Mold, Relative Humidity, The Dew Point, And Your Home

Mold is an ongoing worry for homeowners. Due to the complexity of the biological process, mold is excluded in home inspection contracts. The problem has received so much publicity that many people wonder what conditions might lead to fungal growth in the home. First, more often than not, the problem will be brought about because of a water problem on the exterior such as a leaking roof or uncontrolled water that has allowed standing water in the crawl space or the basement.

In analyzing homes, professionals are usually concerned with relative humidity (RH) and that is a percentage of the moisture in the air. Air is saturated at 100%. It cannot hold any more moisture so, when air is saturated, condensation forms on surfaces. We start seeing obvious problems when that occurs.

The warmer the air, the more moisture it can hold. But, when the temperature goes down overnight, the cool air is less able to retain moisture. If a home is 70 degrees F and the RH is 50%, what happens if the temperature goes down to 50 degrees F? Simple answer: The relative humidity shoots up to 100% and condensation becomes apparent.

Probably the first place a person will notice excess moisture forming, the condensation, is on windows but moisture could be occurring at or in walls as well. Research and experience indicate that condensation usually occurs on walls/sheathing and not as frequently inside walls or on insulation inside walls.

People often ask this question: What is the optimum relative humidity for my home? That is harder to answer than one might, at first, think. The quick number, at least for my region of the country and provided by the Northwest Clean Air Agency, is 30% to 50% with a reading as high as 60% not usually being a cause for much alarm. Keeping readings lower is best in the winter.

The problem is the dew point. Remember that air is saturated when relative humidity is 100%. Well, the dew point is the temperature at which water condenses inside the home. Some people think the dew point is a low temperature, around freezing, and that such a temperature could never occur inside the home. It is more complicated than that.

Some practical examples are in order. In a home, if the RH is 40% and the temperature is 69 degrees F the dew point in the home is 44 degrees — the temperature would have to fall to 44 degrees before condensation would form. This is a typical RH and temperature based on my studies in this northwest region of the country.

In another example, if the RH is 56% and the temperature is 70 degrees F, that change in the equation leads to a dew point of 53 degrees F. Condensation will form if the home drops to 53 degrees F.

In the final example, lets look at higher readings that might exist inside a home that is moist. With an RH of 77% and a temperature of 73 degrees F, the dew point is 66 degrees F — only 2 degrees under the 68 degrees that many people use as the ideal thermostat setting! If the home drops to 66 degrees, condensation will form on the inside.

It is obvious that, especially in winter, homeowners need to keep the relative humidity low. Where I live, in colder weather, it is more practical to keep a house somewhere above 44 degrees overnight than it is to keep it above 65 degrees.

This detailed information is beyond what most people, including inspectors, will be getting involved in on an ongoing basis. A word of warning, while you can obtain useful information from a relative humidity reading, it takes more than a single reading to gain enough information to make much of a determination as to whether or not a problem exists. It takes some study and analysis. And, some homes that seem like they should have mold growth do not, and the opposite can be true as well. Being alerted to this information helps one better understand why some houses have damp areas or stains. Excess moisture caused by high relative humidity can lead to damaged sheet rock, wood rot, mildew, mold, rust on metal, shrinking or expanding wood, reduced thermal resistance of insulation, odors. Frequently people ask what causes high relative humidity. It is not always easy to say but some of the usual suspects are showers, baths; cooking; washing clothes, dishes, floors and walls; breathing, perspiring; pets; uncontrolled surface water, wet crawl spaces and basements.

If you are, on a personal basis, interested in taking a look at the RH inside your home, purchase a relative humidity gauge (hygrometer) at an electronics store or online. You can easily find, online, dew point calculators or “psych charts” which allow you to determine the dew point from your relative humidity rand temperature readings.

NLP "Control Room Of Your Mind" Tool – A Critical Success Factor For Business and Relationships

Your mind has a control room. Your mission today is to learn how to operate the controls. Learning this process now will give you the critical element you need to drive your business into fast forward mode. Of course you can apply the exercise to other areas of your life as well.

Please note, this is best experienced with an actual certified NLP practitioner but you can learn it here to use for yourself and practice it when you don’t have access to a practitioner, much like you can learn self- hypnosis.

“The Control Room of your Mind”, an NLP technique I will teach you here, is an exercise which will:

  • Give you the confidence to do what you need to reach the next level in your business-building efforts.
  • This process will help you access the control room of your mind.
  • It will help you get to a higher level of consciousness where you can…
  • Resolve your “programmed responses” (AKA problems).
  • You can then redirect and re-program these old responses to fashion new ones which work better for your current life situations.

Wait, before we go there, here’s a very brief definition of NLP for those who are new to this branch of Neuroscience: NLP is about changing our limiting beliefs.

  • Neuro: Is about the neurons, which are the tools the brain uses to communicate
  • Linguistic: Has to do with the language we use, the words we say to ourselves and others
  • Programming: Is about configuring or setting up the way something works

For over 30 years, the field of NLP has developed many methods for freeing up and optimizing our beliefs to allow us to create new choices and possibilities. This particular process will also give you an increased awareness of your personal power. It can also enhance your creativity and disperse energy blockages. I used it recently to get “unstuck” from a nasty little procrastination habit I had. The result? You are reading about it right here; I finally started my online business after years of only talking about it!

Learning how to master your own thoughts and responses is a critical success factor in this increasingly competitive and complex world. Whether you are a high-powered executive or a practitioner in a small private practice – the more confidence you have in taking each new step, mastering each new business skill, sales or marketing technique – the more your business, clients and customers benefit!

When you think of this Control Room of Your Mind, this higher level can be seen as a computer. Your old, problematic responses to problems have been your DEFAULT mode. This mode has been set to respond the same way over and over, using only the limited resources you had in the past when you encountered and re-encountered similar problems. In order to bring about new and more efficient, workable responses, you have to give your mind new and clearer instructions. This is similar to a PROGRAM UPDATE to use computer language.

So, find yourself a comfy chair or sofa, turn on your favorite relaxing music, preferably with headsets so you do not have any distractions, and take this journey into the Control Room of Your Mind… (if you have a partner, friend, or family member who can read the script below, it will be much easier; otherwise you will need to read it to yourself and focus your attention on reading it while experiencing the words you’re reading-this is not the recommended method of experiencing the exercise. I offer the script here as I want you to have this basic information to begin practicing so you can make practical business applications.

So, now, just allow yourself to think of an area of your business or practice in which you would like to experience some positive changes…..

“Imagine you have in front of you 10 steps leading UP to the Control Room of your mind. Very soon you will be moving into that very higher self level of consciousness, into the Control Room for your central nervous system and all the communications for your mind and body.

This system is the control center and directs all the functions – from your simple communication such as feelings and desires – to your complex processes of Internal Healing, body functions, behaviors and information processing.

The Mind/Body is a hologram which the central nervous system operates through the hypothalamus. This area of your brain acts as the computer operations and communications center for keeping current conditions stable. It also redirects and reprograms for newer, more healthy, workable changes.

Up until now your mind has done the best it could each step along your life’s path, and has adapted to challenging experiences, in the best way that it knew how given the resources it had available at the time. And once the responses are set, it starts acting like a computer program from that moment on until these previous responses are reprogrammed.

Now is the time for you to become a more active participant and to redirect the programmed responses for a more favorable response with each step up….now you are moving to a higher level of your own consciousness and to the Control Room of Your Mind.

So, counting up…1…moving up to 2…a higher level of consciousness and choice with each step…3,4,5,6,7,8,9 and 10.

The doorway in front of you is the CONTROL ROOM. As you step forward, the door slides open quickly and easily and you are now in the CONTROL ROOM OF YOUR MIND.

Notice all the panels of lights-lights of different colors and different brightnesses. There are descriptive labels on each panel and each string of lights has a lever or control knob connected to it, connected to each part of the body and mind.

Let your attention move to that panel of lights which is connected to your most important business or life need right now…

Walk over to that panel and notice the response dial and the brightness or dimness of the energy and communications going to that area. That is the DEFAULT response that has been left in place. You now have the ability to change that. Using the control knob or lever, set the dial and the circuit brightness to the level that is most suitable for you now.

You don’t even have to know how to do this yourself, because your unconscious mind already knows how. As you change the dial setting, the communications for that change is already speeding to that area of need and the changes you’ve made are happening.

There is a large 3-D Holographic Screen in the middle of the room. Notice as you use the control knob how the control circuits to every area change color or intensity as you change the settings. It is good, isn’t it, to be more in control of your own needs!

Is it all right with the unconscious to now continue these changes and to carry out these new responses? If not, what do you need to allow the changes to take place? Take a moment to ask the different parts of your control room what needs to happen to improve the situation, or what belief needs to change to a more current and workable belief to make this desired change.

If yes, it is alright to make the changes, Very Good!

Is there any other are area that needs your attention and where you need a positive change? If yes, go to the Control Knob and repeat, noticing the color changes, the intensity changes as you change the settings. You can continue repeating these control knob settings changes to the other areas that need your attention.

Now, in a moment it will be time to return to a normal waking consciousness as the unconscious mind continues the process of change in all the important areas associated with your desires here.

Now moving back through the doorway as it closes securely behind you, and you return to normal waking consciousness.

10..9..8..7..6..5..4..3..2..1…Awakened and refreshed, Stretch! See yourself now in the future participating in your business tasks and overcoming whatever obstacle(s) you had before you entered the Control Room of Your Mind today. You can be confident that the changes you made will serve you well, and remind yourself to always go back to make adjustments whenever you wish. “

Disclaimer: Please Note-

The material in this article is provided for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended to be a substitute for professional counseling, therapy or medical treatment. Nothing in this article is intended to diagnose or treat any pathology or diseased condition of the mind or body. This author will not be held responsible for any results of reading or applying the information. All the information, techniques, skills and concepts contained within this site are not in any way recommended in place of professional help, nor is it the intent of the site to overwrite such professional help. Use of the programs, advice, and information contained in this website is at the sole choice and risk of the reader.

An Engineer Reveals How to Put Money in the Bank With a Lathe and Milling Machine

A machine shop wouldn’t be a real shop if it didn’t have at least one lathe and one milling machine.

The problem (or maybe we should call it the opportunity) is that these machines are not being used in a way that is maximizing their profit potential. Here’s how to put money in the bank with a lathe and milling machine.

Five steps to putting money in the bank when you have a lathe and milling machine

#1. Realize that the profit is in the marketing. You have to be able to bid on (and get enough profitable jobs) to allow you to be choosy about future jobs.

#2. Wow your customers by delivering way ahead of schedule. Most shops deliver acceptable quality and workmanship, but most don’t deliver on time and if they do, it’s just barely on time. Beat the scheduled delivery and you will impress the heck out of the customer.

#3. Communication is key. Keep your customer informed. For example, if the customer makes a change and this is going to cause a delay in the promised deliver date, let him know this at the time he makes the change. Don’t deliver late and then blame it on the change he made.

#4. Realize that customers want a turn-key solution to their problem. You need to be that solution. For example, if the project involves painting and you don’t do painting, you can sub-contract this and deliver a finished product to the customer.

#5. Own your customer and be their only machine shop. Almost no customer needs just one machine shop job done. One major part of your marketing is that when you get your foot in the door with one job for a company, take care of numbers 1, 2 3 and 4 above with a vengeance and you will own your customer.

The most important part of making money with a lathe and milling machine is #1 above — the marketing. Don’t think of yourself as just a machinist or engineer. Put on your V.P.of marketing hat at least half a day a week (even if you are just a one or two man shop, you still have to be V.P. of marketing part of the time).

Call your previous customers and see if they have any present or upcoming jobs for you. Take the time to visit your customers if they are local. Make sure they are aware of all the services you can offer them. All of this is part of marketing your lathe and milling machine operation.

Bottom Line: When you take care of everything described above, soon your customers will not even call other machine shops to bid on jobs — they will just call you and then you really will own the customer and you will have the most profitable lathe and milling machine in the universe — at least, in your part of the universe.

Numerology of a Sex Symbol: Marilyn Monroe

[This article is neither intended to extol nor defame Marilyn Monroe. Its purpose is simply to reveal the relationship between some aspects of her life and her numbers in furthering the understanding of numerology as a science.]

In a world of notoriety, some people become famous, some rise to super-stardom, others transcend their celebrity to become icons. However, it is a rare few who become institutions. Marilyn Monroe is a cinematic institution.

Born Norma Jeane Mortenson on 1 June 1926 in Los Angeles, California, Marilyn’s early life was wrought with the parental issues of a mentally unstable mother and absentee father, leading her to grow up in a series of foster homes.

Monroe was one of the most famous stars of the silver screen, exuding a blend of vulnerability, innocence, glamour and blonde-bombshell sensuality that hypnotized and captivated the world; a life, unfortunately, that turned tragic in the end. Marilyn died on 5 August 1962 at the age of thirty-six under a cloud of mystery and intrigue, the same kind of mystery and intrigue associated with the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

Arguably, the persona most associated with Marilyn Monroe as an actress was that of a sex symbol. She was the heartthrob of men the world over. Married three times, she is commonly alleged to have also had affairs with other men, among whom were President John F. Kennedy and his brother Robert (Wikipedia).

  • What numbers reflected Monroe’s sex symbol persona?
  • What number in Marilyn’s chart hinted at a tragic life?
  • What number pattern reveals her early life’s father-abandonment issues?
  • What IR (Influence/Reality) set indicated the problems associated with her mother?

The Sexual Persona Numbers of Marilyn Monroe

There are three primary numbers reflecting Marilyn Monroe’s magnetic sexual persona:

  • Master number 33-6
  • Master number 66-3
  • Number 5

The Master Number 33

One of the amazing components of Monroe’s chart is the amount of internal stacking of the master number 33. Her Material Soul contains a tristack of this powerfully expressive sexual energy, an energy which can also lead to severe addictions because of its pleasure-seeking quality. Having one set of 33 energy is powerful, but three is extremely rare. This internal tristack of 33 energy can be written as 33-33-33 which, when combined, creates a 99, the master number of universal power and rulership. It is extremely rare to have a tristack of any master number in a Basic Matrix component. To have the sexual power, pleasure and image-saturated master number 33 duplicated three times in the Material Soul position is almost beyond comprehension, and because the Material Soul rules one’s worldly needs, wants and desires, it reflected Monroe’s motivations, the core of which was to be a sex symbol.

The Master Number 66

Adding to the double 33-6 tristack is the 66-3 Master number in Monroe’s Material Nature. This is also a powerfully sex-charged master number. It is not as common as the 33 but it is nonetheless powerful.

The Number 5

The third number creating Monroe’s sexual persona is the number 5. It rules the five senses, variety, diversity, stimulation, experience, freedom and exploration. Together, the single numbers 5 and 6 are the most potent sexual combination. Monroe’s Nature was a 5. She loved variety and adventure. Hence, her many lovers. One man was simply not enough for her. Basically, Marilyn Monroe could be described as sex incarnate. Her inmost desires, personality and life manifested her enchantress image.

A Problematic Lifepath

The number 7 is the number of spiritual testing and carries the greatest degree of potential turmoil, heartache, betrayals and suffering. Marilyn Monroe’s Lifepath was a 7, the same as John F. Kennedy. Princess Diana also had a 7 Lifepath, and it was this number that portended trouble for Marilyn Monroe’s life right from the get go, as it did for JRK and Diana.

Monroe’s chart housed a 7 void (written as 7v). In other words, she had no Gs, Ps or Ys in her birth name. Her first given name of “Norma” is also a 7. Its active timeline was from birth to age 25. Combined with her 7 Lifepath, the outcome number is a 5, the energy of change, loss, detachment, exploration, experimentation, the five senses. Therefore, from birth to age 25 this 7v/5 IR (Influence/Reality) set intensified her 7 Lifepath, creating a condition of heartbreak, heartache and tragedy.

Father Abandonment Issues

In numerology the number 1 governs the father, male energy, the self, ego, individuality, independence and action. The number 5 governs detachment, loss, freedom, uncertainty, change and separation. Because Monroe was born on the 1st of June, her 1st Epoch IR set was a 1/5, this as a result of the 1 filtering through her 4 Expression to create a 5 outcome. This illustrates issues with loss or detachment (5) from male energy (1). Princess Diana, who also had a 4 Expression and who was born on 1 July, had this same 1/5 IR set ruling the first part of her life too, and her divorce (detachment) from Prince Charles is historic. The famous aviator Charles Lindbergh is another case of the 1/5 and its issues of loss/detachment of male energy. His son was kidnapped and murdered during this 1/5 IR set in Lindbergh’s 2nd Challenge.

Marilyn’s Mother Issues

As the number 1 represents male energy, the number 2 represents female energy. Marilyn’s birth mother is factually known to have had mental issues, and because of her illness Monroe spent her early life in foster homes. This turmoil with her mother is seen in Monroe’s 1st Pinnacle which is a 7v/11-2. The 7 void reflects mental instability, and the 11-2 indicates high tension and stress in the female, with others and relationships. This not only would reference Monroe’s mother, but Monroe herself. It would also play a factor in her relationships in general.


There is no doubt Marilyn Monroe is a legend among legends. Her life was difficult but powerful, powerful enough to keep her image alive a half century after her death. Although this short article does not fully portray her life, it does reveal that Monroe’s numbers match her destiny. The massive amount of 33 and 66 master energy in her chart, in concert with the 5 energy, created her sex symbol image. The 1/5 and 7v/11-2 combination in the foundational part of her chart clearly shows problems with both father and mother to some degree. Wrap all these together in a 7 Lifepath and the result was an enormously famous actress with an enormously tragic but heralded life. ~finis

Can PAT Testing Damage Your PC?

There is a great deal of debate at the moment about whether or not computers should be PAT tested. For those unfamiliar, a Portable Appliance Test (abbreviated to PAT Test but that’s another article) is a process by which an electrical appliance is checked to see if it is safe. Most appliances in use in workplaces today will have a green sticker on them to indicate that they have been tested.

In the old days of PAT testing, engineers used to carry out a test called a ‘flash test’ whereby 3000V was applied across the insulation to detect any breakdown. At the time, the only items which were PAT tested would be power tools and machinery – then people started to test computers (with disastrous consequences) and all hell broke loose.

Very quickly, the advice given was not to test computers! Of course the test equipment manufacturers quickly modified their testers to carry out ‘soft tests’ for computers, and the computer manufacturers redesigned their power supplies so they would not be damaged by the test.

Unfortunately, even many years later you still meet people who refuse to have their machines tested for fear of damage. This does, however, mean that people may be using computers unaware of a dangerous fault…..

Nowadays, the only two tests which are carried out on PC’s are the Earth Bond Test and Insulation Test. The Insulation Test might cause damage to the power supply, UNLESS it is manufactured to BS EN 67950. ALL computers (and monitors and fax machines etc) have to comply with this standard, and have done since the early 90’s. So the ‘correct’ procedure is to carry out earth and insulation tests on all modern computers, but to leave out the insulation test if the device appears to be more than about 10 years old. (not too many computers – but occasional monitors and printers are quite old.)

My company did the PAT testing for a large organisation, and it turned out that they NEVER shut down their PC’s. They just went home at night leaving them on, and after a few minutes of screen saver the computers went into ‘sleep’ mode.

In a few cases we found PCs where the CMOS batteries (which retain the system settings when the computers are switched off) were completely dead, but nobody knew about it because the computers had never been turned off. Of course, we had to turn them off (and unplug them from the mains) to test them, so a couple of machines refused to start properly after the test. They were quickly sorted out though.

However, a properly conducted PAT test will never cause damage to a PC.

I will concede that there are a few PAT testing engineers out there who don’t possess all of the requisite knowledge, and unfortunately there is a lot of subcontracting going on which means that the testing is done by the lowest bidder! It is possible for damage to occur if the wrong tests are carried out.

Anybody in any doubt about having their computers tested should speak to a professional PAT testing company.

Foods Can Lower Cholesterol and C-reactive Protein

If you have high cholesterol, the American Heart Association's low-cholesterol, low-saturated fat diet will fail you. Even when applied conscientiously, it achieves a disappointingly modest reduction in LDL cholesterol of approximately 7%. Starting at an LDL cholesterol of 150 mg / dl, for instance, you would drop to 139. It's no surprise that many people turn to alternative diets (Ornish, Pritikin, Zone, etc.) to get a bigger bang. And no surprise that many doctors go directly to statin agents for their near effortless 35% or greater reduction.

The Adult Treatment Panel-III (ATP-III) is a committee of experts charged with developing guidelines for cholesterol treatment for Americans. The latest ATP guidelines suggest the use of fibers for a nutritional advantage in lower cholesterol. Despite the ATP-III's endorsement, however, there has been no "real-world" data that documents the LDL-lowering effectiveness of combinations of fibers and other foods added to an AHA Step II low-fat diet (fat 30% of calories) . Dr. David Jenkins from the Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center at St Michael's Hospital, Toronto has since explored such a multi-ingredient program, reported in the Journal of the American Medicine Association1. He calls this program the "dietary portfolio," highlighting the inclusion of several different healthy foods combined to achieve the goal of lowering cholesterol.

The study enrolled 46 adults (25 men, 21 post-menopausal women) with a mean age of 59 years. All participants were free of known heart disease, diabetes, and none were taking any cholesterol-lowering agents. Baseline LDL cholesterol was 171 mg / dl for all participants. Three groups were designated: 1) Viscous fiber, phytosterols, and almond diet, the so-called "dietary portfolio"; 2) Control diet (AHA Step II); and 3) Control diet with lovastatin 20 mg / day (a cholesterol-lowering statin drug). Cholesterol plates were reassessed after a four week period in each arm. All diets had equal calorie content.

The dietary portfolio provided 1.0 g of phytosterols (a soy bean derivative) per 1000 kcal; 9.8 g viscous fibers (as oat bran and oat products, barley, and psyllium seed) per 1000 kcal; 21.4 g soy protein per 1000 kcal; and 14 g (around 12 almonds) per 1000 kcal. A typical 2400 kcal diet would provide 2.4 g phytosterols (2 tbsp Take Control or Benecol), 24 g viscous fiber, 51 g soy protein, and 34 g of almonds (around 34 almonds). Average fiber take for participants was an impressive 78 g / day. (The average American takes in a meager 14 g / day.)

The control diet was also abundantly in fiber at 57 g / day, but contained little of the viscous variety, as the primary fiber sources were whole wheat products which lack viscous fibers. The diet was otherwise very similar to the dietary portfolio in fat and cholesterol content, protein, and total calories.

The dietary portfolio achieved an impressive 28% reduction in LDL cholesterol. Unexpectedly, there was also a 30% reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP), a popular measure of inflammation. The results achieved with the dietary portfolio were actually identical to the results obtained with lovastatin. The control diet achieved a paltry 8% reduction in LDL and a 10% reduction in CRP. Interestingly, a third of the participants in the dietary portfolio group reported that there was too much food (given the satiety-effect of fiber rich foods). This was the group that lost the most weight, though only a modest 1 lb.


Dr. Jenkins' portfolio of fiber-rich foods had the same effects on LDL cholesterol and CRP as a moderate dose of lovastatin. This is quite remarkable, given the relative failure of the diets typically prescribed to improve cholesterol values. Conventional diets, in fact, have been so ineffective that some doctors have abandoned the use of dietary recommendations in their practices.

The fiber-rich foods used in the diet portfolio are readily available and inexpensive. Although the specific components used in the study have each been shown to lower LDL cholesterol when used independently, the combination has not been examined. Many would have predicated that, in view of the similar mechanisms of LDL-reduction among the various components of the portfolio, the LDL lowering effect would not exceed 15%. (Soy protein is the only component with a significant different mechanism of action – suppression of liver synthesis of cholesterol.)

Instead, this powerful combination achieved an impressive 28% reduction, as good as the prescription agent lovastatin. (In our experience with this approach, LDL cholesterol typically drops 30 to 50 points, sometimes more.)

The high-fiber approach of the dietary portfolio significantly surpasses the fiber intake of the average American. As a practical matter, people who elect to follow this program should introduce each component gradually and drink plentiful water, as constipation can result if hydration inadequate.

To reproduce the LDL and CRP benefits of the dietary portfolio, a practical combination would be:

o Oat bran – 1/4 cup (uncooked) + 3 tsp psyllium seed

o Soy protein powder – 6 tbsp / day

o Almonds – 34 or approximately 2 helpfuls / day

o Take Control or Benecol 2 tbsp / day

Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Marchie A, et al. Effects of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods vs. lovastatin on serum lipids and c-reactive protein. JAMA. 2003 290: 502-10.

Does Restaurant Food Help You Grow Taller? Find Out Why Restaurants and Coffee Shops Are So Popular

Dependence on fast foods to grow taller goes back thousands of years ago. In the Roman forum more than two thousand years ago, urban consumers ate sausages and honey cakes. The Chinese ate stuffed buns in the twelfth century. Five hundred years ago, Spaniards encountered tacos in the markets of today’s Mexico.

Fast food has been part of American food culture to grow taller for many more years than most people realize. If your great-grandparents traveled by train in the early 1900s, they likely devoured “fast food,” or quick meals, from the dining car. When the automobile took over, the dining-car concept was reinvented as fast-food restaurants, dotting the roadside. Eating in the car isn’t new; the popular “drive-in” restaurant of the 1950s evolved into the “drive-through” window.

How to feel comfortable when you dine alone? Any discomfort from eating alone shouldn’t make you skip a meal or you won’t grow taller. In reality, you’re likely the only one who notices that you’re a solo diner. If you feel conspicuous, ask for a table off to the side. Take an avid interest in your surroundings. Talk with the server; study the menu and the decor. While you wait, be productive: read, write a letter, jot down your “to do” list, do a little office work, or simply reflect on your day. Once your meal is served, put down your book or office work; eat slowly and savor the flavors. When you’re traveling and truly need to let down and be alone, choose a hotel with room service!

What spa cuisine is? Although the term isn’t regulated, spa cuisine often refers to health-positioned food preparation to grow taller, perhaps promoted in resorts or health club cafes. On a menu that offers “spa cuisine” you may find foods with less fat or calories, more fruits, vegetables, and fiber-rich grains, or perhaps smaller portions. Like any cuisine, you need to ask questions about the menu in order to get the best food for growing taller and order with consumer savvy.

Today’s fast-food menus offer far more options than traditional fare. From grilled chicken sandwiches, wraps, and broiled fish, to salads, to low-fat milk and fruit smoothies, you have plenty to choose from to grow taller, including lower-calorie, lower-fat, and fresh menu items. You might even find pizza, seafood, pasta, Tex-Mex food, stuffed baked potatoes, noodles, and deli items along with quick ethnic cuisine awesome and delicious means of growing taller. Breakfast also has become a big fast-food business. Even convenience stores where you gas up your car sell fast food-truly the “dining car” of the highway!

Are fast-food meals healthful to grow taller? Overall, yes-if you choose wisely to get the one’s with the most nutrients. Because menus are so varied, no overall comment can describe their nutritional value. Traditional meals-a burger, fries, a fried fruit turnover, and a soft drink, or fried chicken, biscuit, creamy slaw, and mashed potatoes with gravy-remain high in calories and fat, including saturated fat, and sodium, but low in vitamins A and C, calcium, and fiber, and short on fruits and vegetables. In response to consumer demand for growing taller, many of today’s fast-food restaurants offer more varied menus with more vegetables and fruits; lower-calorie, lower-fat options; and smaller portions to grow taller while losing weight.

Think before you buy any food to grow taller. Order takers often promote with marketing questions-for example, “Would you like fries with that?” or “Do you want the value size?” It’s okay to say “no.”

Decide before you order whether the “value meal” is a good deal. If you don’t need the extra food, there’s really no extra value; smaller may cost less. Sharing may be a good deal.Split your order. Halve the calories and double the pleasure-share your fries or sandwich with a friend so you can both enjoy the benefits of growing taller!

For flavor and nutrition, consider the other foods you have eaten-or will eat-during the day grow taller. Order fruits, vegetables, calcium-rich foods, and even whole grains if you can. Select a side of salad, raw vegetables, or coleslaw for added vitamins A and C, and fiber. Boost your calcium intake with reduced-fat, low-fat, or fat-free milk.

Try different types of fast foods, not the same foods every day to receive extra nutrients to grow taller. Enjoy fast-food outlets that serve ethnic foods: perhaps Chinese stir-fry dishes, a Mexican burrito, Japanese domburi, or a vegetable-stuffed pita with cucumber-yogurt dressing. Often food courts in shopping malls allow you to travel the world of flavor without leaving home.

For fried foods, pay attention to the oil used for frying. Most fast-food chains use 100 percent vegetable oil, which may be identified on the menu. Vegetable oil is cholesterol-free and high in polyunsaturated fatty acids; the oil used for frying in the fast-food industry is often high in trans fatty acids. And when French fries and other foods are fried in fat that’s partly beef tallow, these foods contain more cholesterol and saturated fats.

With Americans’ hectic lifestyles, more people eat in the car-and more than 70 percent use the drive-through window, according to the National Restaurant Association. And cars and fast-food packaging are being designed to do that.

When time is short, many people assume that the fastest food to grow taller comes from the drive-up window. Not so. Many times the drive-through line is longer than that for counter service. Beyond that, eating or drinking while driving not only can be messy, it’s also dangerous when one hand is on the wheel and the other hand is holding a burger or a steaming hot beverage. If the cell phone rings at the same time, you may really be in trouble!

Be sizewise about muffins and bagels, as well as croissants and biscuits. Muffins can be higher in fat than you’d think when they are big. A typical 2-ounce muffin has about 5 fat grams-10 to 15 fat grams or more if it’s jumbo-size! A large bakery bagel can count toward as many as 6 ounces from the Grains Group.

If you’re a fast-food regular, go easy on egg entrees. The reason? you will become too fat and won’t grow taller equally. A large egg has 213 milligrams of dietary cholesterol. Health experts advise that healthy people consume 300 milligrams of cholesterol or less per day, and eat yolks and whole eggs in moderation. A two-egg breakfast has at least 425 milligrams of cholesterol!

Order juice as your breakfast beverage. With an 8-ounce carton of orange juice, you’ll get more than 100 percent of the vitamin C you need in a day to grow taller in good health.

At a deli? Ask for yogurt to go with your bagel and juice. An 8-ounce carton of low-fat fruit yogurt supplies about 315 milligrams of calcium, 225 calories, and just 2 to 3 fat grams. Or order a fruit cup!

Hamburgers may be America’s all-time favorite fast food. But chicken and fish have gained a significant market share, in part because consumers perceive them as lower in calories and fat. Chicken and fish sometimes have a lean advantage. However, fast-food preparation- breading, battering, and frying-bump up the calorie and fat content significantly. A fried fish or fried chicken sandwich may supply more calories and fat than a burger!

To keep the lean advantage of hot sandwiches and to boost other nutrients to grow taller, consider this advice Boost the nutrients in all kinds of hot sandwiches-burgers, chicken, or fish-by adding tomato slices and other vegetables. If you’re short on calcium, add cheese. For growing taller with a fiber boost, ask for a whole-wheat bun.

Cut calories by ordering sandwiches without higher-fat condiments and special sauces, such as mayonnaise-based spreads and tartar sauce. Instead use mustard, relish, or ketchup. As a rule of thumb: calories go up with the number of “extras.”

Skip the super-size sandwich; go for the regular, junior, or single size instead. The bigger size can about double everything, including the calorie, fat, and sodium content. A large hamburger, for example, supplies about 510 calories and 28 fat grams compared with 275 calories and 12 fat grams in a regular hamburger. A regular burger has about 2 ounces of cooked meat, compared with 3 to 4 ounces in a larger sandwich. Double patties are bigger still.

To lower the calories and the fat to grow taller in good weight proportions, remove the crispy crust from fried chicken and the skin from rotisserie chicken. Get grilled, skinless chicken. If you prefer fried chicken, order the regular variety rather than “extra-crispy,” which soaks up more oil when cooked. The batter or the breading may have a high-sodium seasoning, too, so you can lower the sodium by removing the crust. And eat just one piece, rather than a two piece order. Chicken nuggets are usually fried and may contain skin and meat (white and dark). Poultry skin is high in fat so beware for people watching their lines.

Choose broiled or baked fish if you have a choice to get omega oil and required proteins to grow taller in good health. But be aware that the fillets on most fish sandwiches are battered and fried. Go easy on tartar sauce; ask for tomato-based cocktail sauce instead.

Food variety adds nutrients, so round out your fast-food meal with veggies, fruit, and calcium-rich foods to grow taller and have strong bones. Perhaps a salad, baked potato, carrot sticks, fruit, juice, milk, or frozen yogurt. In most fast-food restaurants your options are limited. Get the most nutrition mileage from the choices you have.

Go easy on fries to limit calories and fat in an already higher-fat meal. Or ask for the small order, then share. French fries offer some vitamin C.If you have the option, ask for a plain baked potato or mashed potatoes to control calories and fat. Ask for gravy on the side to control how much you add. Find out how mashed potatoes with gravy are prepared; check the nutrition information to grow taller if it’s posted.

Go easy on soft drinks. Reasonable amounts are okay sometimes for their fluids, food energy, and enjoyment. They don’t, however, contribute other nutrients supplied by milk, or fruit or vegetable juice. Large-size drinks can add up to a lot of calories: 150 for every 12 ounces of regular soft drinks, or 800 calories for a 64-ounce cup! Diet drinks supply essentially no calories-and no nutrients (except water).

If the added calories match your eating plan to grow taller you should then enjoy a milk shake as part of your fast-food meal or snack. A shake of any flavor is a good calcium source-if it’s made from milk. A 10-ounce strawberry shake contains about 320 calories. It can serve double duty-as both your beverage and dessert. Super-size shakes, with their 18 ounces, may supply a hefty 575 calories.

Order a latte, cappuccino, or coffee or hot tea (chai) with low-fat or fat-free milk. Milk, rather than cream, is the calcium booster to grow taller and stronger bone structure.. Creamers are typically high in saturated fats, too. Remember: Sweetened ice tea and many flavored coffee drinks have added sugars, too.

For a refreshing dessert, enjoy frozen yogurt or a scoop of ice cream. You may find low-fat versions on the menu. Either way, the small or kids’ size offers a taste without preventing you from growing taller and stronger. For fewer calories, go easy on fudge sauce, candy pieces or mix-ins, or syrup toppings. A little of these toppings goes a long way. Ask for cut-up or dried fruit, nuts, or granola instead.

About herbal mix-ins in smoothies? Bee pollen, ginseng, and other herbal mix-ins may cost extra in smoothies, yet not offer the benefits you think. The actual nutrient content depends on what you put on top-and the type of crust you order. The good news is: You can be the architect of your pizza, controlling the toppings along with the nutrient and calorie content and the flavor which contributes in developing your senses as you grow taller.

Consider the crust. For more fiber, build your pizza on a whole-wheat crust. To trim the calories, order a thin-crust pizza rather than a thick-crust or deep-dish pizza. A stuffed-crust pizza can have considerably more calories and fat than a thinner-crust pizza; for example, 1 slice of a large stuffed-crust pizza may have 20 fat grams or more, and 450 calories or more.

Enjoy the variety of toppings and new combinations available to grow taller in some pizza parlors. Many new toppings are vegetables-artichoke hearts, broccoli florets, eggplant, red bell peppers, and asparagus spears, as well as salmon, tuna, chicken, and shrimp! Want more flavor? Sprinkle on hot pepper flakes for no calories but lots of flavor.

Order a salad to complement your pizza. Salad not only adds nutrients and fiber to grow taller, it also helps you fill up. You may be less likely to eat another pizza slice. Order a reasonable-size pizza. Limit yourself to two or three slices-or one slice if you’re really watching calories to grow taller in proportionate size. Calories from any pizza, even a veggie pizza, add up when you eat just one more slice. A typical slice-an eighth of a 12-inch thin-crust meat and cheese pizza-supplies about 185 calories.

If a bigger size is the better deal to grow taller bigger and stronger, wrap up the extra for the fridge before you start eating. You’ll enjoy pizza again-and save time with lunch-the next day! Go halfzies. Order half the pizza your way if someone else prefers toppings with more fat. In that way you both get what you want to grow taller.

For a different flavor, enjoy wood oven-baked pizza, or pizza with a regional twist: perhaps a Southwest pizza; a Cajun-style pizza; or a Hawaiian pizza with pineapple and lean ham.

Do-It-Yourself – Deep Cleaning Your Teeth

You make sure that your family has good dental cleaning habits. You brush twice a day, for at least five minutes in scrupulous circles, zoning in on specific geographic regions of the mouth. You floss with the latest, most technologically advanced dental tape. You even buy your family the newest fad in contoured toothbrushes, just to reach those hard-to-get spaces in between.

Now that you’re listening, a qualified dentist or hygienist should do your dental cleaning, preferably every six months. Professional dental cleaning can be broken down into three main subcategories, namely: scaling, root planning, and polishing.

You do your homework, and you provide your children with calcium-rich foods that are not too high in sugars. You stock the pantry with cereals and grains high in B Vitamins. You make consistently sensible food choices, because you know that any foods that augment muscle and bone growth are generally recommended for teeth and gums.

But, no matter how you slice it, the time will come for you and your children to get a professional dental cleaning. While brushing and flossing alone can remove as much as 70% of the plaque on your teeth, the other 30% lurks in areas that are harder to reach, and semiannual cleanings are the most sensible preventive medicine against easily avoidable oral health problems such as bad breath (halitosis), gingivitis, tartar (calculus) buildup, and tooth decay.

The American Dental Association (ADA) used to recommend that a child get their first dental cleaning at the age of three. But the recent wave of cavities in children entering kindergarten has forced the ADA to redefine their guidelines, and now most dentists recommend an initial visit to the dentist shortly after the eruption of the first teeth, which takes place during the first year.

If a child’s teeth are developing normally, this visit can be put off longer. However, if the tendency toward developing cavities is deemed to be genetic, so if the parents have had a history of cavities, it is better to get the child into a dentist earlier, in order to establish a sensible oral hygiene routine. Also, children whose teeth show staining, crowding, or other abnormalities should go to a dentist before the age of three.

Root planning is basically gum work, the cleaning of pockets to prevent further development of periodontal or gum disease. When gums are inflamed, the pockets tend to become deeper, making it much easier for them to trap plaque deposits, further worsening the condition of the gums. Root planning can sometimes be a painful process requiring local anesthesia.

Polishing is the final step of a good dental cleaning. Prophy jet polishing works but spraying powered water mixed with baking soda on the teeth. The powered water helps remove any excess plaque, and the baking soda neutralizes acidic conditions in the mouth while simultaneously fighting stains. Your dentist is equipped with the knowledge and the technology to optimize your own personal dental hygiene program for maximum success. So, please, every six months, get thee to a dentist!

Safety Vests – Understanding the Different Classes & Colors

Hi visibility safety vests come in a variety of bright colors that are intended to stand out from natural environmental hues. The color of a vest depends upon the type of activity you will perform. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) require that certain activities use certain types of vests, depending on the potential hazards associated with that particular activity.

Class 1 vests are for environments with low traffic and would appropriate for parking attendants. These vests are typically orange, yellow or lime green (sometimes referred to as yellow-green), but can legally be any color you choose as they are not federally regulated.

A Class 2 vest is worn by workers in high traffic areas with speeds below 25 miles per hour. These vests are frequently worn by city traffic police and crossing guards and must be orange, yellow or lime green.

Class 3 ANSI vests are for high speed, high traffic areas. These are also required to be orange, yellow or green for enhanced daytime visibility. These vests also feature white or silver reflective material for better visibility at night. LED or lighted vests are also available for increased nighttime visibility.

Yellow, orange, and lime green are truly the standard for traffic-related safety vests, but you will also find blue vests on accident or emergency incident scenes. Blue vests are used to clearly differentiate medical personnel from other emergency workers, such as fire and police respondents. These vests are typically reflective and are labeled with the type of medical responder, such as “EMT” or “triage director.” The blue vests help to establish structure in an otherwise chaotic scene and can save lives by clearly defining the roles of the attendants.

How to Attract Men Without Saying a Single Word

Let’s make this a quick one because I’m sure you’re VERY *curious* on how to attract men by doing this technique.

Men have what they call the “B-Shield” (I’ll leave it up to your imagination what B stands for). It’s when women put up a mean and intentionally appear, dare I say it, bitchy. It’s also the one thing that women are doing that KILL any chances of attracting men and meeting any decent guys. So this blog post is going to be about a technique on how to attract men that I call the “Un-B Shield.”

(As you can see, I never had a knack for naming things…)

If there’s one thing that you must know about how to attract men, it’s that we live in CONSTANT FEAR of rejection. And boy, is that ever true when it comes to approaching women. The thought of approaching a woman he doesn’t know can literally freeze a man up and make him absolutely weak in his knees. I have seen this happen (hell, it’s happened to me!) and believe me, it is NOT a pretty sight.

When a man sees a woman that catches his eye, this is a very brief summary of the thought sequence that is most likely going through his mind:

“Wow, she’s pretty. I should say something. But what if she doesn’t like me? I just want to let her know that I think she’s cute. But if I do, I’m just going to bother her. She looks busy and looks like she does not want to be interrupted. Forget it…”

How would you like it if an attractive man walked up to you, smiled warmly, and said this without being creepy:

“Excuse me, this might sound a little random, but I just had to let you know that I think you are cute.”

Would that bother you at all? No, I would bet that something like that would flatter you and make the rest of your day.

Guess what, ladies? HE DOES NOT KNOW THAT. So why do some women actually think that being coy and appearing stand-offish is seductive and is beneficial when it comes to how to attract men? That is a HUGE NO-NO.

The Un-B Shield is really simple. If you want to attract a man who is walking towards you, simply look him in the eye. If he’s paying attention, he will look back at you. As soon as you two make eye contact, give him a warm smile and mouth the words, “Hi.”

The key here is your SMILE. That’s it, that’s how you attract a man.

A woman’s smile (especially if you’re smiling at US) can melt any man’s defenses almost instantaneously. He will be like putty in your hands. What you do afterward is completely up to you.

What do you do if you’re in a place where he’s standing still and isn’t walking, say, a bookstore? How do you attract men in situations like these, I hear you ask? That’s easy. Simply position yourself somewhere he can see you, and make some sort of sound. Clear your throat. Or simply look at him, and act as if you’re about to say something. Then do the same thing.

Teenage girls are EXPERTS at this.

When they see someone cute, they make noises and giggle. A lot. They stare at the guy. That gets the guy’s attention (I mean, c’mon – you can FEEL it whenever someone is looking at you). When the guy looks, they turn and giggle even more. What’s funny is, they attract men this way, and more often than not, they end up meeting the guy.

Try the Un-B Shield the next time you go out and want to know how to attract men. I guarantee that you will witness something amazing.


PS. If you want to multiply the power of this technique three-fold and REALLY be able to attract men, use the power of Sensual Seduction (I talk about it in the second section of the “Miss Irresistible” manual) and wear some KILLER PERFUME.

How to Stop an Invisible Dog Fence From Continuously Beeping

I was in the middle of the lake fishing last Sunday and I get a frantic call from a lady with an Invisible dog fence brand system. She tells me her system is beeping and she can’t get it to stop. She further explains that she can’t get anyone on the phone at the dealer except someone that says they can schedule a service call and they’ll come and fix it. As she talks further she discloses that she has already unplugged it and it is still beeping and its driving her crazy. She has no use for the system as her dog had passed away over 2 years ago. The lady tells me she has called a couple different Invisible dog fence Dealers she found online and no one was willing to help her get the beep stopped.

As a formally educated businessman I find this attitude of the Invisible dog fence dealers to be all too common and absolutely reprehensible. They seem blind to providing service to their customers unless they can make another dollar on it. Now considering the Invisible dog fence Brand systems are the most expensive on the market you would expect for this added price that they would bend over backwards to help their clients. Unfortunately that is not very often the case and quite often it seems just the opposite. The more it cost the less “Value added” service you receive. If it didn’t give the industry such a black eye I would care less.

Well back to the subject at hand. The unit was beeping after being unplugged. Well in order to beep it needs power. If its unplugged there must be an additional power source for example a battery backup. I ask her to describe what wires she saw connected to the unit that was beeping. She explained there were two twisted together, those being the loop wires, there was a black wire that was attached to the transformer she had already unplugged, there was a green ground wire, and there was also a black and red wire together that went to another larger square box on the wall beside the transmitter.

This was the battery backup that she needed to disconnect. Most invisible dog fence dealers love to sell battery backups as it makes additional income for them although it is not very practical in most applications. I instructed her that she needed to unplug the black and red wire combination by simply grasping them close up to the unit and pulling. The small plastic plug disengaged and the beeping stopped.

She thanked me profusely and offered to pay me for my assistance when I refused her gesture she offered to send me the unit as payment for my help. I told her how she could at least recover some of her money from the system by selling it on eBay as there are always buyers on there wanting them. My personal experience with eBay is that there are several invisible dog fence dealers who buy product on there to resell to their customers that are looking for used products. At least these invisible dog fence dealers are trying to provide added services to their clients.

The Technical Environment of the Stop Hit

The simple stop hit is probably the most frequently used of fencing’s counteroffensive actions. At the most basic level it simply tries to beat the opponent’s attack in speed or timing. However, successful employment of the stop hit depends on recognition of its unique characteristics and the environment in which it operates.

The stop hit is an attack into an opponent’s attack, stopping that attack from changing the relative score by meeting specific requirements in the fencing rules. In foil and sabre, it is delivered to hit before the attack, scoring a single touch for the fencer who is attacked. In epee it is delivered either to score before the original attack or to score simultaneously to preserve the relative difference in the fencers’ scores. As a practical matter, it is always a simple attack, most often a straight thrust.

Right of Way. Right of way is most influential in foil, as the stop must land before the initiation of the final movement of an attack. This is difficult to achieve, and requires the ability to identify the subtle signs of a developing compound attack so that the stop can arrive during the first action. The opponent can defeat the stop by accelerating the first movement into a simple attack. Right of way still applies at sabre, but the advanced target and the lockout time make the stop a more practical option. Right of way is not a factor in stop hits in epee (as right of way does not apply to epee bouts).

Target. Foil has the most restrictive target, the torso. Both sabre and epee have an advanced target, the arm, which the combination of distance to travel and lockout time makes both vulnerable and a useful stop target.

Distance to Travel. In sabre and epee the advanced target reduces the distance the stop hit has to travel. This means that the stop launched at the same speed against a sabre or epee arm target will hit significantly earlier than a stop hit against the torso in foil.

Lockout Times. Lock out time is the length of time between two hits after which the second hit will not register on the scoring apparatus. The foil lockout time is so long (300 milliseconds) as to not factor in blocking hits. However, in sabre the 120 millisecond lockout means that a cut to the advanced target combined with a rapid retreat has a real chance of timing out the original attack, resulting in a single light. In epee, the 40 millisecond (1/25th of second) lockout makes the epee stop hit a reliable action to either completely defeat the attack or to result in a double hit (when double hits are tactically desirable).

Double Hits. The character of double hits is a critical determining technical factor in stop hit employment. In foil and sabre the double hit (both red and green lights displayed by the scoring machine) requires the application of right of way to determine which hit scores. Only one of the two hits can be awarded the touch. This is a critical limitation for the stop hit in these two weapons because it means that the stop hit is subject to referee interpretation. In epee the stop that beats the attack by 40 milliseconds scores for the counteroffensive fencer; if the stop lands within the 40 millisecond window both fencers are hit, preserving the relative score between them. The ability to beat the attack by 40 milliseconds gives the stop hit exceptional utility as counter offense. Under any conditions, the stop thrust now can hit at any time up to 40 milliseconds after the attack, and still frustrate the attacker’s objective.

In summary, the stop thrust is technically the most difficult in foil, and therefore requires the best tactical preparation. In sabre the stop thrust or cut has the very real chance to time out the attacking action, especially when delivered to the advanced target. And in epee the stop thrust is potentially the most tactically useful because of the much wider time window in which it can be effective. This suggests that coaches should design their lessons to teach how best to exploit the specific technical requirements for the stop in the individual weapon.

10 Entry Level Jobs on Oil Rigs That Need No Experience

If you are willing to face a certain amount of physical danger to earn more money, you should look at no experience jobs on oil rigs. There are few places where someone without a college education can make $50,000 a year. In fact, jobs in the oil industry have some of the highest salaries in the world, easily comparable to the sin industries of tobacco and alcohol. Here is a short list of the work available on an offshore oil rig where you can get paid the big bucks to do honest, hard, sweaty labor.

1. Roustabouts

A roustabout provides general labor, doing almost everything on board the oil rig. He is the muscle, cleaning and painting the oil rig, and carrying, storing, setting up various pieces of equipment. On more complicated jobs, for example, when carrying out certain tasks on the drill floor, he will work under the supervision of the roughneck. If you play computer strategy games, the roustabout is basically guy who does all the basic work like the peon, peasant, drone, probe, SCV and what not. For all his sweat and hard work, he takes home $45,000 to $55,000 a year, better than many white collar jobs.

2. Steward

If you have ever worked in the hospitality industry, you will know all about this job. For those who are unfamiliar, the typical duties include helping out in the kitchen, doing the laundry and cleaning the accommodations. The only difference is that you will be working on board an offshore oil instead of a hotel or cruise ship. For facing the risk of the oil platform exploding, the salary goes up to $45,000 per year.

3. Rig Welder

A skilled welder in the dying manufacturing industry can easily make the transition to rig welder. Due to government regulations, rig welders need trade certification (CITB for the United Kingdom, AWS for the United States). For daring to work on top of the ocean instead of on dry land, the welder doubles his salary from $30,000 on dry land to $60,000 on the offshore platform.

4. Scaffolders

Like a scaffolder in the construction industry, a scaffolder on board an offshore oil rig works in high places. Some companies need their scaffolders to be certified, others do not. Even compared to other oil rig jobs, this is considered rather dangerous. That is why he is paid an extra $10,000 more than the roustabout.

5. Radio Operator

Obvious from the description. Easy and boring, but critical, which explains the $60,000 salary.

6. Medic

Again, no description needed. Most medics are ex-nurses. Salary is around $70,000.

7. Storeman

Same duties as a storeman on dry land, but gets a higher salary of $60,000.

8. Painter

If you painted tall apartment buildings for a living, you should think about switching over to an offshore oil platform. There is slightly more risk, but you also get a lot more pay. Salary: $58,000.

9. Motorman

Basically the junior mechanic, maintaining and repairing the machines. For an increased salary (compared to a normal mechanic on land) of $58,000, sometimes has to do repairs in high places while suspended from a crane.

10. Electrician

In charge of making sure all the electrical equipment works (even the light bulbs). Unlike a normal electrician, needs to have a head for heights – some of the work will be done while hanging from a crane. Salary: $65,000.

These are the 10 entry level jobs on oil rigs which do not need prior experience on an oil rig and do not need a college degree. The roustabouts and stewards do not need any kind of trade certification. The other positions may need a trade certification.

Cash and Non-Cash Payments To Employees

Business expenses are the costs a company incurs to carry out its trade, business, or profession. The IRS allows companies to deduct these expenses as long as the business tries to make a profit. In the previous chapter, the general requirements for deducting employee compensation expenses were presented. The purpose of this chapter is to present the requirements to deduct specific employee expenses. Employers will be able to use this information to decide whether a specific expense such as vacation pay, sick pay, bonuses, etc., that they incur during a year can be deducted by the company.

Employers generally provide employees with compensation in different ways. In this chapter, we will focus on both cash and non-cash payments made to employees and the deductibility of such items as business expenses.


Bonuses: The most common type of additional payment to employees takes the form of bonuses. The IRS allows you to deduct bonuses to employees if your intention is to provide the employee with additional pay for services rendered, and not as a gift. The bonus must still meet the four tests of deductibility outlined in the previous chapter. Bonuses, while deductible to the company as a business expense, are included in the employee’s income, the same as any other compensation. Bonuses simply increase the amount of total salary paid to an employee in any one year.

Gifts: Gifts that are of nominal value, such as a turkey at Christmas or other such items, are deductible as business expenses as long as they do not exceed $25 in fair market value. Such gifts are not included in an employee’s income even though the company can take a tax deduction for the gift. Since such items are classified as gifts, the employee does not need to perform any services for the item to be deductible to the employer. If the employer provides employees with gifts of cash, gift certificates, or other cash equivalents, these items are considered additional compensation, no matter what the value is, and must be included in the employee’s income. Accordingly, gifts should be ‘in-kind’ items and not cash or cash equivalents.

Deferred Compensation: Some employers pay their employees a fixed amount each pay period and defer some of the total compensation until the next year.This is generally referred to as ‘deferred compensation.’ The deduction for this amount is based on the following:

1. Accrual method taxpayers can deduct the entire amount of compensation (including the deferred amount) in the year the employee performs the services for the company. This means that if the employee performed the services in one year, but the employer elected to defer the actual payment or part of the employee’s salary until the next year, the employer can still deduct the payment in year one. Such an arrangement is only allowable if a definite prior arrangement is made with the employee and the related party rules do not apply.

2. However, employers using the cash method can only deduct the amount actually paid in the year the services are rendered. Accordingly, any deferral of compensation to an employee results in a loss of a deduction to the company.

There is a special rule for accrual method taxpayers regarding related parties. Employers are not allowed to deduct payments to related taxpayers until the amount due is included in the taxpayer’s return. For this purpose, a related taxpayer includes immediate members of a family that own more than 50% of stock in the corporation. In these situations, the accrual method employer is placed on the cash basis for deducting deferred compensation. Thus, owners of closely-held companies are placed on notice that deferred compensation agreements may create a tax problem with regard to the year in which the expenses can be deducted.

Vacation Pay: Another area that is common to most businesses involves vacation pay. This is an amount that you pay or will pay to your employee while they are on vacation. If the employee chooses not to take a vacation and you pay the amount anyway, it will be included under vacation pay. Amounts for sick pay or for holiday pay are not included in vacation pay. Employers under the cash method may deduct vacation pay as wages when the employee is paid; while employers on the accrual method can deduct vacation pay in the year paid, if the amount is paid by year-end or within two and one half months after the close of the tax year. If the employer pays the amount later than two and a half months after the year ends, the amount may be deducted in the year it is actually paid, under the accrual method of accounting. A recent court case did allow the employer to deduct the vacation pay that was earned in one year as long as the employer established a liability to pay it to the employee the following year.

Miscellaneous: Expenses for meals and lodging of employees can be deducted only if they are considered ordinary and necessary and meet other business expense deductibility tests. The IRS has special rules for meals and lodging.The special rules were the subject of chapter one. Other expenses that may be deducted as compensation include monies the employer pays to employee for sickness and injury, minus any insurance settlement. These expenses are fully deductible to the employer and not taxable to the employee as long as the reimbursement plan does not discriminate in favor of highly paid employees and involves only actual expenses.


Employers often compensate their employees in ways other than cash. Such payments can take the form of property, stock, or by directly paying an employee’s expenses. These types of expenses are considered compensation expenses and are deductible, subject to special rules. As with cash payments, there are different rules, regarding the timing of these deductions.

Education Expenses: Employers are able to pay the tuition for an employee who is taking courses not required for their jobs or not otherwise job-related. The employer can deduct the payments as wages. Such payments however must be included in the employee’s gross income and are subject to FICA, FUTA, and withholding taxes, the same as other forms of compensation. The exception to this rule is if the employer has, in place, a written educational assistance plan as a fringe benefit offered to employees. The IRS has the following rules for these types of plans to qualify as a tax-free fringe benefit:

• The written plan cannot discriminate between employees

• Not more than five percent of the total amounts paid or incurred by the employer for assistance during the year may be provided for shareholders or owners, each of whom own more than five percent of the stock or other capital of the employer

• The plan cannot offer a choice between educational assistance and other compensation includable in gross income

• The program is not required to be funded

• Employees must receive reasonable notification that the written plan exists.

The employer cannot deduct more than $5,250 per employee each year. If the plan meets all of the above rules, then the employer can deduct the educational expenses and does not have to include the expenses in the employee’s W-2 form. The employee does not have to take job-related courses to qualify under this exception.

In addition to the above exception, when an employer reimburses an employee for educational expenses in job-related courses, the employer is able to deduct the expenses as “non-compensatory” business expenses. This type of expense is known as a working condition fringe benefit and is not included in the employee’s income.

Moving Expenses: When an employer pays for an employee to move, the employer is allowed a deduction for the reimbursement to the employee of certain moving expenses. There are two different types of payments for employee moving expenses: 1. The first type involves expenses that may be deducted by the employee in computing his personal income tax owed and 2. The second type involves expenses that the employee is not allowed to deduct.

The employer treats the two types of moving expenses in different ways. When the employee is allowed a deduction for moving expenses, the employer does not consider the expense to be wages. The employer reimburses the employee and takes a deduction for a normal business expense.

On the other hand, payments for moving expenses that the employee cannot deduct are considered to be income to the employee. Accordingly, the payments are subject to FICA, FUTA, and withholding taxes by the employer. The employer must treat this expense as payment for services rendered. In this manner, the employer is still able to deduct the expense.

When an employer pays moving expenses, he is required by law to give the employee a statement describing the types of payments made on the employee’s behalf. This statement will show the employee which expenses will be included in his gross income. The IRS provides a special form for this purpose. It is up to the employer to know the basis of the expense reimbursement to the employee for moving expenses on his personal income tax return. It is then up to the employee to report the income and deduct the expenses on his personal tax return.

Capital Assets: A third type of non-cash payment is the transfer of a capital asset to an employee as payment for services rendered. Employers often do this when the company is short of cash. The employer is able to deduct the fair market value of the asset on the date of the transfer as wages paid to an employee. The amount deducted is treated as received in exchange for the asset (as in a sale) and the employer must recognize any gain or loss realized in the transfer. The gain or loss is the difference between the fair market value of the asset and the amount the company paid for the asset, minus any depreciation on the date of the transfer.

Homeless at Christmas

Can you think of anything more dreadful than being homeless at Christmas? Walking cold wet streets with no-one to go to, nobody that cares whether you live or die, permanently hungry, wondering if you will find a bed for the night. No wonder many are turning to drugs and alcohol. Maybe a side benefit of ending homelessness and reducing prison intake would be to get these people off the streets, re-house and re-educate them before they turn to a life of crime. It is no wonder we need more police!

Sleeping in cold wet doorways must be unbearable at any time of the year but at Christmas everyone is heading “home” to enjoy the friendship, good food and warmth with their friends and loved ones.

“The Salvation Army” and many other organizations do what they can to help the needy, homeless, and neglected members of society and do a great job, but it is the 21st century and one would expect a solution for homelessness to have been found; but no, the problem is getting worse with a growing number of street dwellers and the hidden number of sofa sleepers that are only a breath away from homelessness. Hundreds of homeless roam the streets of our towns.

The government is failing to provide enough dwellings for people. The housing crisis is growing daily, as is the decline of many of the “private lets”. Spurred on by the crisis of lack of affordable accommodation, rogue landlords are cashing in on the demand for housing for the needy and are taking advantage of them.

What solution is available? Would you believe there are ranges of eco-friendly dwellings in the pipeline, designed with low running costs, by a number of companies, they are affordable and could be used by councils to rent to the needy, they could also be offered to increase the capacity of private dwellings. All we need is cooperation from the government to give the OK and support. What are they waiting for – the crisis to grow to experiential numbers of homeless, creating crimes for survival in their harsh reality. Who can blame them for submitting to the numbing effects of drugs and alcohol to lessen their pain and frustration.

Or consider the aged confined to hospital after illness or falls when their family live too far away to care for them. Eco-friendly extensions to the family home could solve this and give the elderly a certain amount of independence and dignity whilst making it convenient for relatives to help. More strain on the NHS trying to arrange home care.

Just announced, council tax bills are about to rise by 3% to cover the social care costs as an emergency sticking plaster tactic, when with an overhaul system reform, the whole housing crisis could be addressed.