Cinema 4D – Modeling Primitives With the Iron and Magnet Tool

In Cinema 4D, modeling with the iron and magnet tools provide a complement of effects and modeling capability. Quite simply, the magnet tool ‘pulls’ on your surface, pulling at the defined focus point allowing you to pull up that section of your object. The ‘iron’ tool ‘pushes’ against the entire surface.

A great way to see this is starting with a simple ‘plane’ object. The default plane in 12.0 has 20 segments in width and height. This presents several points to the magnet tool which you access using the point modeling tool. Choose plane from your primitives. Make it editable entering the ‘C’ shortcut or choosing the menu option at the top left of your tool modeling menu options.

Once your plane is editable, right click on the stage and choose the magnet tool from the set presented. Once chosen, it has a cute little magnet style icon to let you know it is active. It also appears on the right hand side under ‘Attributes’ with its selectable options. Most of these are intuitive and the magnet tool to me is a true modeling tool. You need to play with it more than calculate exact changes.

The magnet tool has several modes from default ‘bell’ to ‘needle’. The difference is how the magnet is applied. As you draw your object to you, in the bell mode you will see a bell shape of the material affected by your action whereas the needle mode will pick a single point and you will pull that single point to you. The difference of course is that of a smooth distributed transformation versus creating a spike, a single point pulled away from the surface like a sharp mountain peek.

Speaking of mountain peeks, this is one of the things that the magnet tool is best suited for and that is creating environment with the natural diversity of sharp peeks and bell shaped valleys. Create rolling hills and pasture or a stark bluff with sharp faces.

The magnet tool suggests a tool that ‘pulls’… and it does but it also ‘pushes’. If you push into your plane with the magnet tool, you will create a valley. If you ‘push’ with magnet in needle mode, only one point will be pushed inward pulling the adjacent points with it. If you ‘push’ in dome mode you will see the affect of pushing a ball, a dome into your surface with a smooth rounded effect on the surface you model.

The iron tool is a bit more limited. As you pass your ‘iron tool’ across the modeling surface it ‘smooths out’ contour and ridges. It is less definitive with a percentage setting that directs its smoothing affect but the effect is distributed across the entire surface of your object. It does not have the different ‘bell’, ‘needle’ model options that defines how it ‘smooths’ a surface.

I think of the iron tool as helping you fine tune the ‘nearly finished’ product, ‘smooth out the wrinkles’ so to speak. Working together with magnet tool, you find versatility modeling landscapes… and other shapes from your imagination!

The Wide Selection Of Billiards Tables Available

Billiards tables are found in party locations, bars and in your home if you decide to buy one. Before you decide to make a purchase, it's essential to determine what your needs are and look at the many different selections that are available.

Determine the best size of the table that you need for your home. A smaller table will allow you to have more room available to move around the room. A smaller table provides less room for the balls to move around and can clutter the table. A larger table provides more room for the balls to move around but can make it difficult to get the perfect shot.

When deciding what size of billiards tables is best for your home, do not only measure enough room for the table. There needs to be enough space all around the table for players to make the shot. If the room is too small it will be difficult to make a good shot and it's likely that there will be marks on the wall from the cue sticks hitting it. Assume that you will need an absolute minimum of six feet on each side of the pool table to provide adequate room to get that perfect shot.

The price range of billiards tables is also something that you need to consider when making the purchase. The least expensive models cost under $ 1,000, those at the economy level range from $ 1,000 to $ 1,500, mid-range tables cost from $ 1,500 to $ 2,800 and the upper or custom level tables cost more than $ 2,800. The different prices correspond directly with the features, size and materials of the table.

The playing surface of billiards tables comes in two types. Slate has been approved by the Billiard Congress of America (BCA) because it is stable and durable. The covers a larger pace and can be cut into a flat surface to play on. Non-slate is cheaper and generally intended for recreational use. Honeycomb, which is a plastic structure between sheets of plastic or medium density fiberboard, can be used when slate is not an option.

Other features of billiards tables that need to be considered before making a purchase include the fabric, rails, leg materials, pockets and the cushions. A blend of nylon and wool is used for the more expensive models, while synthetic materials such as Taclon or Tadlon are used for the recreational tables. The rails get fasted to the frame of the table and can be made out of particleboard or solid wood depending on the results you expect. Solid wood has a tendency to create a solid rebound since it is denser.

The cabinet apron and leg materials consist of solid wood or plywood. Areas that have high humidity should avoid purchasing wood since it warps easier. If you want to get the appearance of wood without spending that much, you can also opt to get a laminate or veneer covering. Most tables that are designed to last for many years are made out of solid wood since it is hard, durable and can match with other accessories or furniture.

Windows Vista Update Error? Heres How Fix It

Are you affected by the Windows Vista Update Error problem? This happens when you are trying to update Vista and instead of working like it should, you receive an error 8000FFFF. So, whats the deal with the Vista update error and what exactly does 8000FFFF mean? Read on to find out more about the cause of this annoying little error and how you can fix it.

The Vista update error problem has been reportedly reported by Vista users. Its most often found on computers with 4GB or more of ram, but can occur on other configurations as well. There are two main causes of this problem, corrupted Software Distribution folder and corrupted Registry Entries

In order to resolve the problem, here are some troubleshooting tips and suggestions that have worked for others:

Solution # 1) Rename the "SoftwareDistribution" Folder

First step here is to turn off your Automatic Updates. You can do this by navigating here:

Start -> Control Panel -> Performance and Maintenance -> Administrator Tools -> Services -> Automatic Updates Service, then select the "General" tab. Click to stop Automatic Updates.

Next, you will need to navigate to your "C:" drive and look for a folder called SoftwareDistribution. Rename this folder to something else.

Last, you can navigate back to the screen from the first step and turn Automatic Updates back on. This can sometimes clear this error and allow updates to continue.

If that fails, the problem is probably in your Windows registry …

Solution # 2) Clean The Registry and Repair Corrupt Elements

For this solution, you will need to download and install a Vista compatible registry cleaner. for your convenience, there's a link at the bottom of this article for a free download of RegCure (my favorite).

After you install your registry cleaner, you will need to let it scan for errors. There can be hundreds or even thousands of these errors on your PC, so do not be shocked when it reports a healthy number.

Next, give the software permission to repair those errors automatically. There is an easy step by step wizard for you to follow. After you set it to run, take a short break and give it a few minutes to work at cleaning and repairing your registry.

When it's finished, you can reboot your computer and find out if this cleared the 8000FFFF Vista update error. If it's still not working, theres one last thing that you can try.

Solution # 3) Re-Run Failed Updates

In a few cases, locating and re-running failed updates may clear up the problem. You can do this by opening:

Control Panel -> Windows Update -> View Update History

If you see failed updates, you can try to download the files and install them manually.

Boat Detailing – Diagnosing Gel Coat Surfaces

Determining Oxidation Levels on Your Yacht and how to deal with them:

Gel coat is an extremely tough porous surface applied to boats. It is best to preserve the original surface as much as possible just like cars, trucks, etc. You will come across boats that have been improperly sanded, washed, buffed, boats that have been neglected for years, and boats that will require intensive reconditioning because of these flaws. Without question for most boats to look good requires the touch of a professional. To make them look great it is definitely required. First, you must diagnose the level of, if any, oxidation. Do not be intimidated if there is absolutely no gloss, and a chalky stayue appears on your hand if you touch the surface. Even this can be redone. Gel coat is tougher than automotive paint and 15 to 20 times thicker. More often than not, you will be able to machine buff out most oxidation and other blemishes. These cloudy surfaces can be remedied and repaired.

Levels of Oxidation

Level 1 or light oxidation: You will see patchy cloudiness in the finish. Remainder is good to very good. You can use a new special product called; Aussie Gold DuraGleem to remove the oxidation and any swirl marks without abrasive action. Or you can do it the hard way, the old fashioned way. In this case you will need to use Meguiar's # 44, Production's Bristol # 9, Monster Aqua Blue or an appropriate light compound. Machine buff with a non-abrasive wool or foam pad and apply the sealant by hand or orbital polisher. A wool pad may be easier than a foam pad to use to keep from sticking or bouncing, especially as the friction heats up the surface. Usually a. High grade Carnauba will suffice. Starbrite has a liquid wax which is very easy to use as well. Most automotive detailing products will suffice at level one oxidation.

Level 2 oxidation or medium oxidation: The surface will have obvious degradation on the deck and the hull. The best product we have found is Aussie Gold's DuraGleem Extra Cut. It is a little tougher than Aussie Gold DuraGleem Original, but with level 2 oxidation you are going to need it. This may not work on all level two oxidation, but it better to try the easy way first. If this does not work, then you will need to proceed with the Meguiar's product # 49, you'll need to follow with # 45 polish and their # 55 sealant. Monster Aqua Blue also has a similar product. Many Marine Industry Detailers prefer Starbrite Products up to level two oxidation. Polish with a polishing pad, orbital buffer or by hand.

Level 3 would result in severe oxidation: You'll see no reflectivity. The surface is chalky to the touch and to sight. We do not always recommend a foam pad on severe oxidation gel-coat surfaces because it heats up and may slip. Gel coat conditions such as these will usually require a very thorough washing, uni-grit sanding of a minimum of 1500 sandpaper grit, machine buffing with Meguiar's # 49, polishing with Meguiar's # 45 and a finishing with Meguiar's # 55 sealant. If this does not work to your complete statisfaction, you should probably paint the vessel. If you are still intent on saving it then this will require many, many hours of labor and due to environmental concerns, may usually only be performed on land in a controlled setting. If you use Monster Agua-Blue 100, it contains no petroleum products or silicone and is 100% water based and water soluble. This may avoid the hassle of wet sanding.

First try using Monster Agua-Blue 100 and 200 buffing compounds with a wool pad. They are like wet sanding with 1000 grit and 2000 grit sand paper. Then follow with Blue Magnum 80% Carnauba wax or sealant to prolong the finish. There will be pricing guidelines in the manual or you may e-mail the home office for bid price assistance as each project can vary. Here is where we get the stuff.

SwirlMasters

[http://www.swirlmasters.com/products.htm]

Meguiar's Unigrit

http://www.meguiars.com

(for safest results)

3M Products

http://www.3m.com

If you can not find a competent marine canvas person in your area we suggest this phone number to owners who realize that it is far too late for cleaning after holes have occurred. If it is time for a new cover call 1-800-362-9154 Walk-Winn Covers.

A History of the Jade Gemstone

The study of gemstones, especially those that have enjoyed long, uninterrupted popularity, can be as much a look into the history of human culture as a study of hard science. Of all the historical gemstones, this is definitely the case with jade. It was not until the 19th century that mineralogists discovered that what was known as jade was actually two different and separate materials, now known as nephrite and jadeite, each having similar properties. Obviously, this scientific fact was of little concern to the cultures that had developed such a deep appreciation for jade over thousands of years. Despite the differences between the two, both are considered to be true jade.

Not many gemstones can boast a 7000 year history. Amazingly, the history of jade unfolded around the globe as cultures that had no contact with each other discovered the beneficial, ornamental, and sometimes violent uses of jade. The toughness of jade allows it to be ground extremely thin and still hold up to hard use. The earliest jade items were tools, such as hammers and axes formed from jade cobbles, but it was also used for weapons. The Maori of New Zealand preferred local nephrite to fashion a short club called a mere that they used for close quarters fighting. As it became more practical to use metal for tools and weapons, jade came into its own as an ornamental material. With a history as the royal gemstone of China since rough 3000BC, jade is closely associated with Asian jewelry and art objects. Over thousands of years Chinese artists developed carving it into an art form and pushed the limits of what was possible. The toughness and durability of jade, which is considered to be greater than any other gemstone, may seem to be a hindrance to detailed carving. However, both types of the stone proved to be perfect for lapidary work. Other cultures also discovered the amazing properties of jade. In pre-Columbian Mesoamerica it was highly valued for ceremonial objects. Olmec warrior masks are fine examples of the precision workmanship and capabilities of the stone. Researchers were puzzled about the source of Mesoamerican jade until it was rediscovered in the late 20th century in present day Guatemala.

The properties of jade that were so informed through history are no less applicable today. As a gemstone it can be used for handmade jewelery in more ways than just about any stone.

Hemorrhoid Home Remedies – Find Out Top Tips to Remove and Cure Piles

If you're suffering from painful and irritating hemorrhoids, you're not alone. About 4.4% of the population around the globe have the same problem. Hemorrhoids can affect your work, and your life as a result. Most would assume that surgical removal is the only way to deal with the problem, but this is not always the case.

Most people are embarrassed to tell their doctors about their hemorrhoid problems, but delaying may only make things worse. Typically, a doctor would prescribe a rectal examination to detect internal hemorrhoids. Visual observation of protruding veins in the rectum may also indicate external hemorrhoids.

Common symptoms include pain, itching, swelling lumps (external hemorrhoids), and bright-red blood in the stool or toilet paper after a bowel movement. Report any boring to your doctor immediately since it may indicate a more serious underlining condition.

Some hemorrhoids are mild enough to disappear on their own, but there are those that need more intensive treatment. Doctors may prescribe medications to shrink the hemorrhoids.

There are several factors that contribute to hemorrhoid formation. If your work requires you to sit or stand for long periods of time, then your risk for hemorrhoids is high. Take a walk during your coffee break if you sit for most of the workday. If you're someone who stands most of the time during work (such as medical personnel), then have a seat every now and then.

Your diet may also contribute to hemorrhoids. Constipation may be due to dehydration or lack of fiber-rich food. Foods such as bran, cereal, apples, and beans can improve your bowel movement. Drinking eight to ten glasses of water per day, along with the added fiber, can prevent constipation and normalize bowel movements.

Doctors often suggest warm sitz bath on the anal area to reduce inflammation and promote relaxation. Soaking the affected area in warm water for about 10 minutes can relate pain. Placing ice packs on the rectal area can decrease swelling in external hemorrhoids. Topical creams like petroleum jelly and cortisone creams will decrease irritation. You can moisten the toilet paper after a bowel movement to decrease irritation on the exposed vein.

Other alternative remedies like witch hazel cream, Butchers broom and Horse chestnut can alleviate also irritation and pain caused by hemorrhoids.

Why Not to Travel to China

Why not to travel to China when it's considered to be home to one of the Great Wonders of the World called the Great Wall of China? This Asian nation is recognized as most populated and broadly diverse in culture and lifestyle? China has given so much contribution to the human race's herbal approach of medicine and technological emergence of high-tech communication gadgets, cars and appliances. Chinese-owned businesses are mushrooming just about everywhere in the world.

Chinese are propagators of movable type printing, porcelain and paper business, wheelbarrow usage, silk-making industry, umbrella production, gunpowder distribution, immunology services and mathematical knowledge. Even before the West colonized some business potential sites of the world, the Chinese merchants came in first to establish trade partnership with Asian, American and European nations. Why not to travel to China raises curiosity among travelers and business investors.

Interestingly, China bears 20% of the world's population. The number of people is foreseen to increase from 1.2 billion to 1.6 billion in year 2050. Despite human quantity outburst, this business-minded nation has maintained up to 15% of economic growth in 15 years upon transitioning to the 21st century. Reality be recognized, China is seen to be challenging the global performance of the United States. However, a number of business investors and tourists from the West fly to the rich land of Kung Fu and proud host of 2008 Olympic Games. Will Americans keep up the challenge of China's business competitiveness, escalating quality of life and robust economy? Why not to travel to China so that you will discover the Great Wall and towering buildings.

Before you exclaim why not to travel to China, you might have to prepare the necessary documents and luggage for your trip. Significantly, you must have to undertake major vaccinations and immunizations to ensure healthy security. From where you are traveling from, you will need a Visa through the Chinese embassies or consulates based in your state. You have to allocate time to process it before you can finally do your online booking of flights and accommodations.

To assist you in your trip, you can get the services of a travel agent especially when it is your first visit or you are traveling by group. There are special incentives to those touring in groups of five and above. A privilege of acquiring a group visa is also given a privilege. No wonder, China is flocked any season of the year by groups of city tourists. Why not to travel to China? You can search online for some attractive and competitive travel packages.

Although a communist nation, China has that certain aura of hospitality and charm that keep tourists flocking every now and then. Why not to travel to China when the most celebrated sports event worldwide Olympic Games is held this year. With that, China is again put on the pedestal of popularity.

How to Choose an Obstacle Course to Rent

Obstacle course rental in Arizona may seem like an easy answer to your party fun. Many people do not think any further than that when choosing a particular rental. As with any other inflatable rental, there is some thought that should go into renting an obstacle course. Some details that should be taken into account is the area you have for the inflatable rental, the efficiency of the obstacle course, properly staffed, and any accessories that allow the easiest flow of foot traffic.

When talking about the area available in contrast the area required for the obstacle course looks like an obvious point to come across when renting from a company. Most rental companies list the exact measurements of the inflatable as they are listed on the owner's manual. To optimize all the features and benefits that go with an obstacle course rental in Arizona, it is best if you find a company that lists the suggested space. A company that lists suggested space is thinking beyond the normal requirements for a customer but showing care in providing the best experience for the customers. Especially when dealing with having sufficient visibility along with efficiency is what makes or breaks the event. When talking about efficiency, you need to find the inflatable that suits your event needs more than just the coolest looking.

For example compare the Extreme Obstacle Course and Shockwave Obstacle Course from Arizona Bounce Around, I have chosen to use these two as examples because i have seen them both in action at a school carnival. Using this example you can see how these are two completely different obstacle courses and should be rented with two different purposes. The Extreme Obstacle Course is considered more of a high volume obstacle course rental due to the high amount of people completing the course in such a short time. This would be your better choice if the host was a school or carnival expecting a high number of participants. Allowed for the competition and thrill with a short amount of time required to complete the course.

The Shockwave Obstacle Course rental is a huge rental that appeals to any thrill seeker's eye. The ultimate thrill is a great choice for birthdays, little league events, or any other event not requiring a steady flow of people. People sometimes do not take into consideration how long and how difficult it can be to manage kids when it comes to these types of events. Over and over again people rent an obstacle course and encounter a problem of either not being challenging enough for their group or they could not get as many kids the opportunity to get the most out of the time available. Even though the one that you find most appealing looks like the perfect choice, many times it is not the most suitable for your event needs.

Lastly, to help with the issues i stated above and to ensure yourself the best time possible make sure the event is properly staffed and has the necessary tools to make it flow as smooth as possible. Having the right number of people to cover the entrance and exit is not enough. Having a roamer to ensure kids are going through and not stopping to play will keep the lines moving. A couple other items that appear to take strain off everyone at the party are the stop and go light and the megaphone. The stop and go light is the same size as a street light, just shorter due to no yellow light. This remote-controlled light can signal people to start and stop without strain on anyone. The other alternative is to use a megaphone with a siren. The megaphone will vocalize anyones voice and gain the attention of everyone with the use of the siren. Even the simple task of choosing an obstacle course rental in Arizona can be difficult without taking into consideration all aspects of the event. Using these tips can reduce the strain on all parties involved.

Legal Executive Recruitment UK

After The Christmas lull, the legal executive recruitment market UK and London in 2008, is starting to pick up in terms of overall activity. Here we will look at some of the areas of high demand, in the legal field at the present time.

Here are the trends we have been seeing as we turn into 2008.

While we are generally involved in Legal executive recruitment London (where we are based) here is more general overview of the state of legal executive recruitment UK, from both a supply and demand perspective.

The legal recruitment market is seeing plenty of activity on both temporary and permanent fronts. There now seems to be an increase across the board in the amount of work available over previous months.

The commercial property area remains busy, and demand for candidates excesses supply. Property litigation is an area of ​​high activity, with the high demand being a product of a new and growing breed of landlords which has been created by the housing boom in the UK.

If we look at the legal recruitment UK from the perspective of high street demand, then we need to look at commercial property and will and probate sectors.

In wills and probate, a large number of companies are looking for candidates which a reflection of the recent housing boom.

Commercial Property is a very busy area at present and we are seeing posts in almost every town countrywide for commercial property solicitors, from NQ upwards. Despite the uncertain outlook for the economy, there has been a move to beef up and increase the size of many companies departments in this area. Commercial property solicitors are not just being registered by the usual established players but smaller players as well, who are entering the fray and betting on this area becoming busier over the coming months.

Looking at legal executive recruitment In the UK, if you are a commercial property solicitor there are plenty of positions to choose from.

Two areas that have been lacklusture for a while are commercial litigation and personal injury.

Both these fields are however now showing signs of life. Personal injury has picked up a generally across the country and we are also seeing a larger number of litigation posts which are on the increase, after a period of sluggish activity in the sector.

Despite some uncertainty about the economic outlook the legal executive recruitment market UK, remains robust at the present time and the strong legal executive recruitment market in London, reflects the buoyancy of the capital's economy generally.

Porch Columns to Define Your Porch

Porch columns are an easy way to update or change the look of your porch in a dramatic and interesting way. With many style and price options, porch columns just may be the design element you are looking for.

While commonly made from wood, fiberglass, FRP or stone, front porch columns are made to serve on a structural level as well as add to the beauty of porches. They are often made to matchchair railings for an overall look and are available in a variety of designs for instant curve appeal.

Wood porch columns are best when they are made from mahogany, poplar, cherry, pine, oak, maple, teak or redwood. They come in many styles and can be bought smooth or with detailed carvings that add to their classic beauty. Either square or round, they can also be combined with stone or brick for a different look and feel.

Fiberglass porch columns are popular because of their impact-resistance as well as their aesthetic appeal. While fiberglass columns can also be round or square, smooth or ridged, they can be made to look like more classic styles. Depending on the situation, they may also be charged bearing. You can paint them and they are weather, moisture and insect resistant. They are more impact resistant than wood and require very little maintenance as they can withstand heat, sunlight, rust, insects and rot.

You may also want to consider aluminum front porch columns as they can be very cost effective and elegant. Again, there are many styles available and can be pre-painted. Aluminum columns can also be used for load-bearing and non load-bearing applications, yet are lightweight enough that they can be transported and installed easily. Aluminum is also a popular option for front porch railings.

Another option is pre-cast stone columns for your front porch. With advances in the manufacturing business, it is now possible to recreate beautiful ancient Roman columns without the heaviness and sometimes delicate nature of natural stone. Pre-cast stone is also less expensive and less labor intensive. Natural stone has to be chiseled from a larger stone and then you still have to be watching for cracks or crevices that are hard to see.

You can pick the color and other design elements when working with pre-cast stone that is harder to come by with natural stone. Because the pieces are manufactured, you have the flexibility of buying one-piece shafts, halves or even sections to cover steel supports. Pre-cast stone adds a unique and truly beautiful look to your porch columns for a great price.

Additional options for your front porch columns are brick and wrought iron. Both are fairly common choices for use as porch columns and have their advantages. Both are very strong and durable, and can be made to look simple or ornate. With these two materials, you need to find an experienced installer to create a beautiful and original look for your porch, but it is worth it!

Air Heat Pumps – Major Energy Savers For Your Heating And Cooling Needs

For climates having moderate heating or cooling requirements, a pumping system can provide an energy-efficient substitute to furnaces and also air conditioners. Just like your fridge, a temperature pumping system makes use of electricity to transfer heat from any cold place to a warm one, making the outside cold area cooler and your warmer space inside to be hotter.

During the cold time of year, these pumps transfer heat from a cooler outdoors directly into your warm home; and during the hot time of year, the pump moves excess heat from inside your cooler house to the warmer outdoors. Given that their function only moves heat and does generate it, air-based heat pumps can deliver energy four times the actual amount of electricity they consume.

Typically the most popular type is the air heat pump, that transfers heat between the house and the outdoor air. If you are heating with electricity, a new pumping system can easily trim the total amount of electricity you use for heating as much as thirty to forty percent.

High-efficiency pumps also de-humidify better when compared with standard central air conditioning, resulting in much less energy usage as well as more cooling ease and comfort in summer seasons. However, the effectiveness of most air-based heat pumps as being a heat resource drops dramatically in low temperatures, typically making them not fit for cold climates, though there are models that can conquer the challenge.

With regard to homes without ductwork, pumping systems are available in the ductless version known as the mini-split system. Additionally, a specialized type of pump referred to as the reverse cycle chiller yields hot or cold water as an alternative to air, enabling it to be employed with radiant floor heat systems in heating system mode.

Lower power consumption is achieved using geothermal (ground-source or even water-source) pumping systems, that transfer heat in between your home and the earth or a close-by water source. Although they cost a lot more to install, geothermal heating pumps have cheap operating costs simply because they take full advantage of relatively continuous ground or water temperature ranges. Having said that, the installation is dependent on the dimensions of your lot, the particular subsoil and landscape. Earth based and water-source pumps may be used throughout more extreme weather conditions than air based pumps, and consumer satisfaction using the systems is actually very high.

Definition of Human Memory

We call "memory" that basic ability that most of us possess to recall knowledge as well as events that have happened to us in the past. Since we base our understanding on time as moving in one direction – forward – we rely on memory, the things we have learned in the past, in order to keep us moving in that forward direction. Everything that we do in the present relies on memories of what has happened or been learned in the past. The word "memory" is derived from the Greek myth of Mnemosyne. Mnemosyne was the mother of the muses. She was supposed to have complete knowledge of everything in the past, the present, and the future. Without memory, we would not be able to go through our day to day lives using abstract thinking and performing the most basic functions. Through our conceptual recollection of the past, we are able to communicate with other people and forge our own identities. What's more, memory is the starting point of all media in that it enables us to create something and understand what is being presented to us.

The way memory works is related to such parts of the brain as the frontal lobe, the temporal lobe, the cortex, and the hippocampus. We can classify memories in to three different types: sensory, short term, and long term.

When we speak of "sensory memory," we are referring to the few split seconds that follows the initial perception of an object. If you are able to briefly look at something and immediately memorize its details, then that is an instance of sensory memory. Typically, in these cases, when you are only able to see something for a few split seconds, you might feel like you saw a lot more than you are able to describe. Using a special experiment involving a "partial report paradigm," the researcher George Sperling conducted some vital experiences in the realm of sensory memory. Sperling arranged a dozen letters in to three rows of four. He then played either a low, medium, or high tone, which would be their cue for what row of letters they were supposedly to recite. The result of this experiment was that most humans can process at least twelve items with sensory memories, but that this begins to degrade at quite a rapid pace.

Some of the data that is perceived in a sensory memory will will be transferred to a short term memory. We call short term memory the ability to recall something from several seconds to a minute ago. Usually four or five objects can be stored in short term memory, although that number can be increased by a process that psychologists have come to call "chunking." If a group of letters, for example, is presented in meaningful rows instead of just scrambled, we can usually remember them for a lot longer.

Finally, there is long term memory. Unlike short term and sensory memories, which disappear in a brief amount of time, long term reflections to memories that can be stored for a period of up to several years.

Your Essential Tool Kit To Create Stained Glass

Stained Glass Shopping List

Starting up the hobby of stained glass can be fun and most of all addictive. To be successful it is advised that you enroll on a stained glass training course and you will need the equipment to get you started. Below we have put together a shopping list that can be used for both lead came and copper foil crafts.

Tools and supplies

The following tools are required for both copper foil and lead came stained glass:

  • Basic equipment needed are white pattern paper, pencil, permanent marks and a metal ruler.
  • You will need both grozing and breaking pliers, however you there are combination pliers available on the market to save you a little bit of money. Combo are used to break glass and fine tune glass shards that are unwanted.
  • To clean surfaces that you wish to solder, you will need a chemical called flux, this is very important as you can not sold without using flux to clean. Basic disposable brushes can be purchased to use on foil and lead surfaces.

It is always advised to buy up to 50% more glass that is needed for your project.

  • A glass grinder is a very useful power tool used to grind any glass edges that are unwanted so that your pieces fit perfectly together.
  • 100-watt soldering iron gives enough heat for all your stained glass soldering projects.
  • Every creation of a stained glass project, even the simplest design, begins as a paper drawn design. Hundreds of patterns are now available from specialists shops or online.
  • When working with glass it is important to wear safety glasses, they should be worn when you are working on your project or in your studio.
  • Select a pistol-grip cutter that can be self oiled, make sure that you choose one that is easy hold within the palm of your hand or if you choose a barrel cutter that fits in between your fingers like a pencil.

Specialist copper foil tools

When you agree to first project using the copper foil technique, make sure you purchase the following tools and supplies:

  • Copper foil that is 7/32 inch is used to wrap each piece of glass in your project, you use thin strips of copper foil with adhesive backing. Slimmer foil is more difficult to handle than 7/32 inch.
  • The little foil tape tool allows you to burnish, crimp, and allow you to roll copper foil tape tightly to each piece of glass.
  • You will need to purchase solder that is 60% tin and 40% lead this is used to hold your foam glass pieces tightly together.

Lead came tools

The following tools are needed in addition to your general tools in order to start creating lead came projects:

  • Your solder needs to have an equal amount of tin and lead; 50/50.
  • During the construction process you will need to use horseshoe nails in order to secure glass and lead came pieces.
  • Obviously you will need lead came strips that are available in H or U profile shapes.
  • A lead knife or lead nipper is used to trim the lead for accurate sizing.
  • A temperature controller that is called a rheostat, this helps to control and reduce the heat of your soldering iron. You will not need this tool if your iron has an in-built controller.

Light Pollution – Just The Facts

Light pollution is excess or obtrusive light created by humans.

* Light pollution is a broad term that reflects to multiple problems, all of which are caused by inefficient, annoying or unnecessary use of artificial light

* Specific types of light pollution include light trespass, over-illumination, and sky glow.

* Light trespass occurs when unwanted light spills over beyond the boundary of the property on which a light is located to adjacent properties. Light trespass is often caused by high or poorly positioned lights. The result is bright night lighting on an area that would otherwise be dark.

* Over-illumination is the excessive use of light Specifically within the United States, over-illumination is responsible for approximately two million barrels of oil per day in energy wasted.

* Sky glow is the bright glow that can be seen over many cities and towns in the evening. It is caused by light traveling through and being scattered by particulates in the atmosphere. It is worse in heavily polluted areas and will always exist to some extent when the air quality is poor.

* About two thirds of the population of the world and 99% of people in the continental USA and Western Europe never see a truly dark starry sky from where they live because of light pollution.

* When a massive power outage stuck southern California in the 1990s, Los Angeles residents reportedly reported 911 to express alarm about strange clouds hovering overhead; they were seeing the Milky Way for the first time!

* Light pollution must be addressed by changing the habits of society, so that lighting is used more efficiently, with less waste and less creation of unwanted or unneeded illumination.

* If we all work together, future generations can regain some of the pleasures of seeing a star filled night sky.

Choosing the Right Fire Safes For Your Home Or Business

Fire safes are designed to protect their contents from damage during a fire. There are several factors to consider when choosing fire safes, with the fireproof rating assigned to the safe being the most important.

The fireproof rating gives and indication of how well the fire safes will protect the contents from damage under actual fire conditions. The rating is usually expressed in minutes or hours. For example, a 1 hour 350 degree F rating means that the fire safes have been exposed to a 1700 degree F fire for a period of 1 hour, and that the temperature inside the safes did not rise above 350 degrees F. The 350 degree F number is a low enough temperature to protect documents and other fairly durable items from permanent damage.

If you need to protect more delicate valuables or electronic backup media, there are fire safes available that have a special media rating. A media rating is determined in the same manner as a regular fireproof rating, except that the temperature inside the fire safes must not rise above 125 degrees F. In addition, since electronic backup media is subject to damage due to water, a media rating indicates that the humidity inside the fire safes will not rise above 80% during fire conditions. The test includes using water to put out the fire.

Another factor to consider when choosing fire safes is the burglary rating. Not all fire safes are burglary rated. The burglary rating gives an indication of how long it would take to break into the safe. Usually specified in minutes, the burglary rating for fire safes gives the amount of time that it would take an experienced locksmith to break into the safe using common locksmith’s tools. The higher the burglary rating, the more secure the fire safe.

There are a number of other factors to consider when choosing fire safes. One factor is the locking mechanism that is used to lock the safe. Available types of locks include traditional mechanical combination dials, mechanical keylocks, electronic keypad locks, and biometric locks. The electronic keypad type of locking mechanism is much more convenient than the mechanical dial or keylock type. With an electronic keypad lock, the user simply enters the combination to the safe on a PIN pad, similar to the ones used on ATM and debit machines. This causes the lock to release on the safe. Consider fire safes with a biometric lock for even more security and convenience. A biometric lock uses a fingerprint scanner to grant access to the safe. The user simply places their index finger on the scanner, and the safe opens if the fingerprint is a match.

Fire safes that use electronic locks usually allow several different users to be given access to the safe. This feature usually comes with the ability to view an audit trail, showing who accessed the safe and at what times. This data is usually viewed on a built-in display panel or uploaded to a personal computer for viewing.

As you can see, there are a number of factors to consider when choosing fire safes. To ensure that you make the right choice, choose and experienced safe and vault company to do business with. They can help you select the right safe for you from among a wide variety of fire safes.