What Are Halotron Fire Extinguishes?

As halo carbon-based clean agent, halotron fire extinguishers are ideal for handling fires in the corporate and industrial settings. They inhibit the chemical reaction of fire but do not leave any unsightly solid residue when used, so preventing damage to documents and other valuable sensitive electronics like computers, monitors and other office peripherals.

Halotron fire extinguishers were first introduced into the market in 1992 to replace the use of Halon-1211 or bromochlorodifluoro-methane (BCF), which was found to have ozone-depleting properties. The Montreal Protocol in 1987 restricted the use of both Halon-1211 and Halon-1301 because of the perceived environmental damage they caused. Although Halon continues to be used in the US, Middle East and Asia to date, using or even owning it is deemed illegal in Australia.

There are a number of replacements for Halon fire extinguishers available today like Halotron I, Halotron II, FE-36, and FM-200. These gaseous agents are dispensed in the form of quickly evaporating liquid, and also have no solid passages. These halocarbon-based alternatives have no ozone-depleting properties, and their atmospheric lifetimes have been significantly reduced. These can be used where Halon was specified and used before, although they may not be as effective.

The Halotron I is a chemical blend based on the raw material HCFC-123 and has a higher throw length compared to the other clean agents, owed to its reliably high boiling point. In comparison, this makes it more effective and easier to dispense even for the inexperienced user, as it can reach up to 45feet.

The Halotron-I has been approved for use in aircraft in Australia, replacing Halon-1121. And there's the FE-36, which is based on HFC-236fa. Like the Halotron-I, this is also an alternative to Halon-1121 fire extinguishers . And as it uses a clean agent, this is also ideal for office settings.

To replace Halon 1301 is Halotron II, which is a three-component total flooding agent based primarily on HFC-134a. This agent, however, discharges in gas form.

Another one that also discharges in gas form is the FM-200. The main advantage perceived for this is that the gas can reach all areas of the facility protected, and allows for minimal disruption in an office setting. Also an alternative to Halon 1301, these types of fire extinguishers poses no breathing problems for those exposed and does not block vision, allowing people to get to safety in cases of fire emergency. This type would usually require periodic servicing and maintenance. Monitoring is usually done electronically or by qualified installers / companies.

Formula for Personal Change

Formula for Change:

Step One:

Assessment of the situation – what is true now & what are the desired goals or results

Here is the start. What is it that you want to be different? You need to discover and be very specific about what is the current situation and how do you want it to be different. To do this, use your Coach’s assessment and gather input from all interested and involved parties.

Step Two:

Learning – techniques, tools, etc.

Discover what you need to learn and how to learn it. To do this you need to talk with people. A mentor relationship may be the key to new ideas. Coaching may provide the push. Peers may have advise, opinions, or ideas that you need. Classes, books, or articles may help.

Step Three:

Practice – take action & pay attention

This is a key. You need to take action to have change come about. It does not happen by itself. Use the familiar settings to practice. Or look for new settings to try out your change.

Step Four:

Feedback – score results against goals

Always utilize your own self-analysis – check in with your self right after your practice to see if you obtained the desired results. Independent observers can also be helpful. Pick someone you trust and whose opinion you value and ask them to observe you. Then afterward ask for their feedback. Also important is to utilize your Coach’s observations and feedback.

Now based upon results you obtain and feedback, go back to either more Learning and/or more Practice. Do not be hard on yourself and keep this cycle up until you obtain your goal.

Comparison of Eastern and Western Acupuncture

Since Americans have a hard time understanding or accepting the Qi or vital energy that Chinese believe flows through a person’s system, acupuncture had to evolve into Western standards thus leading to the creation of modern or medical acupuncture. This is advantageous when trying to combine or use the traditional treatment with modern medicine as medical doctors, chiropractors, physical therapists and osteopaths use the same new terminologies, basis of diagnosis and treatments and systems.

East-West Comparison

1. Eastern acupuncture uses points and meridians in the body believed to channel Qi or vital energy through systems and organs. Western acupuncture ignores or reinterprets these acupuncture points since there is no scientific or physical basis that can verify the relative connection to diseases or the existence of such.

2. Eastern acupuncture is based on philosophical principles while western acupuncture works using modern biomedical understanding of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. Concepts of disease in the West are taken from medical data and pathology studies. Concepts of disease in the East still use medical theories from ancient times.

3. The terminologies may also differ since Eastern acupuncture describes using a Taoist metaphor and common language while Western acupuncture describes using modern biomedicine.

4. Traditional acupuncturists see modern acupuncture as a degraded version of the original since it is usually only used in modern therapy in conjunction with mainstream medicine. Sessions using traditional approaches can use more needles and last for 20 to 60 minutes while modern acupuncture may use fewer ones lasting only for 2 to 10 minutes. Traditional practitioners refer to the new methods as “dry needling”.

5. Knowing where to insert the needles is a matter of knowing where the energy flows through the body for Eastern acupuncturists. Western practitioners however, use two principles namely the gate theory of pain and the existence of natural opiates in the body.

High School Wrestling: 10 Tips to Help You Succeed

Wrestling, like every sport, has certain rules. However, in this article I want to discuss some “unwritten” rules that may help you in your quest to become a champion.

If wrestling is your sport, these are the rules.

1. You will receive a certain amount of innate, God-given talent.

Some wrestlers have tremendous amount of natural talent. Some have less. I had a fair amount of wrestling talent in my competitive days. Wrestling came naturally to me. I understood the rules, the moves, the timing, the leverage needed in different situations, and other aspects of wrestling. However, I cannot play the piano. I don’t have the talent like Mozart. I can’t play basketball. I don’t have the talent like Michael Jordan. But, wrestling always seemed right. Guess what, though? I could get better at playing piano and at playing basketball. I would never be great, but I could definitely improve. A person can always improve their skills. That is why practicing and drilling is so important in wrestling. Even if you don’t have a lot of natural talent, you can always improve your skills. In addition, I have seen wrestlers with less talent beat more “talented” wrestlers on several occasions. Practice your skills a lot, make sure that you are in excellent physical condition, practice mental toughness, and don’t worry too much about how much so-called talent you possess.

2. You will learn moves.

Wrestling is considered to have seven basic skills. Theses skills are stance, motion, level change, penetration, lifting, back step, and back arch. However, wrestling has thousands of moves and techniques. You should learn as many moves as possible. You will learn a lot in practice. You can also learn a lot from books and videos. By watching videos you can access the knowledge of phenomenal wrestlers like Dan gable and John Smith. The Granby School of Wrestling has many great videos available. There’s no reason not to learn several moves, counter moves, and techniques. Technique is number one in a wrestling match. No matter how strong physically and mentally you may be, if you don’t have good technical skills then you will get beaten. Learn each move and then practice your moves religiously. You won’t use all of them, but you should learn several moves and counters to those moves if you expect to be a great wrestler.

3. You will receive feedback.

Your coach will, of course, give you feedback. Your teammates will give you feedback. Your family and community members may even give you feedback. Make sure you listen to them. They may be wrong, but have an open mind and at least hear them out. You will also receive feedback by simply observing how well you do in practice and in matches. Whether you win or lose, you are receiving feedback. Tony Robbins likes to say, “There is no such thing as failure. There is only feedback.” In other words, you can learn from every experience, including losing a wrestling match. The inventor Thomas Edison once said, “I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.” He also said, “Results! Why, man, I have gotten a lot of results. I know several thousand things that won’t work.” Eventually, Edison would find ways that did work. You will too. Make use of the feedback you receive while engaged in the sport of wrestling and in life in general.

4. Drilling is important.

Drilling involves performing a skill repeatedly so you learn it thoroughly. You want to perfect your skills. You need to immerse yourself in drilling moves and techniques, so that they become second nature. A wrestler’s goal should be to have his skills become deeply engrained through hard drilling. Drill intensely. If your coach gives you two minutes to drill a double leg takedown with your partner, how many repetitions can you do in that time? Drilling is common in sports, the military, and many other areas of life. General George Patton had this to say during a speech to his troops in 1944, “All through your Army careers, you men have (expletive) about what you call “chicken sh*t drilling. That, like everything else in this Army, has a definite purpose. That purpose is alertness. Alertness must be bred into every soldier. I don’t give a (expletive) for a man who’s not always on his toes. You men are veterans or you wouldn’t be here. You are ready for what’s to come.” You also need to be ready for what is to come in every match. Make sure you drill.

5. You can always improve and learn more.

As I mentioned earlier, you can always improve your skills. You can often improve your conditioning level as well. There must be hundreds of ways to set up a single leg takedown. You can always learn new moves and new ways to set up moves. In addition to your coach, you can learn from camps, clinics, books, and videos. Champion golfer Seve Ballesteros said, “To give yourself the best possible chance of playing to your potential, you must prepare for every eventuality. That means practice.” Practice is incredibly important. Always be striving to improve and to learn more.

6. You must be mentally tough.

Being physically tough is only part of the equation for producing success. You need to be mentally tough as well. You need to be focused on winning your match and on nothing else. Do you get nervous, intimidated, or distracted? You can train your mind just as you train your body. Practice visualization and positive self-talk before a match. Have a plan before you step onto the mat. What moves are you planning to use? What is your strategy? If your opponent is good in the top position then you don’t want to get caught in the down position. Make sure you can stand up and escape. If your opponent likes to cradle wrestlers then you need to prepare for that. Believe in yourself and your abilities and you will do well.

7. Show respect and be respected.

Display honor, dignity, integrity, and good sportsmanship. Confidence is good, but cockiness is not. Overconfidence can be a danger as well. I had a teammate who was in a match and just stood there. He wasn’t aggressive. He didn’t respect his opponent and he thought he could just stand there and see what his opponent did. I’ll tell you what his opponent did. His opponent took him down repeatedly and soundly defeated him. Respect your coaches, your teammates, opponents, and rival schools. If you give respect, you will often receive respect. Some great wrestlers have lost matches and yet maintained their dignity by shaking hands with their opponent and then working hard to improve for the next match. Respect is important in sports and in life.

8. Success is your responsibility.

Be a self-starter and a role model. No one can make you work hard. No one can instill within you the desire to win. You have to push yourself in practice. You have to want success. Do you need to be constantly prodded by your coach? If your coach didn’t show up for practice, would you take the initiative to get practice started on your own? Or, would you just leave and forget practice? Do whine or complain in practice? Don’t. You need to be a good role model for your teammates. Nobody will simply hand you a gold medal. Nobody can practice, drill, and work out for you. Success is your responsibility.

9. Learn from others.

As I stated earlier, you can learn from coaches, camps, clinics, books, and videos. Perhaps you have a teammate who is exceptional at a certain move. Watch him closely. Ask him to show you how he does it. You can also learn much from non-wrestlers. I’ve learned new conditioning ideas from powerlifters, boxers, and mixed martial artists. I’ve learned about mental toughness from different kinds of athletes as well as from sports psychology books. I have learned from psychology, philosophy, literature, and other areas of study. I have learned things from military personnel and motivational experts. There is a wide range of people and places that can teach you much.

10. Spirit and heart are crucial to success.

Having “heart” involves displaying perseverance even when faced with difficulties or challenges. Wrestling matches are intense. Wrestling matches can be demanding physically and mentally. Do you have courage, determination, and desire? When your legs are tired and your lungs are burning in an overtime match, can you dig deep and push yourself to win? Have you ever simply given up in a match? Does fatigue crush your motivation and keep from going hard in practice? Do you want to win no matter what the obstacles you may face? Do you love wrestling or is it just an activity to pass some time? Are you motivated? Are you enthusiastic? Are you ready to put in the hard work it takes to become a champion? Boxing great Evander Holyfield said, “It is not the size of a man but the size of his heart that matters.”

I hope that these ten “rules” can help you in your quest for success.

Importance Of Data In Accounting And Parties Interested In Accounting Information

The term “data” refers to primary details or numerical facts relating to an event or transaction. Data is stored and maintained on a computer or network. Computer Software like HiTech Financial Accounting process this electronic data. Data is also maintained as hardcopy or paper print. Since accounting limits itself only to those transactions and events which are financial in character, therefore, accounting data will consist of facts, financial in nature, relating to transactions and events of a business entity for the accounting period. Moreover, accounting data must be supported by documentary evidence. Thus, documents known as vouchers, support the data. Usually data is disorganized and disjointed in its raw form. It is not capable of being understood. So, accounting processes raw data into finished form of “information” to make it useful and meaningful, capable of being used in decision taking process by the various users of accounting information.

Thus accounting data processed by the accounting cycle produces accounting information. Data is collected, recorded, classified, grouped, valued, tabulated, arranged, summarized in order to present the same in the form of information for its use by the users to enable them to take decisions.

Accounting data Consists of financial transactions and events relating to an entity for the accounting period supported by documentary evidence (vouchers). For example receipts and payments are documented by payee’s receipt purchases by invoice, sales by outwards invoice, returns inwards by credit note; returns outwards by debit note; expenses by bills or payment rolls etc.

Thus the first and the most important function of accounting is to collect the data supported by the vouchers to ensure the authenticity of the same. Accounting processes consist of recording in the books of original entry (journal or sub- journals); classifying (posting into ledger) grouping (putting transactions of similar nature at one place in one account) valuing (finding the value at year end by balancing or valuing) tabulating (preparing list of balances and checking arithmetical accuracy) and preparing financial statements (Trading and Profit and loss account; Balance Sheet) in report form to communicate the information.

Now-a-days computer accounting software can manage this task very efficient in a matter of short time. Accounting information is presented mostly in the form of financial statements like Income statement (Trading and Profit & Loss account) Position statement (Balance sheet). Now-a-days statement of changes in financial position; value added statement; report on Human resources accounting; Social performance report etc. form part of accounting information

Difference between Data and Information

Data

1. Refers to details, facts about any event.

2. Is, generally, disorganized and disjointed in the form.

3. Is in raw-form and is the input of accounting.

4. Cannot be understood or made use of by the users.

5. It does not depend upon information.

Information

1. Refers to only those events which are concerned with entity.

2. Is properly arranged, classified and organized.

3. Is in the finished form and is the output of accounting.

4. Is understood and used by the users of accounting information for taking their decisions.

5. Information is based upon and derived from data.

Parties interested in accounting information

Accounting information is of interest to various persons who are directly or indirectly concerned with an enterprise.

Management:

A small business is generally carried on by the sole trader or by the partners. But a large business is usually conducted by an incorporated company which separates management from ownership. Managers’ responsibility is to operate the business efficiently and maximize the return on capital without jeopardizing the fund.

Management needs accounting information in

(1) selecting out of alternative proposals;

(2) controlling acquisition and maintenance of inventories (stock) cash receipts and payments;

(3) planning or budgeting for the future

(4) appraising the performance and

(5) devising remedial measures for the deviations of the actual results from the budgeted targets.

Owners:

Although owners initiate in contributing fund to the business yet they are the last to receive their claim on equity’s return on their investment. This is true not only in repaying but also in rewarding their capital. After meeting all the charges including employees’ salaries and lender’s interest profit if any can be distributed as a reward on capital. Naturally, the owners are interested in the safety of their capital as also for a reasonable return thereon, which rest on the concern’ s stability and prosperity. Accounting reports (annual) not only appraise the past performance but also assist in assessing future prospects of the entity. Such information is also very important for would-be-owners.

Creditors:

May be short-term viz, suppliers of goods, lenders of temporary advance or long-terms viz. mortgages, debenture holders etc. Although both are interested in the stability and earnings of the debtor firm yet the former specially looks to its short-term solvency i.e. liquidity whereas the latter is interested in long-term solvency of the firm.

Government:

Many products now-a-days are subject to excise-duty and sales Lax. Also the government regulates the prices of essential goods e.g.. drugs, vegetables, oil etc. So the Government is interested to know the costing information to administer excise duties and to regulate the prices of products. Government is also interested in the accounting information on the profits for income tax purposes.

Employees:

Steady employment and stability of business go together. Again trade unions are interested in sharing the profit of the firm in the form of bonus. Therefore, the employees are naturally interested in the accounting information provided by the annual accounting reports.

Consumers:

Price-increase is disfavored in almost all the quarters. Accordingly, a producer endeavors to reduce his product cost as also its selling price. Recently consumer protection associations have been formed to exercise control on the business and industry and also to make them aware of the “Social responsibility” towards society. Thus consumers also need accounting information.

Researchers:

The financial statements, being a mirror of business conditions are of inestimable value for research into business affairs. These statements are therefore of great interest to scholars undertaking research in accounting theory as well as business affairs and practices.

The nature of business income

One of the main objectives of financial accounting is to ascertain whether the business operations have been profitable or not. Accounting enables us to find out whether a business has earned profits or suffered losses during the accounting period.

Book Summary – The ABC’s of Building a Business Team That Wins – Written by Blair Singer

This book is part of the Rich Dad Advisor family. Being able to build a successful team is a sought after talent. Think about your favorite professional, college or Olympic sporting team. I bet hardcore football fans can tell you which teams won each Super bowl. Can they tell you who came in second, probably not because nobody cares? Building a great team is by far the hardest component of business. You are dealing with unique personalities, qualities and skill sets. So the question becomes, how do you do it? Blair answers this question in the book.

Why is this important to me?

I strive to not waste your time. You are either part of a losing team or winning team. That is it. If you were ever part of a winning team then you can still remember the connection, camaraderie and code. If you consider the most effective teams, they all operate under a strict code of honor. This is critical in keeping the team united. The best example of this is seen in the U.S. Marine Corp. These guys have to run under a code or they die. It is that simple. Semper Fi – “Always Faithful”. Blair’s book is concise and to the point. We will outline creating a Code of Honor for your team.

Why a code of honor? In the absence of rules, people make up their own rules. The best way to avoid upset, collisions and disharmony in any group is to make sure everyone is playing by the same rules. The code brings out the best in everyone who subscribes to it.

Mission-Team-Individual – That is the order of the code. When people agree then you have the foundation for a championship team. If you don’t believe in Mission-Team-Individual then just image if Individual or team was first. Bernie Madoff put individual first and Enron put their Executive Team first. Look what happened. If the Marine Corp put individuals first then we would not have our freedom today.

Drafting the right players for your team is crucial. The old adage that people are your greatest asset is NOT true. They have to be the right people. I can tell you that my biggest expense and losses in business have ALL been around hiring and recruiting the wrong people. I could have been on mini-retirements in my late 20’s if I would have gotten this skill right. I would wager to say that over the years, I have spent over seven figures on the wrong people. This does not include the heart ache, counseling and other crap that goes along with having the wrong people on your team. I implore you to learn this skill because it will save you years of heart ache. It is cheaper to burn stacks of $100 bills then it is to have the wrong people on your team. LEARN THIS SKILL NOW!

Question – How do we get the right players on the team?

1. What kind of energy do they have? The highest energy wins. If the person is low energy then don’t recruit them.

2. Do they have a desire to win? This is critical because if they don’t then they won’t have it for the team.

3. Are they willing to let somebody else win?

4. Are they personally responsible?

5. Are they willing to submit to the code?

6. Do they have unique talent or ability?

Don’t hire to fill space. This costs way too much. Blair discusses his Results model and focusing on results means it is too late. Focus on the chain that creates results and good things will happen. How do you create a code of honor? This is tackled in the book and I will outline a sample code here:

1. Never abandon a teammate in need.

2. Be willing to “call and be called” when the code is broken.

3. Celebrate wins.

4. Be on time.

5. Keep all agreements and clean up any broken agreements ASAP.

6. Deal direct.

7. Be responsible

8. Be resourceful

9. Never let personal stuff get in the way of your mission.

10. Be loyal to the team.

11. Commit to personal development

12. Don’t seek or ask for sympathy or acknowledgment

13. Everyone must sell!

One critical component of championship teams is calling out breaches to the code. This is the most difficult part of the whole process. Think about it – you create the code, hire the right people and then what… If the team does not enforce the code then the whole process crumbles. Everyone has to call out breaches to the code even if it is your boss who breaks the code.

I hope you have found this short summary useful. The key to any new idea is to work it into your daily routine until it becomes habit. Habits form in as little as 21 days. One thing you can take away from this book is the power of teams. It took me to lose a ton of time, energy and money to know the true power of teams. You can invest 15 minutes per day on leadership and influence and it will pay exponential dividends for you in the future.

Making Driftwood Picture Frames by Distressing New Picture Framing Timber

A driftwood picture frame is an elegant solution where you desire a unique distracted frame with timeless appeal. One of the techniques you can explore when framing your pictures is to use recycled timber or driftwood that you have collected but often driftwood timber is not available to everyone so you can try to create the look by using new timber you can get from your local hardware shop.

It's not difficult to make a driftwood looking frame but it does take some time and experimentation. All you need to do is visit your hardware shop and get some plain hardwood timber. Sometimes you can get the timber already in a picture frame profile and other times you may need to rebate or rabbet it to accept the glass, backing and picture. Then you can cut it to make it into a picture frame to fit your photo or artwork.

Now the way to get the new picture frame to look like it really is driftwood is to start with the raw wood and then use various materials and tools to distract the surface of the timber.

The first step is to fill any imperfections or nail holes in the frame and sand them back so that you've got a perfectly made frame. The object of trying to get this frame to look recycled or bothered is that the surface mimics a weathered old look. To achieve this you can use an assortment of tools including chisels, rasps, any jagged bits of metal that you've got, bunches of keys and all sorts of things can be used to actually apply different marks into the wood to give it a more natural look.

Start by poking around and making a few holes and rough marks on the wood. You can scrape it using a surform type rasp or a cheese grater type scraper and you can leave it quite rough, do not try to smooth it off. The idea here is that you're going to expose the grain. Take care to avoid the inside edge where the picture fits because that is quite a thin and fragile area. Just concentrate on further back from the sight edge. Try to create a sort of random lot of holes all over the surface of the frame and then you start rasping at it and use various metal objects and tools. Any sort of rough metal tool can be used to apply texture to the frame.

Keep scraping along the molding and remember you're trying to replicate the natural look of recycled timber. Now when you get to the corners you're going to need to use something a little bit pointy so that you can get right into those nooks. A good tool for this is an awl or small gouge. You can use sharpened screw drivers and old tools that have unusual surfaces. You can use bunches of nails they work quite well especially if you tape a whole lot of them together. Use the nails to scrape into the corners and other tight areas.

After you have given the frame a good going over what you want to do is take a look at the whole frame and step back from it. Have a look from a distance and see what the overall effect is. You do not want anything too even. The appearance needs to be random and the texture needs to look natural. Take your time because you can always add more work to it. You can go back and you can chisel bits off, you can add more little holes and tap holes with nails.

After a while you've got a furry, fuzzy kind of wooden frame with all sorts of shavings hanging off it. You then can burn sections with a blowtorch burning off some of the wood shavings. In other areas you can raise the grain by dampening it with water. The water causes the wood fibers to swell creating a different level of texture.

Sandpaper the frame with various degrees of wallpaper and try to maintain the textures you have been building up through the distracting process. The sand papering is to give the frame some areas of smoothness and add another detail to the complexity of the surface.

Once you are happy with the overall texture you have created you can add some layers of diluted gesso or diluted white paint to give a limed finish. Do not worry if the white color picks up some of the charcoal leftover from the burning process because it adds to the grayed driftwood effect you are trying to emulate.

When the paint is dry add various colors of wax crayons or other pigmented oil pastels into sections of the frame molding. Blend some of these color layers with old kitchen scourers, steel wool or different grades of wallpaper.

Look at the frame from a distance and see if the finish is what you desire.

Soften and blend the tones within the frame by further sanding or rubbing with scourers or steel wool.

When you are happy with the look of the frame you can finish the surface with a light coating of a good furniture wax. For an added level of finish you can dust powdered rottenstone or pumice into the wax before it has dried. Apply the wax with a clean cloth and after allowing adequate time for drying you can buff the surface with a polishing cloth.

Your frame should then have a natural warm finish ready to insert your picture.

Navigating Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport

Russia has come a long way since the Communist government evolved into a more Democratic, and I use that word loosely, style government. In many ways, Russian citizens are living their lives much as Americans do, and with most of the modern conveniences that Americans have. Many of the controls that previously accessed to block travel and limit freedom of its residents are no longer in place or are lightly enforced. This slight loosing of the reigns has, as it always does, opened the door for foreigners to travel more freely and then the wave of tourists are arriving in Russia with more and more regularity. Russian capitalists are catering to tourists as a significant source of revenue for this developing economy. This is great for tourists and for those who have always been curious about what is behind the Iron Curtain and want to a peek. As for myself, being one of those who seek more a adventurous style of travel, I am thankful for the opportunity I have had to travel to and spend a significant amount of time in Russia.

The opening of new worlds such as this does not come without problems though, and unfortunately, if you are going to travel in Russia you should be prepared to meet at least some of them. This is not saying that travel in Russia is more difficult because overall it is not. In comparison, it is not much more difficult to travel in Russia than in any other modern country, but when problems do happen, they are usually difficult to overcome in Russia and this is why advance planning and preparation helps out tremendously. When in America, a quick cell phone call can solve most problems, but in Russia, where most American cell phones do not work, one can quickly become paralyzed by the inability to solve problems quickly, especially if that person is not very experienced with foreign travel. This is sometimes the first realization that Americans have about how convenient things actually are in America. Russia is a big country, and it seems that when problems occur, they occur in an equally big way.

First and foremost, do not let anything I say in this article scare you away from visiting Russia. It is true that Russia is not the Garden of Eden, but it is a wonderful place to experience, especially if you are willing to get away from the tourist traps of the major cities. As a matter of fact, most of my travel in Russia has been in the Eastern half of the country in the territory known as Siberia and I am glad for that fact. That alone has allowed me to develop an attraction to this country in a way that most tourists never will. It is a different world in Siberia. The government controls of Moscow seem very distant, and it looks like you are in a sedate world where people just go about the business of day to day living. This is also where I live on a temporary basis, and that just adds to the experience, but that is for another article. In Russia, other than the cab drivers and those seeking to sell something to tourists, most of the people you will meet will be very friendly. The problem is you probably will not meet most Russians as they are not into socializing with foreigners or any strangers for that matter. In my experience, I have found that Russians are difficult to meet, but once the introduction has been made, they usually turn out to be a very friendly and accommodating people.

If your travel plans for Russia include flying into Moscow from any international location, chances are you will fly into Sheremetyevo Airport and that is what this article is about. It is not difficult to make your way through Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport, but it does require some advance information and knowledge or you will end up with one of those problems that I mentioned above and changes are you will be lost and will get ripped off very badly trying to solve the situation. The Russians that work in the airport deal with the same stresses that anyone who works in airports have to deal with, and more often than not, when you need assistance, it will be on one of those days when they would rather not be there, and they are more than happy to shuffle you off to someone else for a solution to your problem. Usually this someone else is the one who is waiting to help you and to take you for as much money as they can get at the same time. They will solve your problem, but it will cost you dearly. Some advance knowledge will enable you to avoid this situation all together.

The first advice I will give you about traveling to Russia is to purchase at least some Rubles (their currency) before you arrive in the country. It is true that you may not get as good of an exchange rate, so do not use your entire budget at this point, but do purchase at least a hundred dollars worth or so. Once you arrive, you will need Rubles before you encounter a place to exchange cash. Also, if you fly in on Aeroflot, the Russian National Airline, you will get more for your money on the plane if you use Rubles. I noticed that the flight attendants conversion to US dollars was very loosely calculated. Basically, bringing Rubles with you will make life much simpler and your first experiences in Russia will be positive as opposed to stressful and difficult.

I was surprised the first time I flew into Sheremetyevo Airport at the fact that it is not a large airport in terms of the size of the terminals. With Moscow being the capital of Russia, I expected that Sheremetyevo would be a large airport but to the eyes alone, this is not the case. The one thing you need to know in advance though is that the airport consist of two separate terminals and they are not located close together. As a matter of fact, they are probably a mile or more apart. The International Terminal is Severemyo Terminal 2. The Domestic Terminal is Terminal 1. First we are going to focus on the International Terminal, Terminal 2. When arriving here from an international location, upon exiting the aircraft, you should just follow your fellow passengers as you enter the terminal and your path will wind along a hallway lined with glass for what sees like the entire circumference of the building. I remember thinking my first time through this corridor that I felt like I was being put on display to everyone else in the terminal on the other side of the glass wall waiting for flights out.

At the end of that corridor, you will come to a set of stairs that lead downstairs to the Customs and Immigration check point. Again, just follow your fellow passengers and ahead of you will be a line of booths similar to a toll booth back in America. There will be several lines that form, but most are for the same thing, and that is just passing through. Once you step up to the booth, you will need to show your passport, visa, and an immigration form that is handed out on the airline before you arrive. That is all that is needed at the customs check point, but be sure to fill the immigration card out on the airplane as there will be no time to do it once you enter the terminal. They will check your documents and scan your passport into their computer and then stamp your passport and Immigration Card. They call it a Migration Card. The whole process takes only a couple of minutes and there should be no problem. Once you pass through the check point, you will need to proceed to the baggage claim area which is located just ahead of you. You will see the conveyor belts.

At Sheremetyevo Airport, if you are arriving on an international flight as we have been discussing, and transferring to a Domestic flight for other destinations, you will need to collect your baggage and transport it yourself to Terminal 1, the Domestic Terminal there are signs posted that say that if you have a layover of less than 4 hours, then your luggage will be transferred for you, but my layovers have always been longer so I have no experience with this. I have always had to collect my luggage, carry it with me and re-check it at Terminal 1. I have no experience with a less than 4 hour layover, but I would be hesitant to leave the Terminal and my luggage without knowing for sure it is being transferred. If time is available, I would hang around and see if it appears on the conveyor belt anyway. Besides, this is your best opportunity to meet fellow Americans as everyone is there waiting and you can always hear an English conversation.

As soon as you collect your luggage, directly behind you is a corridor labeled "TRANSIT" and this is where you will exit. It is not difficult to find since all you have to do is follow the crowd. As you leave the baggage claim area, there are officials standing there around the "TRANSIT" sign to theoretically check you baggage tickets, but I have never checked at Sheremetyevo. I have seen them check others though, so I think they must do it randomly. I just try to act like I know what I am doing, not make eye contact, and keep on moving. It is not a problem for them to check baggage tickets, but I just prefer less interruptions. This "TRANSIT" corridor will lead you directly out the front of the Terminal, and you will not have any opportunity to change currency, but you will need Rubles to catch the "TRANSIT" bus to Terminal 1.

This is the point where advance knowledge becomes very soft. It is important to know how to transfer between the terminals without losing an arm or leg to the taxi bandits. As you leave the terminal they will harass you continuously but if you keep moving and keep saying no or just shaking your head for no, then all will go smoothly. Once outside, in front of the terminal, you have two basic options for your transfer. You can either catch the official transfer bus for a very few Rubles or take a taxi and sign over at least one of your children. On my first trip to Russia, I was advised on how to take the transfer bus and I am glad that I was. Afterwards, I talked with fellow travelers who told me how they paid up to 80 dollars (US) for a taxi to take them on the 5 minute trip between terminals. Later, in my own experience, I had taxi bandits approach me with offers between the previously stated 80 dollars down to as low as 20 dollars but none were lower than that. The transfer bus is ideal and I would tell anyone to use this option.

Once outside the terminal, to catch the transfer bus what you have to do is look for the transfer bus sign posted on one of the building pillows on the very first row toward the city. Once you find it, just stand there and wait for the correct bus as seen in the picture I have included. Do not take the green striped or the red or red striped buses. They stop in the same general vicity, but, these are city buses and if you board one of these, there is no telling where you will end up. The transfer bus you are looking for is a white bus with blue stripes. It also has the price posted in the window, and the posted price is 15 Rubles, but I have learned that this price unofficially changes based on the drivers mood and how many bags you have. On my last trip, I had 3 large bags that took some effort getting onto the bus, and he charged me 30 Rubles, which still converts to about $ 1.50 US This is why I said to convert some money before arriving in country. The transfer bus runs once an hour and in my experience, it is very timely.

I have heard some complaint about waiting outside for the bus, but personally, after sitting in a plane for many hours, I welcomed the opportunity to stand and breathe some fresh polluted Russian air. After all, you came to experience Russia did not you? If you wanted to walk back into the departure side of the terminal to get currency you could, but I do not because I do not like dragging around excess luggage and having to have it all scanned again. There is one thing to be aware of though! If you want to eat, visit the Internet Café, shop, or buy snacks, it is best to re-enter the International Terminal and do it now, even if it does mean dragging luggage, because there are very few, actually there are almost no support services, (ie gift shops, Internet Café) at the Domestic Terminal.

After a 5 minute ride, the transit bus will drop you directly in front of the Domestic Terminal. Once you are inside you will see that it is very small and spartan, and if it is not crowded when you arrive, it soon will be. What you need to do is find a seat as quickly as possible and sit with your luggage until about two hours before your scheduled flight time, and then you can check in and check your luggage. Yes, you actually have to sit with all of your luggage. The goal is to find the best seat available, sit down, and stay there. Once you find a seat, if you are so lucky, and you decide to get up without someone saving it for you, it will be gone quickly and you will stand until another opens, and since probably everyone knows this rule, very few ever get up until it is time for them to leave.

On my first trip, I had a wonderful seat on the end of a row with plenty of space, but I decided that I wanted a snack and went to get one. When I came back there were no more seats available and I stood for 3 hours staring at the seat that I had lost. One good idea is to find a friendly person who speaks your language while back in the baggage claim area at the International Terminal. Strike up a conversation, make friends with them and maybe hang out together at the Domestic Terminal. I usually always meet fellow Americans on the plane or at the baggage claim area because you can hear them speaking and an introduction is not difficult in those circumstances. On my last trip, I met an American and we took turns watching each others luggage while various excursions were made to the snack bar, the phone, a smoke break (outside, as it is not allowed in the terminal) and to the rest room . It makes life extremely better if you can accomplish this. If you are alone, you have to take your luggage to the rest room with you, unless you have a friend to help you watch it.

In the Domestic Terminal, the regiment is pretty much the same as every other airport. The flights are announced two hours before departure and this is when check-in begins. You have to be careful though to listen for flight announcements, as they are announced in Russian and the best you can hope for is to hear the destination city and flight number. If you are not sure about what you heard or just want to check on your plane, there is an electronic flight board that you can check to see if your flight is boarding, and yes, it does have an English page. It will tell you if your flight is boarding and what gate number you should go to. The gate numbers are somewhat confusing though, as the board might say you should check in at gate 27, but gate 27 is not visible until you pass through the security gates which are numbered 1 – 4. You can go through whatever security gate is open , and then you will see the gate numbers. At check in, the usual documents are needed and it is not difficult to communicate. Hand signals are used very effectively.

If you are departing the country, the same procedures are in effect for transport between the terminals. Clearing customs is not as difficult in Russia provided you have the proper documents and assuming you entered the country legally. The Russian Customs agents are not as thorough as in the US, but once you get into the secured area and TSA, Delta, or contract security personnel search your carry on bag, it is as thorough as in the US. Then, as you enter the actual boarding gate, your bag will be searched again. This time it will be local companies or Russian uniformed individuals. The last time I passed through, there were individuals wearing two different uniforms checking the carry-on bags. One uniform looked more official, so I chose the ones who appeared to have on Russian uniforms. I do not know exactly who these inspectors were, but a fellow traveler that I had befriended chose the other group. They spend 10 minutes searching every crack in his bag and opening every single thing that could be opened. The ones searching my bag moved things around inside, took a quick look and passed me through. I am not saying there was any skill or method that you should follow in this situation. I just got lucky, but it does go to show how much of a variety you will encounter in each situation.

All in all, travel in Russia is no more difficult than any other country, but advance planning is always prudent. Find out as much as you can before you go, and do not quite entirely on your travel agent to provide this information. My agent did not tell me anything about the two terminals at Sheremetyevo, and I would have been lost without advice from a Russian friend of mine who I was going to visit. Russia is a beautiful country with many wonderful people and short of seeing military uniforms and the Russian architecture that we have seen in so many pictures; it is sometimes easy to forget you are in what was once the Communist Soviet Union. If you want my advice, get out of the big cities such as Moscow and St. Petersburg. Petersburg and visit some of the smaller cities or even venture into Siberia as I did and experience the wonder of the other side of Russia.

A Brick Wall

Direct Answers – Column for the week of August 18, 2003

Two years ago I divorced, and there is still a lot of hostility.

My former husband has been served with due papers for not paying child support. He says I am sending him to the poorhouse, but I have no recourse but to contact the court when the payments stop. He continues to blame me, even though two sentences have explained it is the court which determinates when attempted charges are filed.

My children require the necessities of life, which I provide, but he says the children are my responsibility and not to contact him, even if they become ill. He only interacts with them on scheduled weekends, and many times the weekends are cut short.

The home he purchased with his girlfriend includes a built-in swimming pool and two Jacuzzis. Last summer he asked me how it feels to work, and he explained he makes enough money his girlfriend gets to sit by the pool all summer. His girlfriend looks like a glittering Christmas tree with all the jewelry she wears.

I have tried to talk to him, but he says he is not listening and then belittles me. He buys food and clothing for his girlfriend's children, but he tells me I have messed up our children's lives and dress them in rags. That is not true. They are really great kids doing well in school.

I need some ideas how to try and talk to him to get my point across. How do I communicate my concerns to him?

Marlene

Marlene, you have communicated your concerns to him. He does not care. Your ex-husband does not want to support any woman he is not sleeping with, or her children. Your children have lost a father figure because their father does not see himself as their father.

There is another danger here. Children often respect the bad parent and respond to what that parent wants, while disrespecting the good parent. It is not simply that they pick up the difficult parent's attitude; they think by placating him that they will get a father response out of him. But the end result is they may blame you.

Do not waste time thinking you will ever get through to this man. You are being emotionally battered and so are your children, which is a good reason to minimize contact with him.

His obligation to his children comes from the state in the same way the state determinates which side of the road to drive on or when to pay taxes. Let the state enforce this obligation and do not explain or apologize for it.

Wayne & Tamara

Overreaction

My best friend lives across the street. Her daughter and mine play together all the time. Our husbands are best of friends, and we watch over each other's home when we are out of town.

When she got a part-time job, I started baby sitting her daughter. I had an interview one evening and left my daughter and hers with my husband. I was gone one hour. The next day she called me and told me all of a sudden she does not trust my husband with her daughter.

My husband is an elementary school teacher and loves children. This has upset me and hurt my feelings. She does not call now, and I wish I knew what she was thinking. Should I call first?

Christa

Christa, your neighbor is mad, and the question is why. If something actually occurred, she likely would have acted immediately.

She could be angry because for an hour she did not know who was watching her child, or because you did not share news of your interview with her. For the former, you can apologize. Tell her you did not think. Your husband watches children more than you do, and it did not dawn on you to let her know.

Finally, do not put yourself or your husband in this position with her again.

Tamara

How to Take Your Brick and Mortar Business Online

MODULE 1

CHAPTER 10

1.0 HOW TO TAKE YOUR BRICK AND MORTAR BUSINESS ONLINE

2.0 INTRODUCTION

3.0 OBJECTIVES

MAIN CONTENT

3.1 The Future is Here

3.2 Approaches to eCommerce

3.3 Using Experts

3.4 The Process

3.5 Other Considerations

3.6 Do It Yourself (DIY) Plan

4.0 CONCLUSION

5.0 SUMMARY

6.0 ASSIGNMENT

  1. INTRODUCTION

This article is about how you can take your physical business online using Experts or how you can do so all by yourself.

  1. OBJECTIVES
  • To emphasize the urgency of setting up one's physical business on the Internet
  • To discuss ways a physical business can be set up online
  • To point out the easiest way to start as a beginner
  1. MAIN CONTENT

3.1 The Future is Here

Bill Gates once said that in the future there will be two classes of business – namely, those that are online and those that are no more existing. The current trends in business cycles are provoking this to be true with every passing day.

More businesses are going online and increasing their profitability while those that can not read this handwritings on the wall are losing customers, profits and depressed bottom-line, to them, on a very rapid rate.

So the next wise thing for any business owner to do is to think twice … on how to get his business online as soon as possible.

3.2 Approaches to eCommerce

There are 3 approaches to taking your current offline Business online namely:

a) You can set up a self-hosted website and sell your merchandise using phone, web chats (as in Yahoo / Facebook chats) or payment processor, all run by yourself.

b) You may otherwise want to use other companies to sell your products globally for you – you only source and supply the goods to them eg FBA that I will discuss below, or

c) You may wish to enrich your merchandise by just linking your own website to so many others and also helping them to sell their goods as affiliates while also making decisions for yourself. This is possible with eBay, Amazon and most sites selling similar product in your own market niche.

For most beginners, doing this by yourself is generally out of the way because of the vast technological background knowledge that may be needed to guarantee profitability.

Even though nowdays, software is impressively bridging the gap, and borrowing the ground to make ecommerce almost all-comers affairs, yet, it may be quite a breath-taking experience to cover the learning curve. I will also talk briefly on this again later.

3.3 Using Experts

There are so many companies who are more than willing to help you set up your business on the internet.

You can check on the following websites to find out things for yourself as their requirements are different: ecwid

– very good if you want to sell on multi-channel: Vend, eBay, Facebook, Amazon, Square, Instagram, etc.

rakuten

Jet

Etsy

AMZhelp

– they can do all the technical work for you on a fee.

soldsie

nordstrom

fiverr

you can also find gigs who can do it for you here.

3.4 The Process

In case you want to start with Amazon, the program for handling this is called Fulfilment By Amazon (FBA). You may wish to check their website for full and updated details.

But as is at Amazon, so also is the case in most of the websites, you need to do the following, preparatory to approaching them for this business:

a) Prepare a catalog database of all your products

b) Take and store cute multidimensional pictures of all your products

c) List your products on their website eg Amazon

d) List your product in many other marketplaces: eBay, rakuten, etsy, ecwid, jet, Newegg, Konga, Kaymu, DealDey, etc.

e) Integrate an inventory management system – this will enable you to traect your goods across the various sites so that you do not run out of stock. STITCH LABS is a very good place to do this.

f) Create your own hosted store. This is where you display photos of all your merchandise. Using Shopify is a very good idea.

g) Send your inventory to Amazon FBA storehouses.

h) Amazon usually have very strict specifications on packaging, labeling, etc. Companies like stitchlabs can help you with meeting Amazon standards.

You can also search this phrase in quote for more details: 'Labeling and Packaging Products for Amazon FBA – FBA Prep'

I) Barcoding: do not forget that each unit of product sold at Amazon and most online sites must have a barcode.

Bar code is a kind of universal product label like the one shown below that you see on every product sold in the global market:

This site will help you if you check on them:

http://www.computalabel.com/aboutupc.htm

j) Get someone to review your products on your site – this can cause your sales to shoot up.

3.5 Other Considerations

Traffic: consider using free traffic initially and paid traffic as soon as possible to bring eyesballs to your website. When using paid traffic, never forget to tract your conversions and measure profitability so that you will not burn out your budget too fast.

Tracking inventory levels across all channels: stitch labs can do this for you at a fee.

Integrate your offline and online store: this will increase your profitability and ensure that you do not lose your customers to others as they go shopping online.

You can simply do so by hanging the address of your website over the lintel of your brick-and-mortar business.

Analyzing your virtual store performance regularly:

Check your sales, conversion, non-performing goods, etc. so that you will not put too much of your working capital in non-performing inventories.

Do not forget to use social media, email marketing and text messages: these are very simple but highly profitable ways to market your business, use them on a regular basis basis.

If all these looks like too much work for you, then I will suggest you hand it all over to the geeks, any of the aforementioned companies can do a niece job for you at a fee.

3.6 Do It Yourself (DIY) Plan

Alternately, you can still go ahead and do it all by yourself, read through this guide for full details on how to do so, search 'profiles woothemes'.

Start from 'About' and learn all you need to run your website by yourself.

Although this may steepen your learning curve, but you can start there to learn the ropes.

  1. CONCLUSION

It is advisable to find ways to take your current physical business (if any) online if you want to remain profitable on a long-term. Doing so is very easy these days as highlighted in this discussion.

  1. SUMMARY

Your physical business can go online in 3 ways, those ways were the center-piece of our discussion in this ecourse.

  1. ASSIGNMENT

Go to Fiverr and post your job if you want to take your current physical business online. Gigs will respond and you start negotiation.

You can also use other websites like Rakuten, Etsy, etc., as listed above.

How to Cure Skin Problems

Our skin is known to be the largest organ of our body. It also plays a huge part in keeping us healthy. Our skin serves as our shield from all dust and dirt coming from the environment. Apart from that, it also guards us from the effects of all the chemicals, change of temperature and microbial attack which might cause damage to our health. Most of all, it is the reason why we manage to have nutrients in our body because it actually advances its loss. There are countless of reasons why the skin is so important to the human body. That's why it is just essential for us to take care of it. But sometimes, no matter how good we are in taking care of our skin, there could be factors which could trigger skin infection. When this happens, natural skin care will not be enough. Good thing, skin medicines such as Trofodermin exists in the market to help solve all our problems.

Trofodermin is a skin antibiotic designed to treat skin ailments caused by bad bacteria. It also prevails the infection from getting worse. This skin antibiotic is made up of Neomycin Sulfate and Clostebol Acetate which is also known as a synthetic anabolic androgenic steroid. Trofodermin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, meaning, it hinders the bacteria to produce proteins which are essential to its growth. Trofodermin has the ability to heal the damages of the infection with its antibacterial and anti inflammatory effect.

This skin antibiotic can resolve several skin problems such as skin cankers and sores, skin ulcers, wounds and even ailments like decubitus. It can also help reduce erosive infections of skin and mucous which includes piogenic infections and herpes. Moreover, Trofodermin is your solution for contaminated wounds, burns and cracks in private areas. Long healing wounds can also be treated by this skin ointment and problems including skin dystrophy and beam dermatitis will certainly be minimized.

You may apply the antibiotic on the infected area for one to two times a day. It is best to cover it with sterilized gauze to protect it from other bad bacteria. For better results, it is advisable for you to visit a dermatologist before purchasing the product. Several conditions may affect the number of dosage you have to take and side effects may occur once you took the wrong one.

Our skin, like any other part of our body, is vital to our health and to our whole being. Infections may occur but it does not mean it can not be stopped because Trofodermin, has the solution in all sorts of skin dilemma.

Can Oral Contraceptives Cause Candida?

Acidophilus is certainly a great way to take care of Candida overgrowth, but what if you do not know you have Candidiasis? The truth is a Candida infection causes symptoms that clearly resemble a slew of other illnesses. To make matters worse, many people continue to have an overgrowth of Candida in their system without knowing the cause. For instance, if you're a woman taking birth control pills, did you know that you have a 20% higher risk of developing Candidiasis related infections than other women?

What is the relationship between Candida overgrowth and the Pill?

Birth control pills effect hormones and induce hormonal changes that lower a woman's ability to control Candida overgrowth, which can trigger yeast infections.

Research has discovered that yeast cells have estrogen receptors which are stimulated by hormones in the birth control pill, and can cause the growth of yeast.

Most women who develop yeast infections from the Pill tend to have an outbreak when there is significant hormone chance such as when they –

– First beginning taking oral contraceptives

– Are close to their period

– Change oral contraceptives

– Go back on the Pill after discontinuing use.

However, the vast majority of women who take the pill do not develop yeast infections. Furthermore, yeast infections may develop due to other causes such as diet, antibiotics or other product use.

You can reduce the development of Candidiasis when taking oral contraceptives by:

– Sticking to cotton undergarments – Make sure your panties have cotton lining, but it's best to wear all-cotton underwear. Nylon traps moisture against your skin and does not absorb moisture like cotton does to keep skin dry. Trapped moisture breeds bacteria growth. You should also avoid nylon and spandex leotards when working out.

– Change out of exercise clothing – After you've exercised remove your clothing and put on dry clothes as soon as possible, even if you can not take a shower.

– Sleep without underwear – This will help your vaginal area to breath.

– Minimize the use of panty liners – Wearing panty liners every day can increase the risk of yeast infection because the plastic on the bottom of the liners locks in moisture. Also, when on your period, change your pad frequently.

– Lower the sugar in your diet – Refrain from eating foods that contain high sugars, as sugar encourages the growth of yeast. It's also a good idea to add yogurt that contains "active bacterial culture" to your diet to help replenish the good bacteria you need in your system that helps control yeast overgrowth.

– Avoid perfumes – Do not use scented toilet paper or feminine hygiene products this can cause irritation. In addition, if you are sensitive to perfume you also should not take spotted baths.

– Avoid douching – This washes out the good bacteria and creates an imbalance making you open to infection.

When to see your doctor

– If you have never had a vaginal yeast infection before – you should make sure you have is a yeast infection. Some sexually transmitted diseases like Herpes, can present symptoms similar to a yeast infection. Additionally, if you've never had a yeast infection, it's best to ask your doctor what over-the-counter product they recommend to help clear your infection.

There are many products and not all work to eliminate yeast. Two of the more effective and recommended products available are those that contain miconazole (Monistat 7) and clotrimazone (Gyne-Lotrimin).

– If you have to repeat yeast infections (4 or more per year) – If you are taking oral contraceptives and are developing frequent yeast infections you may want to discuss other methods of birth control with your doctor, and carefully consider your diet and lifestyle. You may also want to have your male partner checked for a yeast infection, especially if he is not circumcised, as he may be passing it on to you.

Wood Vs Metal File Cabinet

The metal file cabinet is among those in popular demand when it comes to organizing and storage needs. But today, there are even more choices, particularly when it comes to the material of the filing cabinet. File cabinets now come in plastic materials as well as genuine wood. A lot of people are now going for wooden materials for their cabinet, but which is better? Is it wood or metal?

A wooden filing cabinet can have both practical and aesthetic qualities. Oak is a popular choice in this case, since it offers a wide range of natural colors and patterns. White oak allows you to easily paint over it with different finishes from very dark to very light.

On the other hand, a metal filing cabinet can offer durability and strength. Thus, it is mostly preferred for use in offices to keep very important files. While they may not fit in most home decor, they may do well with modern interiors.

So which is better, a metal file cabinet or a wooden one? There isn’t one answer to this one. The most practical thing to do would be to first consider your basic requirements. What are you going to use the cabinet for? Where will you put it? For instance, if you’re going to put it in the patio, it will have to be weatherproof. You may then consider how you want your cabinet to look like. A wooden one matches more in a home setting, while a metal would probably fair better in an office setting.

Is There Any Way to Tell If a Man Has Had Thoughts of You Romantically? – Learn What to Look for!

It is a wonderful feeling when a woman finds out that the guy she has feelings for recipocrates in the same way! However she needs to know if he really likes her as much and therefore has to look for sure signs that will tell her all she needs to know! These tips will be really valuable!

Look for his intense gaze
If he is crazy about you – how will he ever be able to take his eyes and mind off you? The answer is he will not! Check and see if he always looks to be looking at you and even trying to lock eyes with you. This should tell you that he likes you a lot and wants to get into a relationship with you.

His manner around you will change
Even if he sees full of confidence and a bit of a smart aleck in the company of his friends, he will always be affected by your presence. Check and see if he gets nervous and insecure when you appear on the scene. Does he clam up and have nothing to say? Or does he blush and look like he's terrified of doing the wrong thing? Either way – it shows that he has had thoughts of you romantically!

He will try to get in touch with you
There is no way he will be able to stay away from you. Test and see how many times he has tried to get in touch with you. He will always try to speak to you and be in your company because he is simply drying to know you better! His existence and persistence in talking to you will tell you the truth about his feelings.

His curiosity about you will know no bounds
If he has thoughts about you romantically he will be turned on by you. What you wear, how you will have and details about you will affect him substantially. He will never be satisfied with what he sees – he will want to know more and will do anything to get that information.

He will hate the other guys around you
One of the commonest signs of his interest would be if he begins to resent seeing you in the company of other guys. When he shows signs that he hates the competition you can be sure that he has romantic thoughts of you and wants you for himself.

He will flirt with you
Look out for those special looks, smiles and gestures that prove that he would like to know you much better. He knows that he has to interest you and attract you as much so he will go out of his way to try and grab your attention.

Flirt with him and see if he responds at once
One of the simplest tricks in the book is to flirt with the guy. If he has had romantic thoughts of you – he will respond to you instantly! He will be guided to see you flirt with him and will take the opportunity to turn his dreams into reality.

Antiques – Wood Basics

Oak, mahogany, walnut, pine, rosewood, maple, elm; you may have some or all of these woods in your home. But, do you know how to tell the difference among them? In this month's column, we'll talk about the different kinds of wood that are regularly seen in antique furniture and some common decorative treatments.

The Basics
Wood is hard or soft. When I say hard, I mean that the wood is weak, whereas, a soft wood is supple. A good trick to tell the difference between hard and soft wood is that if you press your fingernail into a soft wood such as pine, it leaves an indentation. But, this does not happen with a hard wood such as oak.

Wood is coarse-grain or close-grain. In coarse-grain wood, the age rings in the wood are far a part, giving it an uneven appearance. In close-grain woods, the age rings in the wood are very close together, giving it a smooth, delicate appearance.

Sometimes, wood is stained. Lighter woods such as oak, elm and maple can be stained to resemble a darker mahogany or rosewood.

Some woods (mahogany, rosewood, burl walnut) are perceived to be more valuable than other woods (elm, maple, spruce). The reason for this is availability. Woods that need to be imported are more expensive than home-grown woods. Woods that are abundant are not as expensive as woods that are scarce.

Oak
Oak is a coarse-grain hard wood found in Europe and North America. Starting in 17th century Europe, oak was used to make furniture found through the home. There are several varieties including red oak and white oak. Young oak is pale in color. But, over time and with polishing, oak darkens into a rich brown color.

Mahogany
Mahogany is a close-grain hard wood native to northern and central South America and the West Indies. Mahogany was a popular choice in England during the mid-18th century for fine furniture making. It is a dark red color sometimes, however, it is dark brown. Red mahogany is found in the West Indies and brown mahogany is native to South America. Mahogany furniture continues to be desirable today.

Rosewood
Rosewood is close-grain hard wood indigenous to India, South America and the West Indies. Rosewood is named for the rose scent that releases when it is cut. Occidentally, I find that people confuse rosewood and mahogany. Both woods can be red in color. However, when you look closely at rosewood, you'll see fine black (and sometimes white) rings that are not present in mahogany. Another trick to tell if an item is rosewood is to pick it up. Rosewood is a very heavy wood, heavier than mahogany. In the 17th century China, rosewood was a popular choice for fine furniture makers. As well, in 19th century Europe, it was used to construct better-quality furniture for fine homes.

Walnut
Walnut is close-grain hard wood found in Europe and North America. The color varies from light to a very rich golden brown color and it is not uncommon to find walnut stained to look like mahogany. Sometimes, disease leads to the unexpected. Burl walnut, the most prized form of walnut, results from a disease that attacks the tree causing a beautiful scrolled, close-grain. These days you see the look of burl walnut replicated in the plastic interiors of some higher end cars.

Pine
Pine is a pale, knotted soft wood with a wide, straight grain. It grows in Europe and North America. Pine was often used in furniture intended to be painted. Everyday furniture – kitchen tables and chairs -were often made from pine.

Maple & Elm
Maple and elm are coarse-grain hard woods found in North America and Europe. They were frequently used in utilitarian furniture. Often a veneer of a finer wood was applied to these woods.

Veneers
Veneering is a technique where a very thin sheet of a more expensive wood is glued to a less expensive wood. Using less expensive woods such as elm and maple and adding a more expensive mahogany or walnut veneer allowed furniture makers to provide furniture that was affordable for a larger clientele. You may hear an antique dealer say; "This table is walnut on maple." The dealer means that the item has a walnut veneer and underneath the actual item is maple. A walnut on maple table is less valuable than a solid walnut table.

How do you tell if your furniture is veneered? Look at the edges of the piece. If you see what appears to be a seam, it is veneered. On the other hand, if the edges of the piece are seamless, it is solid.

Early veneers from the 17th century were hand-cut, so they could be uneven. But, in the 19th century veneers started to be cut by machine. This allowed the veneers to be cut very thin and even. Depending on the way the wood is cut, veneering produces different effects. Butterfly veneering occurs when two opposing end grain veneers are diagonally cut from a branch. They are applied to mirror each other.

Marquetry / Parquetry / Inlay
Marquetry is a technique where various kinds of wood are applied to a surface to produce a picture. Flowers and birds were often the subjects. Exotic woods such as ebony, satinwood and tulipwood were frequently employed.

The difference between marquetry and parquetry is the subject matter. Parquetry is a veneer that uses geometric patterns. Nowadays, you see it in parquet hardwood floors and ornate chess and backgammon boards.

Inlay is a decorative treatment where materials other than wood are cut into a design. Inlays were often made of bone, ivory, mother of pearl, brass, tortoise shell. Marquetry, parquetry and inlay first appeared during the Italian Renaissance.

Gilding
Gilding is a technique wherein gold leaf is applied with gesso (a plaster-like substance) to wood. It is highly decorative and was popular during the Italian Renaissance and the Louis period in France.