Adler: The Piano and Organ Manufacturer of Louisville, Kentucky

The company started in 1903 by Cyrus Adler and R.S. Hill in Louisville, Kentucky strictly as an Organ Manufacturer. As was common with many large manufacturers, the partnerships often consisted of an investor and an expert craftsman. Adler was a successful owner of a large lumber company. R.S. Hill was from the Mason & Hamlin factory. Hill would be the Superintendent who designed the instruments and managed their construction and quality.

Louisville, Kentucky was an odd location, considering that most manufacturers chose New York, Chicago, and Boston as more ideal locations. Adler chose Louisville due to its good railroad access, and felt confident that the location would be profitable. Adler moved into an existing building that had previously been occupied by a furniture company.

In 1904, plans for a large plant were drawn up to be built across the street. But a dispute arose with the city council members. Adler wanted a simple switch installed and rail to connect the two plants. Some council members objected to the plans for no apparent reason, and petty arguments ensued. Eventually, the new building project was scrapped, resulting in hundreds of lost construction jobs.

A fire started in the packaging room which destroyed a part of the building. The damage was around $15,000 (approx. $380,000 today). Full credit was given to the firemen, otherwise all would have been lost. Water, to put out the fire with, caused extensive damage to the instruments however.

Adler produced a grand and glorious exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St Louis. This was the expo that introduced the ice cream cone. Apparently the Exhibit was a success as they had obtained a five year contract with Sears & Roebuck to construct the Beckwith Organ.

Within the next year they had 100 employees earning $50-$150 per month.

The factory was eventually extended to 100,000 square feet and occupied an entire city block. The company had its own power plant of 350 horsepower and 500 electric lights with over ten miles of electric wire.

The company was shipping out 40 organs per day and became the largest Manufacturer in Louisville at the time. Between 1910 -1928 they were also building Adler pianos, known to the public as the Beckwith piano as sold by Sears through their Catalogs.

Adler Manufacturing, as well as the Geo. P. Bent Piano company would eventually be purchased by the Sears & Roebuck Company, which would continue to sell pianos and organs all the way up until 1949.

How to Estimate the Age of Furniture Using Castor Wheels?

Castors are attached to home furnishings in order to make housekeeping and rearranging easier. But apart from these, do you know that castor wheels help antique collectors in estimating the age of furniture? By simply examining the type and characteristics of the castors, experts are able to identify the time range in which they are manufactured. This allows antique dealers and collectors to price the furniture appropriately.

Nonetheless, even non-experts like you can also date furniture using this same method. This article will show you how to do it. Just follow the simple instructions listed below:

Step 1: Look for a Leathern Roller or Bowl

The earliest kinds of castor wheels are made of leathern rollers or bowls. These castors are attached to furniture manufacture in the early 1700’s during the time of Queen Anne.

Step 2: Inspect if the Castor is made of Wood

During the great Georgian period (1720 to 1760), furniture manufacturers began to make furniture with wooden wheels. The wheels are attached to an iron frame that is mounted at the foot of the furniture.

Step 3: Examine if the Castors is made of Cast Iron

For almost a decade after the Georgian period, manufacturers started to produce furniture with castors made from cast iron. Although wooden castors are still manufactured, most of the surviving furniture made during this era which is available in antique stores nowadays has cast iron wheels instead of wood.

Step 4: Check if the Castor is made of solid Brass

The furniture may still indicate that it is manufactured during the Georgian period, however, if it has solid brass castor wheels, then it means that it is manufactured anywhere between 1780 and 1790. The entire Georgian period (starting from 1750 to 1830) is in fact called the “Golden Age of Furniture” because it is during this era that majority of the innovation on furniture had been introduced to the public.

Step 5: See if the Castor is made of Rubber or Polyurethane

These castor wheels are manufactured in modern times. Thus, it is possible that the wheels of the antique furniture that you are eyeing on have already been replaced.

Warnings and Tips

Be reminded that castors are easily replaceable. This means that you should not base your assessment of the furniture’s age on the castors alone since it is possible that the wheels are only replaced so as to give the impression that the furniture are as old as it is. If you are not confident or if you do not trust your antique dealer, might as well get a second or third opinion from someone who you think is trustworthy. Do not forget that the antique industry is filled with scammers and opportunists who are only waiting for you to fall into their traps.

Hundred in the Hand Reviewed

Book Review: Hundred in the Hand: A Novel by Joseph M. Marshall III

When the English came to the shores of America, the power that they received came at the cost of the original inhabitants of the land, the Red Indians. Over the years many books have been compiled about the Red Indians and the “white skinned people” who so rudely snatched away their land but the problem with these books is the fact that all those who wrote them belonged to the latter category. Therefore a touch of partiality towards the latter will creep in giving us a one sided history of the events that unfolded.

Hundred in the Hand written by Joseph gives us the opportunity to listen to the voice from the other side. Being Lakota Sioux himself, this book is fiction yet it contains the roots and history of his people. This tale, centered on the war of the book’s title “Hundred in the Hand” (aka The Fetterman Massacre of 1866) is told from the Lakota Sioux point of view. It is most certainly a dramatic departure from the usual interpretation of scripted American history.

The author incorporates references to the Lakota culture, both spiritual and social as well as dozens of everyday examples of military, hunting and tribal relationships. One of the most fascinating aspects of the book is its characters who are presented in a manner that are easy to associate with. The protagonists of the story go through all the phases that anyone would do if they were put in very harsh situations, his people fall in love, get hurt in battle, and inevitably they die.

I found the book very educational and although it is a fiction, it was in some ways more illuminating than the non fictional stories on the same topic of wars between Red Indians and their conquerors. Hundred in the hand is quite a good read and does slightly open up previously unheard suppressed voices.

Hiring Caregivers

How to Do a Background Check?

A background check on a nanny includes an array of components. During your initial interview, ask to see your applicant’s photo identification; and record her name, address, birth date, social security number, phone number and driver’s license number. Confirm the information through an online people search website such as U.S. Search for People Data. Also, have her complete an I-9 form, and then use the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services E-Verify to see if she is legally eligible to work in our country.

Speak to formal and informal references, including former employers and people who have observed her work (please see the list of questions to ask below). If you desire your nanny to have a certain educational attainment, request a copy of her transcripts and contact the school she attended. Verify a claim of licensure with the appropriate licensing body. A social media search is also advisable, as it can turn up red flags.

Request that your applicant sign a form that will give you permission to see her personal information. Check the sex offender registry and child abuse records, in addition to civil, criminal and motor vehicle records. You may also want to see her credit report because financial troubles may indicate she has significant stress in her life.

What Questions to Ask References?

Some background-check services will interview references, but regardless of whether you use them, speak with former employers yourself because they are a valuable source of information. Compose your list of questions beforehand, making sure to cover everything from work habits to personality problems. Below are some inquiries to include:

  • How long did she work for you?
  • Why did she leave?
  • Did your children like her, or did they seem afraid of her?
  • What did you like best about her?
  • What are her weaknesses?
  • Did she have adequate energy levels?
  • Is she dependable?
  • How did she respond to stress?
  • Did she have any duties other than caregiving?
  • How did she handle situations when the two of you had a difference of opinion?
  • Did she need supervision, or could she work independently?
  • How did she communicate with children? (Find out if she was patient and warm, or if she was sometimes irritable.)
  • How did she communicate with you and other adults?
  • Did an emergency ever arise when she worked for you? If so, how did she cope with it?
  • Would you hire her again?
  • How would you rate her overall performance? (If she isn’t rated highly, ask why.)
  • If there anything else about her I should know?

What Is a Criminal Records Check?

A criminal record is a compilation of local, state and federal information regarding a person’s law violations. This list contains past arrests and warrants, as well as current, dismissed and acquitted charges. The record also includes prison time served, probation and parole, in addition to a global homeland security search and an international criminal check.

What Is a Motor Vehicle Records Check?

If your nanny will be taking your child to school or various locations, you’ll want to learn all about her driving history. A motor vehicle records check has information on license suspensions and revocations, along with accidents, traffic violations and unanswered summons. This search is essential because criminal records don’t always include convictions for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. A careful review of the record will give you an indication of whether or not your applicant is a conscientious driver.

Options for Conducting a Background Search

You can choose to conduct the background check yourself using either a free or a fee-based service, or you can hire an agency to do it. Free resources include PeekYou, which provides social media profiles; Snoop Station, which gives links to databases of court records and general information; and the National Center for State Courts, which contains local criminal history.

Although the free background-check services can be helpful, most experts would advocate the use of a fee-based service before you make a household hire. According to Business News Daily, eNannySource is the best company to investigate caregiver applicants. Since it specializes in household employees, the company is aware of the signs that would indicate a job candidate would be an undesirable hire. The company offers a choice of background check plans, and the results are usually available within three days. Most importantly, it also has an A+ rating with the Better Business Bureau.

An investigation of your nanny candidate can help you make an informed hiring decision. While it won’t provide an iron-clad guarantee that the person you choose to care for your child won’t be guilty of wrongdoing in the future, it can maximize the likelihood that she is worthy of your trust. Because of the safety issues at stake, it merits the time and expense involved.

The Many Benefits of Bookcases

If you are thinking about adding bookcases to your home, you will soon realize that the options are virtually endless. No matter what kind of space you need to fill, there is a good chance you can find a bookcase that is perfectly suited for it.


There are seven main types of bookcases, and each one comes in a variety of sizes, shapes and finishes. No matter what decorating scheme you are trying to achieve, a bookcase can provide a stylish and practical addition to any room in your home.


You can use these versatile pieces of furniture to display pictures, store your children’s toys, partition a large room, organize your closet, and much more. You can put a bookcase anywhere you have a space to fill, a need for organization or a desire to display.


Read below to learn more about the different kinds of bookcases to determine which styles are best suited for your home’s needs.


The Seven Main Types of Bookcases


Keep in mind that each type of bookcase can be customized to meet your needs. Shelves are usually adjustable, and you can vary the size depending on the amount of space you have to fill.


Below are descriptions for the seven main types of bookcases:

  • Leaning bookcases add visual interest to a room as they actually lean against the wall. Their frame is in the shape of an “A” and they have different sized shelves from top to bottom.
  • Shelf bookcases are the most common variety. You can find models that have anywhere from two shelves to six shelves or more. These shelves are usually adjustable and can hold items of all different shapes and sizes.
  • Modular bookcases come in sets that can be stacked, stretched out or even used individually. You can use them to create a traditional looking bookshelf or you can mount them to the wall in creative ways. These bookcases also come in a variety of sizes and designs, so you can use them just about anywhere.
  • Barrister bookcases have glass doors protecting each shelf. Each door has its own hinge, so you can easily slide the glass out of the way when needed. These bookcases are generally fairly large, and they are perfect for protecting your favorite books, knickknacks, collectibles and other important memorabilia.
  • Built-in bookcases are made to be built into a room. Because they become part of the wall space, they are a great way to open up a room. You do have to plan carefully when deciding to use these bookcases, however, because they cannot be moved around like other models can.
  • Corner bookcases are made to utilize space in small rooms by providing tons of great corner storage. By decorating your home’s corner space you can add lots of practical organization and stylish flair.
  • Ladder bookcases are sleek and free-standing, so they are a great decoration piece for your home. They have a fairly contemporary design and work great in tight spaces.

Don’t forget that each of these bookcases comes in a variety of finishes to accent any home’s current décor. Take the time to consider which varieties are best suited for the rooms in your home, and start taking advantage of the many uses of bookcases today.

Linking Areas of the Home With a Dumbwaiter

There are many reasons that people choose to install a dumbwaiter in their home. Sometimes it is installed by the home builder as the home is being built. This can help to increase the value of the home and its appeal to potential buyers. Other times, the homeowner will decide to install a dumbwaiter into their home after it is built.

There are many advantages to having a dumbwaiter in the home. These devices help make it much easier to do the many chores around the home. For instance, bring groceries up from the garage, is much easier when you can simply load up the dumbwaiter car and push a button. They can also make it much easier to bring laundry to and from the laundry room. These devices can also make it much easier for caretakers who need to bring food or supplies upstairs on a regular basis.

There are several popular kits that are used today to allow a homeowner to retro-fit a dumbwaiter with ease. The electric dumbwaiter is the most common type used, but some people prefer a manual dumbwaiter instead. The disadvantage of a manual dumbwaiter is that it will only be able to support less weight than an electric dumbwaiter. Also since you must use your own power to raise or lower it, they can be rather unpractical.

When installing an electric dumbwaiter, it is necessary to do some planning first. Usually the car of the dumbwaiter, which is the part that holds the goods as they are moved between floors, takes up about two feet by two feet of space. This means you will need a vertical shaft between floors that is about 4 feet squared. This is one reason that it is easier to install the dumbwaiter as the home is being built.

In retro-fit situations finding a space can be an issue, but usually most homes have an area that will work. The car can be configured so that the door opens on different sides, so this means you could configure it to open on one side in the kitchen and a different side upstairs. This increases the flexibility of the device. Often if all else fails, a closet can usually be converted to hold the dumbwaiter.

A track is used to keep an electric dumbwaiter and the car moves along the track. Most tracks are designed so that they can be installed into a wood framed home. The track comes in sections and can be slid together. This makes it much easier and more manageable to install the track.

Some dumbwaiters are in large part already assembled. The cable drive system is already installed along with the car on a short section of track. This piece will be placed at the top of the shaft, then after the track is attached to the shaft, there is little left to the installation. Since the installation is simpler and takes less time, it will in turn cost less to install.

There are many people that choose to install a dumbwaiter in their home. These lifts make it much easier to take care of tasks around the home.

Is India A Trailblazer In MBA Education?

The name of the game is 'B-Schools.' This is not an over-hyped statement anymore considering the fact that management gurus around the world still unanimously nod their head in agreement. At the turn of the twenty-first century, the Indian management education has witnessed a sea-change only to re-surface as a matured establishment ever ready to offer world class solutions for global needs in especially in industries like Telecom, Healthcare, IT / ITES etc.

Over the years, restructured institutions like IMT Ghaziabad have consistently strived to deliver quality and top-notch management trainings to their students. In recent times, industry specific surveys reveal that MBA grades from premier B-schools get away with attractive compensation packages compared to their counterparts from other anonymous B-schools. Inevitably, the rapid emergence of India as a growing economy and the high turn out of MBA graduates go hand-in-hand in strengthening the nation's development.

As a matter of fact, in today's fast paced world, an MBA degree is considered to be a great means of achieving the zenith of success. As a result, it helps business degrees grade professional new goals and heights, and with it the stairways to corporate leadership become comprehensible, easy and visible. According to a vague industry estimate, nearly 4.6 billion of the world population requires high quality but low cost products and services on a regular basis.

This figure is sufficient to measure the great demand of qualified and well-trained man power to manage the huge 'demand and supply' segment. In the mean time, CAT (Common Admission Test) in India still remains predominately the major determinant for admission in top B-schools. Indian Institute of Management Institute (Kolkata), Indian Institute of Management Institute (Bangalore), IIM (L), XLRI, ISB, FMS and so on tops the chart as the leading institutions in the country.

On top of that, India is slowly coming up as a hub for management education for foreign students, and that explains why thousands of international students flock to India in pursuit of quality education. Needless to say, management education in the form of distance learning has gained momentum and paved the way for uninterrupted management formal education for working executives employed in corporate and other business firms.

Notably, drastic changes have taken place in the global trade and commerce policies and an increasing number of industries are added up to keep the wheels of international economies revolving. Here, the liberalization of trade policies is credited with widespread nexus of trade relations and business inter-dependence among various countries.

This paradigm shift is the most important reason behind the rapid increase in the demand of highly skilled managers and business executives. Dr Sherry, the Director of IMT, CDL recognizes the importance of constant skills up gradation for management students and gives credit to the eminent faculty and the quality of its courses for the success of the institution.

IMT Ghaziabad is rated among the top 10 business schools in India, and it has centers scattered across the nation and abroad-IMT Nagpur, IMT Dubai and IMT Hyderabad (yet to be up and running).

Offshore Oil & Gas Safety Officer: The Roles & Responsibilities and Qualifications

Toolbox meeting is part of daily routine for Offshore Oil & Gas Workers. Main reason is to identify hazard and to ensure all safety pre-cautions are in place before and during execution of works. This toolbox meeting is monitored and supervised by Safety Officer. Safety officer is also another interesting jobs. For those who are interested to become one, below are the safety officer roles, responsibilities and qualifications.

  • Roles and Responsibilities
    • Assist Management in developing and implementing their HSE plans and advise on operational safety matters related to the works.
    • Co-ordinate and conduct inspections/audits of facilities and activities to ensure compliance to safe and good work practices in accordance to statutory requirement of the Factories and Machinery ACT and all safety Procedures.
    • Have the ability to communicate in written and spoken English & Local language.
    • Give safety presentation with the objective to enhance the Health, safety and Environment awareness of all workers.
    • Assist in accident investigation, reporting and monitor their follow up in accordance to safety procedures.
  • Qualifications
    • Must have 5 years working experience in Supervisory position in the related field of oil and gas industry.
    • Must possess a recognized Diploma in an engineering discipline or a recognized Diploma in Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) or completed training and assessment by National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) and have a minimum of 3 years experience working in OSH or minimum 10 years working experience in OSH.
    • Must have attended the following local safety courses conducted by Safety Training Institution:
      • Supervisory Safety
      • Accident Investigation Skill
      • First Aider
      • Basic Fire Fighting and BA
    • Must have attended the following local courses relevant to their operation:
      • Sea Survival.
      • Crane & lifting operation.
      • Scaffolding inspection
      • Permit to Work System
      • Authorized Gas Tester Certification Course.
      • Helicopter Landing Officer (HLO)
    • Must posses knowledge and skill on:
      • Hazard and effect Management Process/Risk Management
      • HSE cases
      • Emergency response
      • Law, Regulation & Permits
      • HSE Auditing

There is a popular saying among Offshore Oil and Gas personnel about safety. It is “Come in One Piece & Back in One Piece

What Materials Are Used to Make Printed Circuit Boards?

Printed Circuit Boards are also called a PCB. They are inexpensive boards that are used to connect electronic components. They are often made under high volume production through the electronics industry. Quality control of these boards are maintained through the IPC.

The materials that are used to comprise PCBs are usually made from a copper conduit layer that contains an overlay of laminate. The laminate that covers the board is usually made from an epoxy resin, which is somewhat like a hard plastic. Most of these products are green in color due to the resin that is used to cover the board, which is a green epoxy. However, there are other colors that are available through different types of laminating materials. These materials include cotton paper mixed with epoxy as well as woven glass with epoxy. The standard for creating PCBs, when it comes to materials, is using a thin layer of copper along with a green mask epoxy.

There are a process of electroplating steps that are then used in the board, depending upon how the board is going to be used. These include silk screen printing as well as photo engraving. These processes either etch out the unwanted copper or use a chemical etching process to remove the copper foil.

Some of the printed circuit boards are comprised of several thin boards put together, these are usually known as multi layer boards. Once the PCB is created, the PCBs are mounted with the various components that are needed in order to get them to work properly. These boards are used in most aspects of the electronics industry and have been around for over 100 years.

Companies that create printed circuit boards can create them specifically for the intention of the customer as well as their needs. Those who have a business in the electronics field can hire a company to create a custom board for their company with the exact specifications that they need to operate their electronic equipment. The printed circuit board will be created from both the conduit and non-conduit materials, provided with the correct electronic components and then tested to make certain that it works properly. It will then be protected in packaging for delivery to the customer.

Businesses can easy find online companies that will be able to provide them with custom printed boards online. As most printed circuit boards are all created from the same type of materials, it often pays to get the boards from an online dealer rather than through a computer or electronics stores.

How Much Weight Can You Carry on Roof Racks?

Roof racks are a great way to carry the big, bulky items that take up too much room inside your vehicle. However, they are not designed to carry heavy weights, and if you do this you are likely to damage your vehicle and risk a serious accident. Most four wheel drives will only carry a maximum of 100kg on the roof racks. Some full length steel racks weigh around 50kg, and as a result your carrying capacity is drastically reduced. A few jerry cans and you are already looking at being over the limit. It is important to ensure that the total weight on your roof does not exceed what the manufacturer states as being the maximum.

Not all racks weigh 50kg; many don’t weigh more than 15kg. However, it does depend on the design and materials used. What is just as important as checking the maximum load your roof is designed to take, is looking at what your roof racks will carry. Some roof racks are only designed to carry 30kg each, and again these can easily be overloaded. Take note of what conditions the racks are designed to operate in as well. I have seen numerous roof racks that state ‘not for off-road’ use. If you get a set like this, put a few jerry cans up top and then travel on gravel, sand or other bumpy roads you risk damaging the racks, losing your load or damaging the roof of your vehicle.

Its all too common to see people either loading their roof racks up with more gear than what should be carried, or loading their roof’s up with more than what should be carried. Again, keep the heavy stuff inside your vehicle, and the big, bulky stuff on the racks. By doing this, you ensure that the centre of gravity is kept low, and this makes the car more stable. When you are four wheel driving, this is of extreme importance. Even when you are on the road it is much safer to have a lower centre of gravity.

The primary reason that roof racks are rated for different weights is their design and the material that is used. You will find that plastic racks generally won’t be able to carry as much as weight as steel or aluminum. Aluminum is lighter than steel, which is helpful if you want to carry heavier loads up top (again, I don’t recommend this!)

Australian Shepherd Pros and Cons of Owning This Fascinating Pet

Reasons for and Against Owning a Pet Australian Shepherd

The Australian Shepherd is the quintessential herding dog. It rose to fame as a sheepherder and although it probably originated in the Pyrenees Mountain it was exported to Australia and other sheep raising areas. It is known by a few other names but the one most know it as is the Australian Shepherd or Aussie.

It is a very recognizable dog due to its unique eye coloring along with its beautiful merle coat coloring. It is normally born with a short tail and if longer than 4 inches it is normally docked. It is sturdy with a muscular build and has extraordinary balance which partly explains how it is so good at herding along with its intelligence. If you have a very active lifestyle and want an easily trainable companion you might want to consider an Aussie for your next pet.


An Australian Shepherd is a loving breed of dog that just loves to play and never seems to lose its puppy like qualities. For this reason, it is a great dog to own if you have children in your home. It gets along great with other dogs and pets as well as all humans.

Even though it likes to play it is easy to train and appears to know what you want it to do. Like most dogs you must establish that you are the pack leader. Once you do this the Aussie is easy to get along with and will be very happy to go along with your leadership.

The Australian Shepherd loves to please everyone and is very protective of their family. If given the chance, your pet will do well when trained to be used as a guard dog. They have great perception as well as being intuitive. Your pet will know what will be expected of it and therefore is easier to train.

A pet Aussie is not aggressive, unless it is herding animals. It is protective and a loyal friend, which makes a good family dog. This dog likes nothing better that herding livestock so if you have animals that needs rounded up then this is the dog for you. Herding seems to be instinctive as they have been known to try to herd chickens, geese and even children.


You must keep your pet Australian Shepherd trained properly and exercised regularly to keep them happy and content. Before you can start training them make sure it knows that you are the pack leader. It can get nervous and easily bored when its not being acknowledged. It requires human interaction on a daily basis to keep if from getting bored and possibly becoming destructive.

The Aussie is a great dog but has too much energy to be a house dog. It must have a lot of activity every day. If you don’t have a large backyard or can take your pet out for a large amount of exercise every day you should consider a different breed of dog.

Although Australian Shepherds are a hardy dog there is one problem that can show up in them. The gene that produces their pretty merle coloration also is a factor that can cause blindness and deafness. Puppies should be checked for deafness as well as cataracts. Aussies with bobtails can sometimes develop serious spinal defects. Hip dysplasia is another possible problem in some of these dogs. These conditions are not found in all of them and should not be considered serious enough to dissuade you from considering one as a pet or helper.

Like most dogs Aussies need proper training to be the best pet. Luckily this pet has above average intelligence as well as faithfulness and loyalty found in few other pets. If you need a good friend who will also help out around the farm or ranch do yourself a favor and check out the Australian Shepherd. You will be happy you did.

Five Steps to Making the Most of Enamel Paint

Enamel paint is the Tasmanian devil of the arts and crafts world. It’s tricky to use, unpredictable when drying, and might even present problems once it’s dried. More than one eager young painter has set out on a craft or modeling project meaning to use enamel paint and wound up bitterly disappointed.

Make no mistake: enamel paint has its advantages. It’s tough as nails, will last a lifetime, and offers a sleek translucent finish that ordinary acrylic paints largely cannot. If you’re willing to work with it, enamel provides incredible advantages, especially when working with metal and ceramics, for example some kinds of models and decorative lawn accessories and handmade enamel jewelry.

The five steps below aren’t presented in order, but following all of them will make the painting more fun and help you protect your project in the years to come.

Prime time is forever.

If your subject is made of metal, wood, or plastic, you should apply at least one coat of primer before even the first drop of enamel goes on. Priming helps prevent mildew, mold, rust and warping while making sure your enamel paint is lustrous and smooth atop the surface of the subject matter. It’ll also prevent stickiness once the enamel paint dries.

Primer is available in both spray-can and liquid formats at both hardware and arts and crafts stores.

Don’t brush off.

Don’t be fooled into thinking that all brushes are all the same. Because enamel paints are oil based, they’ll adhere to the brush you used to apply them just as much as they will the subject matter.

Enamel paints require brushes that can handle their thickness and density. Make sure you have several before beginning your project, and remember to get two of three of each kind of brush just in case.

Thinner is better.

Depending on the color, enamel paint can have the consistency of water or the thickness of molasses. You may need to apply a certain amount of paint thinner to the paint in order to make sure it evenly and smoothly spreads across the subject matter. Paint thinner, by the way, is also used to clean the brushes and to remove unwanted spots and stains on hands, clothing, and other surfaces. However, remember it’s extremely unhealthy if swallowed or put into contact with the eyes.

Good air quality helps.

Enamel dries best in conditions with little humidity and slight but not immense air circulation. You should also remember to practice good ventilation when working with enamel, as the fumes can cause dizziness.

Finish with a sealant.

Sealants help protect the enamel from chipping but also from help repel dust that the oil-based paint will otherwise surely attract and hold like flypaper. Sealants typically come in spray-can format, and can be applied in seconds.

Sealants are available in high-gloss and matte finishes, which can help amplify your finished project’s shine or just give it a realistic texture. Because enamel paint is naturally lustrous, a matte finish should be used when working on subject matter (jewelry, statuary, models) that shouldn’t have a “shine” appearance.

How to Track a Cell Phone?

Have you ever wondered how to track a cell phone? Perhaps you worry that someone may be tracking your mobile. With the advancements and large strides in cellular technology, we already know we are being tracked. Obviously a mobile phone company knows exactly where you are at all times. Well, at least they know where your cellphone is. Apple, Inc was scrutinized by the media for tracking and keeping a record of all iPhone users. Many people feared they were being followed on their phone due to that privacy breach by Apple.

Tracking a mobile device is accomplished via the use of a global positioning system, or better known as GPS.

A GPS or GPRS can easily track any mobile. Phone applications have reached the technological point where GPS tracks your every move. Your phone connects directly to the satellite and beams back to you your location. If you want to track a cellular device, simply install the software. The software is meant to track a cell phone that has been lost or stolen. If you track someone else’s mobile, it may be illegal. At the very least, most would call it unethical. (But law enforcers do that, sometimes even crossing the lines.)

If you want to track a cellular phone, first of all you will need to buy one with GPS tracker enabled. About 80% of phones on the market are enabled. You will need to find a cellphone service provider that allows for tracking. Specific GPS tracking plans exist, primarily intended for parents and employers that can help you easily learn how to track a cell phone location from your own wireless phone or PC.

You can also track cells online. These cell phone tracker programs are Sprint/Nextel’s Mobile Locator, Verizon’s Family Locator and AT&T’s Family Map. Cell tracker services generally cost about $10-$15 per month, nothing to sneeze at when it’s added to all the other costs of a mobile phone plan. Using a tracker program to track a mobile can provide peace of mind in the form of interactive, real-time location maps on your phone or online.

The program Google Latitude uses a tracker mapping program that uses cellphone towers to locate users who have approved that you can trace them. Other similar map-based mobile phone locator apps (most of which rely on GPS cell phone tracking) include Mologogo, Buddyway and Instamapper.

Before you start tracking a cellphone with GPS or a software program, you should consider the consequences. Whether you learn how to track your cellphone, or someone else’s phone, by accessing your phone’s location, you’re allowing others to access your phone’s whereabouts, too. You should therefore practice caution when using any type of cell phone tracker. Here’s what to look out for when tracking a phone.

Be aware of the risks of trying to track a mobile phone. As Jeschke of EFF points out: “Location data from cell phone tracking does not disappear when you’re done with it.” In fact, she says mobile device location tracking can even be subpoenaed and used in divorce or custody hearings. She adds that it’s not hard to imagine that cell phone locator services like GPS tracking and other tracking programs could be misused. For example, an abusive spouse may try to find out what domestic violence shelter his partner is in by tracking her phone. To protect against unwanted invasions of privacy, and prevent people from tracking your cellphone, Jeschke advises turning off the location services on your phone unless you absolutely need them.

To track a cell phone means to invade privacy. There are bootleg programs and illegal software that give you the full benefit of a cellphone being traced. These programs may have viruses or spyware. Just like a computer can be tracked, so can a cell phone. If you are worried someone may try to track your cell phone, you can turn off the GPS which is usually located in system options. If you are trying to track a cell phone illegally, then the consequences are possible prosecution for hacking. It Is recommended you stay in the legal realm, such as online services to try and track a cellphone.

How to Reinforce a Stone Foundation Wall With a New Concrete Wall

Many older homes have foundations made of field stone that may over time have sagged or bowed from the elements pushing on the stones. Since no mortar as we know it today was used, the stones can easily shift. If there has been a serious total collapse of the stone wall, total replacement is necessary. If the problem is less severe, a new concrete reinforcing wall may be in order. If you have an earthen basement floor the job is even easier. Starting on the inside of the basement you must first excavate a trench alongside the existing wall to install a new footing for the reinforcing wall. I would make the footing at least two feet wide but three feet wide is much better. Make the footing one foot deep. The top of the new footing should match the bottom of the stone wall and the new floor will sit on top of the footing. Be careful not to disturb the soils under the stones. There will be no footing under a stone wall. Once you are done excavating, form the footing and install the reinforcing bars. Use at least 5/8′ diameter bars. Run them the full length of the footing and in a three foot wide footing there should be three continuous bars. Now take pieces cut four feet long and bend a one foot bend at one end making an ell shape. These bars will be tied to the inner and outer most footing rebar to form two rows of dowels running the full length of the footing, no more the thirty-two inches apart. When the footing is poured you will see only the vertical part of the bars sticking out. Once the footing concrete is dry, strip all the forms leaving no wood behind for termites to latch on to for dinner.

Now using the same size rebar, install horizontal bars starting three inches up from the footing and place one every twelve inches running the full length of the new wall. Do this on both rows of dowels. These when completed are called wall mats. Using some small scraps of rebar, tie them with wire between the two mats to keep them separated when you pour the heavy concrete. The new wall thickness will depend upon how thick your stone wall is and how badly bowed the stone wall is. My last wall was basically twenty four inches thick but twelve inches thick is a minimum you should build. Your rebar wall mats want to be as close to three inches from both faces of the wall as possible. The inside mat may be a bit more depending on the amount of bow in the stone wall. I used Symonns concrete form panels from my rental store for ease of forming the new wall but you can also build the forms out of wood. The advantage of concrete form panels is they come in all sizes of heights and widths, have clips for easy fastening, have pre-made anchors and so on. You must remember that this is a one sided form. The toughest type by far to build. You must brace it to death and then add some more braces to keep it from moving under the weight of wet concrete. Installation of what is called a whaler brace will keep the forms from bowing out but add kickers galore. On concrete pour day you will need some extra help. Pouring through a basement window is no joke as the guys inside cannot see the guy outside in the ready mix truck.

One man has to stay outside and yell orders through the window. Faster, slower, more, too wet and so on. Inside one man has to do nothing but watch the forms. If something moves he has to immediately stop the pour. Being buried under wet concrete and smashed form panels is no joke. Another person has to vibrate the forms with a mechanical vibrator to assure there are no voids in the concrete. Yet another person can tap the forms with a hammer to assure there is concrete in all the spaces and watch down through the top of the form to assure they are filling up as level as possible. This eliminates putting too much pressure in one spot of the forms at once. Excess pressure can cause the forms to fail. Wet concrete exerts what is called hydraulic pressure sideways against the form work and can amount to tons of pressure. I have seen forms fail that were blown a hundred feet away from the work site. Depending upon how thick your new wall is a two day wait for form removal is more than enough. Twenty four hours is better still. Any spilled concrete will get super hard and make form removals that much harder if you let the concrete sit too long. Again strip all remnants of wood from the work. Back fill the footing and level the floor area to prep it for the new basement floor.


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Effects of Bad Health Habits

Are you feeling restless and tired almost all the time? The reason could be your bad health habits. Each of us has all the options on how to improve ourselves and feel good. It all depends on our own hands whether we want to feel great or dwell ourselves to our usual habits that are not really good for us. We usually have habits and we are not aware that it is not doing any good to our health.

Let me show you some of the bad habits that you need to ditch to live and to have a better lifestyle.


Every one of us including especially smokers knows that smoking is very dangerous to our health. It has many side effects on your health and the health of those around you. Smoking can cause lung cancer, complicate pregnancy, heart disease and many other diseases. If you love your life and want to live longer, stop smoking now.

Lack of physical exercise

Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances physical fitness and overall health. It is performed for various reasons. Frequent and regular physical exercises boost the immune system, and prevent heart diseases. Regular exercise also improves mental health, helps prevent depression and improves one’s self esteem.

Alcohol Consumption

Even in moderation, alcohol damages brain and body cells. Too much intake of alcohol would cause certain diseases like brain damage, liver problems, diabetes, high blood pressure and even cancer. Excessive drinking can interrupt normal sleeping patterns resulting in insomnia and lack of sleep can lead to stress and anxiety.

Lack of Sleep

Some people suffer from chronic sleeping disorder and frequently experience disruption. Some have sleep problems due to physical stress or condition and others suffer because of mental or emotional cause. Get immediate medical treatment if you already have serious sleep disorder to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Avoid taking sleeping pills as this could have some side effects. Consult your doctor before taking any medications to ensure your health.

Poor Diet

Basically junk foods are foods with little or no nutritional value at all. Some products with little nutritional value are considered unhealthy when eaten regularly. One harmful effect from eating junk food is lack of energy. Junk food can also cause heart diseases. Most junk foods are high in cholesterol it can damage your liver eventually.

Most people today are too busy and have fewer times to prepare nutritious foods. More and more people want a convenient life; quick and easy are more preferred by most. Now you know the reality of bad health habits, it’s all up to you on how you can live a healthy lifestyle and to live in a quality life. Remember we only have one life to live, so let us take good care of our most precious possession.