Chemistry – Matter and the Divisions of Matter

Matter is all the stuff around you.  It is the food you eat, the air you breathe and the clothes you wear. Even you are made-up of matter. Therefore, you need to know the different types, forms and properties of matter.

Matter is anything that has mass and volume. Mass is the amount of inertia in matter and the volume is the amount of space occupied by matter. Inertia is the resistance to change and the greater the inertia the greater the mass.

DIVISIONS OF MATTER

Many times matter is divided into two categories: pure substances and mixtures.  It is important that you can distinguish one form of matter from another so that you can describe the changes you observe.

Pure substances consist of one material with a definite composition and definite properties.  Pure substances are divided into two groups: elements and compounds. 

Elements are the simplest forms of chemical substances and cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means.  Examples would be hydrogen (H), sulfur (S) or gold (Au).  The simplest form of an element is an atom.

Compounds are chemical combinations of elements that can be described with a chemical formula and can only be separated by chemical means.  Examples of compounds are water, sugar and salt.  The simplest forms of a compound are molecules or formula units.

MIXTURES

Mixtures are all around you.  A salad is a mixture of vegetables, a glass of soda is a mixture of water, sugar and flavoring and air is a mixture of gases like nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Mixtures are physical combinations of two or more substances with varying compositions, varying properties and can be separated by ordinary physical processes.  Usually, mixtures are divided into two main groups: those that are homogeneous and those that are heterogeneous.

Homogenous mixtures are the same throughout and do not separate into phases when left alone. Many homogeneous mixtures are solutions that consist of a solute and a solvent. The solute is the material that dissolves and the solvent is the material that causes the dissolving. Solutions are completely dissolved and see through. 

An alloy is a solution of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, where the resulting material has metallic properties. Alloys are usually made to improve on the properties of the elements that make them up. Steel for example, is much stronger than iron, which is its main component.

Heterogeneous mixtures have no definite composition and separate into phases when left alone. Heterogeneous mixtures can be separated by ordinary physical means. Examples of heterogeneous mixtures are blood, Italian salad dressing and soda pop.

 Another type of mixture is a colloid. A colloid is a suspension that doesn’t separate because the particles aren’t completely dissolved and remain suspended causing the mixture to appear cloudy. This cloudiness, called the Tyndall effect, is due to the scattering of light by the suspended particles.

A solution does not scatter light because the particles are at the molecular level and way too small to reflect light.  However, the colloidal particles are large enough to reflect light and yet small enough not to settle.  The scattering of light from automobile head-lights in fog and of a light beam by dust particles are examples of the Tyndall effect.

Colloids are formed from all combinations of solids, liquids or gases (except mixtures of non-reacting gases which are true solutions). Aerosols, foams, emulsions and sols are different types of colloids. Examples of colloids are shaving cream, whipped cream and gelatin.

Language School Nightmares And How to Avoid Them

Students rarely put goals in their mind when they want to choose a language school. Student wants should be a substitute for

someone else's wants when it comes to planning objectives. Whether you want to learn to speak Spanish or Chinese, course flexibility to achieve yours

goals equals success or failure.

Any student should ask themselves what are

the goals they would like to achieve. What outcomes will their studies secure, are they to pass an examination or to have oral skills to

negotiate in business? Do they need the language to talk to new friends from a non-English-speaking country or are they intending to

travel independently in a particular region or country? Will the school really help them secure their ambitions? The old saying make your

own plans or you will fit into someone else's plan, is the most relevant when it comes to language learning goals.

Review and recall are the issues that should be

associated with how long the course is. If a student is thinking of taking a course that is fewer than three months, I would

describe that as an intensive course. A course that does not allow a review of material beyond three months is a course that is at risk of

letting a student forget much of what is learnt. The physical course materials that she or he takes away from the course after it

has finished are especially important if the course lasted fewer than three months.

What's the magic about three months I hear you ask?

Well no magic because according to language specialists like Dr Pimsleur, we need to review what we have learnt over gradually longer and

longer periods of time if we are going to avoid forgetting what we have learnt. Students may not get the maximum value from two weeks of hard

work and full-time study because the necessary reviews have not been built into such a short course. A means to constantly practice and review

what has been learned, several months after the event is the only way of making certain of maximum benefit.

Talking is the key to fluency, not endless lists of

verbs. Fluency only comes with social contact with other warm-blooded human beings. There is an electric and strength with the use of language

when we exchange it with one another that no form of self-study can give you. That is why a language course in a classroom wins compared with

any other language study choices. The student companions in a class can be more important than the material studied. Will the other students

in the class be at the same learning level as you? Encourage to converse with one another in the class is an opportunity of the greatest

value towards fluency.

Language learning is best nurtured by enjoying human

contact with teachers and companions students speaking the target language. The opportunities that a study group would have to go out into the

real world together, talking with native speakers is a special confidence nurturing experience. Most bedroom experiences people have with

language leaving schools can involve one-way participation with a teacher and little talking between students. Contacting the school

and asking about the ways a class is conductives gives a clear idea of ​​student participation.

Learning on location in the country of the relevant

language can be an exciting and worthwhile experience. The experience can and should be a full experience of travel using the language.

You can easily turn the whole learning experience into an adventure, from the time you arrive at the boarder or the airport. Taking the bus

rather than a taxi and having to ask which bus gets you where, can be a nerve-racking experience if you have never conversed with a native

speaker before. If safety allows then this is by far a better learning experience rather than traveling in a large escorted

group.

Students should be willing and able to socialize in the

evenings. The school should offer helpful advice about security and where to go to practice the language skills gained during the day. These

are the basics of using a language school in a country different from you own. If circumstances do not allow foreign language school travel,

the main advantage of language school study will not be lost. Language is brought to life when

people communicate with one another where ever they are.

Top 10 Travel Advice

  1. Always ensure that you have checked the latest travel advice for the destination you wish to travel so subscribe to any free email notifications each time the travel advice is updated.
  2. If need be opt for travel insurance and make sure this is arranged before hand to cover any activities you wish to participate in as well as insurance for all your baggage.
  3. Check to see if you are in need for a visa for the countries you are going to visit, however be aware that you may need more than just a visa to enter the country so find this out by contacting the Embassy or High Commission before hand.
  4. Confirm you flight details and all reservations for cars, hotels and activities before you leave.
  5. Organize your money. Make sure you are sure of which credit / debit cards you will be taking and find out the best rates for converting currency and purchasing travelers checks.
  6. Make a list of all emergency contact numbers, for example lose and stolen credit cards, and leave a copy of your travel itinerary with a friend of family member so they can contact you if need be.
  7. Check the weather at your travel destination so that you can pack the appropriate gear to suit the climate.
  8. If you are going to be flying then make sure you have an essential carry on bag just encase you bags get delayed.
  9. If you are going to be driving then make sure you have a road map, GPS handy so you can look up any directions when needed.
  10. Pack you camera and video equipment atleast 24 hours before you leave, so that you can check and charge any batteries beforehand.

Nonprofit Websites – Your Connection for Assistance

With the economy struggling for the last number of years, one thing is certain; traffic going to nonprofit websites is up across the board. If the economic laws of supply and demand were worth their salt one would clearly have seen a huge amount of "supply" provided to meet the ever increasing demand for services, but alas, since there's "no money" in it, supply has actually languished in the face of ever increasing demand. Not because people no longer care, but because demand has simply far outstripped supply.

Charitable contributions are down

Recent publications by organizations are indicating that while demand for charitable services are at or near record historical levels, charitable contributions in general are down approximately 10-11%. Less money coming in to support nonprofit charities at the same time that the need for them is going through the roof. This is at best a difficult social dilemma. At its worst, it is a social nightmare. Many nonprofit websites are feeling the pressure of more and more visitors clamoring for assistance at a time when they are having to cut services to the bone. Hardly the time to think about doing an upgrade on your website, right? Wrong! Now is exactly the time to consider a refresh or an upgrade.

Your website is often the first line of contact

It is often said that, "Necessity is the Mother of Invention!" and today is no different than the day that this phrase was coined. With nonprofit websites regularly being the first line of contact for assistance in today's internet connected world, what better way is there for a charity to be able to provide much needed assistance to their clients than by making sure that their website is easy to navigate, helpful , and populated with current and accurate service information? Already disturb, those in need do not need to be further frustrated with outdated resources that no longer exist or contact numbers that no longer lead to a person that can assist.

Every donor dollar is critical

Switching from looking at the impact that outdated nonprofit websites can have on the client in need to look at the negative impact that a poorly constructed website can have obtaining contributions from donors, one is definitely going to want to make sure that an individual's ability to make a contribution is as easy as possible. Nonprofit websites should have as part of their primary landing page an obvious and fast link to their donor collection page. When at the donor collection page, the prospective donor should be offered a wide variety of options for making their contribution including, but not limited to, the following:

• All major forms of credit and debit cards

• The ability to transfer funds from cash management accounts such as PayPal

• A clear mailing address and instructions on how to make a contribution by check

During these critical economic times, a nonprofit can not allow a major lifeline like their website to become antiquated and less effective than it could be otherwise.

Wireless Network Security

Why Use Security?

If someone is able to wireless connect to your network from the road, near by parking lot, or adj. House here are some things to consider. If they use your Internet connection for illegal activity, YOU areiable, not them. Also, once they are on your network, they may be able to open, delete, or change every file on your computers. There is also the possibility that the unauthorized user could spread viruses without them even realizing it.

So What Should I Do?

There are many ways to secure your connection. We are focusing on wireless security, so we will make a simple adjustment to your router. The simplest way to secure your connection is by using WEP (Wireless Encryption Protocol). Before I go any further, many hackers can find ways around this protection. It is not the best choice for large businesses (over 100 employees), but for home and small business users, this will work just fine.

Step 1 (Configure router):

Depending on your router, the specifics of this step will differ. You need to log into your router. This is done by opening your Internet Browser (Internet Explorer, FireFox, Safari, etc.) and putting the IP address of the router in the address bar (the address bar is where you type web sites such as google.com). This IP address will either be 192.168.0.1 or 192.168.1.1; if you are unsure try both. Once you type the correct one in (and press 'Enter'), a pop-up will ask you for your user name and password. If you have never changed your password, then a default was set for you by the manufacturer. This is not the same user name and password as your computer or Internet Service Provider. If you do not know your default password, find it by clicking here.

Once logged in, look for the wireless section. This is often a button or tab found on the main page. For DLink routers there will be a button on the left menu. Now look for wireless security. For DLink routers it will be on this page. You should see a drop-down-menu. Select WEP (you may also see other choices such as WAP). Depending on your router, you will see some or all of these options. Set them as follows:

Authentication: Open

WEP Encryption: 64bit

Key Type: Hex

Key1: PICK A 10 DIGIT NUMBER

The above 'Key' is your wireless network password. Anyone that uses your wireless connection will need to know it. Normally, you are only required to put it in your computer once and then it will remember it.

Step 2 (Computer Setup):

Now go to your wireless computer and try to connect to the network, it will ask you for the key. Enter it just as you did in the router.

Step 3 (Advanced Security):

If you would like more security then you can change some of the other options in the router. For example, instead of 64bit choose 128bit. Or instead of HEX choose ASCII. All routers are different and offer different levels of security. Basically, going to 128bit requires a longer password so it is harder for others to guess and going to ASCII requires a password with letters, not just numbers, so there are more possible passwords. You can change this around as much as you like and I do suggest changing to either 128bit or ASCII.

Note: For more information contact the manufacturer of the router. They often have a toll free number and will walk you through exactly how to do what you want. I suggest a DLink router because they have 24/7 support and are very helpful.

The Information Technology Curse – An Analogy

One typical day in the office, Mr. Boss calls a meeting with Mr. IT to describe the task he would like to have completed. Mr. Boss starts by saying he has budgeted some money for a simple project that involves going to the store to pick up a t-shirt, a pair of shoe laces, and a small bag of popcorn. After a brief discussion, Mr. IT assures Mr. Boss that his department can take care of the task right away. Mr. IT takes the money from Mr. Boss, and heads out to accomplish the assignment. Mr. IT goes to the garage to get the car he will be driving to the store, only to learn that the only car available has a manual transmission, and the company has scheduled a class to teach several employees how to drive a stick shift. Mr. IT is informed that he must wait for the class to be completed before he can have the car to complete his task.

Several hours pass, and the automobile is finally made available to Mr. IT. When he gets the car, he learns that it is very low on fuel, so he will have to budget the time and money to refuel the car at a gas station on his way to the store, and he will have to spend a significant portion of the money he got from Mr. Boss to buy enough fuel for the car to complete the assignment. Already behind schedule, Mr. IT rushes to the convenience store to purchase the three items on his list. When he arrives at the store, he is told by the clerk that this store has shoe laces and popcorn, but does not carry t-shirts. Thinking fast, Mr. IT grabs a bag of popcorn and a pair of shoe laces, and gives them to the clerk for check out. When the clerk tries to ring up the purchase, he scans the bar codes on the items, and the register shows a total of $200 for the items. Mr. IT tells the clerk that this price cannot possibly be right for popcorn and shoe laces. The clerk tries again, and gets the same results. Mr. IT asks the clerk to ring up the purchase manually, but the clerk says he does not have any way to ring up a purchase manually. Mr. IT decides to put the items back on the shelf and go to a different place to purchase the items he needs. He calls ahead on his cell phone to the next store, and is assured by the person on the other end that this store carries all three items at an acceptable price.

With this new information at hand, Mr. IT rushes to the next store before it closes to purchase his items. The clerks at this new store are eager to have Mr. IT’s business, so they send out some clerks to gather up the items and bring them to the cash register. Mr. IT is about to purchase the items when he notices a big hole in the t-shirt, popcorn leaking from the bag, and dirt all over the shoe laces. Getting frustrated with the situation, Mr. IT calls the store manager to register his dissatisfaction with what has been delivered, and the store manager sends more clerks out to gather items that are not defective. Mr. IT examines the new items brought to him, and sees that the t-shirt and popcorn are fine, but there is only one shoe lace instead of two. The clerk who brought the shoe lace tells Mr. IT that he inadvertently left the other shoe lace on the desk in the manager’s office, and Mr. IT can go to the office to get the other shoe lace after completing his purchase. Mr. IT pays for the items he has, and takes the sales receipt to the store manager’s office to retrieve the other shoe lace. As Mr. IT enters the office, the missing shoe lace is indeed on the desk in plain sight, but as he reaches out to pick it up, the store manager appears and asks him what he is doing in the office. Mr. IT shows the manager his purchase receipt, and points out that he has come into the office to retrieve the other shoe lace he has paid for. The store manager tells Mr. IT that this office is private, and he cannot allow people to come in and take things out of the office without first checking with the people in his store to verify the story. After several phone calls and meetings, the store manager verifies that the shoe lace was put in his office by a store clerk, and Mr. IT was sent there to get it.

Now that Mr. IT is long past due back at his own office, he jumps into the car and races back toward work. Three blocks short of his destination, Mr. IT’s automobile runs our of fuel, and he has to ask some people passing by to help him push the car back to the parking lot. When he arrives to confront Mr. Boss, Mr. IT delivers the items he bought, and tries to explain the unforeseen troubles he had in carrying out what Mr. Boss perceived to be the simplest of tasks. Mr. Boss listens to the explanation with no small amount of skepticism, but decides to look over the goods that Mr. IT has brought back. On viewing the purchased items, Mr. Boss tells Mr. IT that he bought the wrong brand of popcorn, and brought back the wrong color of shoe laces. Mr. Boss says he is very disappointed that Mr. IT has proven to be so inept at carrying out such an easy assignment, and wonders what would have happened if he had given Mr. IT a more difficult task to accomplish. Mr. Boss decides to fire Mr. IT, and replace him with someone he believes to be better suited to accomplish the company’s goals. Unfortunately for Mr. Boss, the new Mr. IT lives and works in India, and cannot speak English. Is anyone interested in becoming Mr. IT?.

Be the Master of Your Digital Camera

A very popular hobby that many people have enjoyed and many more people are learning to enjoy is photography. Taking photos with your digital camera can prove to be very enjoyable. Some will carry their camera with them wherever they go so they do not miss taking that special photo while others do it as a part time or weekend job to supplement their income. Whatever your reason may be for getting into digital photography, there are some things you need to keep in mind when taking your pictures.

Before anything else, you must realize that you are the director and you will absolutely determine how a picture will turn out. Do not be shy in taking photos of people or climbing a little hill to get that perfect shot of the ocean beyond the trees. Let your creativity shine forth, and you will learn to appreciate your photos even more. Taking pictures with a preconceived notification of how pictures are provided to be taken is the wrong approach to take. With that in mind, however, there are some things that you do need to be aware of so your pictures will turn out right in the first place.

One thing that some beginner photographers have trouble with is working with the flash on the camera. The flash can be your best friend or your worst enemy. You need to learn how your camera uses the flash with each setting or scene mode that it has. The camera will use the flash differently when the scene mode is set at a nighttime setting as opposed to its automatic setting. Use natural lighting whenever possible, but make sure that the sun is lighting the object or person you want to take a picture of the proper way. Taking the picture with the sun directly behind or in front of your subject will cause your photo to become either underexposed or overexposed. When taking pictures at night, do not get too close to your subject unless you want it to turn out very, very bright.

Practice makes perfect, and one way to get that practice is to take many photos of the same object but at different angles, distances, and with or without the flash. If you want, you can keep notes of what the lighting conditions are, whether you used the flash or not, the camera scene mode you used, if any, and your distance from the object. That should give you a better understanding of what you should expect you to encounter a picture-taking moment with the same conditions in the future.

Keep in mind also that you will need to devote some time to get better at your photographic skills. With time, you will develop a sense for taking a picture and having it come out the way that you want it to.

Enjoy Your Vacation Without Gaining An Ounce

When you are on vacation, it’s tempting to skip your morning jog and lounge in your armchair sipping orange juice and munching on greasy snacks. While there’s nothing wrong with a little splurging, if you overdo it, you may be in for an unpleasant surprise.

With sensible eating you can maintain weight and still indulge. Follow these stay-fit tips on your next trip and you won’t bring home extra pounds as a souvenir.

  1. Don’t diet beforehand. A popular plan is to crash-diet before you leave, so you can pig out once you are away. If you try to drop pounds quickly, you will most likely lose muscle and water weight. Then when you overeat, you will replace that lost muscle with fat. It is better to eat normally but step up your exercise routine to burn fat and build calorie-burning muscle. For a few weeks before you go, add an extra 60 minutes of exercise, like running or aerobics, to your weekly workouts.
  2. Pack healthy snacks. Junk food is easy to find wherever you travel, but nutritious fare can be more elusive, especially if you are on a road trip, sightseeing all day or in a place where produce is scarce. To make sure you have access to healthy, portable snacks while on the go, take bags of dried fruit, unsalted nuts and low-calorie cereal.
  3. Budget your fat. Take a few minutes each morning to determine how you will balance the day’s fat and calories. That way, you can still splurge on one whatever-I-want meal and not feel deprived. For example, if you know that dinner will be at a four-star restaurant, eat a lighter breakfast and lunch.
  4. Don’t drink your calories. Popular vacation concoctions, such as Daiquiris and Pina Coladas, can contain as many calories and as much fat as an entire meal. Alcoholic drinks most likely to derail a healthy diet are those mixed with cream, milk, fruit juice or soda. Since alcohol also stimulates appetite and causes dehydration – which is often mistaken for hunger – drink a glass of water after each drink.
  5. Stock up on fruits and veggies at buffets. It is easy to get carried away when there is an abundance of all-you-can-eat treats laid out before you. To avoid giving in to temptation, fill half your plate with fruits and vegetables, one-quarter with carbohydrates and one-quarter with lean protein.
  6. Eat slowly. At home, your fast-paced schedule has you grabbing food on the run or gorging after skipping meals. Take advantage of having fewer time constraints to relish the sensory experience of dining, say, while you are sitting at a beachfront table watching the sunset. When you really taste every bite of your food, you will eat only until you are no longer hungry, not until you are stuffed.
  7. Opt for active after-meal activities. To burn more calories, schedule high-energy activities after meals. Sign up for post-breakfast beach volleyball, cycle to and from that brunch spot, or spend the evening at a restaurant that offers live music and after-dinner dancing.
  8. Research fitness options. Knowing what exercise opportunities are available at your destination increases the likelihood that you will work out. Find out the facilities available at your hotel.
  9. Choose food by the “BSBR” rule. Scan menus for entrees that are broiled, steamed, braised or roasted. These simple preparations keep food low in fat and calories.
  10. Eat family-style. If you are vacationing in a place where the food is extraordinary, you can sample a wide variety without stuffing yourself. The key is to share, like splitting, appetizers and dinner entrees with friends. This allows you to taste everything without eating everything.
  11. Use your hotel wisely. When you check in, ask for a room that is three to five flights up so that you can climb the stairs each day. Schedule a daily wake-up call to fit in morning workouts. Avoid mindless munching by keeping the mini bar locked.
  12. Maximize your exercise. Moves such as squats, push-ups, lunges, dips and crunches are perfect for travelers. You can do them anywhere, and because they involve more than one muscle group, you can work your whole body in less time.

Motivate Yourself By Planning to Shock The Bullies And Critics

Hopefully you have not been bullied or intimidated or criticized by any one.

As a self-defense instructor, I find that some of my students have been humiliated by a bully and start taking classes to make sure that the situation is not repeated.

At least one student became so confident through training that others came to her for protection. Over twenty of my students have survived violent attacks and several have flattened their attackers.

The thought of shocking the people who have beaten or underestimated you is a powerful motivator. It has been used to motivate people to buy a solution by advertisers for generations.

You may remember the famous line in an effective advertisement: "They laughed when I sat down to play the piano." The thought of people laughing at you is a powerful motivator. We all want to see the laughter turn to looks of admiration and are happy to spend good money on lessons to make sure we win respect instead of ridicule.

The older generation, including me, remember the bully who kicked sand in the face of the man on the beach and went off with his girl. The weakling buys a body building course by Charles Atlas
and returns to shock the bully and win back the girl. Nobody kicked sand in my face but I bought the course anyway!

Revenge is sweet and revenge is often a key idea behind the shock the bully scenario. It is almost worth being beaten up to later enjoy the experience of reversing the situation and putting the
bully in his place.

Revenge is a key story line in many films. Spiderman takes on the schoolbully in the school corridor and bamboozles him by evading his attacks before he administers the coup de grace. Everyone is stunned including the bully.

Half the joy of turning the tables comes from having an audience to witness the final discomfort of the bully. The Karate Kid facts his revenge in front of a large competition audience.

Changing from an apprehensive weakening into a powerful master of destruction is a key self-defense ploy. If someone has a knife against your throat and is claiming money, appearing cool and confident is not always a good idea.

Instead, act as if you are terrified. This should not be too difficult in this kind of situation and then distract the knife man with a question like "Do you want cash or my credit card?"

While he is considering the answer, attack ferociously like the Hulk after he has been tormented into turning huge and green. The shock to the mugger's system should take you halfway to victory.

Audiences love the underdog who ever comes out on top. If you take steps to rectify any weakness if it is lack of strength or being overweight, you can almost guarantee an audience who will reward you with praise and respect.

If someone unfairly criticizes your ability to control your finances, let your indignation fuel your efforts to improve your financial skills.

Transforming yourself can produce both revenge and applause and these are powerful motivators. But the necessary motivation needs to be kept alive by daily visualization of the output you desire.

If you wish to be strong instead of weak, visualize yourself performing the exercises which will make you strong.

See yourself hanging from a branch or bar like a gorilla using your own bodyweight to double your strength. Imagine yourself doing at least twenty press ups a day.

Of course, you must actually do the exercises you visualize though visualizing them first will make them easier to perform.

See the looks of shock or admiration from all those who thought you were a weakling. Enjoy the tone of respect when people speak to you.

If your problem is being over weight, see yourself taking the walks which will help you lose those extra pounds. See the healthy foods which you will start eating and then, of course, go for the walks and eat the broccoli!

Imagine enjoying the inspiring looks from the opposite sex and the feeling of renewed energy and power which comes from being slim and healthy.

If we regularly visualize and emotionally anticipate our success, we may find ourselves well on the way to turning our visions into reality. We must, of course, take action as well.

However, there may be set backs if and when we backslide.

We need to just get back on the right path as soon as we can and continue to visualize and take action. Sweet revenge and respect should always be ours.

When people laugh at you to your face or talk behind your back about your weakness or lack of self-control, you can either sit down and feel sorry for yourself or you can stand tall, visualize the turning of the tables and take decent action to eradicate your weaknesses.

Does this advice work? There is only one way to find out.

Do we need to shock the bullies and confound the critics? I think so even if it means taking risks.

As Kevin Kostner says in the western 'Open Range' when the towns people claim that they are butchers and bakers and not gunmen who can face up to the local bully:

"Well, you are men are not you? There are worse things than dying."

If you have any unpleasant experiences in the future when someone belittles you, make good use of the
motivation that such treatment can give you.

Ways to Save Money on Household Bills

Household expenses are an issue that any family deals with, and if for some it might not cause inconveniences, others have it more difficult to juggle their monthly budget in order to keep up with their bills. If you want to save money and reduce your bill costs, learning a few tricks will probably come in handy. Here are a few useful tips on the subject, which can help you lower your expenses and fit within your monthly budget without worries:

Insulate your house

One of the major expenses of a household usually revolves around energy consumption. Because you probably desire to live in a comfortable indoor environment, turning your heater or air conditioning system up until you reach the desired temperature probably happened with regularity. Well, without having an energy efficient home, you expenses can skyrocket, especially during harsh days of winter. So, what could you do to make your home more energy efficient, and thus save money on heating or cooling costs? Well, a great solution would be to insulate your house with a proper material. By replacing a faulty and old insulation with a more efficient one, such as spray foam, you can cut down on energy costs significantly. The indoor temperature of your home will be kept at a comfortable level, without relying solely on the heating or cooling system. Drafts and air leakages, which are usually the causes of an unbalanced indoor temperature, will no longer be a problem. Moreover, besides energy saving considerations, an insulation project comes with other benefits as well, such as functioning as a barrier against noise pollution, or preventing mould growth. However, even if insulating your home is so beneficial, in order for you to truly receive everything this home project has to offer, make sure to hire only specialists for the job.

Check if windows are energy efficient

Besides an improper insulation, another issue that often triggers energy losses are old windows. If the windows of your home are not in an optimal condition, dealing with drafts on a regular basis is normal, leading thus to an energy loss. If you research the topic, you will find out that drafty windows can cause energy bills to be even 25 percent higher, and in the long run, this is quite a large amount of money you are losing. Inspect each window of your property and see if any of them needs a replacement or repair.

Search for deals on maintenance services

Each household faces the need of hiring professionals from time to time for various maintenance needs. You either have a plumbing system malfunction, or your house needs to be checked for mould – regardless of what services you might require on a regular basis, make sure to search for the best deals. If you look online for coupons or special offers, you might save more money than you have thought, reducing your overall household expenses.

Cut back on extras

Try to make a list of every monthly bill you have to pay, and consider if you really need all those services you are paying for. Perhaps you can switch from your premium cable package to a standard one, or you can unsubscribe to that magazine that you do not even read. Think about the things you can and cannot live without, and try to cut back on all extras.

Pay your bills on time

Last but not least, one tip that most homeowners tend to overlook if paying the bills on time. Bills that are not played on time will only bring you further fees, which you would probably prefer not paying. If you take care of all expense during an optimal period of time, on a monthly basis, you will no longer deal with late payment fees, which can truly add up over time. A good solution for this would be to keep a record of your expenses and plan ahead, and also switch to a payment method that is more convenient for you and harder to forget. A few dollars saved on each utility bill can turn into a quite large amount of money at the end of the year.

Managing to reduce household expenses might seem complicated at first, but if you know a few tricks and use them wisely, the differences will be noticeable. Now that you have learned some tips on the subject, perhaps you will resort to these effective methods yourself – the benefits will not take long to appear. Although some of the above mentioned projects might require an initial investment, if you think long term, every penny spent will be worth it. Sometimes, you can cut down on energy costs or other household expenses without realizing it, so informing yourself on the topic properly can be the solution you needed all along. Take these guidelines into account, and you can enjoy the perks.

The Importance of Your eCommerce Site for Your Business

It is plain to see why a poorly designed website can be a major problem to online businesses, most especially during the holiday season, which covers 20% to 40% of the yearly sales.

In this regard, those who need data validation can refer to the stats that explain the importance of your brand’s presence on the Internet:

  • Before people shop at a physical store, they often check websites of online stores.
  • Customers search online for the prices and availability of goods so they would know whether to shop online or at physical stores.
  • During an economic crisis, consumers exercise caution when shopping online to stretch their budget, resulting to an increase of website traffic.
  • Shoppers that tend to purchase downloadable gifts like eBooks, music and FB credits, among others, will likely buy more.

Optimize Your Online Site Immediately

Now that you are aware of your site’s importance, what should you do before the holiday season approaches? It is never too late to try some of these strategies:

Prepare for unexpected traffic.Plan ahead of time to make sure that your site can manage all the orders. Anticipate peak loads, observe the responsiveness of your site and assess application performance way before Cyber Monday.

Increase the speed of your site. Use a CDN (content delivery network) for a speedy delivery of relevant content with videos and images to your consumers.

During the holidays, most shoppers use their mobile devices to search online before heading for the stores. Therefore, it would be wise to incorporate an in-store experience with info regarding your well-timed and relevant personalized website and mobile apps.

Find ways to let the customers easily find your products on the web. To improve exposure, submit a feed to the top online shopping comparison engine, Google Product Search. Try the Amazon Marketplace or add pay-per-click ads to Amazon Product Ads’ product and category pages. This way, shoppers will be able to view your ads when they find products that are similar to yours.

Though social media is not the main channel for searching, it has targeted the mainstream and has therefore gained importance, specifically to GenY shoppers. Transform visitors into sales channels by including social sharing in product pages. Display good customer service in public by resolving issues with customers on networking sites like Facebook or Twitter.

People who are low on budget usually search online before buying, so it is a good idea to follow the example of various sites in making it fun, simple and efficient to shop on the web. Provide product filters, rich product details, comparison tools, well-designed navigation and recommendations. Enhance the images of your best-selling products, emphasize your value propositions and make sure that shipping and return policies are clear.

Fix your leaky conversion funnel immediately by adding simple and cost-efficient website usability and feedback tools.

Whenever possible, ask for the visitor’s email address and try to squeeze a lot of value out of each sign-up.

Try to employ remarketing campaigns so you can target consumers who take time to buy.

Foreclosure Rescue Plan is Released on 3-4-2009 by the Obama Administration – What Can it Do For You

Obama Foreclosure Rescue Program Summary

There has been a lot of news coming out of Washington laately about the housing and foreclosure crisis. I get many questions from people who want to know if they "qualify" for help. That's why I am going to briefly explain the highlights of President Obama's plan to reduce foreclosures. It is estimated (by the government) that this plan will help up to 9 million homeowners. According to the Mortgage Bankers Association, there are about 51 million first mortgages in the United States which means about 18% of the total might qualify. On March 4, 2009 we were finally given the "details" everyone has been waiting to hear. Please keep in mind that this is just a summary and that there are additional details. The new initiative is being called "Making Home Affordable" (also known as MHA); Here's just a few of the government acronyms to keep track of: TARP, TALF, H4H, GSE, FNMA, FLHMC, PITI, FHA, VA, USDA, etc. It's starting to get a bit crazy, even for real estate and finance professionals.

There are essentially 2 parts to the program: The first is a plan to refinance eligible mortgages and it is referred to as "Home Affordable Refinance." The other part deals with loan definitions and is known as … "Home Affordable Modification". It's just a matter of time until these are called "HAR" & "HAM".

First the HAR (Home Affordable Refinance):

o The current mortgage must be owned or guaranteed by either Fannie Mae (FNMA) or Freddie Mac (FLHMC). If you are not sure if your mortgage meets this first requirement, you can call (800) 7FANNIE or (800) 7FREDDIE between 8am – 8pm EST.
o The property MUST be your primary residence. Second Homes and Investment Properties do not qualify.
o The borrower (s) have sufficient income to qualify.
o The mortgage must be up to date with no 30 day delinquencies in the last 12 months.
o The first mortgage can not exceed 105% of the current market value. Example: If the property is worth $ 100,000, the maximum that can be owed is $ 105,000.
o If there are additional mortgages (Second Mortgage, Home Equity Line of Credit, or other liens), the other lien holders must be willing to subordinate their liens in writing to the new first mortgage. Subordinate simply means that the first mortgage will retain it's superior lien position. It is OK if the total owed exceptions 105% of current value, as long as the first mortgage refinance does not exceed the 105% rule.
o The program officially started 3/4/2009.

Now comes the HAM (Home Affordable Modification):

o To be eligible, the Lender must be willing to participate. Investor / Lender & Servicer participation is voluntary on their part.
o The intent of the program is to avoid foreclosures whenever possible. Each case is evaluated separately and borrowers must prove that they can afford the modified payment. There must be a steady source of income to be eligible.
o There must be a documented financial hardship to qualify.
o The current monthly PITI (Principle, Interest, Taxes, & Insurance Total) must exceed 31% of the borrower (s) gross monthly income. No jokes allowed about the "PITI" acronym.
o The borrowers do not need to be current on the monthly payments. Again, each situation is unique and will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
o The goal of the plan is to reduce the total housing PITI payment for all mortgages to no more that 31% of gross income. This includes any second mortgages or HELOCS who must be willing to participate and subordinate their liens to the new modified mortgage.
o The subject first mortgage must be for the Borrower's primary residence. Second homes and investment properties are not eligible.
o The subject mortgage must have been made before 1/1/2009 and it can not exceed $ 729,750. I am sure there is a reason that they used $ 729,750 as the maximum, but I can not find any information about how the government arrived at this amount.
o The payment reduction will be achieved by reducing the interest rate, extending the term of the loan, or by a principle reduction (last resort). Remember, this is voluntary on the lender / investor and / or servicer's part.
o Modifications are for a 90 day "trial" period. If the borrower (s) honor all of the terms during the 90 day trial, then the modification will be extended for a term of no less than 5 years.
o Beginning in year 6, the interest rate can be increased by no more than 1% per year until the note rate reaches the "Freddie Mac Primary Mortgage Market Survey Rate" on the date that the modification is executed.

Since this article was intended to be a "brief" general summary of the "highlights", I will stop here. There are additional terms and conditions that can be found at http://www.financialstability.gov .

Let's all hope that this new initiative is more successful than the Hope for Homeowners Program (H4H) that started October 1, 2008. The following article was published recently by Time Magazine:

Grade: F
The Plan: Enacted on Oct. 1, Hope for Homeowners was to be the main foreclosure rescue plan from Congress, which allocated $ 300 billion for the effort. Counselors in Congress, like Massachusetts Representative Barney Frank, said the program would allow hundreds of thousands of borrowers, possibly millions, to refinance into lower-cost loans by cutting the amount they owed, which for many at-risk-of-default homeowners was more than their house was worth.

The Result: So how many people has Hope for Homeowners saved from foreclosure? Zero. There have been 326 applications in the three months since the program started, but none of those people – let alone the near 6 million homeowners who, by some estimates, may face foreclosure in the next few years – have received a new mortgage or a modification for the one they have. What's more, none of the major mortgage lenders, such as Bank of America, Citigroup and Wells Fargo, has signed on to the loan-principal-reduction program – which gives Hope for Homeowners a little chance of being successful anytime soon. "Foreclosure is the problem we have to spend a lot more effort trying to solve," says the Economic Policy Institute's Robert Scott. "We need to put a floor under housing prices, and stopping foreclosures is the way you do that."

Please keep in mind that this is my interpretation of the guidelines and that all information should be independently verified. Finally, please remember … since this is a government program, all rules and guidelines are subject to change. Stay tuned … and make it a great day!

Type 2 Diabetes – How Much Weight Have You Lost Recently?

I’m going to assume you have the intention to lose weight, or that it would benefit you to shed a few pounds. Ideally, it is going to be both assumptions. Which brings me to the following question: how much weight have you lost recently? Now, if you have not had the intention to lose weight, it may seem a ridiculous question to answer. But if you have, you may be about to face an internal conflict: most people are not as successful with weight loss as they would like to be!

But guess what, that is okay. There is nothing wrong with having a hard time. Losing weight, from beginning to end, is far from easy. Sometimes it is necessary to ask yourself the hard questions because it is then the honest answers come. The answers that help you find the motivation to get to work and set things straight.

Weight loss is an interesting topic. It is relevant for many adults but less so for teenagers and children: weight gain tends to occur slowly over an extended period meaning various degrees of obesity are prevalent in adults. Regrettably, however, we now see higher numbers of obesity in our youth than we saw in the past. Obesity is now well represented in most age groups, notably due to poor lifestyle habits and unhealthy eating.

Since weight loss is relevant for many adults, it has likely been on your mind. Losing 20 pounds…

  • getting lean once more, and
  • attaining manageable blood sugar levels,

are all common goals for most.

If you have been thinking about losing weight, then you need to be honest with yourself. Are you happy with your recent progress? Maybe there is little to talk about, which may make you feel a failure. Or, you haven’t given it a serious shot, because your intentions have not been strong enough.

What is important is being honest with yourself. The truth could hurt. But in that case, it would help set you on the right course.

Weight loss requires persistence. It requires healthy eating and physical activity. It takes commitment. But the benefits are endless. As an example, reducing your weight will lower your blood sugar levels and reduce your insulin resistance. For those that know little about Type 2 diabetes, this could result in adding years to your life. Time is our most precious resource, yet many often forget this in pursuit of other things.

Maybe you haven’t made much progress after deciding to shed some body fat. But you do have it in you to ensure your next step is a leap in the right direction – even if you happen to take a step or two backward. You just may not know it yet – that’s all.

Marketing Strategy and Movie Distribution Plans

It's too easy to neglect having a marketing strategy and movie distribution plan when producing on an indie film budget. Producers are focused on fleshing out a tight screenplay, firing cast and crew while keeping track of every dollar they spend. Studio budget movies hire goliath companies to develop a marketing strategy and movie distribution plan for their latest blockbuster.

Indie filmmakers have to get creative with their marketing strategy and movie distribution plan so their creative hard work does not just disappear after it's done. I've been learning a lot of good stuff by following what other filmmakers are doing to market a movie in order to make film distribution money.

One movie with a sexually driven theme created artwork and an attention grabbing marketing package that included condoms with the name of the film printed on them. I read them stand out at film festivals with this creative approach. There are also rare indie produced movies that are so damn entertaining they secure meaningful movie distribution without a strong marketing strategy to promote them.

But why take the gamble that your movie will be one of the rare ones? Thinking about a marketing strategy and movie distribution plan early as possible is what successful indie producers do. I do not read entertainment industry trades like The Hollywood Reporter or Variety because they do not have information based off the real life indie cinema scene.

I've been turning to blogs more and more that are ran by indie producers and filmmakers that share what marketing strategies and movie distribution plans have worked for them. I really like reading Indie Slate Magazine and MovieMaker Magazine because they spend time focusing on the business of indie filmmaking not just the creative part of the process.

Creating an online buzz for an indie feature is one of the most effective ways to market a movie without having to spend money you do not have. It only takes personal time to run a movie blog, Twitter account, Facebook page, Google +1 and other popular social networking outlets. Crowd funding for indie movies has really shown that people do respond to online marketing. The effort to keep a movie blog fresh and stay connected with people pays off in the end. Building interest for a movie online is the way to go.

Having an idea of ​​what the movie distribution plan is going to be will depend on what you want as a producer. Are you going to self-distribute or look to land a distribution deal with a company?

Movie self-distribution makes financial sense for smaller budget indie films. Self-distribution allows the creators to keep control of the rights to their movie. Less money has to be made from direct sales to make a real profit from a movie because there are not distribution fees and percentages taken out by a distributor. Many filmmakers have made money for their film investors and themselves from their work through self-distribution combined with an aggressive online marketing push they do themselves.

Landing a movie distribution deal typically offers greater exposure and more people see a movie that is released by a film distribution company worldwide than a self-distributed titled. Movie distributors that cater to releasing indie films typically do not put together a big marketing strategy. They have relationships with film buyers all over the world that receive their catalog of available titles or see what they have at film markets.

Avoid a past mistake I made by sitting back after signing a distribution transaction expecting the distributor to market the hell out of the title. It's important to still have a workable marketing strategy after you sign a movie distribution agreement. You'll have to check with the distributor to see what you can and can not do to market your movie online. But overall it's a win-win for both parties in exposure and film sales.

Twin-Charging – Concept and Example Application

The first time I ever heard of twin charging (using both a turbocharger and a supercharger on the same motor) was probably back in year 2000. At that time I was very interested in performance for the Toyota Celica and naturally I also read a lot about its sister cars (that shared some of the same engines) such as the Camry and the MR2.

One of the most interesting aftermarket parts I ran across at the time was the HKS turbo kit for the 4AGZE powered 1st generation mr2. The 4agze (for those that are not familiar with Toyota engines) is a peppy 170 horsepower 1.6 liter engine powered by the Toyota SC-12 roots type supercharger. On this car Toyota used an electromagnetically clutched supercharger that could be disabled during low power requirements such as cruising, and engaged when the user demands it.

One of the most important parts of the HKS kit is the bypass valve. This valve was used to direct air from the supercharger to the engine at lower rpm/flow points. Once the rpm’s rise, and the engine starts to demand more air, and the turbocharger is fully spooled, the valve switches over gradually till the turbocharger alone is feeding the engine while the supercharger is completely bypassed. The twin-charged MR2’s were rumored to break the 300hp mark in some cases, depending on the final boost level and the supporting modifications, and this level of power for a 1.6 litre motor at the time was quiet astounding.

The theory behind this kind of system is to use a small positive displacement (roots style) supercharger. Supercharger performance efficiency is typically at its highest at lower engine and supercharger rpm’s (for example from idle to 4000 rpm’s). Above 4000 rpm’s the supercharger’s performance and efficiency starts to drop, the horsepower required to drive it starts to rise exponentially, and the air temperature coming out of the supercharger starts to rise dramatically limiting performance.

On the other hand, using a generously sized turbocharger will allow us to feed the engine efficiently with cooler air (than that from an overworked supercharger) and maintain high rpm performance. The problem with using a larger turbocharger is that a generously sized turbocharger typically doesn’t spool before 3000 to 4000 rpm’s giving us a limited power band and thus providing no performance boost at lower rpm’s.

The idea of twin charging is to use both a supercharger and a turbocharger to have each charger do what it does best, have the supercharger boost the motor for low end torque, and as it runs out of steam, the turbocharger comes online to carry us through to redline.

There are three aspects to these types of systems that make them prohibitive to most tuners:

1. Cost and complexity: Having a complete supercharger system as well as a complete turbocharger system on the same vehicle is a lot of money to spend and a lot of parts to deal with and diagnose in case something does go wrong.

2. The bypass valve used to bypass the supercharger (and yet hold in all the air pressure coming from the turbocharger) as well as being able to control this valve electrically or mechanically requires a custom made one off valve that isn’t quite available off the shelf. Although as I write this it seems possible to find a large sized dual chamber bypass valve plumbed to operate on the differential pressure between the turbo outlet and the supercharger outlet to switchover once the turbocharger pressure = the supercharger pressure + the tension of the bypass valve opening mechanism.

3. Since we are using two different types of chargers with two different efficiency maps, it can get very complicated to figure out how to tune the motor (especially with much simpler fuel injection systems that were used at the time) because the air density can vary dramatically at the same rpm point and pressure level depending on which charger is feeding air to the motor and at what proportion. This is also where the HKS turbo kit for the 4agze was at its weakest, namely at smoothing the transition point fueling between the supercharger to turbocharger switchover.

One of the things that has changed over the last 10 years is the availability (and proliferation of knowledge) about available alternative fuels or octane boosters. Two such options are:

1- E85 fuel which is comprised of 85% Ethanol which has an octane rating of about 100 to 105 octane vs the typical 87 to 93 octane pump gasoline.

2- Water / methanol injection systems that can be used either as supplemental fueling system (based on the methanol content which carries an octane rating of 110 octane or higher) or can be used for in cylinder cooling when the water vapor injected with the methanol transforms into steam inside the combustion chamber, thus extracting lots heat out of the combustion chamber, and thus slowing down the speed of travel of the combustion flame front simulating the effects similar to those of a higher octane gasoline.

With the availability of these octane increasing or octane simulating concoctions, it has become more accessible of recent for the performance enthusiast to build a different type of twin charger system that does not require a bypass valve.

In this type of system the supercharger outlet is routed to feed the turbocharger inlet or vice versa. Rather than either the supercharger or the turbocharger feeding the engine individually (in parallel operation) and switching between the two, we are now using a two stage compression system where one stage is the factory supercharger, and the 2nd stage is an aftermarket turbocharger system.

The net result of the two compressors is a compounding of pressure ratios. For example if the turbocharger waste-gate opening spring is set to a setting of 7psi of pressure above atmosphere (which is a pressure ratio of 1.5 given that 1 atmosphere is about 14.7 psig); and if the supercharger is mechanically geared to flow 50% more than the engine (for positive displacement roots style superchargers) at any rpm, thus having an identical 7psi boost setting or a pressure ratio of 1.5; then the resultant pressure ratio of the system combined is :

PR total = PR turbo * PR supercharger = a pressure ratio of 2.25

A pressure ratio of 2.25 is equivalent to 18.4 psi of boost (not 14psi expected by adding the two stages together).

So anyway, how does this relate to octane requirements ?

If the turbocharger is feeding the supercharger for example, and the turbocharger is ingesting fresh air at ambient air temperatures (T1), then:

1- The air exiting the turbocharger will be at a temperature T2, higher than the ambient air temperature (T1) by about 60-80*C depending on the exact turbocharger, and where we are on the turbocharger compressor and efficiency map.

2- The air entering the supercharger will enter at a temperature T2 ~=T1+60 and exit at a temperature T3 which is higher than T2 by about another 60-80*C depending on the exact specifications of the supercharger.

3- If we had an intercooler after the supercharger, then the air entering the intercooler will be at 120 to 160*C above ambient temperatures which is a lot of heat for the intercooler to attempt to shed in the short amount of time that the air passes through the intercooler core.

4- If we have no post supercharger intercooler (which is common on cars where the supercharger is packaged into the intake manifold of the car), then the air entering the engine will be at some 120 to 160*C above ambient.

5- This excessively heated air not only reduces power output (By about 1 horsepower for every 13*C) but it also increases the probability of the air fuel mixture automatically igniting in the motor pre-maturely before the spark plug has fired, and if this pre-mature ignition occurs early enough to catch the piston significantly far away from top dead center, then the battling flame front pushing the piston downwards, and the inertia of the system (and force of other firing cylinders rotating this piston via the crankshaft) pushing the piston upwards will cause extremely high pressures and a temperature rise on the surface of the piston ultimately damaging it and possibly damaging other parts of the motor as well.

For these reasons (pressure compounding, and combined temperature rise) sequential charging has seen very little application in the past. The use of a higher octane fuel by definition means that the air fuel mixture is more resilient to auto-ignition and detonation. Furthermore, in the event of a pre-mature ignition, the higher octane fuel creates a slower traveling flame front which gives the piston more time to travel upwards in the cylinder bore (Closer to top dead center) before meeting the flame front and this reduces the time that the piston surface is improperly pressurized and overheated reducing the possibility of catastrophic failure. Last but not least, the use a water / methanol injection mix includes two phase-change events:

1- The injected methanol changes from a liquid state to a vapor state at its boiling point of 65*C, i.e. as soon as it hits the compressed air mixture coming from the supercharger outlet. This phase change absorbs a lot of the heat out of the air and methanol mixture reducing inlet air temperatures even before the mixture reaches the combustion chamber and starts to get compressed. This temperature reduction goes a long way towards eliminating or highly reducing the possibility of detonation.

2- The injected water, changes from a liquid state to a vapor state at its boiling point of 100*C which depending on the availability of an intercooler in the system, my occur in the intake plumbing before reaching the combustion chamber, or may not occur until the mixture is ignited. Either way, when the temperature is high enough, the water mist injected in the air stream will flash vaporize into steam also absorbing a generous amount of the heat created in the combustion.

The availability of these two octane boosters makes it now possible for aftermarket performance part manufacturers to deliver safe and reliable sequential charging kits to the mass market.

One such kit which I ran across in an article from hot rod magazine was developed by hellion performance (http://www.hellionpowersystems.com) for the factory supercharged GT-500 mustang.

The kit supposedly produce up to 1000 horsepower at a boost level of 24 psi using two 61mm Turbonetics turbochargers.

To achieve 1000 hp requires around 1500 cfm of airflow at 24psi or 1500cfm at a pressure ratio of 2.63, or 750cfm @ 2.63pr per turbocharger.

Since most compressor maps for this size of turbocharger (61mm) peak out at around 600cfm @ 2.63 pr @ around 50% efficiency which is an extreme point on the map (i.e. the turbocharger is maxed out at this point). I’m going to say that I am confident that the kit is capable of supporting 800hp with a typical pair 61mm turbocharger, however 1000hp although dyno-proven, does not agree with what is published on most 61mm turbochargers. I’m not doubting the kit, I am stating that I don’t have a better reference for the specific turbocharger used in the kit.

Furthermore, feeding 1000hp from 8 injectors requires eight 750cc/min injectors by my estimate and this agrees with what is mentioned on Hot Rod magazine’s article of needing 75lbs/hour injectors (each lb/hour is roughly equivalent to 10.5cc/min) at a minimum or a total fuel deliver requirement of 900 liters per hour of fuel at a the fuel rail pressure which is typically around 45psi.

Looking at the flow capacity of the GS342 fuel pump supplied with the kit, which is 255lph @ 30psi, then using 3 fuel pumps gives us the capacity for 765lph which is about 2125 hp worth of fuel, so in that regard the kit is capable of supporting the power figure.

As you can see, it is possible to design such a complex system if the information (Turbocharger compressor map, turbocharger temperature map, supercharger compressor map, supercharger temperature map …etc) information were available before hand. What remains a mystery and an art of trial and failure, is how over-engineered is your engine, how much torque can it produce and still continue to survive, and how long can it continue to survive at elevated power levels. That is altogether a more exciting question to answer.