Seven Leopard Gecko Breeding Secrets

1. General

The breeding season extends from late February / early March until September. In nature it is triggered by rising temperatures after hibernation geckos.

That is why some breeders recommend practicing a period of hibernation of 1 to 2 months (November-December), during which the duration of lighting, temperature and food are gradually reduced. Personally I do not practice hibernation and prefers to use this time to rest well fed and give them a maximum of energy and nutrient reserves (including their tail) for future breeding season. They ensure good health, is certainly a factor for success in the reproduction of leopard geckos.

2. Sexing leopard gecko It is relatively simple sexing leopard gecko adult.

Here are three hallmarks of male to distinguish it from the female:

* The preanal pores (small colored dots) that form a V just before the bulges hémipéniens. * The two bulges hémipéniens (balls covering hemipenis) just before the cloaca (beginning of tail). * The male is usually wider at the base of the neck than the female.

The female exhibits no preanal pores, or bulges hémipéniens.

The first 2 comments are reliable and sufficient to determine the sex of a leopard gecko. For the third criterion, in some cases, the difference at the base of the neck is not hollowing between male and female. Finally it should be noted that incubation plays an essential role in determining the sex of the leopard gecko.

3. Age of breeding

For successful reproduction it is important that breeders are healthy and sexually mature. For if the male can be ready to play without problem from 10 months, this is not the case of the female. A female too young might monopolize the calcium for egg formation at the expense of its frame, which could halt its growth, making it more fragile and even reduce its life expectancy.

It is there before often advised to wait until a female has completed its growth and is sufficiently robust (15-18 months) to bring together a breeding male.

4. Coupling

On the evening, minutes before extinguishing the lights in the terrarium, a male runner before showing signs of his intentions.

It will then be wagging its tail in the sweeping right to left at an astonishing speed. I am always amused to attend these parades because according to your substrate, then the noise is quite striking and the substrate spins a little in all directions.

Since the male gets the message and began to chase the female. It will then attempt to repeatedly bite the female on the neck to immobilize. This made successful, the female and male inflorescence closed his chance. Mating usually lasts one to two minutes.

Once completed, the two partners make a careful toilet of their genitalia. Mating leopard gecko is reliably fleeting and it is not necessarily obvious to observe. But with the usual observation, and the sound of this parade so special "helicopter tail" of the male, it becomes easier to detect and attend this coupling.

5. Clutch

After mating, the gestation. The eggs will then be formed in the oviduct of the female that we calls' pregnant. Approximately 2-4 weeks later, it lay. It consist of 2 eggs large enough relative to the size of the female. Several observations lead to the provision:

* In As you can see the eggs, two white masses, through the abdomen. Although gradually ceasing to feed, the female then takes the volume but its tail, constituting its energy reserve, thinning somewhat. * It will seek to benefit from exposure to UV rays before lights out.

The eggs will be deposited overnight in a humid chamber consisting of moist vermiculite. The female takes care to cover before leaving the wet box. After graduating she has suddenly lost weight and continue to scratch around the box as if trying to cover a few more eggs. In the evening it will have a big appetite and we should then not hesitate to eat it at will to immediately resume strengths and reserves in its tail, the interval between each spawning was relatively short (2-4 weeks). Note that the male will not hesitate to cover the female on the night of spawning.

6. Incubation

Once the female has laid her eggs in the humid chamber, it is necessary to let her out of herself before attempting to remove. This allows the female to cover them, it will also feel that their eggs are protected.

Once the female release, the vermiculite was removed with a soft brush to collect the eggs. To find them most easily in the humid chamber, it is convenient to use a translucent box.

Then the eggs are retrieved gently using a small spoon, for example, ensuring that it does not return and are transferred to the incubator by placing them in boxes lined with moist vermiculite. As stated just above, the rempérature incubation plays an essential role in sex determination in the leopard gecko.

This is what we call TSD (Temperature Sex Determination).

Incubation Temperature: Temperature (° C) Sex Incubation 26 ° to 28 ° Female 55 to 65 days 29 ° to 31 ° Male or Female 45 to 55 days 32 ° to 33 ° Male 35 to 45 days

We must ensure that the temperature does not drop below 26 degrees and does not exceed 33 °, otherwise the life of the embryo will be greatly compromised. The incubation period is longer or shorter depending on the temperature (see above).

Tip : It is essential to regularly monitor the eggs placed in the incubator. If an egg takes on a dubious (mold growth, drooping of the shells …), it is best to remove it from the incubator after first "admire" when in doubt.

Mirer an egg is to be transported across by a light beam (preferably in black) to verify the presence or absence of embryo in the egg.

7. Hatching

Depending on the temperature of incubation, it is reliably easy to plan hatching eggs. Provided and record the dates of each egg.

Furthermore the appearance of an egg to hatch will change suddenly. It will take a whiter color and sweling more towards a more rounded. The outbreak is so close and with any luck it is possible to attend. It takes about two hours from the time the little gecko pierces the shell.

If there is a little longer in its shell, does not seek to remove, because it is possible it still uses its reserve "viteline.

The outbreak ended, the little leopard gecko, striped black and white / yellow (for the common phase) will be placed in a small terrarium (20 x 30 cm) lined with paper towel. It is advisable to place a juvenile in the terrarium to avoid stress mutual.

It was after 2 or 3 days (first molt) the gecko took his first meal. Do not try to propose live insects during these few days which could cause unnecessary stress. To start the diet, small crickets can be used.

Personally I use flavored crickets (can'O'cricket) for my juveniles nutritious and adapted to the size of juveniles, it allows me to distribute the food better now for all of them.

Then as small small leopard gecko grow, it is preferred to opt for live crickets of appropriate size.

Anti Aging Skin Care Guide – 3 Must Have Ingredients!

An Anti aging skin care guide should tell you about the three ingredients that any serious anti-aging skin care cream must have. Anti aging skin care can cost a lot of money, but once you understand a few important things you can change that.

Today we're going to provide some information that will save you money and allow you to find exactly what it is you need.

Why You Look Older

That older look is because as you age your body's production of collagen and elastin Declines and those wrinkles on your face and lines on your forehead show up.

To fight the look of aging, your skin (the largest organ in the body) needs to have a healthy supply collagen and elastin in order to repair the cells and prevent further damage.

Any good anti aging skin care guide will point out you need renewed elastin and collagen production to reduce the signs of aging.

So let's talk about the three must-have ingredients for success in skin care.

Nano-Lipobelle H-EQ10, Cynergy TK, and Phytessence Wakame. Then we'll go over things to avoid like fragrances, parabens, alcohols, and other ingredients that cause problems.

Nano-Lipobelle H-EQ10

Nano-Lipobelle H-EQ10 is an enhanced version of Coenzyme Q10. CoQ10 on own own has molecules too large to penetrate skin, but when blended with vitamin E and because of the Nano ingredient; Nano-Lipobelle H-EQ10 can quickly and easily penetrate skin to 7 layers deep, enhancing elastin and collagen production.

Cynergy TK

Another must have ingredient an anti aging skin care guide should cover is "patented" , Cynergy TK. This is a newer ingredient that products are using to stimulate collagen and elastin growth. When used appropriately, the stimulation will cause them to re-grow. This will translate into younger looking skin and a healthyier you.

Phytessence Wakame (Japanese Kelp)

This ingredient is found in the Sea of ​​Japan. It's an exotic kelp that contains all of the vitamins and about 15 times more calcium than milk. Phytessence Wakame will block a condition of you skin called " hyaluronidase" in the body. By helping to produce hyaluronic acid. this is what keeps you skin's moisture in. If your body can not do this, the hyaluronidase will cause the collagen and elastin to break down and lose the effectiveness they offer the skin.

The Things to Avoid

A good anti aging skin care guide should cover everything you need as well as what you need to avoid. There are a number of anti aging skin care treatments that work quickly using dangerous ingredients for the body.

Here we discuss ingredients that so many skin care products contain, but which should never be used on skin. # 1 is fragrances. Although your skin cream can smell great, fragrances tend to be toxic and are not recommended ingredient and should be avoided. They have toxins in them that are not safe for the body.

# 2 alcohols (which will dry out your skin)

# 3 parabens – ( a conservative linked to cancer)longer shelf life for the skin cream a shorter life for you!

# 4 dioxane – why manufacturers still let this junk stay in their product is beyond me – it's a proven cancer causer and can be very easily removed.

There are others as well, and a good anti aging skin care guide will let know what you're purchasing.

If you want to learn more about high quality anti aging products, please visit my Web Site

Effective Head Lice Home Remedies Right From Your Fridge

In the many years long before commercial products and treatments for lice were even heard of, head lice home remedies were the answer to eradicating countless households of these pesky critters. While lice are actually very easy to prevent, they can be rather difficult to treat and get rid of once and for all, especially in homes with young children. ere are some inexpensive yet effective home remedies to try for yourself and you will probably find the needed ingredients right in your refrigerator or kitchen pantry:

Almonds and Lime Juice

Grind about 15 to 20 almonds while mixing with a few tablespoons of lime juice to create a paste and apply the mixture to the scalp and hair. Leave in place for about a half hour before shampooing it away and conditioning the hair.

Beer Mixture

Combine beer, basil leaves and about 10 cloves and grind together into a paste. Apply the thick mixture to the hair and scalp and leave in place for about a half hour before shampooing completely.

Lime Juice and Garlic

Mix equal parts lime juice with garlic until a paste forms and apply to the scalp. Leave the mixture on the head for an hour before shampooing and conditioning the hair.


Saturate every strand of hair as well as the scalp with mayonnaise, making sure to apply to the roots of the hair. Leave in place for about an hour before shampooing thoroughly. The mayonnaise works by literally suffocating the lice and although it is definitely one of the messiest head lice home remedies, many people swear by its effectiveness. If you are having a difficult time removing the mayonnaise completely, try sprinkling either baby powder or ordinary baking flour onto the scalp to absorb some of it before shampooing.


Mix equal parts vinegar with baby oil and apply to the scalp and hair until both are fully saturated. Leave the pungent mixture in place for at least once hour while covering the head completely with a shower cap. After an hour, shampoo as normal, although it may take a few times to totally remove the baby oil from the hair.

Always be sure to check everyone thoroughly before assuming that any remedy has done the trick as lice can be difficult to totally remove from a household unless you are diligent. Use a special head lice comb designed to make it easier to find both nits and the adult lice. Also be sure to wash all bedding, including sheets, pillows, pillow cases, and blankets in very hot water to kill any lice eggs that are lurking and waiting to hatch.

In addition to these simple head lice home remedies that you can find in your kitchen, remember to teach your children to practice smart hygiene, which means not sharing any of their personal items like brushes or hats or scarves, and also educating them about these harmless but bothersome bugs.

How to Build a Rabbit-Proof Fence

If you live anywhere outside a major urban area – even in the suburbs – you’ve probably got rabbits close by. And even in downtown areas, if there are small fields near you, rabbits could be a problem. Invading the lawns and gardens of innocent homeowners is how they tend to survive in these places.

As cute as they might seem in pictures and at Easter time, rabbits can do significant damage to your lawn, garden and landscaping. They will eat many different plants and flowers, leaving little more than the roots. But with a simple and inexpensive fence, you can avoid these problems.

You need to keep two things in mind when planning your fence:

1. Rabbits can dig

2. They can squeeze through some tight spots

Rabbits are normally found above-ground – they’re not burrowing animals. But they make homes by digging into the ground and making little tunnels or caves to shelter them from the elements. If your fence only reaches the ground, or just above it, rabbits can quite easily dig underneath it.

When you erect your fence, the best way to avoid rabbits digging underneath is to bury chicken wire or mesh fencing 6 to 8 inches below the fence itself.

The other consideration is the spacing of the slats in your fence. A small rabbit can squeeze through an opening that’s only a few inches wide, so make sure the slats are close enough together to stop them from getting through.

The cost of materials will have some bearing on how you build your fence, especially since putting the slats closer together means you’ll need more of them. If you’re on a budget, chain link might be a better choice. The holes in standard chain link fences are small enough to keep rabbits out.

Another option if you’d prefer a post and rail design but want to keep costs down is to use wider spacing and supplement it with chicken wire or mesh on the lower 2-3 feet. Rabbits can jump quite high, but they can’t jump that high and squeeze through the slats at the same time.

If you choose this route, make sure the mesh isn’t a material that can be easily chewed through. Rabbits can chew through vinyl and plastic mesh, so choose a strong material.

Another option for minimizing the cost of your fence is to build smaller fences are the most important areas of your yard. If you enclose your garden with a fence, for example, it can protect it from rabbits while not costing as much.

You could even plant an area with clover or some other quick-growing greenery that could be an enticing snack for the rabbits, and help to keep them out of areas where you don’t want them.

Solo Fencing Training – Physical Work

The average fencer does not have ready access to a training facility in which he or she can practice fencing skills with a training partner on a daily basis. However, with a little thought and planning and some simple tools, the same fencer can work key technical elements on a daily basis between the regular lessons or club practice sessions. This solo practice is a key part of a solo training program and can be included in the weekly training microcycle.

There are two major types of physical training that can be done alone and that require only minimal space and simple equipment. The first is bladework. The second is footwork. The key to both is execution that starts slowly with detailed attention to technically correct action. This means that the fencer must have learned in lessons how to execute an action, and have a real understanding of how his or her execution approaches the model performance, and where it may need correction. To make training productive the coach needs to provide clear standards and frequent feedback on technical execution.

Bladework practice requires space for a complete extension, and enough vertical and horizontal space to permit the normal range of offensive and defensive blade movement. Bladework practice can be used to work on issues as varied as a smooth extension, closing the line on parries and guard positions (a mirror is helpful for this), fingerplay, and sequencing of actions to include compound attacks and parries and ripostes and counterripostes. Virtually any blade technique can be practiced against the open air, although some level of visualization may be required.

Bladework can be improved by the use of simple training aids. A suspended ball (available in softball, baseball, and golf ball sizes) is probably the least expensive, and is a recognized tool for developing point control and accuracy. Several vendors sell wall lunging pads. Several of these pads set at different heights allow work against high and low line targets. An enhanced version of the pad is the combination of a pad with a mechanical arm that can be positioned to hold a blade at different heights and angles. A more advanced version is the spadassin, a target dummy equipped with the arm. And sabre fencers for years have worked against a mask attached to the wall as the target for head and cheek cuts. Blade and footwork combined with timing can be worked with Tyschler’s training device, a beeper that provides stimuli for executing a variety of drills.

Unfortunately, footwork requires more space and a solid surface with no neighbors beneath it. The longer the available space, the wider the variety of footwork practice possible. However, even a short hallway allows practice of advance and retreat and training in change of direction and shifting from one type of step to another.

The ideal situation is if the available space allows a combination of footwork, such as multiple advance- lunge, with bladework against a training target. A garage bay or a long hall or a back porch may provide a training area in which fully coordinated training is possible.

It is important to understand that this training activity is not just a second class substitute for really fencing with a real partner or taking a real lesson with a real coach. Solo work allows the fencer to concentrate on the specific technique being worked in the exercise, to move at slow speed to perfect the movement patterns, to build speed, and to build the number of repetitions need (variously estimated as between 10,000 and 100,000) to fully understand the technique and automate execution. This has to be done, and eliminating distraction may actually provide a better training experience.

Leaving An Abuser: What to Expect and How to Stay Grounded

Abusers are extremely predictable. In my experience as a survivor and now through encounters with other abuse victims and survivors, it is apparent that the abuser’s response to separation from his or her enabler-victim taps into a collection of tactics that is shockingly consistent. So, in the event that you have separated or are considering leaving an abusive relationship, it might be helpful to get a small taste of some of the things you can expect, together with a few recommendations on how to stay grounded. Of course, these are generalities. It is impossible to predict what every abuser will do, but the pattern is often very much the same.

Upon separating from an abuser, you can expect him to:

Initiate A Relentless Assault On Your Emotions

You may no sooner walk out the door than your abuser will seek you out and confer upon you an attitude of absolute astonishment and puzzlement. “I had no idea you were so unhappy.” “Why would you do such a terrible thing to me?” But that is only the beginning. Almost without fail, the abuser will then begin a daily, even hourly, course of ongoing harassment interspersed with emotional outbursts weighted heavily with apologies and desperate pleading. The abuser will almost without fail ask to get together with you to calmly discuss things (which usually means get you in a private place where he can explain to you why you’re wrong).

You may soon find yourself inundated with letters, text messages, e-mails, or gifts. His moods will run the spectrum from extreme sorrow to unfettered rage. Don’t be the least bit surprised if your abuser shows up where you work or your new living quarters, if he knows where to find you.

Understand that these are all strong indicators that the abuser wants you back, but don’t for one minute mistake these actions for repentance or heartfelt change. These are usually acts of desperation – to get his enabler-victim back into his world as soon as possible – to keep things from changing. There is also an element of ego involved here. The abuser doesn’t like to look bad. The agenda is to protect himself, not his victim.

Build His Case Against You

The abuser will begin to quickly go on the offense while constructing a strong defense. In a short amount of time, he will put together a thorough history of his own making meant to highlight your failures and shortcomings as well as a record of the many sacrifices and accommodations he has made for your benefit in years past. “And this is the thanks I get.” He will use it on you first, reminding you of the terrible things you have said and done, and any number of them can be used in defense of his abuse. Often, the story he concocts will have little basis in reality. Most likely the story will be constructed of lies laced with truth. When you begin to hear the tale repeated by those in your circle, essentially word for word, it will begin to take on a convincing air of legitimacy. If his record of shame is not adequate to humiliate you to the point of actually apologizing to him and returning to him out of a sense of guilty obligation, he will take it to the next level – and turn up the pressure.

To increasing the intensity, he will suddenly produce evidence of his uncompromising willingness to change. He will initiate a meeting with your pastor, agree to go to counseling, or start attending Bible study. Expect him to trumpet these pro-active efforts far and wide as confirmation of his miraculous and heartfelt transformation. As he begins to gain confidence that his story is winning him supporters, he will urge you to meet with the pastor and encourage you to talk to your common acquaintances, who will be just so happy to affirm how hard he is trying, while you are clearly unwilling to do whatever it takes to save your marriage. He has officially made you the bad guy.

Expect that he will push against the boundaries you have set to minimize conversation and personal contact, then complain bitterly that you are unreasonable if you do not accommodate him. On those occasions when you attempt to prove how reasonable you are by giving in to him, he will exploit your kindness with more game-playing.

Recruit Allies

Next, it’s time to bring in the big guns – your friends and family members. You might be stunned by how fast his story of your failure to honor your marriage vows will hit the streets. He will have the script down pat. It will be only a matter of time before you start to get phone calls or e-mails expressing disappointment in your harsh and selfish actions. People you trusted will suddenly be parroting his lies – the effects your midlife crisis or obvious hormonal imbalance is having on your relationship, or the rumors (which he started) that you are pretending to be single. You will discover from others how you have alienated your children against him, and if he can get your kids on board, he knows the pain and pressure they can bring to bear might compel you to see things his way. It is the ultimate betrayal and a cruel manipulation of those who should never be used as pawns in this self-serving chess match. Long-time friends, members of your church family, and your pastor are all essential recruits. Many abuse victims share how they have received corrective direction from pastors who have bought in, and well-meaning but deceived friends will send abuse victims articles on how to save their marriage or the terrible consequences of divorce.

There is no reasonable way of countering the abuser’s untrue, but well-rehearsed account in a single conversation with anyone, and you may well end more than one encounter feeling foolishly defensive or completely misunderstood. You may even begin to question if you’ve missed something, if perhaps maybe everything really is your fault. Playing he-said-she-said with your kids will also churn up more strife between you and send the message to your abuser that he is winning, inspiring him to continue the assault on your character to those who mean the most to you.

And all of these tactics can be traced to a singular purpose:

To Break Down Your Resistance

The end objective is to put heavy pressure on you from every possible angle. Using what he hopes will be an emotionally lethal combination of confusion, guilt, manipulation and pressure from his many allies, he has left no stone unturned in his effort to construct a wall of shame, an emotional bulldozer.

Don’t mistake this barrage of activity for love – some gallant, if desperate, effort to restore your marital relationship and a desire to see you content and fulfilled. This is about winning. Even if he promises you the sun, moon and stars, take a closer look at the extreme measures he has taken to try to get you back under the same roof. Is he genuinely concerned about why you have been unhappy and what your needs and concerns are? Is he genuinely repentant for his abusive treatment? Is he doing everything possible to re-earn your trust? Is he seeking ongoing counsel on his own initiative to begin to address his controlling, hostile, abusive ways? If he is like most abusers, the answers will not be in his favor. The aforementioned tactics are simply another manifestation of abuse.

The abuser’s bottom line is that he wants things just the way they were before you walked out the door. He intends to get there by swarming you with so-called evidence that you are wrong. Ask yourself, “What has really changed?” If you don’t have a good answer to that question, well, you have your answer.

Don’t give in to overwhelming pressure simply because you believe it might be easier to return to him while proving to him and others that you are not unreasonable. If you return home for the wrong reasons, you can bet that he will rub your nose in how wrong you were for years to come. Just because you have been trained to give in doesn’t mean you should.

What you need to do to stay grounded:

Remember Where You’ve Been

No one except you, your children and God really know what has taken place in your home. And just because some of your friends, family members and even your kids are suddenly siding with their abusive father doesn’t make them right. Of course your children want the family whole and happy, and many kids are willing to accept that Dad has changed, and Mom should give him another chance. But if nothing has really changed, then nothing will change.

Stand On What You Know

What are you seeing? Repentance? Change? If what I have described thus far is indicative of what you have experienced in separation, then you are not seeing repentance or change, only manipulation, guilt, blame and pressure from his allies. You might see some compliance, which is not to be confused with change. Compliance is when the abuser gives you the bare minimum under duress to “prove” to you that he is trying. There is no desire there, only an obligatory act that enables him to continue to point a finger of condemnation at you – his victim. Words are just words, and actions speak much louder. With that in mind, what do you know to be true?

Learn to Trust Your Instincts

As abuse victims we are trained to doubt our convictions and diminish our feelings. We are told that we expect too much and sacrifice too little. Now that you are apart from your abuser, you will need to re-learn to trust those red and yellow flags that pop up when you read those hostile e-mails or hear manipulative messages over the phone. When everything in your heart screams, “Danger;” listen to that inner voice. Learn to say ‘no.’ Keep those boundaries in place. You have erected them to protect yourself and your family. When you find yourself confused, seek counsel from a trusted counselor, confidante or support person who recognizes what you are dealing with and can help you to see through the insanity and stand strong.

Stop Being Shocked

Even after years and years of manipulation and verbal attacks, I wonder why we as victims are still shocked by the cruel things our abuser says or does. He may begin a conversation calmly and rationally (which he has probably rehearsed before he ever engages), and you are no sooner sucked into the notion that common sense might just prevail when he strikes. He will likely target your sensibilities – your faith, your children or your reputation – and you will still be surprised by the maliciousness of the attack.

Stop being shocked. In every encounter, expect his real attitudes and motives to be revealed in an overtly ugly and offensive way. Then you will not feel guilty when you are compelled to walk away, hang up or tell him, ‘no.’

Quell Any Inclination to Prove Yourself

This is not about what others think about you; this is about you choosing to do what is right and best for yourself and your family according to the dictates of your conscience. Some people in your circle and even in your own family will probably not “get it.” There comes a point where you are wasting your breath to try to explain what some people simply cannot understand, and it is simply easier for them to condemn something they have never experienced. Many abuse victims must by necessity keep a safe distance from certain people who are naïvely critical.

Standing on the truth sometimes means refusing to read or respond to those idealistic your-marriage-can-be-saved articles from your church-going friends. I’m sorry to say that it will probably be a poor use of your time and energy to respond or try to enlighten those people. Odds are good that you will find yourself in an unproductive conversation that leaves you frustrated and emotionally deflated.

For those whose children come home after a day with Dad with a mind full of half-truths and well-honed criticisms, it is more difficult to remain silent. Kids who have been fully indoctrinated may not be receptive to any defense on your part, so it is best to keep things short and simple. “That is not exactly the way it is,” or “You’re just going to have to trust me on this,” or “I know this is hard for you. It’s hard for me, too, and I am trying to do what is best for all of us,” may be some appropriate ways of minimizing drama. Some kids will mimic the name-calling or manipulative tactics they have seen used. Demand respect, and let them know that such behaviors are unacceptable.

As painful as it is, it may simply take time – sometimes years – for our children to see the truth for themselves. My eldest son gave me little but grief and angrily questioned my decision to divorce his father for seven long years, while I continued to love and reach out to him. Only two years ago did he confess how wrong he was and apologized to me with tears how he had treated me during the time he believed his father’s lies. It was a long, rough road, but I could not tell him what he refused to receive and ultimately had to discover on his own.


Time reveals truth. Virtually every abuse victim I have encountered shares a moment of profound weakness – when their abuser has come to them in utter despair and seemingly bared their pained soul, confessing their failures, begging forgiveness with passion and promises that everything will change, that they will never love another. Everything in us wants to receive the abuser’s enlightened revelation and rush into his arms and sing the Hallelujah Chorus.

Please wait. Do not allow one encounter to birth doubt in your mind or alter your view of him. Make no snap decisions. As eager as you are to believe it all, I hope you will take a step back. Let time reveal where his heart truly lies. Keep it all business. Then watch and wait. More often than not, his outpouring is another desperate ploy, all part of the game. For those who choose to maintain a healthy skepticism, it is often only a matter of days and sometimes a few short hours before an abuser is frustrated by your tepid response, and he will often become not only angry but enraged. This man who declared his love for no one but you will attack with a vengeance when you fail to give him the reaction he sought.

Waiting is a wise strategy in virtually every scenario when dealing with an abuser. Hasty decisions will end up costing you, boundaries will fall, and you may end up wondering why you ever gave him an inch, because now he is barking at you to lighten up and give him a mile.

Refuse to be railroaded. Give decisions time to stew. Get feedback from others you trust. Consider the costs and the consequences. Don’t act until you have a confident peace.

For those walking this difficult road, I hope this information helps you to stand strong and stay balanced and focused on the end goal – a healthy and abuse-free life for you and your family.

*Statistically speaking, most abusers are men. For the sake of simplicity, the male gender is used in this article; however, it is also recognized that many abusers are female. The reader’s understanding is appreciated.

How to Enjoy Panama City Beach – Coupons, Tips, and Free Stuff to Do

One of the great myths about Panama City Beach, Florida, is that as a party town it’s just too pricey to take a normal vacation in – but the right Panama City Beach coupons and a few easy tricks will easily shatter that misconception.

Before we talk about the specifics, let’s take a look at what PCB has to offer:

Spring Break: If you’re the kind of person who wants to see Girls Gone Wild live and in person, plan a vacation to the Beach in the month of March. It’s Spring Break that gave PCB it’s rep as a party town, and for 1/12th of the year, it’s absolutely true!

Summer: With 27 miles of beaches to its name, PCB is easy to find whatever beach scene you’re after: densely packed sunbathing beauties, or an isolated stretch of sand where you can relax in near solitude. But that’s just the beginning. PCB brings the game with golfing, finishing, bungee jumping, parasailing, water parks, go-carts, and devastating shopping, eating, and lodging options.

Year-Round: Jimmy Buffet’s Margaritaville. Frank Brown Park. Ripley’s Believe It Or Not! Museum. Club La Vela. Spinnaker. The shopping, eating, culture, and nightlife of Panama City Beach are worth the trip even in the middle of “winter”.

So, how about these tricks and coupons for Panama City Beach?

Well, first let’s look at a couple of the best FREE things to do in PCB:

Frank Brown Park: This massive two hundred acre park features baseball, soccer, basketball, football, tennis, a playground, picnicking space, a fishing pond, a pool, and miles of walking trails. There are often various games and tournaments going on to be watched, and of course it’s almost always possible to find an open field to play in.

Dan Russel Pier: A huge concrete edifice jutting out into the sea, the pier is worth walking along just for the view, but the fishing is really the great attraction here.

Now, on to the star attractions:

Adventures At Sea: Pontoon boats. Parasailing. Jet skis. Banana boating. Sail boats. Chartered fishing. The options and fun at Adventures at Sea are amazing, and the available Panama City Beach coupons to make it all that much more valuable.

Shell Island Shuttle: Shell Island, home to the largest concentration of bottle-nosed dolphins in the world, is accessible from Panama City Beach’s St. Andrew’s State Park via the Shell Island Shuttle. But this boat does more than just ferry passengers back and forth – the adventurous can also rent a kayak or a snorkeling package from the shuttle to dramatically enhance their island experience – and the coupons make it easy on the wallet.

There are many more Panama City Beach coupons and suggestions for free things to do in Panama Beach City, so if you’re planning a vacation – or already there and wondering what to do today – check us out!

Building Types and Styles of Kenya

As the construction industry embraces modern architecture and builders experiment with new styles and plans, there is a growing difference between building types and styles used today than those built even a few decades ago.

Certain styles of buildings are widespread in Kenya and seen as the de facto standard. As a result, most buildings have similar designs and forms that contribute to building limitations in terms of flexibility and ease of use.

Traditional styles of building in Kenya

Until recently, buildings in Kenya have had common characteristics in their construction that are determined by

  • Skills of the labor force
  • Accessibility and affordability of building materials

Developers are beginning to work outside their comfort zones to use varied building plans and construction materials resulting in innovative architectural looks and forms.

Buildings in rural Kenya

Temporary and semi-permanent structures

The building types and styles in rural Kenya are significantly influenced by the region and traditional culture of the people living in a specific rural area. For instance:

  • The Maasai and Samburu tribes construct temporary huts called ‘Manyattas’ to match their pastoralist lifestyle. These are made from twigs tied together by dried tree-bark or strings to make walls with thatched roofs.
  • The Kalenjin tribe construct semi-permanent huts using twigs and posts joined together using nails. Mud or clay is plastered on the twigs to make walls and the floor while the roof is made of long grass or reeds.
  • Coastal people such as the Mijikenda make houses from coconut leaves popularly known as Makuti houses
  • The Kikuyu, on the other hand, use timber for the walls and iron sheets for the roof.

Permanent structures

Temporary structures are dying off and being replaced by permanent houses made of stones and mortar.

For those who cannot afford stones and mortar, bricks are made by mixing clay with sand, straw, stone, concrete and lime, and then shaped into blocks that are either air-dried with fire or dried in a kiln. The bricks are used for walls and pavements.

Interestingly, bricks are finding their way into urban areas as developers seek to construct affordable housing for urban dwellers.

The few permanent buildings in rural areas have similar styles owing to the construction materials used and lack of sufficient skills by local workforce. Most of these homes have:

  • L, T, U and I shaped designs
  • Several bedrooms and a living room (sitting room)
  • Bathrooms and kitchen often built in separate locations from the main house

Commercial buildings are simply built as plain empty halls with no design and style taken into account.

Customary styles and types of building in urban Kenya

The styles, designs, architecture and types of buildings in urban Kenya are more expressive with most built using stones and mortar for walls, cemented or tiled floors and iron sheets or roofing tiles for roof covering.

1. Flats and apartments

They are the most common building type among urban dwellers.

  • Accommodate high numbers of tenants and are relatively affordable
  • Less sophisticated in terms of design and style
  • Range from single rooms, bedsitters and self-contained one-bed houses to self-contained two and three-bed houses.

It is rare to find apartments and flats with more than 3 bedrooms.

2. Maisonettes

More sophisticated in design and based on the personal style of the owner, there is growing demand for maisonettes in Kenya to accommodate the increasing middle class. As a result, companies are developing large-scale projects of maisonettes in a bid to capitalize on the new housing market.

3. Bungalows

  • Mostly built by upper middle class and class A and AB
  • Highly sophisticated in terms of design, style and type

Commercial complexes

They are the most versatile in terms of design, type and space, and materials used range from glass and metal to stones and mortar, plastic, bricks and combination of timber and stones, etc.

  • They include sky scrapers and storied buildings
  • Their designs and use of space is determined by the function of the building with shopping malls and entertainment spots being more open in terms of architecture and design.

What Makes the Best Plantation Shutters: Vinyl, Basswood, Poplar, Maple or Another Hardwood?

Plantation shutters are an excellent choice for high quality, attractive and functional window treatments. If you are considering buying plantation shutters, no doubt you quickly learned of the myriad of choices that are available to you.

Plantation shutters can be purchased as stock units or you can buy custom interior shutters to fit your windows. And then there is the construction material – among the most common materials used include vinyl, Basswood, Poplar, Maple and a variety of fine hardwoods. And not surprisingly, each material brings different levels of quality and price ranging from vinyl shutters to custom wood plantation shutters. So which is the best choice for your home?

Plantation Shutter Construction Materials

Here is a summary of the pros and cons for the most common interior shutter materials:

· Vinyl

· Basswood

· Poplar

· Hardwood

Vinyl Interior Shutters

Some of the most affordable interior shutters are made from vinyl.

While vinyl interior shutters will not warp and typically don’t require a finish, there is an undeniably synthetic look and feel to them.

The advantage to vinyl is it presents the most economical solution and is widely available.

However, vinyl shutters are among the lowest quality on the market and don’t offer the warmth or beauty of wood plantation shutters. And if you are considering vinyl interior shutters, remember that affordable does not always mean value.

Wood Plantation Shutters: Basswood and Poplar

Basswood and Poplar are two of the more common woods used to make interior shutters. Basswood and Poplar are technically hardwoods. But as hardwoods, they are light and relatively soft compared with other hardwoods such as Maple or Oak.

Basswood takes a finish well; it can be either painted or stained. Because Poplar’s color is not uniform, ranging from white to green to almost purple, it should be painted only and never stained.

However, when considering wood plantation shutters made of Poplar or Basswood, one should be aware that both are very soft and susceptible to dents and dings. In larger openings, Basswood and Poplar shutters frequently require additional reinforcing or extra rails or stiles for rigidity. The overall width or height of your window treatment may also be limited.

And finally, research the shutter joinery method. Because Poplar and Basswood shutters typically represent the mid-market pricing and quality range, often times the joinery of these interior shutters is inferior to higher quality shutters. For example, you should look for products where the rails are joined with reinforced dowels.

Hardwood Plantation Shutters: Durable and Beautiful

True hardwood plantation shutters, such as maple, represent the highest levels of quality and value in today’s plantation shutters. While the initial cost is sometimes higher than a comparably sized Basswood or Poplar shutter, the manufacturing quality is generally superior and there is greater likelihood that your Maple shutters will outlast shutters made from more affordable materials.

In addition to the increased durability and longevity of quality wood plantation shutters, solid hardwood shutters provide greater aesthetic appeal, whether stained or painted. The natural beauty and grain pattern of the vast array of hardwood species presents a limitless palette of design and style for your hardwood plantation shutters. Plus you can select the wood species and finish to match your existing décor.

High quality hardwood plantation shutters will also be custom made to precisely fit your exact window opening. And with a professional installation, your interior shutters will look like they were meant to be there, enhancing the beauty of your room.

The Best Material for Interior Shutters

When it comes to beauty, versatility and durability, no other material can match a quality, dense hardwood such as Maple. Other outstanding choices are Walnut, Mahogany, Oak, Cherry and Alder. While quality hardwood shutters may cost more initially, the lifetime value of your shutters will far exceed that of cheaper alternatives.

Swing: The Golf Secret Every Pro Knows and Every Amateur Needs to Learn

If you’ve ever taken a golfing lesson that really didn’t help you to hit longer and straighter golf shots then you should read this article because in it I will describe the one principle of the golf swing that is the difference that makes all the difference in improving your golf swing technique.

Of all the golf swing basics that you can learn there is only one that I can think of that would really help you to possess a more powerful and consistent golf swing. No more over the top swings, slices, fat shots and duffed shots, just solid golf shots with little to no curvature on the golf ball.

I know this probably reads like one of those outrageous adverts you read on different golfing websites but it is absolutely true: there are only a few simple golf swing technique principles that when understood and applied correctly will unlock your golf swing from its golfing purgatory.

This particular golf swing basic is the one that is unfortunately undervalued by most, and yet by learning to incorporate it into your golf swing technique you are going to improve your golf swing consistency and lower your golf scores and golf handicap.

I’m pretty sure that if you ask most amateur golfers what they would like to have more than anything else it would be a more consistent golf swing technique. In fact the majority of golfers who attend my golfing school want exactly this.

Every golf swing technique influences just two fundamental elements; distance and direction. When we think about the distance that is being produced by a golf swing technique we are describing a golf club head travelling very quickly from the top of the back swing through to its collision with the golf ball and the subsequent distance generated from the collision.

When we think about the direction that is being produced by a golf swing technique we are describing the amount of rotation the golf club face imparts to the golf ball which influences the amount of back spin and side spin that is generated after the collision and the subsequent direction it travels in relationship to your target.

Let me say it again; every golf swing you create influences the distance and direction of your golf shot, and what determines the quality of the ball flight is the collision with the golf ball.

The distance your golf ball travels is influenced by a force that originates from within you and is transmitted through the golf shaft into the club head and finally into the golf ball. In physics forces influence things like golf clubs to start and stop moving and to move golf clubs from one path to another.

The force that’s created by your golf swing always has a direction, although not always the ideal direction for producing longer and straighter golf shots.

• When the golf club moves away from the ball into the backswing a force is influencing it.

• When the golf club gets to the top of the back swing and changes its direction a force influences it.

• When a golf club strikes the golf ball a force influences it.

You see, every time you swing your golf club a force (either a push or pull) is influencing the direction of your golf swing. Now I know that at some level you already realise this, but I’m not so sure that when you hit golf balls at the driving range in your attempt to improve your golf swing technique that you really understand how important the influence of force is on your golf swing.

There are two things we want to do with the force we generate in our golf swing technique.

1. We want to give it a direction in the backswing-down swing and follow through phases.

2. We want to deliver it at the correct time into impact

Study the simple action of a pendulum because I guarantee that this simple device will help you to understand how to unlock the full potential of your golf swing technique. If you’ve ever watched a pendulum you would know that a weighted object is suspended from a pivot point and the weighted object swings backwards and forwards.

As the weighted object swings backwards and forwards from the top of its backswing to the top of its finish position it moves in an arc and the radius of this arc remains constant throughout the to and fro motion.

Briefly stated the forces acting on a pendulum are balanced forces keeping the weighted object in a consistent path and trajectory and this is precisely what we want to achieve with our golf swing technique.

A balanced force in a golf swing is a force that moves your golf club just like a pendulum from the backswing position to its finish position with a smooth gradual acceleration and rhythm.

Now think of your left arm and wrist as being the lever of a pendulum and imagine it swinging backwards and forwards from the top of your back swing to the end of your finish position. This rhythmical motion of your left arm should be smooth and unhurried as it moves in an arc towards the golf ball.

You can actually feel the swinging motion of your left arm simply by folding your right arm behind your back and swinging your left arm back and through, and as you do this let your left hand roll or rotate as it passes through the bottom of the swing arc about where the golf ball would be positioned all the way to the finish of your stroke.

Now place a nine iron in your left hand and do the same thing. Swing it backwards and forwards with your right arm behind your back and let your wrist hinge and unhinge and then rotate or roll through the bottom of the arc naturally by not fighting the swing; just let it swing back and through without interference.

As you swing the nine iron backwards and forwards gently increase the length of the arc without adding additional effort and allow your body rotation to increase and remain in sync with the swinging motion of your left arm.

One important point to remember is to never change the path of your hands as you swing the golf club down through the bottom of the swing arc. Keep the path and trajectory of your left hand in or extremely close to the same path as the backswing. This is very important and the way to do this successfully is to let gravity and momentum have a primary influence on your left arm swing.

The second you apply additional force to your left arm as it travels down towards the bottom of the swing arc the faster it will shift your hands and golf club off their correct path which will definitely lead to poorly hit golf shots.

The left arm swing: the golf club technique that controls the hand path in the downswing and is very important to concept to understand, apply and master. Practice this simple technique until your feel the golf club swinging freely without interference.

When you can swing the golf club with a smooth hinging and unhinging motion with a full rotation at the bottom of the stroke you will be well on your way to improving your golf swing technique.

Remember that a pendulum travels from a backswing position to a finish position with a consistent rhythm or beat and so does a golf club. The very second you try to hit the golf ball you no longer have a golf swing, you have a golf hit.

Hitting requires more energy and is less effective than a swinging motion and is the single biggest reason why amateur golfers don’t generate the level of consistency that pro’s do.

So the big question you need to ask yourself right now is this; do you want to swing the golf club with confidence and hit golf shots just like a pro or would you rather hit inconsistent and frustrating golf shots just like…?

Boat Trailer Rollers

Significantly, when you use boat rollers, you basically shift some of the weight from the carpeted bunk to the roller by minimizing the friction between boat and trailer. You will be surprised at how easier the launching has become. You do not need to submerge the trailer to float off the boat. You will not get water in the wheel bearing area, and will keep the tow vehicle off of the slippery portion of the ramp.

There are various types of rollers, such as keel rollers, spool rollers, bow rollers, and rib rollers.

Keel Rollers are developed and designed to support the bottom and/or the keel of a powerboat on a boat trailer. These kind of rollers are wider than most of the other available rollers. These rollers have a low pitch to adapt to the flat bottom of a boat’s hull. The roller facilitates a boatman to push or pull his boat on and off the trailer, without much physical involvements..

Spool Rollers and Bow Rollers are quite similar to each other. Bow rollers play a vital role at the time, when your boat and trailer are in transit. Bow rollers provide support to your boat to help eliminate movement, which may cause potential damage. They are made to support the bow or front of a power boat. The ‘V’ shaped appearance of the hull in the bow of a power boat aligns up with the center of the roller. The roller acts as a guide and help pushing or pulling the boat.

Rib Rollers assist the ribs of power boats onto the trailer. They make loading and unloading simpler by providing negligible resistance than just carpet on trailer bunks. Some of the rib rollers are very smooth which work efficiently for boats that come in and out of the water frequently. While some of the models are ribbed for effective traction on slippery or slimy boat bottoms.

Apart from various types these boat rollers are available in different materials. Their durability and life depend mostly on the type of material used in its manufacturing. For example, it is available in rubber and plastics; rubber boat rollers which tend to take a fair beating have more chances to crack and split but plastic bow rollers are built to last longer.

Undoubtedly, boat rollers are of great use as they help guiding a boat on and off of a trailer during loading and launching. Rollers help making it more easy to launch and load or pull and push the boat on and off of the trailer and are available in different types to cope up with your requirement.

As the name suggests, this part helps your cars to move freely, without making any great amount of noise. These bushes are made of annular cylinder shape using soft yet powerful flexible material. These are placed in a cylinder like tube to frame it as a freely movable piece of auto part. Following are some types and kinds of suspension bushes-

Cylinder shaped: It is the universal shape of these motor parts as this shape can easily be placed between other parts without burdening their functions-rather it helps those parts to move with convenience according to their supposed work.

Tube Shaped: Tube shaped bushes are an advanced version of universally known cylinder shaped suspension bushes.

The Pros and Cons of Different Basement Waterproofing Systems

There are few projects that could be more important and potentially costly for your home than installing a waterproofing system (or upgrading your current foundation drainage). Basement projects are expensive for a reason: water damage can lead to some very steep repair costs and can significantly lower the value of your home.

Although homeowners from all areas of the country need to be concerned with proper foundation maintenance, it is especially important for people who live in the Pacific northwest and northeast, where heavy rainfall puts more stress on basement walls. Cracks, dampness and mold on basement walls is primarily due to a phenomenon called hydrostatic pressure, which mounts as the surrounding ground becomes saturated with rainwater.

A good basement system will allow excess water to be channeled away from your home’s foundation, thus reducing the amount of hydrostatic pressure on your walls. This is done using perforated footer drains, which run around the perimeter of the home and deposit excess water in a connecting storm sewer or ditch.

There are several different types of systems that can be installed in your home, and they are generally differentiated by internal and external functions. Internal basement waterproofing systems can fix visible problems such as moist walls or mold, but they are much less effective at eliminating hydrostatic pressure than external waterproofing systems. As one would expect, external waterproofing tends to be much more expensive due to the excavation and materials involved.

If you are considering getting a basement system installed, make sure that you get a free estimate on what your contractor might charge for a specific project. While internal basement waterproofing can be effective in the short-term, you should also consider proper maintenance for your footer drains and external drainage system as well. While it may cost more to excavate and replace footer drains, it adds significant equity to the value of your home, and may stave off a potentially expensive flood.

Top 5 Most Common Residential Plumbing Emergencies

Clogged drains, damaged pipes, and gas leaks are the most common residential emergency plumbing situations that people summon their plumber for. The irony is that such plumbing emergencies can be prevented by us from the start. Indeed emergency plumbers report that plumbing negligence is the number one cause for stubborn obstructions in drains and defective pipes. Surprisingly this indicates that we value our cars more than our home. Why? Simply because we service our cars once a year while we dismiss doing the same to our plumbing systems until we face a plumbing emergency by which time it is too late to undo the damage done to our home.

In general preventive maintenance to your home’s plumbing, every once in a while, will not only keep plumbing fixtures, drains and pipes in good condition for a long time, but will further allow you to spot early problems and have them fixed before they escalate to costly plumbing emergencies. When you encounter an emergency plumbing situation you can take steps to reduce damage to the minimum thereby cutting down your plumbing cost too.

Follow the top 5 common emergency plumbing troubles and their repair:

1 – Burst Pipes: Your top objective until the emergency plumber arrives on the scene is stop water flowing out of the hole. Locate the main shutoff valve to your house and close it. Turning off the shutoff valve will close the water supply to the fixtures and therefore stop the flood. Next turn on cold water taps to drain quickly pipes from trapped water and steam. After damage controlling the emergency call in your plumber to repair or replace the burst section of the pipe.

2 – Frozen Pipes: When water in pipes freeze they expand and may even burst the pipe. Close the main shutoff valve. If the pipe has not split yet, thaw it with hot water bottles from the end of the pipe nearest to the tap. Thawing must be gentle, never with a naked flame, to avoid thermal water expansion that too can split the pipe. As a preventive maintenance make sure your pipes are appropriately insulated against the cold months.

3 – Leaky Plumbing Fixtures: Close the shutoff valve singular to the leaky fixture. Check the fixture’s trap for debris, hair, soap scum, and food particles that might obstruct its opening and cause overflowing of the fixture. Contact your emergency plumber for effective plumbing repair.

4 – Blocked Drains & Toilets: Try to lift the obstruction by means of a plunger or a plumber’s snake. If such plumbing tools fail to dislodge the clog, call in your plumber.

5- Gas leaks: When smelling gas simply evacuate the building. Gas leaks do not lend themselves to D.I.Y repair due to their deadly nature in the wrong hands. Once outside the home call in your emergency plumber or Gas Company. You can and under professional guidance attempt to turn off the gas meter at the control valve.

Routinely keep gas appliances clean from grease and fatty acids, and ensure their good condition at all times.

Soccer Drills for Kids

Sharks and Minnows: soccer drills for kids don’t have to be with a ball or even resemble a soccer drill. We use this drill for warm ups and speed training. Although to the players its more like a friendly game of tag. Start off with one player or the coach as the Shark. The other players(minnows) are all side by side spread out across the field. The Shark will say go and all the Minnows have to make it to the other side of the field without being tagged. Those Minnows that are tagged become Sharks. The game continues until the last Minnow is caught. This drill teaches speed and side to side moves as the Minnows attempt to escape.

Follow the Leader: I like this soccer drills for kids because they learn to control the ball while moving side to side and reversing their field. Start this drill by pairing up the players. One player has a ball the other does not. With the player without the ball being the leader, have him start jogging slowly forward then zigzag to the right then left then in a circle. Use different variations of this drill, have the non-ball carrier stop and take a step back to teach the pull back move. Rotate players every few minutes.

Capture the flag: This is another soccer drills for kids that will teach ball handling skills. Make a large 20 foot circle, every player inside the circle with a ball. Every player has a flag hanging from their waist. All the players dribble the ball around the inside of the circle. While controlling the ball every player try to capture as many flags from their teammates as possible without losing their own. Once your flag is captured, you’re out. The winner is the last one with the flag. A couple of rules to follow. You must be in control of your ball when you capture a flag and if you leave the circle for any reason you’re out.

Knock out: One final soccer drills for kids is knock out. Once again make a circle about 20 foot round with all the players inside the circle each with a ball. Blow the whistle to start. All the players begin to dribble in any direction they choose. The object of this drill is to protect the ball while making a defensive move to eliminate the other players by knocking their ball outside the circle. Again the winner is the last one inside the circle with the ball. Same rules as the last drill, you must be in control of your ball when knocking out an opponent and if you leave the circle you’re out.

So as you can see soccer drills for kids can be a lot of fun for the players as well as the coach and parents too. As the coach feel to take part of the drills. If the kids are real young, encourage the parents to get involved too. The funner these drills are the more they will want to do them and the better they will become at ball handling without even knowing it. Keep it Fun!

Henderson Valley, New Zealand – A History In The Mist

Henderson Valley/Opanuku, New Zealand.

History and future of the misty valley.

From our earliest known history this valley has played its part in shaping the identity of Waitakere City and Auckland. This area has been inhabited for more than 1000 years as discovered by archaeologists at various Pa sites in the Ranges.

The Pacific rat, or kiore, a poor swimmer, could only have arrived in New Zealand with humans. In the mid-1990s a scientist radiocarbon-dated Pacific rat bones excavated from caves in the North Island, and came up with dates as early as 50-150 AD. Humans must also have arrived at this time, with rats on board. The discovery was a scientific bombshell.1

Maori Tradition tells that the earliest known inhabitants of the area were the the Turehu, (hapu or sub-tribe of the people called Patupaiarehe.) Generally described as being fair skinned, red- or light-haired, an elusive people who dwelt in the densely forested hills and only ventured out at night or under the cover of the valley’s plentiful fog and mist to fish and gather food. Turehu were sometimes heard deep in the bush by Maori, digging bracken fern root, but were often only visible to powerful tohunga/spiritual wise men. A condition of tapu pertained to these forest dwellers, and should any person intrude on their domain they would immediately abandon that part of the forest. Their leader was Tiriwa, and the area known traditionally as ‘Hikurangi’ now called the Waitakere Ranges and beyond were named Te Wao Nui A Tiriwa – The great Forest of Tiriwa. Tiriwa had homes throughout the region.3

Many years later (Circa 925AD), Maori Chief Maruiwi arrived in Taranaki and chose to look for land further north. 4 The Tino o Maruiwi successfully settled the open fertile flat land of the South Kaipara, however, when a large influx of canoes known as “the great fleet” arrived from Polynesia during the 13th and 14th centuries many of the Maruiwi were killed by the new arrivals, fugitives driven into hiding in the Ranges.5 Widespread vegetation changes were noted around this time from mainly forest species to bracken fern and scrub, due to Polynesian settlers burning the forest for kumara/ sweet potato cultivation, and to create space to encourage bracken fern growth. The starch-rich underground stems of bracken fern formed an important part of the settlers diet.6 It is also believed by Maori that Moa and giant eagle lived in the valley but appear to have been extinct by the end of the 17th century.

The Opanuku Stream runs through Henderson Valley, “Opanuku” meaning “The place of Panuku” and previously name of the whole of the valley area from the head of the stream high in the ranges to the Wai pareira or Henderson Creek. The story of the naming of the area is as follows:- A Turehu, called Nihotupu, lived in a cave named at the base of the Ruotewhenua hill in Waiatarua (located in dense bush off Opanuku Rd). On a food gathering expedition to Te Henga (Bethells), Nihotupu came across the gardens of a Maruiwi chief named Panuku. Nihotupu took gourds he found growing there and upon discovering Panuku’s wife Parekura working in the gardens, kidnapped her. Parekura was understandably unwilling, and made the clever decision to leave a trail in the hopes that Panuku would be able to find her. It worked, Panuku spotted the white feathers plucked discreetly from her clothing and tracked Nihotupu and Parekura back to his cave at Ruotewhenua, Panuku arrived and challenged Nihotupu to a fight, he agreed. Nihotupu lost and paid for his mistake with his life, the couple were reunited.

A hill next to Ruotewhenua and stream was named after Parekura, the stream runs from Ruotewhenua to join the Opanuku stream in the valley, rather romantic under the circumstances! 7 Nihotupu also has his name remembered in another stream which runs from Ruotewhenua to Parau, the Upper Nihotupu Dam, (Auckland’s highest dam) a gorge downstream, and the Lower Nihotupu Dam.

Sometime during the early 15th century the Mahuhu, (descendants of the great fleet who had taken over the Kaipara area) were themselves invaded by the Ngati Awa tribe, survivors again decided to take refuge in the Ranges . These refugee groups united and over time became the tribe we know as the Kawerau a Maki. From the 1450’s onward the Kawerau established tribal ownership of the Ranges which despite being a reticent and peaceful people, they managed to hang on to and are still considered mana whenua (traditional people of Opanuku) today.

The Wai pareira takes its name from Pareira an illustrious Kawerau ancestress who was niece of the renowned Polynesian navigator Toi te huatahi. After exploring the Hauraki Gulf and the Waitemata Harbour, Pareira and some of her followers decided to settle at Wai Pareira – the bay of Pareira. In time this name also became applied to the river we also call the Henderson Creek.8

Henderson Valley has it’s own pa and storage pits sited behind the Mountain and Henderson Valley Road area. The Puke-aruhe Pa (Hill of the bracken fern), was a Kawerau pa, built as a base for seasonal food gathering and used as a lookout to monitor their walkways to and from the Kaipara and Waitemata Harbours.9 If invasion loomed (which it did periodically) the Kawerau would abandon their pa and melt quietly into the forest, invisible as the Turehu, to return when the danger had passed. The pa site was largely destroyed in the 1970’s by bulldozing, but the pa storage pits are apparently still in tact.

European settlement

In 1843 recent Scottish immigrant (blacksmith) Thomas Henderson and his brother in law Henry MacFarlane decided to buy a small schooner named the LUCIDAN, which was in Auckland Harbour. Re-fitting her, they advertised for passengers and freight, sailing on the 31st January 1844 for the Bay of Islands. The vessel proved herself, so much so, that local Maori chiefs Paul, Te Kawau, Te Hira and Rawhiti asked Mr Henderson if he would be interested in a proposition to swap the ship for some land, stating that they had Governor Fitzroy’s permission to exchange the land, a total of 17,784 acres situated on the Whau, for the ship. With these assurances, Thomas agreed to the swap and handed over the schooner to the Maori chiefs. After a meeting with Henderson, Governor Fitzroy wrote a memorandum agreeing to the swap, but allowed Mr Henderson only 9,000 acres of the promised land in exchange for the schooner.

The land situated at the foot of the Waitakere Ranges included Henderson Valley. It was densely covered in bush with large stands of Kauri and Rimu trees, the partners knew the timber was valuable for ships spars and masts,as well as building materials. Henderson wisely also bought the 1000 acres of land adjacent to both the Opanuku and Henderson streams to ensure his sole uninterrupted use of the waterways for floating logs out of the hills. A timber license from the government allowed the stands of timber to be cut down. Timber workers were employed by Henderson & MacFarlane to pit saw the timber in the bush and float the heavy logs down the creeks to the outlet into the harbour. Large timber dams were built in the bush, to retain the cut logs before they were flushed down the creeks to the mill, deeply scouring the stream bed as they went. As areas of bush were cleared gum-diggers moved in, further clearing logged areas of other vegetation in their search for gum to supply the growing varnish industry.

Henderson & MacFarlane decided to set up a timber mill, they employed John McLeod, a Canadian immigrant timber worker to build it at the junction of the two creeks. A large water wheel (to drive the saws) and a dam was constructed, along with some small workers cottages and a cook house. Henderson’s Mill was taking shape from the bush as the trees and scrub were cleared. In later years a steam engine was installed at the mill, which reached a cutting capacity of 9000 super feet* of timber per day During its total years of operation, the mill was estimated to have cut some 45 million super feet of timber from the ranges.(*Super foot 12 inches long by 12 inches wide by 1 inch thick – 304mm X 304mm X 25 mm)

In 1858 Henderson sailed to China on a trading mission. Whilst there, he bought 50 pairs of Chinese ring-necked pheasants. Henderson took the birds to his mill. A Maori lady enthused over the birds bright colours, opened the door of the cage to touch them, seizing their chance the pheasants escaped into the surrounding bush. From these few birds in 1858, the wild population has grown throughout New Zealand, and we still see them in the upper valley.

Henderson sold his 10,000 acres of farm and bush land in 1881, the land sold readily to eager buyers.10 Most of Henderson Valley was deforested, with the exception of the steep and inaccessible upper reaches, (only 2% of the forest area of the Waitakere Ranges remained unaffected by the timber industry). The process of establishing pasture involved further clearing native scrub by fire, which often burnt out of control (Denyeret al. 1993).

In the 1890’s viticulture, and farming were established in the lower valley. From the vineyards of Dalmatia, immigrant families brought their wine making skills to the green foothills of Auckland’s Waitakere Ranges. Pleasant Valley Wines on Henderson Valley Road is the oldest. The 80 acre property bought in 1890 by Dalmatian, Stipan Yelas, to dig for gum. The winery was established in 1902 and remains in family ownership today.

Some years later in 1932, 19 year old Dudley Russell an Aucklander of English descent also decided his future lay in viticulture and bought 24 acres of land on Vineyard Rd in the valley. Dudley built a humble one room tin shed which became his home for the next ten years as he doggedly worked to establish his vineyard. By the 1970’s Western Vineyards was 115 acres with 64 acres in vines, producing award winning wines and his vision for the land, it’s cellars, swimming pool, tennis court, Japanese Garden and large home realised into a beautiful addition to the valley.

Wildlife habitat depletion from continued timber milling had a major impact on the area. By the mid 1930s the kaka, kiwi and kakariki parakeet were rare, the tui declining and the kokako gone, introduced farm animals took over.11

1945 saw the Sapich Brothers (Tony, Mark and Ivan) take on 80 acres at Forest Hill Rd, again the vineyard is still in family ownership. For generations these dedicated pioneer viticulturists and farmers tended their vines and struggled with unproductive soils high rainfall and humidity as the city grew around them slowly engulfing their slopes

The Henderson Valley primary school first opened its doors to 19 pupils in 1915 in a small 4 metre square rented temporary building on Gum Rd, opposite the current site on Henderson Valley Road. 4 Acres of land was bought at the current site in 1919 and once built 24 pupils attended from 1922 under the gimlet eye and stern discipline of headmistress Ethel Croker. By 1984 more buildings had been added and 125 pupils were on the roll. After further pressure due to more residential development substantial additions were built in the 1990’s as well as moving the Henderson Valley Hall on to the school grounds and by 2007 the number of students has risen to nearly 500.

By the 1920’s Aucklanders recognized the value of having such a large wilderness area close to the rapidly growing city and planned to protect a substantial area. The Scenic Drive was opened in 1939 and the Centennial Memorial Park was established in 1940.

During the late 50’s and early sixties ten acre block subdivisions spread, taking over land which farmers had struggled to use as farmland for many years,and making it into lifestyle blocks, Poultry farms replacing some. Sections were being sold on Grassmere road bringing new residents to the area.

The Waitakere Ranges Protection Society first came into being in 1973. More than 700 Hectares of land have been added to regional and district parkland as a result of the society’s efforts (including an addition to the 308 hectare Spraggs Bush at the top of the Valley) The parkland now covers 17,000 hectares in total.

A play centre was opened at the Henderson Valley Hall in 1974 where it operated until given land further down the valley on Farwood Drive where they built their own centre in 1988.

The Future for “The place of Panuku” .

Developmental pressures have increased along with the ever expanding population of Waitakere City. The enlarged park lands and regeneration of the forest have made the area more desirable for sub division and development than ever before. Local and Central Government have now agreed to establish legislation to protect the Waitakere Ranges Heritage area, upper Henderson Valley is included. “The goal is to put in place measures that will ensure that this important and finite resource is not gradually eroded and undermined with the result that the valued features that are lost forever”13. Kawerau a Maki and Ngati Whatua have expressed similar concerns. The bush of the Waitakere Ranges and the fingers remaining in the upper areas of the eastern foothills, have been identified by Waitakere City Council as outstanding landscape features. The lower eastern foothills with their mixture of pasture and bush have not. 14

The earliest known people of the valley considered themselves guardians of the land and its resources. Given the depredation it has suffered since, it is now time to back up that ancient wisdom with modern law in an effort to maintain and hopefully restore the original character of this unique area. Fortunately, with the re-establishment of forests in the Waitakere Ranges, and much work done by organizations such as the Auckland Regional Council, Waitakere City Council, Royal Forest and Bird Society, and the “Ark in the Park” project some native flora and fauna populations have returned to what’s left of the great forest of Tiriwa. The dawn chorus of Tui and Kereru and night calls of Morepork may be heard again echoing along this misty valley.


1. Geoff Irwin and Carl Walrond. “When was New Zealand first settled?”,Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.

2. The Maori as he was: a brief account of life as it was in Pre-European days. Author: Hoane Nahe, “Maori, Tangata Maori.”Journal of the Polynesian Society 3(1894):27-35.

3. “Waitakere Ranges,Ranges of Inspiration.” Waitakere Ranges Protection Society Inc 2006: 21

4. Hoani Nahe, ‘Maori, Tangata Maori.’ Journal of the Polynesian Society 3 (1894): 27-35.

5. JT Diamond & Bruce W Hayward “The Maori history and Legends of the Waitakere Ranges”:2-3

6. Geoff Irwin and Carl Walrond. “When was New Zealand first settled?”,Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.

7. JT Diamond & Bruce W Hayward “The Maori history and Legends of the Waitakere Ranges”: 34

8. Draft Waitemata Harbour Foreshore Reserve Management Plan, Part One.

9. Joan Lawrence “The Archeology of the Waitakere Ranges” 1989: 215

10. Anthony G Flude “Henderson’s Mill”. Henderson Borough Council 1977. 11.URL: 12&14.URL:

13. Waitakere Ranges Heritage Area Bill, 2006 No 15-1, Explanatory note, General Policy Statement,Issues Analysis, p. 2. [] bkgrdrpt.pdf