The Purpose of an RSS Feed – In Simple Terms

An RSS Feed is a web format used, to publish current information in real time to other websites. You are able to set up an RSS feed on your site which will include automatic feeds from other websites or any specific page, topic that interest you.

Visitors to your website can see updates from other websites in real time from the RSS feed. It is also useful to provide notification of anything which is happening. A RSS feed can be pretty handy for those who want up-to-date information from their favorite site or to be able to combine all their favorite sites so they can see them all in one feed.

RSS feed is actually great tool for business owners. A business owner could use feeds to keep his visitors updated on current, updated information of any industry. Visitors would be able to see it on the feed and do not need to leave the website to read it.

News websites make good use of RSS feeds to draw in customers. Many people out there subscribe to a news site to keep themselves updated on current events and to have news within easy reach. It is a way to stay informed. You can get all the information you need on one page, without going from page to page or site to site. It is like having someone constantly feeding you the latest information on what is happening around the world.

Be rest assured as well that your readers or subscribers would not be overwhelmed with details. The feed would provide just the right amount of details. If a reader wants more details, they could simply click the item and go to the website where the information is coming from.

There are sources of information that can be accessed through RSS feeds:

* Forum feeds

* Blog feeds

* Article feeds

* News feeds

Feeds are particularly useful for broadcasting news on many subjects like houses for sale, upcoming events, auctions, legal items, job listing and entertainment. The possibilities of their usage are practically endless.

When people subscribe to your feed, they know that they can rely on you to provide them with interesting information and to keep them updated on all the information they want to know. You, on the other hand, could use RSS feeds to post items of interest (or information which adds value to others) which you want to be sure people are aware of. Of course, visitors have the option of opting out of the feeds anytime that they want.

Use RSS feeds as a strategy to market and to supply the public with value-added information.

Painting Business – 13 Point Checklist of Essential Tools Most Needed to Start a Painting Business

If you are considering starting a commercial or residential painting business you will only need some basic low-cost tools to start with. You can buy other tools as more jobs come along and with your down payments. Here is a list of the most essential painting business tools needed to get you started.

1.) Quality Cage Frame – Also known as a paint roller. Wooster and Purdy both have strong, commercial-use cage frames sold at most professional paint stores.

2.) Extension Pole – Get yourself a good medium-size fiberglass extension pole for rolling out walls and ceilings.

3.) Wall-Sander – I always sand walls and ceilings before I roll them out. It cleans up cobwebs and anything else that needs to be knocked down to make the walls and ceilings smooth.

4.) Roller Bucket – I use Wooster’s roller bucket. It is tall, square and has a lid. It is made out of durable plastic and balances a lot better than a paint tray and washes out easy. It’s a must have.

5.) Cut-in Bucket – I like to put some paint in a small plastic bucket for cutting in. There are small 1-gallon buckets of drywall compound that when empty make a great cut-bucket plus they have a lid. They will last for years.

6.) Step Ladder – A regular wooden 5-foot step ladder works perfect for most homes. If I need a 6-foot ladder I have an aluminum one for that. Most of the time all I need is my 5-footer and I am only 5’6″ so there you go.

7.) 16′ Extension Ladder – Great for stairwells or ranch-style exterior jobs. I use my 16-foot extension ladder more than any other size. I also have 20′ and a 24′ extension ladders, but i couldn’t get by without my little 16-footer.8.) Drop Cloths – I like using the runner type the most. They are inexpensive, light to carry and can be moved around the room easily. I also have 9 x 12’s on hand.

9.) Fluorescent Light – Interior painting without a fluorescent light is nearly impossible, especially on a cloudy day. Fluorescent light is a nice white light that is great for painting and shows up the colors in their true form.

10.) Tool Bucket – An empty 5-gallon bucket makes a great tool bucket. I keep my pliers, a hammer, razor-blade knives, a caulk gun, etc., in my tool bucket.

11.) Small Fan – I bought a $30 blower type fan made by Stanley Tools from Walmart. It dries out walls and ceilings quickly so you can get back to work cutting in and moving around the room without it being wet.

12.) Drywall compound – I hate Spackle. It flashes under paint jobs. I use the Sheetrock brand of 90-minute quick-dry drywall compound found at Lowes or other hardware stores for around $11 a bag. It will last me all year long. It is the powder formula and is easy to mix up right on the job with water and a small cut bucket. This way you don’t have to carry a heavy 5-gallon pale around with you that can also freeze during the wintertime and can get lots of chunks in it over time.

13.) Caulk Gun – I use painters caulk all the time to fill small gaps between woodwork, trim and walls. Most paint stores have it on hand. I use the 35-year interior/exterior type.

So there you have it. If you are considering starting your own painting business and want to know how much it will cost to get started this list will help you. I would guess off hand that everything on the list totals around $300. If you already have a step ladder and even a small extension ladder, this will cut the start up cost down considerably.

Types of Glass Aquariums: How Should You Pick One?

Most people settle down for glass aquariums because it is stronger than acrylic. It is also cheaper and does not easily get scratches. You can get a clear view of the fishes inside and any dirt build up will be visible. But there are actually two types of glass aquariums – tempered and plate. Both have its pros and cons so you should know it well before purchasing. Another type that is becoming popular is the laminated types. Know each type and find out which will be better for you.


A tempered glass is also known as toughened glass. It is the most popularly used glass for aquariums because it is very strong and lightweight. It is called toughened glass because it undergo extreme heating process then it is quickly cooled to strengthen it.

You cannot drill a tempered glass. And in case it breaks, it shatters into real small pieces. You will not see cracks or leaks, but it will break into tiny million rounded pieces, thus it is not so dangerous. It will not cause injuries or cuts since there will be no sharp edges. That is why it is also known as safe glass.

Plate Glass

Plate glass is also popularly known as annealed glass and sheet glass. It is a relatively heavy glass that is also resistant to scratch. It will not have any ugly discolorations unlike other glass. However, this type of glass breaks into large, sharp pieces. You may notice cracks, holes, and leaks when a plate glass is damaged. So, you can save your fish first if you see that it is about to break. But in case it breaks, you have to be careful since the broken pieces of plate glass can cut you off.


This is a newer type of glass. Though it was only used before in windshields and doors, it is also used now for aquariums. Laminated glass is made by putting together annealed glasses with the same thickness.

It is laminated using a strong plastic interlayer that makes this glass more durable and resistant from strong impacts. So if it breaks, the glass usually remains in the frame. It is also safe to use since there will be fewer sharp edges scattering around.

Which One Should I Pick?

Well, that really depends on your needs and preferences. Each one has its advantages and disadvantages and it is up to you to weigh those. For instance, annealed glass is cheaper than tempered glass. If you are after low-cost glass aquarium, you can buy this one. However, if you think more about the safety and strength of the glass, you can buy tempered glass, especially if you will be building a large aquarium.

Do not use annealed glass for large aquariums because it is heavy so you will surely find it difficult to clean. If it slips or you are not able to balance it, it might end up in an accident.

And as you buy, look for the stickers on the aquarium itself to know if it is tempered, plate, or laminated. You can also ask for assistance from the store helper to be sure.

Metal Gazebo Roof – A Roof For Your Gazebo

When you choose to buy a custom gazebo kit, you are offered many options to complete the gazebo you have long been dreaming of. Do you want screens? Do you want windows? And more importantly, what kind of roof do you want for your gazebo?

You may want a double roof gazebo. A double roof will offer extra ventilation for your gazebo. It is really more of an aesthetic addition. From inside of the gazebo, it gives it more of a cathedral ceiling type of a look. When viewing the gazebo from the outside, the double roof offers a break in the roofline.

You may opt for what is called a regular, square, hip roof. It is called this because all four sides are pitched inward and all sides are equal. The peak of the roof is located exactly in the center of the building and this results in all four roof sides as having an equal slope.

You may want to construct a metal gazebo roof. The advantage of a metal roof is durability and they are lightweight. You can make metal to imitate the appearance of just about any other type of roofing. A metal roof gazebo will have a life expectancy of over thirty years. The downside is the cost. Metal roof gazebo will cost from $100-$600 per 100 square feet and the installation will cost more than a shingle roof as well.

A metal gazebo roof may be made of painted aluminum or steel. These are two of the most popular choices. Aluminum and steel are strong and they can be formed to look like a tile or slate roof. These can be very expensive.

The speed of installation is another factor to consider when you are thinking of a metal roof gazebo. You can often find a metal roof gazebo kit that will have everything you need in order to set up and enjoy your new gazebo in the shortest amount of time.

A metal roof gazebo will give you years of worry free use. You won’t find holes, cracks or loose shingles when you choose a metal roof gazebo. The ease of maintenance and years of wear and tear can definitely tip the balance in favor of the more expensive metal roof gazebo, as it will be much easier to care for and last much longer.

How to Deal With the Annoying Problem of Peeling Paint

If your home or property has peeling paint on woodwork, concrete, steel etc you will know all too well the frustration of having your home repainted only to see that paint blistering and peeling off again in a few short months.

This problem can have many causes and is usually not that easy to solve after it occurs.

What are the causes of paint peeling? Sometimes paint blisters and peels or flakes of due to inadequate cleaning or surface preparation prior to application of the paint. Perhaps the incorrect primer is used, maybe no primer is used. Paint applied to previously poorly prepared surfaces is virtually certain to become loose and come away from the substrate / peel off.

Some of the most common substrates that ‘throw paint off’ in buildings are as follows: concrete window sills, wall cappings, precast concrete panels, wooden window frames, fascia boards, gates, galvanised steel gates and railings, shop fronts, painted brickwork, to mention a few. Shiny surfaces like aluminium, uPVC, glass etc are also well known problems for peeling paint.

Let’s take paint peeling off concrete first. Window sills and wall cappings are two of the biggest offenders for this problem. One of the reasons that happens is because those precast concrete sections are usually produced in moulds and those moulds are normally sprayed with a mould releasing oil to make removal of the concrete from the moulds easier after it sets etc. When those concrete sections are installed, most people are unaware that there is oil contaminating the pores of the concrete and continue to apply paint.

Avoiding or curing the problem. New precast concrete should be thoroughly cleaned with a solvent to get rid of the oil and allowed to dry prior to application of the primer coat. When surface is dry, an appropriate primer should be applied to ensure adhesion to the concrete. The latest developments in this area are known as stir-in bonding primers such as E-B or Bonzit etc which you add into the first coat of any water based paint thereby saving an extra application. If concrete has been painted already and has a history of peeling, you should remove all traces of loose material with a wire brush or even a power washer used at a very sharp ‘scraping’ angle.

In the case of wood such as fascia boards etc, the peeling problem occurs usually due to inadequate priming in the first instance or adequate time was not allowed on newly planned wood prior to painting. As with concrete above, you should remove all traces of blistering or peeling paint by sanding or chemical remover if appropriate. When wood has been prepared, apply a good quality primer or if you have a good paint stockist nearby you might be able to obtain one of those stir in oil bonding primers which can save you additional time and work.

If you need to paint shiny surfaces like glass, tiles, melamine, plastics etc you need to take great care and select a primer or an easy surface prep specially developed to provide a grip on such surfaces.

5 Most Popular Types of Industrial Equipment

There are many forms of industrial equipment used in the workplace. Industrial equipment is usually large and made of materials such as steel and titanium for optimal strength. These machines are often needed to lift and move materials which may possibly weigh thousands of pounds.

A piece of industrial equipment which is not in working order should never be used for any reason. All equipment is inspected at the beginning of everyday to ensure they are in the best condition for workers.

By now, there are a million pieces of industrial equipment racing through your head but the question is, which ones are the most popular and most crucial to the industrial field? Below you will find five types of industrial equipment which are known to be the masters of all machines in the industrial workplace:

1. Bulldozers – Bulldozers are massive machines which are used mostly in the construction and mining industries. Bulldozers have the ability to lift and move vast amounts of dirt and other debris from one place to another. Bulldozers can operate in many conditions including snow, hail and rain. These pieces of equipment are generally used to dig up the ground and provide room for building houses or other types of buildings.

2. Cranes – Cranes are generally used to transport hard, heavy items from one place to another. The arm of the crane is used to swing the object from one place to another and the arm can be adjusted according to how far the materials need to go. Unlike bulldozers, cranes have the ability to transport objects over uneven levels of ground.

3. Excavators – Excavators are engineering vehicles which consist of backhoes and cabs. They are mainly used in the digging of trenches, foundations and holes. They can also be used to destroy objects which are no longer needed for any reason and in which case need to be compressed and condensed.

4. Fork Lifts – Forklifts are warehouse vehicles which are used to lift, hoist and transport extremely heavy items from one place to another. Forklifts are known to be indispensable pieces of equipment in many industrial workplaces.

5. Compressors – Most of the pieces of equipment listed above are used for construction purposes, however compressors are generally used in more of a factory-type setting. Compressors are used to provide high pressures of air or other forms of gases. These devices can be regulated in order to maintain the desired amount of pressure in the tank.

There are many other forms of industrial equipment. Each piece of equipment is designed to perform a specific task which contributes to the overall success in this field of work. Without these forms of equipment many industrial areas would not exist.

How to Troubleshoot Video Problems

Few things can be as frustrating as picture problems. You get your system all ready to go, flip the switch, and WHAM! One or more channels look terrible. The good news is that the majority of video problems can be traced to just a few causes. Most problems are comprised of the following:


Horizontal bars rolling though the picture

Vertical bars rolling through the picture


Herringbone pattern (diagonal lines through picture)

Lower channels look fine, upper channels are not

These six are the main symptoms you’ll find when seeing video problems. Thankfully, most are fairly easy to fix.

Snow –

Snow is caused by inadequate signal strength at the tuner. It’s usually caused by:

1 Splitting the signal too many times.

2 A weak signal from the antenna or cable company

3 A very long cable run

If the signal is snowy at all your TVs, especially if you have more than 4 TVs, you probably need an RF amplifier. Check the strength at the demark (service entrance). If it is fine there, add an amplifier before the splitter. Make sure to use a quality unit with good bandwidth (out to at least 1000MHz). If you have digital cable or a cable modem, get an amplifier with a bidirectional return path to allow for communication back to the cable company. If the picture looks bad at the demark, contact the cable company.

If it is bad at only one TV, you may have a bad cable between the splitter and the TV or a very long run of cable. You can amplify just that run.

Horizontal Rolling Bars –

Horizontal rolling bars are caused by DC power getting into the cable system. To fix it, disconnect the TV from all other components in the system. If the bars disappear, add the other components back in until the bars return. When you find the offending component, use a DC blocker to eliminate the DC power path to the system.

Vertical Rolling Bars –

Vertical rolling bars are caused by AC power getting on the cable line. The best fix for this is to use a ground breaker. A ground breaker eliminates the electrical connection between the TV and the cable system. A ground breaker is also the main fix for a hum on your audio system’s speakers.

Ghosting –

Ghosting is caused by the tuner receiving identical signals at slightly different times. It can be caused by your TV receiving a local station broadcasting over the air and via the cable system at the same time. Make sure you are using good quality RG-6 coax cable and good compression fittings. Replace any low quality cable splitters or combiners with high quality units. Make sure they are tight also. This will also cure another cause of ghosting, signal reflection inside a poor cable.

Ghosting can also be caused by multi-path interference on an antenna system. This is especially true in an urban environment with lots of hills and tall buildings. To combat this, use a very directional antenna aimed directly at the desired station.

Herringbone Pattern –

A herringbone pattern is caused by radio frequency interference from other stations transmitting on the same channel or adjacent channels, powerful radio signals, computers, etc. Another common cause is being equidistant from two transmitters operating on the same channel.

In short, this can be caused by just about any sort of RF radiation at the correct frequency. Really great shielding found on high quality cables helps to combat this. If you are getting this interference while modulating an A/V source on a certain channel, try switching to a different channel.

Poor Upper Channel Reception –

Poor Upper Channel Reception is caused by poor signal strength on the upper channels. Use an amplifier with a tilt compensator that allows adjustment of the upper channels relative to the lower channels. This will prevent overdriving the lower channels while providing the upper channels with enough gain. Also, check to see if all components in the RF system are rated to at least 1GHz and RG-6 or RG-6Quad shield cable is being used throughout.

Increase Penis Size – How to Increase Penis Size Effectively

These days there are many different parts of the body that people choose to change in some way, whether it’s decreasing the size of a waist, reductions of the breast, or even the reshaping of one’s nose. Just as with any other part of the body, the penis is equally adaptable to change- and the important thing is knowing which methods can be safely used to increase penis size.

One particular advertising ditch that many people get into is that the only way to increase penis size is to take a pill, apply a cream, use a patch, or even purchasing and using a pump to get the desired results. While these may be profitable for the seller, they are neither healthy nor effective for the customer. Some are even dangerous to the user’s health! The safest (and most effective) methods are through penis extenders and penis exercises. The great part is that they really do work, and they are regarded by medical professionals as the safest and most natural way to get results.

The 2 Most Reliable Ways To Increase Penis Size Effectively

These two means both achieve the same end – an increase in size produced via more body cells (which is perfectly safe and healthy). The stretching motion used by both methods causes the cells of the male sex organ to split and grow. As the number of cells increases so does the size of your member in both it’s flaccid and erect states.

The exercises (including jelqing) must be performed precisely in order to achieve the necessary results. The intensity, speed and angle of the strokes are all important to ensure the desired growth is achieved, not to mention consistency. If you are busy, tired or simply prefer to watch TV or spend time with your family (who doesn’t?) then sticking to a regular exercise program can be challenge but if you can stick to it the rewards are significant and proven.

The penis extender, however, is typically worn six to eight hours a day, and has the same effect (but without the guesswork as to how the technique must be performed). The consistency issue is also taken care of as the user must simply wear the device and the gentle tension force exerted over time does the rest. Extenders have been known to produce excellent size returns with the typical user able to increase the length and girth of their manhood by up to 30% in a three to six month time frame. In order to be assured that you will get these results, the user must make sure that the device is medically certified and proven to work via clinical tests, or else results may not be quite as effective.

While pills and creams are nice ideas, they simply do not provide any concrete beneficial results. The best way to increase penis size is to use a combination of natural exercises and a medically proven penis extender for the amount of time needed to achieve the desired result.

E-Mini Trading: Which Contracts Should You Trade in the Overnight Session?

Trading has changed a good deal since I first stepped onto the trading floor in the 1980’s and one of the most significant changes has been the development of overnight trading. As I am sure you are aware, most contracts are open for e-mini trading nearly 24 hours each day. The market closes briefly just after the cash session for a half hour and then starts the next day’s trading. Obviously, this creates some tremendous opportunities to catch some decent trades after hours.

So what contract should you trade? The simple answer is; any market that has decent volume and price movement. Alas, that is much easier said than done; many of the lesser indexes are very quiet over the course of the evening hours so you will have to be fairly creative in choosing which contract you plan for your e-mini trading. That being said, contracts like the TF and YM generally lack any real movement overnight. Of course, there will be times when even these lower volume contracts are active, especially if there is some significant news or announcements these two markets can be traded, but generally speaking, you will probably have little success with the YM and TF. These contracts are simply too thin to trade most of the time.

However, there are some contracts that can be easily traded in the evening session, especially during Japanese trading hours and European Trading hours. If it were me I would concentrate on contracts that have a significant impact on the European economy.

Some of my favorite contracts to trade are;

6E: This is the futures version of the Euro and it generally moves inversely to what the DX contract is doing. There were several years that this contract was so hot that I started trading at 4 AM EST and had tremendous success. Since the EU is very actively manipulating this contract with stimulus programs this contract has been a bit slow, but recently it seems to have broken out of the choppy market syndrome that has dominated most of the trading on the 6E.

CL: Let’s face it, people seem to want to trade crude and the price action can be very active. Generally speaking, the night session will be very good on this contract or it will be working sideways in a channel.

6A: This is the Aussie dollar and can often track with crude prices. I would check both contracts to see if the markets are correlating or diverging. There can be important news in Australia that may override the usual correlating nature of this contract with crude prices.

ES: I am not a big fan of the ES, as it can be clunky and grind away in a narrow channel. But this is not always the case; there are many nights when good trades can be found. You don’t have to worry about all the hanky-panky that is typical of the ES during the cash session.

6J: The Japanese currency can also be active during the Japanese cash session. Be careful with this contract because the Japanese central bank has been very active in keeping the Japanese currency price stable. I will admit the measures the Japanese central bank has taken can cause a good deal of movement in price or it may bore you to tears.

6B: The British pound is generally active after 3am EST and can be a real blast to trade. It trades in a fairly logical manner but you should always be on the lookout for unexpected spikes in price as it doesn’t take much volume to push this market around, which is in sharp contrast to trading during the cash session. In short, this is a contract that you should always check for potential trades overnight.

As a night e-mini trader, your goal is to look at the all the contracts and determine which one is showing significant movement. Of the contracts listed above, the 6E will generally have the heaviest volume of the bunch. As an e-mini scalper, all I am looking for in trading at night is some reliable movement in price. As always, best of luck in your trading.

A Guide to Freight Forwarding

The types of sea shipping

There are many different types of ship used for international sea freight; the differences reflecting the various requirements of importers and exporters, with particular vessels used to transport different types of cargo. Below is a summary of the different types of vessels used:

· Roll-on roll-off, or ‘ro-ro’ vessels are used to carry both haulage and passenger vehicles

· Container vessels are used to transport standard 20′ or 40′ containers

· Tankers are used to carry bulk liquids, such as oil and gas

· General cargo ships will carry all types of loose packed cargo

· Bulk carriers are used for the transportation of large volume, single commodity loads, such as coal, grain and ores

Trade vessels essentially operate in two ways:

· As liner vessels operating on fixed routes, and usually with a standard tariff. This sector is dominated by roll-on roll-off vessels, container and general cargo ships

· Or as charter vessels operating according to the demands of the organsiation chartering them.

The way in which goods are transported onto ships

There are three main ways in which goods are transported on ships:

Loaded in containers

Container shipping dominates international shipments. The benefits of container shipping is the ease of intermodal transit, (ie containers can be off-loaded and transferred directly to a road or rail vehicle); the ability to offer a door to door service; the speed and efficiency of loading / unloading and the obvious financial impact of such and finally, the security of the goods during transit.

There are many different types of container, such as refrigerated and open topped containers, however the most commonly used containers are the 20ft & 40ft containers. Their respective dimensions and capacity are as follows:

20ft: 589cm x 235cm x 239cm (h) – capacity 33.2 cubic metres

40ft: 1,203cm x 235cm x 239cm (h) – capacity 67.7 cubic metres

Break bulk

Break bulk is a term used to refer to any non bulk goods which aren’t containerised, such as goods on pallets, crates, or in drums or sacks. This form of transportation tends to be used for specialist trades, such as fresh fruit and vegetables, or for transport to smaller ports which may not have the necessary infrastructure to handle container cargo.

In bulk

Used for the transportation of large quantities of certain commodities, such as coal, ore, oil etc.

Key international shipping routes

The main international shipping routes reflect the flow of world trade, with sailings being most frequent on those routes where the trade volumes are the largest and therefore demand the greatest.

For sailings into the UK, by far the busiest routes are those from the Far East, especially China. The North Atlantic route, which links Western Europe with the USA and Canada, is also a busy route. Sailings from the Middle East for the transport of oil, as well as routes to India, Australia, East and West Africa and Central and South America are also particularly busy.

Although there are services from the UK to all the main trading economies, if your goods are destined for a country with little trade with the UK, they may need to be transshipped to another local sailing during the final leg of the journey.

There will normally be a number of different options by which your goods can reach their final destination. These can be explored in detail by discussing them with freight forwarders who will have knowledge of the most cost effective and time efficient routes.

The costs of international shipping

There are a variety of factors which will impact the cost of moving goods by sea. Essentially there are two elements: the actual cost of the sea freight charged by the vessel operator, and the costs related to the handling and clearance of the goods at the ports of origin and destination.

Various factors will influence how these charges are calculated:

· The actual ocean freight is usually charged according to the shipping lines standard tariff, although larger shippers and certain freight forwarders may be able to negotiate preferential discounts

· Rates for charter vessels will depend on the supply and demand conditions prevalent at the time of charter

Other factors that will impact the final price include:

· The different rates for specific categories of cargo

· Congestion charges at the busier ports

· Currency adjustment factor (CAF), which takes into account the exchange rate changes during transit

· Bunker adjustment factor (BAF), which takes into account fuel price fluctuation

· Surcharges levied by the ports or shipping lines to cover the costs associated with different regulatory regimes

Another factor relating to containerised goods is whether or not you are shipping a full container load (FCL). Most shipping lines have tariffs based on container rates, making it far more economical to ship a full container. If your consignment is less than container load (LCL), it may be worth consolidating your cargo with that of other importers / exporters, in which case you will only pay for the weight and volume related to your own goods.

Establishing the most cost effective way to transport your goods can be a complicated task. You can either research and cost the various different options yourself, or employ the services of a freight forwarder to handle these issues for you..

Documentation for moving goods by sea

Transporting your goods by ocean shipping, as with most aspects of international trade requires the completion of a wide variety of documents. Below is a summary of the key documents:

Firstly you will need an Export Cargo Shipping Instruction which is a document that you provide to the shipping company which details your goods and your instructions for the shipment. If you employ the services of a freight forwarder they will complete this for you. You will also require one of the following:

· For hazardous cargo, a Dangerous Goods Note (DGN), which details the nature of the goods and the hazards they present

· For non hazardous cargo, a Standard Shipping Note (SSN), which provides the port of loading the information they require to handle your goods correctly.

In addition to the above, you will also require one of the following:

· A Bill of Lading. This is issued by the carrier and shows that the goods have been received. It also provides proof of a contract of carriage and acts as a document of title to the goods

· A Sea Waybill. This is similar to the bill of lading, the main difference being that it doesn’t confer title, therefore making it quicker and easier to use. A Sea Waybill is used where there exists a well established relationship between a buyer and seller or when ownership doesn’t actually change hands, for example when the goods are being shipped between divisions of the same company

For a detailed breakdown of industry terminology you may want to visit the Baltic Exchange website.

Marine transit insurance

Marine transit insurance doesn’t just cover the ocean shipping; it also covers the transport of the goods by road, rail or air.

To ensure that your cover is valid, you need to prove that you have an ‘insurable interest’ in the goods, which means proving that the goods belong to you. A shipping lines liability for the goods they transport is set by various international conventions and doesn’t always amount to the full value of the goods, which is why it is important to ensure that you have your own cover.

Contract of sale & insurance

There are several risks involved in international trade such as loss, damage and delay (such as detention at customs). How the risks are shared between the buyer and seller should be detailed in the sales using Incoterms.

Incoterms are a standard set of terms detailing precisely when responsibility for costs and risks moves from the seller to the buyer, and can impact your insurance costs as the more costs you are responsible for, the greater the insurance cover you will need.

In an ex-works (EXW) transaction, a seller is considered to have delivered the goods once they’ve been collected from the factory or warehouse. Therefore, from that point onward all risk passes to the buyer, as such the buyer needs to ensure that the goods are insured from that point onwards.

In a delivered-duty-paid (DDP) sale, the risk passes to the buyer only when the goods have arrived at their destination and have been cleared. In such a scenario a seller needs to insure the goods up to that point after which the risk is transferred to the buyer. Under a DDP sale the buyer or seller is under no obligation to contract for insurance. There are only two terms in Incoterms (CIF and CIP) which require insurance to be contracted; in both cases it is the seller’s obligation to insure.

Air Conditioner Thermostats

A thermostat is an apparatus for maintaining the temperature of a system within a particular range by directly or indirectly controlling the flow of heat energy into or out of the system. All air conditioners have thermostats that can be manually operated or automatically preprogrammed to work at regulating the room temperature. There are many ways in which you can use an air conditioner thermostat effectively.

One of the most successful yet economical ways to reduce your air conditioning costs is to adjust the thermostat setting on the air conditioner. The savings are more noteworthy when you set your thermostat at 78 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. For each degree you raise the thermostat setting, you reduce seasonal cooling costs by 7 percent to 10 percent. In doing so, you can use ceiling fans in addition to the air conditioner and thus, save a lot of money.

Most centrally located air conditioner thermostats are equipped with two fan settings, ‘on’ and ‘auto’. When the thermostat setting is set to ‘on’ the fan runs constantly and when it is set to ‘auto’ the fan runs only during cooling cycles when the air conditioner compressor is in use. When the air conditioner is in use all day, the cooling compressor only operates about 50 percent of the time, that is, for about 12 hours. The extra fan operating time that occurs when the thermostat is set to ‘on’ can add roughly $25 to monthly air conditioning bills. Using the ‘auto’ setting, alternatively, saves energy and money because the fan operates fewer hours. Besides achieving energy and cost savings, the ‘auto’ setting also promotes more comfort by offering better humidity control as moisture removed during the cooling cycle is re-circulated back into the home while the compressor is off.

Thus, thermostats play an important role in the cost and function of an AC.

A Guide to Home Dehumidifiers

It can be difficult to choose from among the countless home dehumidifiers out there. First, determine the square footage of the largest room you plan to dehumidify. The larger the room, the larger the dehumidifier should be. Check the label on the unit and see if it matches your square footage figure.

Now decide what kind of control you would like to have over your dehumidifier. If you want to have full control over precise percentages of humidity, get a unit with a hygrometer and humidistat. These will sense humidity levels in the room and adjust accordingly. On the other hand, if you have an aversion to complicated electronics and are more of a hands-on person, buy a manually controlled dehumidifier.

If your dehumidifier is blowing out cold air, have the condenser coils replaced. The condenser coils are supposed to warm the dried air back up to room temperature before it is blown back out into the room. Unfortunately, these wear out quickly and must be replaced every season.

If your dehumidifier is blowing out humid air, the problem is one of two things. Most likely, the compressor is broken. Get it repaired or replaced. The other major cause of poor dehumidification is dirty or broken evaporator coils.

The evaporator coils are responsible for cooling the air, causing water to drop out and into the reservoir bucket. If your machine is blowing out humid air, the evaporator coils might be dirty or broken. Have a technician steam-clean them. If that doesn’t work, you might need to replace them.

If the machine is cooling and warming properly, but the air isn’t moving, check the fan and motor assembly. Be sure it is moving at full power, or you’ll be wasting money on electricity, since the compressor is still working to cool the air. If the fan slows down – or stops working entirely – get the motor replaced.

Martial Arts of India

The combative arts (Kshatriya Vidya) practiced in ancient hermitages were based on a comprehensive and interrelated body of knowledge. Eventually with time, their components separated into various independent schools of martial arts and weaponry. Today, India’s martial arts are divided by geographical regions, each characterized by the use of various weapons and empty-handed techniques. This article attempts to provide a bird’s eye view of the various systems and weaponry still in practice today. Therefore a brief description of each system is provided for the simple purpose of identification and classification. A detail analysis of India’s martial art system of the past and present is beyond the scope of this article.

Mallayuddha (Mallavidya) is commonly referred to as wrestling. But a closer look will show that although the grappling techniques are a major part of Mallayuddha it goes far beyond wrestling. In fact Mallayuddha was a major part of Kshatriya Vidya. Mallayuddha is divided into four categories. Jarasandhi (Limb Breaking techniques), Bheemaseni (techniques requiring strength), Hanumanti (Tricky techniques), and Jambuvanti (Locks). Intentional body throws (Danki) are practiced to learn to fall properly without injury. Various punches and Kicks are also utilized. Pushes and strikes (Baha) against the opponents body with legs, shoulders, forearms and various other parts is practiced for conditioning. Various push-up (Dands) on fingers and knuckles are practiced. To develop lower body a variety of deep knee bends (Baithaks) are performed. It is not unusual for an expert in mallayuddha to perform one thousand repetitions of Dands and Baithaks during a practice session.

Mallayuddha was the basis of body development for the Kshatriyas. Various ingenious tools and equipments were developed for the purpose of body conditioning and strength building. For instance, Malla-Khamb, a vertical pillar is used to train and strengthen the upper and lower body. By holding this pillar with either hand or leg locks a group of 12 postures are practiced. Stones dumbbells (Nal) and heavy wooden barbells (Sumtola) as well as various heavy clubs (Karela) are utilized for bodybuilding. Therapeutic healing practices and massage therapy is usually practiced by the master.

The highest stage in Mallayuddha is one of being a Pahlevan. Gama was among the twentieth century Pahlevans who was born in Kashmir in 1878. He was called the lion of Punjab. No one ever stood a bout of more than a minute with Gama before they fully surrendered.

Vajra-Mushti is an off shoot of Mallayuddha practiced mainly in the north. It employs a horned weapon that is worn on the fingers of the right hand and is used for punching (Mushti). It has five points. In this art the standing positions (Pavitra) has great importance. Punches and kicks in addition to Mallayuddha techniques are practiced. Vajra is one of India’s most ancient and highly honored weapons. It was the weapon of Indra the god of war. It is said that this weapon was made out of the backbone of the rishi Dadhici and was presented to Indra. Perhaps the ring found on the weapon lead to the belief that it was made of the backbone. Vajramushti warriors are deadly and ferocious fighters although at the present time their numbers are very few. The author had the privileged of meeting some of the last living masters (Jethis) of Vajramushti.

Bandesh is another off shoot of Mallayuddha. These are lock holds placed either on different parts of the opponent’s body or weapon. There are six stages during the process of Bandesh, they are Pavitra (stepping), Rokh (blocking), Lapet (twisting), Fekan (throw), Chheen (snatching), and Bandesh (lock-hold).

BIinot is the art of protecting oneself without any weapon. Its focus is mainly on the limb breaking techniques (Jarasandhi) and locks (Jambuvanti) portion of mallayuddha.

Mushtiyuddha fist fighting also called Muki, is the combative techniques mainly focused on hands and fists. Although it may appear as fist fighting, it is not similar to modern boxing. Fists are utilized for offensive and defensive purposes. The practitioners harden their hand and fist by beating them against stone, and various other surfaces. Shri Narayanguru Balambhat Deodhar and Shri Lakshmanguru Balambhat Deodhar were renowned Muki masters in the city of Benares. Both of them, singly, were more than a match for a dozen Muki fighters. It is not the stuff of legends to hear a Muki master killing a tiger with bare hands. In the 1800’s Sohong Swami of Bengal had fought and killed tigers. His last bout was in front of a large audience arranged by Prince Cooch of Bihar where he killed a ferocious Bengal tiger called Raja Begum known to be a man eater. After this incident he renounced the worldly life and was initiated into the monastic order of Sanyas.

Nagas are a large group of warrior ascetics. Although they have renounced worldly life and have given up all possessions in the pursuit of asceticism, they are extremely militant, fighting with rivaling sects, the Muslims and later even the British. Nagas wore no clothing even while living in freezing Himalayan caves. They smear their body with sacred ash (Bhasma) and wore a long matted hair (Jata) symbolic of their devotion to lord Shiva. They are ferocious fighters since they had no fear of death. They use staff, spears, swords and trident as their weapons. There is also a group of Nagas that follow lord Vishnu rather than Shiva and they are called Bairagis. Although they wear clothing nowadays, some groups are also naked. Although the Nagas are peculiar and unique, their arts of fighting is not exclusive to their group and most of it can be found in other martial arts of India. Historical references to the Nagas goes back several thousand years.

Gatka is the combative art developed in the northwest area of India known as Punjab for the protection of the Sikhs religious groups. Gatka started with Har Govind Guru in late 1500’s AD. Gatka has mainly been practiced in India by the Nahang Singhs, who believe in the importance of preserving the type of dress (Bana) and weaponry as was worn by the Sikh Gurus. Gatka is a basic and practical art. It is based upon a single movement called the “Panthra”. This movement is initially practiced using no weapons to help develop accuracy of footwork. It is practiced in circular motions, simple forward and backward motions and also more complex motions such as star shapes. Gatka is based primarily on the use of three types of weapons, namely staff (Marati), flexible weapons such as rope, belt and whip and mainly the sword (Teg). Saber (Kirpan) and dagger (Khanda) are also used.

Kalaripayat is the martial art that is practiced in the southern tip of India in the state of Kerala. The word Kalari is derived from Sanskrit term Khalorika which stands for combative training ground and Payat meaning the art of combat. According to Keralolpathi, the traditional chronicle of Kerala, it was introduced to south India by sage Parashurama. In 1793 Kalaripayat was outlawed by the British and became almost extinct, however its practices and traditions were saved by few masters (Gurukals). The empty hand combat of Kalaripayat is Verumkai Prayogam. It is the art of attacking and defending Marmans (vital points). Various types of chops, blocks and locks are included. The training begins with Meippayat or body control exercises with precise applications of the legs in different steps, turns and leaps. Various weaponry is used including, Kettukari (Quarter staff), Cheruvati (Three span staff), Kattaram (Dagger), Churika (sword and shield) Urumi (flexible sword), Kuntham (The spear) and finally Otta. This is a peculiarly curved weapon, made of wood, about eighteen inches long. Gaining mastery over the Otta ultimately means the complete mastery of blows to the vital points (Marma Vibhaga). In fact the highest stage of Kalarippayat is the Marma Adi (attacks to vital point), which is a near extinct science, practiced partially by a few masters.

Varma Ati is the fighting arts of the Tamil Nadu region focusing on attacks and defense of Marmans. It includes Ati Tata (hit/defend) and Ati Murai (law of hitting). It was imparted in Tamil area by sage Agasthya. Training is performed outdoor and not in a Kalari. At one point the practitioner were called Agasthiyars or Siddha Yogis referring to the fact that they were expected to practice a highly esoteric form of yoga meditation. Initial exercises include attacks and defenses aimed at the Marmans. Various empty hand techniques include those with fist, elbow, tip of the index finger, butt of the hand, joined finger tip, thumb, and extended knuckles are utilized. Big toe and forehead are also used.

According to the yogic text known as the Shiva Samhita there are 350,000 subtle interconnecting channels of energy (Nadis) within the body. When they interconnect near the surface of the skin they are called Marmans (Sanskrit: Marman, Malayalam: Marmmam, and Tamil: Varman). The earliest textual evidence of the marman dates as early as 1200 BC in the Rig Veda. The god Indra is recorded as defeating the demon Vrtra by attacking his vital spots with his Vajra.

Marmans are extensively described in the science of ancient Indian medicine (Ayur Veda) which can be found in Sushruta Samhita (c. 500 BC) and in Charaka Samhita (c. 200 AD). According to Susruta the human body contains 107 Marman points which, when struck or massaged, produce desired healing or injurious results. Susruta knew the importance of avoiding the vital spots in surgery. He identified illnesses caused by direct and indirect injury to them. He describes each vital spots location, size, classification, and symptoms of direct and full penetration and the length of time a person may live after penetration. Therapeutic treatment of Marmans (Marman Chikitsa) with piercing needles (Bhedan Karma) was practiced by Ayurvedic practitioners, however the finger (Adankal) and hand treatment is the most common usage today. There are 107 Marmas in a human body of which 64 are mainly used during combats (Kulamarmams). Hitting these Marmas can freeze and disable certain parts of the body or make one unconscious.

Silambam is another martial art practiced in south India in the area of Tamil Nadu. The training begins with mastery of the staff and the knowledge of which is then further developed for empty handed combat. Another closely related tradition to Silambam is Kuthu Varisai of Tanjore area.

Finally, Kshatriya Vidya (Science of combat) was born of the destructive power of Shiva. However, this power (Shakti) was revealed in order to remove obstacles and rebuild and develop. It is not meant to destroy people and property. The true understanding of the Kshatriya Marga (warrior path) is to destroy and eliminate one’s weakness, lower self and finally the demon of ignorance, in order to rebuild and develop a person who is physically powerful, emotionally and intellectually liberated and spiritually enlightened and perfected. Warrior training is therefore for crafting a powerful body and mind with all its associated emotions and thoughts.

True way (Marga) therefore, is not about seeing one’s self as an enemy. But seeing one’s self as a potentially expanded divine being who with proper method and application can reach its full potential in all areas of one’s life. This all-inclusive developmental approach affects every area of one’s life including the physical, the emotional, the intellectual, the spiritual and even the financial. The truly developed warrior will achieve Bukti (worldly success), Mukti (spiritual perfection) and Shakti (power).

In summary, the numerous Indian martial arts practiced today and cataloged in this article are derived from the Kshatriya Vidya that was practiced in ancient India. They are rich in techniques and diverse in their approach. However the methodology of warrior training as well as the practices that leads one to enlightenment is as unified and alive today as it was in the India’s ancient past. The study of Indian martial arts enriches one’s own practices and attitudes regardless of the martial art that one may be practicing today. From an academic view, the study of Indian martial arts may perhaps shed light on historical past and exchanges that occurred between various martial cultures of the Far East and India. However the true study of Kshatriya Vidya is the study of the essence of becoming a warrior and the process of spiritual perfection.

Mauryan Pillars – Differences

The influence of West Asiatic factors in the art and culture of the period cannot be seriously denied in view of the close contact existing at this time between India and other West Asiatic countries. But it is rather difficult to regard the Mauryan pillars merely as imitations, or adaptations, of the Achaemenid proto-types. There are tangible differences between the two in their respective functions, as well in their conceptions and styles. Unfortunately, such differences have usually been ignored. Not belonging to any architectural composition, the function of the Mauryan pillars is totally different-a difference that is also reflected in their design and form. The Mauryan pillar, unlike the Achaemenid, does not stand on any base, nor does it exhibit the channeling or fluting which is invariably characteristic of the latter. Moreover, the shaft of the Mauryan pillar is, without exception, monolithic; the Achaemenian invariably composed of separate segments of stone aggregated one above the other.

Again, in technique, the Mauryan pillars partakes the character of wood-carver`s or carpenter`s work, the Achaemenian, that of a mason. Finally, the design as well as the shape of the capitals is different, due, no doubt, to the new conception of the Mauryan pillars as standing free in space. The supposed resemblance of the so-called `bell` in the Indian pillar with that of the Persepolitan is merely superficial. It should be remembered also that the member, with which analogy is drawn, usually appears in the Achaemenid column at the base and not as the capital, as in the Indian pillars. The double curves of the Indian member surmounted by animal sculptures in the round exemplify rather a new order of capital which is distinctive of India alone. This lotiform member, representing either an inverted lotus or a purna-ghata, is entirely in accord with Indian tradition and it would be futile not to recognize its Indian origin. The real affinities with the West are recognized in the use of such decorative motifs as the honey-suckle, the acanthus, the `knop and flower` pattern, etc. But in view of the wide divergences in form, design and conception, a borrowing from the Achaemenian pillar design cannot truly explain the Indo-Iranian affinities. India had long been a part of the West Asiatic culture complex and the key to the problem lies, as Coomaraswamy observes, in “inheritance of common artistic traditions.”

Finally we can conclude by saying that the indigenous and original contribution to the creation of this item of Mauryan art is therefore undeniable. Equally undeniable is also the fact that on their lustrous varnish, in their adoption and adaptation of the bell-shaped capital, in the higher place of conception and driving idea and in the general monumental and dignified quality and appearance they exhibit, the Mauryan columns seems to reveal clearly the debt they owe to Achaemenian art, as well as to Hellenistic Art so far as the crowning member of the columns and part of the general effect are concerned. The twisted rope design, the bead-reelcable design and so on to mark the transitions, the acanthus leaf and palmette and other designs to decorate the abacus may have however been derived from the older and common West-Asiatic art-heritage.

Tiling Onto A Wooden Floor

When most people think of tiling, what comes to mind is usually basic information that’s not particularly interesting or beneficial. But there’s a lot more to tiling than just the basics.

The best time to learn about tiling is before you’re in the thick of things. Wise readers will keep reading to earn some valuable tiling experience while it’s still free.

When tiling onto a wooden floor you need to bear in mind it’s different than tiling onto a concrete floor.

There are many different things you can do and make sure you do before laying ceramic or porcelain tiles onto a wooden floor.

1. When tiling onto floor boards, you will firstly need to lay down 18mm thick floor grade plywood which needs to be screwed down every 30cm centres. You can use a single part flexible adhesive but I use a two part flexible tile adhesive. This is the belt and braces way of doing it.

2. When tiling onto chipboard you will need to do the same as above if you follow a strict adhesives guidelines – but you can use thinner plywood going down to 12mm if the chipboard floor is already solid and screwed down at 30cm centres. Then screw the plywood down in the same way.

3. When putting Under Floor Heating onto a wooden floor, you would firstly need to put down an insulation board. You can fix this down to your existing floor with a 2 part flexible adhesive and then screw it down at 30cm. Now you can lay the under floor heating mat or cable on top of your insulation board. It’s best to use a flexible self-level compound to cover the cables, then you can tile on top using a two part flexible adhesive.

4. If you have a situation were raising the floor might be a problem then you can use a product like Schluter-DITRA. This is a polyethylene membrane with a grid structure of square cavities each cut back in a dovetail construction, and an anchoring fleece laminated to its underside. Designed for tile and natural stone installations and under floor heating Schluter-DITRA not only serves as a waterproofing membrane but also a vapour pressure equalisation layer to accommodate moisture occurring at the underside of the substrate. It’s also an uncoupling layer for problematic substrates such as wooden floors, etc.

DITRA mat is only 3mm thick and you can use a two part flexible tile adhesive to stick it down. You can lay the matting straight down onto your floorboards if they have no movement up or down. Make sure the floorboards are flat and are screwed down to the joists – any natural movement will be taken up with the DITRA mat.

Laying onto chipboard will be the same way as onto floorboards. You can tile on top of the DITRA mat with a two part flexible adhesive. Again a single part adhesive can be used but a two-part adhesive is better.

I hope this is of some help.

That’s the latest from the tiling authorities. Once you’re familiar with these ideas, you’ll be ready to move to the next level.