripting works.

Master Your Master Hormone – Insulin

Insulin is truly the master of our metabolism – this master hormone is produced by the pancreas and used by the liver, muscle cells, and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood (from the food consumed) and is stored in the muscle & liver cells as glycogen. Therefore, insulin controls the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood by taking it up into the cells. Insulin our of control reeks havoc on every cell and every organ system in the body. Now you know why it has earned the name “the master hormone”.

Of course at the top of everyone’s list of concerns is weight management. When we eat carbohydrates (sugar) our bodies release insulin in order to take that sugar out of the blood and into the cells.

When there is no insulin in the blood – body uses fat as an energy source.

Most of us want to burn body fat. Therefore, don’t have insulin surging through our blood. Therefore, ditch the empty sugar, keep it complex – carbs that is.

Type I diabetes = the pancreas is unable to produce insulin

Type II diabetes = (aka insulin resistant) body does not respond effectively to insulin

This use to be called “adult onset” diabetes, however, with the obesity epidemic & horrible eating habits & yes “move” has become a four letter word- many kids are now dealing with diabetes.

Insulin allowed to flow wildly destroys the heart, kidneys, liver, cognitive ability, sexual performance, nervous system, high blood pressure, stroke, cholesterol, and can lead to certain cancers. Insulin resistance can reduce our bodies ability to absorb magnesium – a critical mineral – one of its many responsibilities is the relaxation phase of the heartbeat. Insulin resistance can also lead to osteoporosis & Alzheimer’s. Insulin controls all of our other vital hormones – ghrelin, leptin, thyroid, growth hormone, cortisol… you get the message. Therefore it is the master control behind much of our metabolic function.

OK – so hopefully we get it and we have to control our insulin levels.

Enter the Glycemic Index: We all owe tremendous thanks to Dr. David Jenkins, from right here in our beautiful Toronto. Not all carbs affect blood sugar levels. The genius of Dr. Jenkins – he came up with a ranking of how different carbohydrates manipulate the release of insulin into our bodies.

Low GI = below 55

Medium GI = 55-69

High GI – Above 70

Clearly, we want to aim for eating lower GI foods. FYI= white bread = 100GI. The Glycemic Index is the MOST logical way to choose the foods we eat. The GI not only helps us manage our weight, but helps protect us against disease of every system in the body. Hint: eat high fiber foods – that’s a really good start!

Lack of control of blood sugar and insulin surges are strongly associated with many of our chronic illnesses. Compounding this issue is the sedentary lives led by most. Getting control of blood sugar and being physically active are imperative leading a proactive, health centric lifestyle.

And yes, sugar is a villain in cancer as well. Living a life to prevent cancer is the healthiest lifestyle of all.

Using Subject 2 Contracts to Buy Real Estate With Less Than Perfect Credit

Subject 2 is a way to buy real estate without applying for a home mortgage loan. This financing option requires buyers to assume mortgage debt from the property owner. Real estate investors often use Sub2 contracts when selling houses to buyers with less than perfect credit.

Subject 2 is a great option for buyers unable to qualify for a conventional home loan. The property owner transfers the real estate deed to the buyer who becomes responsible for paying remaining loan installments. Loan documents remain in the original mortgagor’s name and the new buyer piggyback’s off their good credit.  

Instead of entering into a high interest bad credit loan, buyers can take advantage of assuming low interest payments. Buyers should engage in credit repair strategies so they can obtain financing within a year or two.

The primary purpose of entering into a Subject To contract is to let buyers buy a house without a down payment or credit check with the intention of refinancing the loan into their own name as soon as their credit allows them to obtain financing through traditional means.

Entering into Sub2 contracts requires both parties to engage in due diligence. Sellers should obtain financial records to ensure the buyer is financially capable of paying home loan installments. When buyers default on the note, the note holder is responsible for missed payments or runs the risk of losing the property to foreclosure.

Most Subject 2 contracts require buyers to submit loan payments to the servicing lender. However, some sellers require buyers to submit payments directly to them and they will submit payments to the loan provider. In this scenario, buyers run the risk of losing vested funds should the seller default on the mortgage loan.

Subject 2 contracts should be drafted by a real estate attorney to minimize risks for both parties. Sub2 contracts are used in place of bad credit lender loan mortgages to give buyers time to restore their credit rating. Buyers should refinance into a conventional home loan to purchase property rights as quickly as possible.  

In order to be legally binding, Sub2 contracts must be recorded through the court. Subject 2 records the transfer of property rights to the buyer. However, property rights are “subject to” the buyer adhering to contract obligations. If buyers default on their agreement, ownership rights revert back to the seller and the buyer loses all funds invested into the property purchase.

Sellers determine the duration of Subject 2 contracts which typically extend for 2 to 5 years. At the end of the contract, buyers must apply for a home loan or obtain financing through another source such as hard money lender loans.

Hard money loans consist of high-interest loans provided by private real estate investors or investment groups. This is a risky and expensive option for borrowers with bad credit. Therefore, buyers who enter into Subject To contracts should carefully strategize the ability to obtain financing in the future. If buyers cannot obtain financing at the end of the Subject 2 contract they could end up being in default and run the risk of having property rights transferred back to the seller.

When mortgage notes are refinanced the buyer is responsible for costs typically associated with entering into a home loan. Common costs include loan points, home inspections, property appraisals, mortgage insurance, homeowner’s insurance, realtor commissions, legal fees, and closing costs.

How To Make Gel Candles

Diwali is around the corner and we all know that it is a festival of gifts. This Diwali gift your loved ones a special gift made by you. Make them feel more important and special by doing so. There are many gifting ideas and since candles and diyas are a symbol of diwali then why not indulge ourselves in making some pretty candles.

We have already learnt how to make a simple pillar candle. Let’s learn something new today. We shall now learn how to make beautiful gel candles at home for the purpose of gifting.

For making a gel candle all you need is:

  • Gel wax
  • Wick
  • Glass container
  • Stainless Steel Utensil (for heating the wax)
  • Scents/Perfumes/Oils
  • Colors/Dyes
  • Embeds (optional for decoration)

Steps for making a gel candle:

  1. Stick the wick at the bottom center of the container using glue.
  2. Take the utensil, break gel wax into small pieces (so that it melts faster) and put it in the utensil.
  3. Now keep the utensil over the flame and remember to keep it on low flame as gel wax may catch fire. Maintain its temperature to approximately 200°F so that it looks just like a thick liquid.
  4. To this melted wax, add some color/dye. To keep the transparency of the wax, use very little color. This would also make embeds visible.
  5. Add some scent/perfume to give fragrance to the candle.
  6. To put embeds in the container, you may keep them at the bottom of the container or arrange them wherever you want by dipping them in the hot wax. Keeping them on the sides would increase their visibility.
  7. Keep the wick up on the edge of the glass container.
  8. Now pour the gel wax in the container. Be very careful while doing this. To avoid the bubbles in the wax, it should be very hot.
  9. Roll the wick over a pencil to keep it straight and in the center.
  10. Let the candle cool. After being cooled, trim the wick and pack it the way you want to gift.

Some tips:

  • For beginner, there are many kits available with all the material assembled.
  • All the material mentioned above can be obtained from candle wax suppliers or some art shops.
  • It is important to use essential oils and colors specially made for gel candles. Cosmetic oils/perfumes are not suitable.
  • There is a wide variety of glasses and perfumes available for making gel candles.
  • For embeds you can use anything non-flammable – colored aquarium gravel, marbles, glitter, sand, sea shells, pebbles, crystals, polished stones, artificial jewels or pearls.

2010 Harley Davidson Ultra Classic

The 2010 Harley Davidson Ultra Classic Electra Glide motorcycle is like a car with only 2 wheels. The touring chassis makes the 2010 Harley Davidson Ultra Classic heavier than most bikes. There is less room to maneuver and its much slower than the loner bikes or street Harleys. The bike has a radio with MP3/CD player, jeez!

Not only do I think it degrades the nature of motorcycle architecture, I think it racks up the price of the bike and the stuff is not really needed. Guess it’s a matter of personal taste and the circumstances in which one likes to ride. If I want to listen to the radio, I will just take an iPod because it’s small, portable and the quality of sound it unmatched. The fact that iPods are not integrated into the bike, makes me feel comfortable as I cruise down the highways. Don’t get me wrong, it is a good bike and is suitable for most, I’m not dogging on the bike, it’s just not something that you would see me driving much less pay $20,000 for, that is one thing for certain. I prefer something that is raw in nature, does not have too much electronics and what not. It will seat up to 2 people comfortably.

There is nothing quite like the 2010 Harley Davidson Ultra Classic, when it comes to touring the United States. One thing that makes me feel perplexed about the 2010 Harley Davidson Ultra Classic bike, is that is has air conditioning, guess it really stands by the term “through rain, sleet or snow”. It is good for the people who like to drive a heavy bike that comes slam packed with electronics that you normally see in a car, the luggage racks and seat settings makes it comfortable to tour across the country with ease. The 2010 Harley Davidson Ultra Classic provides an appropriate amount of long-haul touring accessories that make it easier for the rider to withstand the stress of long-distance trips. With all the armor and plastic on the 2010 Harley Davidson Ultra Classic, the bike is pretty much suitable for any type of weather, making it a universal weather bike.

How to Remedy Your Paintball Gun Freeze-Up

You’ll find that if your paintball gun is freezing up or firing irregularly, it has to do with the CO2 or carbon dioxide gas. Your expansion chamber will help prevent freezing in the regulator and will also provide uniform pressure. It may be the best solution to the several inconveniences caused by CO2. Of course, any inconveniences that you have can simply be stopped by just ceasing to use CO2 gas. The alternative to CO2 is a Nitro/HPA systems. HPA or high-pressure air and nitrogen, which is the primary component of the air we breathe, is one of the main reasons to use compressed air in paintball guns. It is not a liquid like CO2 while in your tank and will alleviate problems with freeze-up that are sometimes characteristic of CO2 systems. You’ll also find that there may be a transfer of liquid CO2 directly into your paintball gun causing firing problems.

Compressed air will provide you consistent air pressure especially if the air tank is fitted with a regulator valve. Many paintball guns, especially high-end guns, require consistent and uniform air pressure in order to fire properly. This is why many players experienced with paintball equipment use only HPA/Nitro.

You can also find that with CO2 systems, it is harder to get the tanks filled than the compressed air system. With compressed air, an air compressor found at your local gas station is usually incapable of achieving a pressure greater than 350 psi. Paintball guns require a psi of 800-850 or more. Very special and expensive compressors are required to fill HPA/Nitro tanks. You’ll find, therefore, that the best source of compressed air is at your local paintball field or scuba diving shop. If you don’t have access to compressed air, then CO2 is preferable and CO2 tanks are much less expensive than HPA/Nitro systems. Many professional paintballers, prefer this type of fuel for their paintball gun even though compressed air is sometimes hard to find. The primary benefit is the fact that they’re going to improve the consistency of their shooting and it will allow them to fire more rapidly without worrying about freezing up their paintball gun. Most of all, have fun! This is what it is all about!

S.M.A.R.T. Goals

(excerpted from the Jim Rohn One-Year Success Plan)

Jim Rohn’s Second Pillar of Success: Goal-Setting, Part Three – S.M.A.R.T. Goals

Hi, Jim Rohn here. As you know, we are focused on the Second Pillar of Success this month – Goal-Setting.

We have introduced the four main components of Goal-Setting:

1. Evaluation and Reflection.

The only way we can reasonably decide what we want in the future and how we will get there, is to first know where we are right now and secondly, what our level of satisfaction is for where we are in life. As we focus this month on goal-setting, our first order of business and our topic two weeks ago was evaluation and reflection.

2. Dreams and Goals.

What are your dreams and goals? Not related to the past or what you think you can get, but what you want. Have you ever really sat down and thought through your life values and decided what you really want? This isn’t something that someone else says you should have or what culture tells us successful people do or have. These are the dreams and goals that are born out of your own heart and mind. These are the goals that are unique to you and come from who you were created to be and gifted to become. Last week we showed you exactly how to find out what you want from life.

3. S.M.A.R.T. Goals.

S.M.A.R.T. means Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-sensitive.

Specific: Don’t be vague. Exactly what do you want?

Measurable: Quantify your goal. How will you know if you’ve achieved it or not?

Attainable: Be honest with yourself about what you can reasonably accomplish at this point in your life – along with taking into consideration your current responsibilities.

Realistic: It’s got to be do-able, real and practical.

Time: Associate a timeframe with each goal. When should you complete the goal?

We will spend time this week looking at how to apply the S.M.A.R.T. test to your goals to make sure they are as powerful as they can be!

4. Accountability.

Think of the word “accountable.” It means to “give an account.” When someone knows what your goals are, they help hold you accountable. Whether it is someone else going through this program with you (have you thought about inviting a friend to join you on this one-year journey?) or just someone you can give the basic idea to, having a person who can hold you accountable will give you another added boost to getting your goals! Next week we will show you how to set up an accountability partner.

This week we will be discussing point 3 – S.M.A.R.T. Goals.

S.M.A.R.T. means Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-sensitive.

I really like this acronym S.M.A.R.T., because we want to be smart when we set our goals. We want to intelligently decide what our goals will be so that we can actually accomplish them. We want to set the goals that our heart conceives, that our mind believes and that our bodies will carry out. Let’s take a closer look at each of the components of S.M.A.R.T. goals:

Specific: Goals are no place to waffle. They are no place to be vague. Ambiguous goals produce ambiguous results. Incomplete goals produce incomplete futures.

When we are specific, we harness the power of our dreams and set forces into action that empower us to achieve our goals. We then know exactly what it is we are shooting for. There is no question. As we establish our priorities and manage our time, we do so for a specific goal to achieve the results we expect. There is no wondering or guessing. The future is locked into our minds and we see it – specifically – and that is powerful! Never underestimate just how important it is to have very specific, concrete goals. They act as magnets that draw you toward them! A S.M.A.R.T. goal is specific.

Measurable: Always set goals that are measurable. I would say “specifically measurable” to take into account our principle of being specific as well. Our goals should be such that we know when we are advancing and by how much. Whether it is by hours, pounds, dollars or whatever, we should be able to see exactly how we are measuring up as we proceed through the journey of life using our goals. Could you imagine if you didn’t measure your goals? You would never know which way you were going or even if you were going anywhere! A S.M.A.R.T. goal is measurable.

Attainable: One of the detrimental things that many people do – and they do it with good intentions – is to set goals that are so high they are unattainable. Yes, it is very important to set big goals that cause your heart to soar with excitement, but it is also imperative to make sure that they are attainable. In the next section we talk about being realistic. So what does it mean to be attainable? An attainable goal is one that is both realistic but also attainable in a shorter period of time than what you have to work with. Now when I say attainable, I don’t mean easy. Our goals should be set so they are just out of our reach; so they will challenge us to grow as we reach forward to achieve them. After the next paragraph, I will give you an example of a goal that is both attainable and realistic. A S.M.A.R.T. goal is attainable.

Realistic: The root word of realistic is “real.” A goal has to be something that we can reasonably make “real” or a “reality” in our lives. There are some goals that simply are not realistic. You have to be able to say, even if it is a tremendously stretching goal, that yes, indeed, it is entirely realistic — that you could make it. You may even have to say that it will take x, y, and z to do it, but if those happen, then it can be done. This is in no way to say it shouldn’t be a big goal, but it must be realistic. This is to a great degree, up to the individual. For one person a goal may be realistic, but for another unrealistic. I would encourage you to be very honest with yourself as you do your planning and evaluation. Perhaps it would be good to get a friend to help you (as long as that friend is by nature an optimist and not a pessimist). This can go a long way toward helping you know what is realistic. A S.M.A.R.T. goal is realistic.

Example of Attainable and Realistic: Knowing that perhaps you could use a bit of help differentiating attainable and realistic, here is an example: You are overweight and have 150 pounds to lose to get to your proper weight. Is that goal attainable? Yes, considering that you also make it realistic. For example, it isn’t realistic to think you can do it in 5 months. 18-24 months would be realistic (with hard work). Thus, losing 150 pounds in 2 years is both attainable and realistic, while losing 150 pounds in 5 months is neither attainable nor realistic.

Time: Every goal should have a timeframe attached to it. I think that life itself is much more productive for us as humans because there is a timeframe connected to it. Could you imagine how much procrastination there would be on earth if people never died? We would never get “around to it.” We could always put it off. One of the powerful aspects of a great goal is that it has an end, a time in which you are shooting to accomplish it. You start working on it because you know there is an end. As time goes by you work because you don’t want to get behind. As it approaches, you work diligently because you want to meet the deadline. You may even have to break down a big goal into different measured parts time frames. That is okay. Set smaller goals and work them out in their own time. A S.M.A.R.T. goal has a timeline.

Be sure to spend some reflection time this week to make sure your goals fit the S.M.A.R.T. parameters. Go through the reflection questions below and the action points associated with them. Doing so will put a real engine in your goals and make them charged with power to help you accomplish your dreams.

Until next week, let’s do something remarkable!

Jim Rohn

4 Tips That Will Increase Your Growing Height – Tips That Will Help You Get Taller

A majority of the people in the world are not excited about how tall they are. They desperately want to learn the techniques to growing taller, increasing their height, and maximizing their growth potential.

Forget about what anyone has told you, because you can do all of this regardless of your age and any other factors. Just follow these 4 tips and you will have no problem growing taller and increasing your height to it’s full potential.

  1. Focus On Your Spinal Column: Your spinal column is a very important component of height and growth. Focus on specific grow taller stretching exercises that will stimulate the discs in your spine. These exercises will also keep the muscles and ligaments in your spine strong and flexible, which will promote more growth. Some people also have problems growing because of the curvature in their spine column, but these stretching exercises will straighten out this curvature.
  2. Posture: Good posture will provide you with some physical benefits such as your back health but there is no doubt about it, good posture will maximize your height potential. So to keep the structure of your body in a height increasing state you must make sure you keep your body from slouching and slumping. Instead, you should keep the posture of your body straight and upright.
  3. Nutrients: Eating a good amount of quality foods will effect your height in a positive way. The type of nutrients you need to focus on are omega 3 fatty acids, carbohydrates, amino acids, and proteins. You should also increase your water intake and stay away from alcohol, smoking, and anabolic steroids which will stunt your growth.
  4. Sleep: Believe it or not, sleep is one of the most important tips involved in growing and increasing your height. It is recommended that you get a full 9 hour uninterrupted sleep if you want to grow taller. the longer you sleep the more growth hormones is released into your body.

These tips will keep your body in a growing state so your height can continue to increase. It doesn’t matter how old you are because you can still grow if you want to.

What To Do When A Picture Doesn’t Fit A Picture Frame

Custom picture framers make frames to fit all sizes of pictures but what can you do when you have a frame that doesn’t fit your picture?

People often end up with a frame that doesn’t quite fit the picture they have. This can be because they have bought a cheap frame that is just a little bit bigger or smaller than the picture they have. Sometimes it can be when you are recycling or reusing a frame that was made to fit a different sized picture. Whatever the reason there are a few solutions to fix the problem.

The two easiest solutions, if the frame is larger than the picture being framed, is to either break and cut down the frame to fit or insert a mat border to bridge the difference between the picture and the frame.

If the picture being framed requires glass and when the wrong size frame already had glass that fits the frame, the best solution is often to cut a mat border to make the picture fit the frame rather than to cut both the frame down as well as the glass. When the picture doesn’t require glass because it is an oil or acrylic or some other item to be exposed then it may be best to cut down the frame to fit the picture.

Breaking and cutting down the frame is fraught with risks.

If the frame is timber it is a safer option to break the frame and rejoin it than if it is a synthetic molding. Synthetic frames tend to come apart poorly and will often fracture and chip away at the miter joint.

When breaking a timber frame that has been glued and V nailed or V pinned you should first break the glue join by either forcing the joint apart by twisting or on occasion it may require a sudden forceful pop by tapping the corner on a firm surface perpendicular to the joint. If you are cutting the frame down by more than a few inches or any amount greater than the width of the V nails you can just roughly cut through the frame with a hand saw to get it into separate pieces and then re-cut the frame with a new miter making it the correct length. It is then a simple procedure to join the frame again and re-assemble the picture.

The other option of cutting a mat board to bridge the gap between the picture and the frame is a simpler process. Just calculate the difference between the frame and the picture and work out the widths of matting required to make the picture fit the frame. After you cut the matting, the picture can be hinged to the border and refitted to the existing frame.

In some instances the frame is smaller than the picture and this presents another set of challenges.

When the picture is just a photo or print a decision can be made to trim the picture down to fit the frame. If the picture has either monetary or sentimental value trimming it may not be an option and you should seek professional advice about making a new frame for the picture.

If the picture is a print or photograph on paper or mounted to a flat backing board you can accurately measure and mark where you need to cut the picture down and then trim it using a sharp craft knife and a straight edge. A normal picture frame rebate is usually cut with a small allowance of 2mm to make fitting the glass, picture and backing easy. When you are measuring the picture make sure you cut it smaller than the tight rebate size to a allow for the expansion and contraction of the paper over time. It is always advisable to place the straight edge over the picture aligning it with the inside of the line you want to cut along. That way if you slip with the knife the picture is protected and you will cut into the waste section. Trim the picture in several passes gradually cutting through the board or paper.

If the picture you are framing is a stretched canvas and the frame is smaller than the painting you have three options to consider. You could remove the canvas from the stretcher and then cut the stretcher frame down to fit the outer frame and then re-stretch the painting. Another alternative that could be used if the frame is only slightly smaller than the painting is to make the rebate in the frame larger. To make the rebate larger you can use a router but a quick method for small adjustments is to trim the rebate out with a craft knife. Make two cuts with the craft knife, one parallel to the face of the frame using the existing rebate as a guide and then cut down at 90 degrees from the back of the frame. This requires several cuts gradually working down and cutting out a small rectangular section to make the rebate wider. This is a simple technique when the timber is soft but can be difficult when it is hardwood. The third option is to make a new frame the right size.

Sometimes the cost saving of buying a cheap ready-made picture frame, that is nearly the right size, is easily diminished by the added expenses of trimming, mat cutting or re-stretching as outlined above.

How to Make Your House Look Pristine?

Your sweet home should look beautifully decorated to draw attention of visitors every time when they pay a visit. There are plenty of advanced green cleaning methods to protect floors, walls, furniture and other household equipment in order to kill harmful germs. It’s essential to take care of every aspect of the house in terms of keeping the indoor environment healthy and breathable. The most feasible option is to hire a professional cleaning expert as they have in-depth skill set about various procedures of Green Cleaning.

Tips to clean upholstery

For upholstered furniture like the soft sofas, bean bags and arms chairs, there should be no use of chemicals or hard detergents. Upholstery contains soft and delicate textiles which can be ruined easily with the use of strong cleansing agents. It’s mandatory to choose the soft and high quality cleaning products to protect the colour and fabric of your upholstery. When it comes to take care of your soft cushions, carpets, then you have to be conscious in regards to choose the best cleaning equipment to remove stains, spots, dirt, oil and infects and keep your home clean and tidy.

Tips to clean tile and grout

Tiles give a very contemporary look to the house, but cleaning and maintaining the beauty of the tiles is a tiring task. However, cleaning of the tiles brightens up the surroundings, hence, this is quite important to give your house a classy appearance. The tiles and the grout can be cleaned with detergents, but that should not cause an adverse effect on the color of the tiles. Discoloration of the tiles will impart a very unpleasant look to your home. After cleansing, the wastewater must be extracted using a vacuum hose. The dirty water extracted should not be left to dry and settle.

Tips to clean carpet

Carpets can be cleaned using dry and steam clean depending on the textile of the carpets. The basic thought of the carpet cleaning to extract out all the dirt and stain from the minute space of the fiber. For this, one needs to get hold of a smooth cleansing solution and apply it over the carpet. Rinse it well with water to remove the dirt and taint leaving no residues trapped in the fiber. Though dry cleaning is not preferred over the regular steaming as the process is not considered to be as effective as the latter.

Tips to clean concrete

The first and the foremost important method for concrete cleaning is to choose a non-acidic cleansing solution that is environmentally friendly. After applying the solution over the concrete floor, wait it to settle for 10 to 15 mins. Take up a scrubber to eliminate the dirt from the spaces. Implement boiling water over the hard soiling and extract the dirt using the vacuum cleaner leaving the spot completely clean.

Carpet Cleaning – Tips on How to Get Your Carpet Spotless Clean

It is always good to remember that if you want something to be done right, then you have to use the right methods and techniques. The same applies to carpet cleaning too; only if you choose the right method, will you be able to get your carpet or rug spotlessly clean and dust-free.

To make your carpet adorn a brand-new look, it is important to choose a cleaning technique that suits the fabric as well as the type of fibers that are used in your carpet or rug. You can either opt for do-it-yourself methods or seek the help of professional cleaners. While the former is cheap but less efficient, the latter is expensive but promises you a clean and fresh-smelling carpet.

Steam cleaning is the preferred method if your rug or carpet is heavily soiled with dust as well as stains. Only cleaning with steam will give you deep cleaning that will be necessary to take out all the stains. But this method cannot be done all by you and requires the hands of an expert carpet technician. Also, you can use steam cleaning for your carpets only once in a year. And remember the golden rule; use steam and not boiling water. The latter will dislodge the glue that binds the carpet fibers together and spoil it irrevocably.

There are many carpet cleaning kits available in the market today. Make sure you get one only after reading the instructions carefully and understanding if it suits your rug type. You need to vacuum clean and rake the carpet first to remove loose dust and dirt before cleaning the carpet with any product. An enzyme-buffer system is used to remove the oily stains and then a non-residue shampoo is used to thoroughly clean the carpet. After shampooing the carpet well, clean it thoroughly with running water and then dry it out. You can either air dry it or vacuum dry it; wait for a day and then vacuum clean the rug once again to ensure that any remaining dust is removed. This method can be used frequently like every three months which will help keep your carpet fresh, clean and stain-free.

An important thing to take care is to regularly vacuum clean your rug every alternate day or at least every week so that dust does not get settled and ruin the carpet. Dry carpet cleaning is another method that you could consider especially during winter when it may take ages to get it dry. The bonnet method is a great technique; in this a cleaning product mixed with carbonated water is sprayed on the carpet and then a buffer is used to brush the rug using a circular motion. This lifts out the dust particles and helps to clean out the rug. The only disadvantage is that this process is quite tedious and tends to take an awful long time to complete. So go ahead and choose your method of choice and keep your carpet clean and fresh always.

Is My Insurance Company Trying to Cheat Me?

Let’s be honest, anyone who has had an insurance claim has had this or a similar thought run through their head. For many years insurance companies have done things to earn a bad rep. I’ve been in the insurance restoration industry for the last 10 years, and during this time I can honestly say that I have rarely met an adjuster or contractor that wanted to skimp on the settlement. The few times I’ve seen this is when the policyholder has been extremely difficult to work with. Yes, bad estimates happen, however, most of the time the feeling of being “shorted or cheated” comes from not understanding your policy and how it pays out.

The biggest misunderstanding is most often the issue of matching. Insurance policies are specifically written with terminology and phrases to avoid matching. Homeowner’s coverage is to replace the damaged items with like kind and quality. While as a homeowner and contractor I often don’t agree with this and I will fight it to the best of my abilities. To explain this policy the easiest is to give you situations where you will most likely run into this situation. Let’s say you have a flood where the carpet has to be removed in the hallway. The same carpet runs throughout the home. The living room opens and connects directly to the hallway with the same carpet and you have 3 bedrooms directly off of the hallway and an office with french doors off of the living room. The carpet in the hallway and living room will be replaced but the carpet in the bedrooms and office will most likely not be replaced as most insurance policies are written to stop at doorways.

The other situation is most often with kitchen cabinetry. If water damages your lower kitchen cabinets (or a fire, your uppers) most insurance companies will allow replacing the run of damaged cabinets (meaning all of the lowers or all of the uppers). If you have specialty/custom cabinets you will most likely be given a custom price to rebuild that run of cabinets to match what was there. Very rarely is matching kitchen cabinets likely these days, however, it is not impossible. Over the past 25 years, there are hundreds of cabinet styles and specialty finishes, from dozens of manufacturers. Unless you recently replaced the kitchen, it will take countless hours of research to find the cabinet manufacturer that made your cabinets (a good place to locate the manufacturer is on the inside of the door. Let’s say you’ve managed to find the manufacturer, companies usually discontinue a line every 4-7 years, or they make considerable changes to it. On top of the possible discontinued issue, it is very likely that the elements have changed the finish on your cabinetry. Perhaps your contractor has pointed the issues out to your adjuster, depending on the difficulty they may add extra money to allow to get a close match, perhaps a custom cabinet.

This is where you have several options:

1) You can take your budget and get quotes from cabinet places on a less expensive cabinet to replace all of your cabinetry. Remember that by using less expensive items elsewhere in the reconstruction you will have that money to allocate towards your new cabinetry budget.

2) You can certainly create a unique custom kitchen by finding an opposite finish cabinet to replace your lowers or uppers with. It is very common today to mix cabinetry finishes to give a unique custom look to fit your style. For example, let’s say your cabinets are a stain cherry cabinet in a shaker style. You could go with a complementing stained or painted finish cabinetry, perhaps in antique white or black.

3) If the mix/match isn’t your style consider a paint treatment. My best example of this is a fire I did in Durham, NC in 2007; my client had a small grease fire that scorched the finish on 3 of her upper cabinets above her stove. The insurance company allowed for replacement of these upper cabinets. She was not happy with that. (Now to be fair, this was an extremely smart professor at Duke University and as soon as the fire happened she started dreaming of her new kitchen.) When I broke the estimate down into our budget for the cabinets she was highly disappointed. She wanted her new kitchen. I replaced the 3 damaged parts of the cabinets with unfinished stock pieces that matched in style and repainted all of her dated oak cabinetry to a new beautiful modern black. We added new hardware, repainted the walls and I was able to get new countertops for her, by choosing a less expensive replacement floor. Within 2 weeks she had a brand new remodeled kitchen with nothing more than her deductible out of pocket.

4) You could order the cabinets to match your existing cabinetry and if they don’t match well enough you can go back to your insurance company and have them come back out to assist you with another option. PLEASE NOTE: if you’re set on getting a kitchen completely different than what you had and you opt to try and match your existing cabinets and fail, the insurance company is not going to pay to replace the newly replaced cabinets again. Do not go out and get cabinets that clearly will not be a match to your cabinets and then call the insurance company and say “I tried to match the cabinets but they don’t match.” This is fraud and you can be charged.

The best advice I can give anyone is to understand your policy. Look at your declarations page thoroughly. Understand your coverage. If there are any changes in your home update your insurance as necessary, to protect your home, yourself and your family.

Understanding your claim can be both easy and confusing. It’s easy if you listen, take notes and ask questions (to both your insurance company and your contractor). I’ve seen homeowner become completely befuddled by a claim when they try to make sense of it without knowing enough or by trying to break down the estimate line item by line item and add up the totals to “checkup” on the contractor or adjuster. Just remember that life becomes unsettled when it’s least convenient. There is never a good time to have to file an insurance claim. However, life is unpredictable and it will slap you in the face when you have all your balls in the air. I recommend to all of my clients to get a spiral notebook or notepad the moment they have to file a claim. Write everything down because if you’re like everyone else as soon as you think of a question for you adjuster you’ll forget their name and lose their contact information and/or your claim number. Keep track of everything. Start collecting pictures of things you like that will have to be replaced, it’s good to dream but don’t be unrealistic. Don’t assume that because something got wet it will be replaced. Carpet is one of the most argued for items. Most homeowners assume that because the carpet was wet for several hours before it was discovered it will be claimed as unsalvageable. In a general Class 1/Category 1 (Clean water) loss most carpet can and will be saved. Restoration companies are HIGHLY trained to dry these items. Carpet is replaced as a last resort. It may need to have the pad replaced and be restretched/rekicked and cleaned but in rare situations does it require replacement. Delamination is a reason for replacement. Delamination is when the primary and secondary backing of the carpet separate. One of my favorite arguments for carpet replacement was from one of my homeowners in Virginia who said that her carpet wasn’t wet before and therefore should be replaced. I had to laugh on the inside when she said this because while I am confident that the 83 gallons of water which we removed from her living room were not present prior to the loss; the water did not damage her carpet. She argued her point (I think she was a law student) for nearly an hour and a half. She did not win. She argued that water damages fabric and since it was not wet prior to her loss it should be replaced to prior condition. I agree that water does damage some fabrics but her carpet was not made of silk or wool. It was average nylon carpet, and after checking the tags of 8-10 pieces of clothing (looking for nylon) that she normally wears and washes, she dropped that argument. She rebutted that the carpet color changed/darkened where the carpet was wet. Yes, it was darker where the water was, because it was still wet! Two days later upon completion of drying the carpet, the homeowner confirmed that the carpet color returned to its original shade. Nonetheless, her next argument was that by getting wet, the carpet’s structure was now damaged. She couldn’t really explain what she meant, but I was confident I knew where she was trying to go. When I explained to her that during the manufacturing process carpet is routinely exposed to several “water baths” in order to manufacture it. When she learned that water is used in the manufacturing process she had no further arguments. Feel free to use any of her argument should you want to try and get your non-damaged carpet replaced. If you’re carpet gets wet with clean water and isn’t found to be delaminated, look for staining from furniture feet. Staining IS a valid reason to replace carpet.

Drywall and trim are the other most commonly damaged items in a home during a water loss. Drywall patches are 100% acceptable in restoration. The insurance company does not owe to replace all of the drywall in a room because there was a section that had to be removed. Understand that drywall can usually be dried without any relating issues. If a section has to be removed a patch fit to the squared-up removed section is acceptable. Once properly taped and mudded that patch will not be noticeable, if it is than your contractor needs to have another drywall crew redo the repair. Yes, drywall is hung in 4×8 or 4×12 sheets but that does not mean that you need an entire new sheet of drywall “because it wasn’t previously patched.” Any new drywall will be sealed and painted to match.

Insurance companies/adjusters are starting to release the reins on painting of a room. It varies company to company- adjuster to adjuster- and on the clients’ attitude. For years the standard has been to apply two coats of paint to the new drywall and 1 coat to the remaining section of wall (corner to corner). The corner to corner theory is that when painting a room you can/typically stop in the corner once you have an entire wall painted. You never want to stop mid wall because that will be noticeable. Also with corner to corner if the paint shade is slightly off it won’t be visible as it stops in the corner and light casting shadows will affect the paint shade as well. Having been met with so many contractor arguments over painting the remaining walls, during the last 2 years we have seen the corner to corner rule relax. Typically now, if I have a 12×12 room and I patch one of the walls, I will apply two coats of paint on top of two coats of primer to the new drywall. I can usually get the adjuster to approve repainting the remaining walls, to match. This does not mean that you get to change your 12×12 powder blue dining room to Victorian red. This means that you get a fresh coat of powder blue paint in your dining room. However, if you’re nice to your contractor you can update that powder blue to a similar tonal value color such as a grey blue. Cultivating and fostering a good relationship with your contractor can only benefit you.

One of the other biggest items homeowners don’t understand that don’t get covered are the source repair costs. Example: the ring between your toilet tank and bowl rots, causing your toilet to leak. The insurance coverage will be to repair the damage that the toilet caused. It however, will not cover the cost of fixing or replacing that toilet, or your cost to hire the plumber to come out and shut off the water and remove the toilet. In short, your insurance company is not trying to “stick it to you”. It is important to note that any form of water damage should be cleaned in a timely manner. Water damage can spread to mold damage, and your insurance company is not likely to pay for a mold inspection if they feel that you aided the progression of the mold by delaying in drying the area. If something doesn’t make sense. Ask about it. If you don’t understand the answer or are having difficulty with your adjuster ask for their supervisor. If something raises a flag in the supervisors head they can and often will either send out another adjuster/field reinspector or come out and investigate. Don’t be afraid to ask if you truly feel that you’re not being treated fairly. Your insurance agent can also help to explain your policy to you.

Regardless of what you feel you’re owed, just because you’ve been paying into you policy for x number of years doesn’t mean you get everything and anything you want. Indemnity is a basic insurance principle that states that you, as an insured should not be allowed to profit from an insurance loss. This principle is important and helps to protect both the insurance company and you.

Build Your Own Gymnastics Balance Beam

There are several methods to make a gymnastics balance beam for home use. They can run the gamut from the most basic wooden beam to one covered with carpet. Or you can make a more elaborate balance beam padded and wrapped in synthetic suede. However you decide, this project isn’t too difficult and can save you money. Most supplies you need can be found at a local home improvement store.

First a little background. All competitive gymnasts are required to perform on the balance beam apparatus. Beams used in international gymnastics competitions must conform to the strict guidelines and specifications set forth by the International Gymnastics Federation Apparatus Norms. Originally, the balance beam surface was polished wood. Since the 1980s, beams have been covered in synthetic suede. Today’s competition beams are also sprung to accommodate the stress of high-difficulty tumbling and dance skills. This is why gymnasts who are competing can be very particular about the apparatus they use at the gym vs the apparatus you might make at home. Therefore, it is always a good idea to consider the level of the gymnast when deciding to start this project

The regulation length for a competition balance beam is 16 ft 5 inches. Many homeowners can not accommodate an apparatus of this size in the home, therefore decide to make a shorter one. Many home-made balance beams range from 8 to 12 feet in length, however, all are a standard 4 inches in width. The height of the beam will depend on where it is used. We do not recommend using balance beams outdoors as it can be difficult to get a stable surface to prevent wobbling. Your apparatus should always be used on a flat surface.

For beginners age 3-6 a basic wooden beam will provide a great introduction to the sport. As the gymnast gets older this same apparatus can be wrapped in carpet to provide a bit of padding or you can choose to wrap it in synthetic suede to give it the realistic look and feel of a standard balance beam.

MATERIALS

(6) 1 x 6 lumber 8 ft. long (or any desired length)

(2) 2 x 4 lumber 20″ long for the legs

Wood Glue (such as Elmer’s Carpenters wood Glue)

3M Spray Adhesive

3″ wood screws

Wood Stain

Industrial Carpet

Suede Topper for carpet beam (option for carpet beam)

4 inch adhesive loop strip (option for padding)

Synthetic Suede Fabric (cover option)

Iron leg brace option

C Clamps

Sandpaper

Step 1

Glue the six 8-foot pieces of 1-by-6 inch pine lumber together so that their sides are fully contacting one another. This will create a block of wood that is 8 feet long with a side of about 4.5 inches.

Glue liberally between the boards and use clamps to make sure that the glue fastens itself to the wood. Let dry overnight. Using a Belt Sander go over entire beam and sand to smooth finish. If staining your beam you can use finer grade sandpaper with an Orbital Sander to create a smooth finish. If covering the beam with carpet or Suede this step may be omitted.

Step 2

For a stained wooden beam. After sanding to smooth finish, apply stain to your beam.

To make a carpet covered beam you will use heavy-duty staples and wrap the beam with the carpet. Start by stapling carpet to bottom side of the balance beam and tightly wrap carpet around beam and staple underside of beam only. You may also use spray adhesive to further secure the carpet to the beam.

For a synthetic suede covered beam you will want to pad the beam first using a neoprene strip. It can be difficult to find 4 inch wide neoprene which is used on professional beams therefore many home-made beams use yoga mats to pad the beam. You do not want the beam to be too soft so minimal padding is needed. Do not staple padding. Use glue only as staples will cause dimples. You can also use 4 inch wide adhesive peel and stick loop to create padding as well. Continue attaching the suede to the beam by applying spray adhesive to the top and sides of the balance beam. Working from the bottom of the beam, staple the Suede along the bottom. This is a 2 person project as one needs to tightly pull the Suede around the beam evenly while it is being secured with the adhesive. Make sure your balance beam is completely dry before use.

Step 3

For a basic beam you will screw the (2) 20 inch 2 x 4 wood braces to each end. Place each brace at a 90 degree angle to the beam 12 inches from each end.

Alternatively, you can purchase iron manufactured balance beam braces you simply screw into the bottom of your beam. These braces come in a variety of heights and can even make your beam adjustable. It is possible to convert your basic beam to metal braces later on. One advantage to metal braces is they are tall enough to allow a mat to slide under the balance beam while the gymnast is using it.

Warning

Use home-made balance beams at your own discretion. As your beam is not a professionally made piece of equipment it is only as strong as your craftsmanship. Use with supervision as gymnastics is a sport with inherent risk of possible injury.

The Various Binding Methods for Book Productions

There are several ways of binding books. However, there are two major types of binding, namely the mechanical or loose-leaf binding method and the conventional or permanent binding method. Graphic artists who would want to specialize in book publishing must know these traditional methods of book production.

1. Mechanical or loose-leaf binding method

In this binding method, loose sheets of papers together with the covers are held together by the use of plastic grip spine, plastic comb, post or ring binder etc. Holes are punched at the spine of the collated sheets together with the covers and the plastic or metallic rings are inserted through the created holes to hold the sheets and covers together. The binding processes in this category allow sheets to be removed or added without affecting the remaining sheets. Another characteristic of this binding type is that it opens flat. Examples of binding techniques under this type include Spiral wire, Ring, Comb, Post etc. The process is the same in all the techniques mentioned under it. However, the type of coil that is inserted at the spine edge points out the differences. The general process has been explained below:

Tools and materials: loose sheets of paper, hardboard (covers), trimming knife, bodkin, hammer, universal pliers.

Process:

1. Collate or arrange the loose sheets and covers together.

2. Trim all the four edges of the collated sheets for them to have equal width and height.

3. Punch or create holes of even spacing at the spine edge of the collated sheets.

4. Insert the spiral wire, plastic ring, comb or post binder through the holes and clip it at the back.

5. The book is ready for use.

2. Conventional or Permanent binding method

In this binding method, the loose sheets and the covers are held together by the use of adhesives, staples or thread. Unlike the mechanical type of binding, sheets cannot be removed or added after the binding has been done. Removal of a sheet after the binding would affect the remaining sheets. Examples of binding techniques under this category include Saddle or Single-section stitching, Side stitching, perfect binding and the edition or multi-section binding.

i. Saddle or Single-section stitching

This binding technique employs stitching to hold the loose sheets together with the cover which are folded into folios. The stitching is done in the middle section of the book after holes have been created. It is the simplest and inexpensive technique of binding. It is used for the production of exercise books, catalogues, bulletins, booklets, pamphlets, jotters etc. It ensures easy reading since the sheets open flat but the disadvantage is that when one sheet is torn, it affects the remaining sheets. Saddle or single-section binding requires the use of a number of stitches. For instance, a two stitch saddle stitching involves the holding of the collated sheets and cover using two stitches. Other types include three stitch saddle stitching, four stitch saddle stitching etc.

Tools and materials: Papers folded into folios, bone folder, trimming knife, metal ruler, thread, bodkin, needle, pencil, paper board (cover).

Process:

1. Fold the loose sheets into folios and insert it into each other to form a section.

2. The section is placed or inserted into the paperboard to be used as cover.

3. At the middle part of the section, create a number of equally spaced marks where the holes will be created. (It must be noted that three holes are marked and created for a two stitch, four holes for three stitch, five holes for four stitches etc.)

4. Pierce or create holes through the marked points with the help of a bodkin.

5. For a two stitch saddle stitching, insert the threaded needle in the middle hole from the inside of the section. Pull it outside and then through the first hole from the inside. Pass the threaded needle then at the third hole and bring it back to the middle hole where the stitching was started. Pull the two ends together and tie them together tightly to secure the ends.

6. The fore edge, head, and tail of the sewn book are marked and trimmed with a trimming knife.

7. The saddle-stitched book is ready for use.

ii. Side stitching

This binding technique involves the use of single sheets of papers and two paper covers. It is called a side stitching because the stitching or holding of the sheets of paper is done at the side of the book. An advantage of this binding technique is that when one sheet is torn, it does not affect the remaining pages. However, its disadvantage is that a side-stitched book does not open flat.

Tools and materials: Single sheets, bodkin, pencil, needle, paper clips, stapler, paper boards (covers), trimming knife.

Process:

1. Collate the single sheets of paper together with the covers.

2. Hold the collated sheets in position at the head and tail with paper clips.

3. Create a parallel line to the spine one centimeter away from the spine.

4. `Create equally spaced holes with a bodkin at the side.

5. Use a threaded needle to stitch the side of the book to hold the leaves together. Staple pins can also be used to hold the sheets at the side of the book.

6. The fore-edge, head, and tail of the book is trimmed nicely with a trimming knife.

7. The side stitched book is ready for use.

It should be noted that sometimes, a strip of brown paper and glue are used to cover the sewn areas or staple pins at the side of the book.

iii. Perfect binding

This method does not employ stitching. It uses adhesive or glue to hold the sheets and covers together. When one sheet is torn, it does not affect the remaining sheets. They are used for producing writing pads, memo pads, sketch pads, telephone directory etc.

Tools and materials: Sheets of paper, adhesive, strawboards (covers), brush.

Process:

1. Collate the sheets of paper and jog to align them together.

2. Apply the adhesive or glue to the spine together with the backing board.

3. Glue the front cover to the backing board and allow it to dry.

4. Trim the fore-edge, head, and tail with a trimming knife or guillotine.

5. The perfect bound book is ready for use.

iv. Edition/Case-bound or multi-section binding

This binding method employs both sewing and gluing techniques. Owing to this, it is the binding technique that ensures the most durability and protection of books. Though it opens flat, when one sheet is torn it affects the remaining sheets. It is used for the production of notebooks, dictionaries, diaries, albums, project reports, thesis etc.

1. Body- This is the main sheets that contain the contents of the book.

2. Gummed tape- This is a strong reinforcement tape that is glued at the edges of the endpapers to hold them together with the body of the book.

3. Headband- It is a colourful band of thread placed at the top and sometimes the bottom of the backbone of a book as a form of decoration and as a reference aid in books.

4. Lining- This is a heavy paper or synthetic leather material glued to the backbone to give it a smooth and even surface.

5. Backing paper- This is a stiff but flexible paper strip placed between two binder’s boards. It gives the book cloth stability.

6. Case- This refers to the covers of a hardbound book.

7. Binder’s board- This is a thick, grey, rigid paperboard used to make the case.

8. Book cloth- This is a material made from either natural or man-made fibres used to cover the binder’s boards that form the case.

9. Backbone- This is the spine or the back of a bound book.

10. Super- This is a gauze-like fabric glued to the backbone and the case of a book. It provides a firm link between them.

11. End sheets- These are the blank sheets of paper placed at first and last sections of the book thus, before the first sheet and after the last page of the body of the book.

a. Producing a multi-section bound book

Tools and materials: Paper, strawboard, needle, thread, metal ruler, trimming knife, cutting plate, bone folder, brush, glue, press boards, hammer, binding cloth, binding tape.

Process:

1. Collate the required number of sections or signatures for the book. It must be noted that eight folios constitute one section or signature.

2. Create six to eight marks at the spine of the book depending on the height of the book. Use the bodkin to pierce holes at the marked areas.

3. The threaded needle is used to sewn the various sections together beginning from the first section to the last section. At equally spaced sections, the binding tape is inserted and the sewing is done over it.

4. Two folios of the same size as that of the book are pasted at the spines at the first and last sections of the book to serve as end papers.

5. Round the spine of the book with a backing hammer into a convex shape.

6. Glue the spine and paste the muslin over the glued area.

7. Place the book under a weight to dry thoroughly.

8. Mark the fore-edge, tail and head of the book and trim.

b. Production of the case

1. Cut two backing boards which are a bit larger in size than the size of the book.

2. Measure and cut the spine with a relatively lighter paper when compared to the backing boards for the covers.

3. Cut a piece of binding cloth larger and longer than the spine of the case.

4. Apply an adhesive and paste the two backing boards with the spine at the middle of the binding cloth at the middle of the case.

5. The excess binding cloth is turned over and pasted in the inner parts of the backing boards.

6. Apply an adhesive at the middle section of the case as well as the backbone of the book.

7. Fix the book into the prepared case. This process is termed as Casing-in.

8. Place a weight on the book and allow it to dry. The case-bound book is ready for use.

How to Fix a PVC Pipe With Water Gushing Out

Down here in Florida, and I guess this would be true for other places in the south, where it never gets cold enough, long enough to freeze water pipes, a very unusual practice takes place. At least it’s unusual to me, because I grew up in Michigan, where all pipes that have any kind of water in them must be buried under the frost line, and that is 4’6″ where I’m from, deeper if you go further north.

The unusual practice that I speak of is, having the feed for lawn sprinkler systems exposed above the ground. Let me explain, the feed for this is usually a 1″ PVC pipe that rises about 2′ above the ground with a 90 degree elbow, then a short piece of PVC with a threaded coupling, this threaded coupling goes into a 1″ brass ball valve, next there are back to back 1″ cast iron backflow preventer’s with strainers, then back into a 1″ brass ball valve another short piece of PVC a 90 degree elbow and finally back in to the ground where it will usually go to the garage to a water management timer and from there it feeds the sprinkler system.

Now think about this for a moment. We have these two 1″ PVC pipes sticking up from the ground holding up about 30 pounds of cast iron and brass components. I don’t know who the genius is that thought of this, but it seems to be the standard for these systems here. The first house I lived in when I moved down here, this set up was right in the middle of the backyard. Pretty easy to spot when mowing the lawn, but it looked pretty ugly as well. The next house I moved to, it was tucked away in the back corner of the yard, out of the way behind the shed.

In the spring time down here we get a lot of rain and vegetation grows very fast, my weed wacker was broke and it had been a week or so since I had trimmed the yard. So I’m out there cutting the lawn on my riding lawn mower, which I had just bought a couple of months ago, because it is too damn hot and humid to be trying to push mow anything down here, and I was making my first pass around the backyard. as I passed behind the shed I knew that the sprinkler pipe was in this area but couldn’t see it because the vegetation had grown up and hid it from my sight. I thought that I had given plenty of room and went right by. I don’t think I moved ten feet when I could feel water landing on my back. I knew immediately what I had done. I pulled the tractor up another twenty feet, so it wouldn’t get soaked and shut it off.

When I turned around I almost couldn’t believe my eyes, water was shooting up into the air 15-20 feet. The first thing I thought of was to shut one of the ball valves, which was a great idea except for the fact that the pipe was broke before the valves and they were lying on the ground. At first the water felt kinda cold but after a couple minutes I was getting pretty used to it. I was really amazed at the water pressure coming out of that pipe. Being a pipe fitter I looked in my stuff to see if I had anything to cap this geyser off with, but I work on steel pipe and couldn’t find anything. so I ran up to the hardware store and purchased a 1′ PVC cap and some PVC primer and glue.

So the first thing that I wanted to do was to square off the end of the pipe that had been broken. I got out my 1/2″ x 1-1/2″ pipe cutter and cut it off about a foot above the ground. I then filed the end of the pipe so the cap would slip on to it nice and easy. Now keep in mind that the whole time that I’m doing this I am getting a steady stream of water dumped on my head, because it’s shooting straight up in the air and coming right down on me. Not only that, there is now about 4 inches of water built up on the ground.

Alright, my pipe is cut an cleaned, so I put the primer on the pipe and then in the cap an then the glue on both. I then force the cap down onto the pipe and hold it with my hand in my crotch and applying all my weight on it. The water stops squirting out and I hold this position for about a minute, till my hand just couldn’t take it anymore. I slowly start to take my weight off of the cap and then move away, thinking whew, glad thats over. I took maybe two steps backward and poof, the cap pops off and flies about 30 feet into the air and water is gushing everywhere again. Just about this time my wife comes out and says “maybe we should call a plumber”. HAHA very funny.

After I found the cap, I saw that it had only gone onto the pipe about a quarter inch. Maybe the water was messing with the glue. so I cleaned everything back up and had her hold the other pipe, the one that had broken with the 90 on it, so it would shoot the water away from me and the pipe so the glue wouldn’t get wet. At least I’m not the only one getting wet now. I reprimered and glued the pipe and cap. Once again I tried to force that cap back onto the pipe, but the pressure was just too strong and I just couldn’t get it to stay. I again heard that little voice “maybe you should call a plumber”. I am not paying someone $90 an hour to fix this when I know I can do it myself. Just then, it hits me, and I think to myself you idiot, you sure wouldn’t fix this, like this at work.

So I head back up to the hardware store make my purchase and hurry home. By this time there is probably 6 inches of water on the ground and my wife says do you need my help? Nope I got it. I clean the pipe off one last time and apply the primer and glue to the pipe and the PVC ball valve I had just purchased from the hardware store. with the valve in the open position I slip it onto the pipe and make a quarter turn and hold it in place for about a minute. When I’m sure the glue has set I simply closed the valve and my nightmare was over. I purchased a ten foot piece of PVC pipe, three 90s, one straight slip coupling and a couple threaded couplings. It only took about a half an hour to completely rebuild the whole thing, and needless to say I don’t let the weeds grow up that high back there anymore.

I hope that this story has helped you. I know that I could have just told you from the beginning what to do, but I think you’ll remember it better this way.