Pressure Treated Wood Retention Ratings in the Fencing Industry

Pressure treated southern yellow pine is one of the most popular woods used in fence building. It is readily available, inexpensive, and has a long life span if installed properly. Most southern yellow pine lumber is treated with Alkaline Copper Quaternary. The process of “pressure treating” involves immersing the lumber in the chemical and placing it in a pressurized chamber. The pressure causes the chemical to penetrate the wood. The wood is then given a retention level. A retention level simply means how much of the chemical is retained by the wood.

The higher the retention level, the better resistance to the elements. Different outdoor projects call for different retention levels. Marine grade lumber, used for piers or boat marinas in salt or brackish water, has a retention level of 2.5. Ground contact lumber, or lumber to be put in the ground, has a retention level of .40. Outdoor use lumber, such as 2×4’s and pickets, has a retention level of .25. It is important you select the lumber with the proper rating for your project. When installing a wooden fence, it is very important that all posts are rated for ground contact, or .40 retention.

It has happened more than once that someone, a home owner or even a professional, has gone to the lumber yard for fence posts. He or she sees the 4×4 posts for about $7.00 each, and right next to them are landscape timbers for about $3.00 each. The lumber looks about the same and it seems like a good way to cut down on material costs. This is a big mistake! If you look at the retention levels, you will see the 4×4 lumber will be rated for ground contact at .40. You will also see the landscape timbers are rated for outdoor use at .25 retention level. The landscape timbers are not treated to be put in the ground around constant moisture. This will cause the timbers to rot and become brittle, and eventually break at the ground’s service. Pickets and 2×4’s need to be rated for outdoor use, or .25 retention level.

Since they will not be below grade, this rating is suitable for their use. You may want to raise the pickets an inch off the ground when installing them so they are not in direct contact with the ground. This will prevent the picket from soaking up moisture from the ground which results swelling and rotting. Although you need the proper retention level, there is no need to over do it. .25 retention for the central area of NC is fine for pickets and 2×4’s. There is no need to spend time hunting down lumber with a higher retention level and paying more for it. In some cases, over doing it can cause violations. The EPA mandates all marine grade lumber, or lumber with a retention level of 2.5, must be placed in salt water or brackish water. If it isn’t, they can give you a fine. The chemical level is too high for normal use and can pollute the soil and nearby water sources.

When building a wooden fence, make sure you get lumber with the proper retention levels. The key word is “proper”, not too low and not too high. The retention levels in this article are suitable to the Raleigh area of North Carolina. If you live in a different part of the country, you may want to check the local building codes for retention levels in your area.

Spray Foam Equipment

Expanding spray foam insulation is a type of insulation based on spraying the insulating foam directly over the area to be insulated. Just as foam board insulation requires foam core boards, expanding foam insulation uses spray foam.

Spray foam insulation is a relative of foam board insulation, using a quite similar material to foam core boards, with the main difference being in the method of applying the insulation itself.

If you intend to insulate your entire house for example, or any other large building, you have two options: one is to hire a specialized company that will do it for you, with a corresponding fee of course, or, if you are a hardcore DIY fan, you may attempt to install the insulation yourself.

It might sound an untouchable idea at first, but with a little study and care you will find that the DIY method might be the cheapest and why not the more enjoying option.

If you are serious in thinking about DIY spray foam insulation, you must first know what equipment you need. The following is a short description of the basic components of a foam spray machine.

The proportioner:

This is the heart of any spray foam machine. It is the part that creates the foam by proportioning the components and pushing them further. The best one for all around use would be an electric one, but make sure it has intuitive controls and balance pressure valves.

The spray foam hoses:

These are basic hoses, which have the sole purpose of transporting the foam from the proportioner to the spray gun. The hoses come in different colors, diameters and lengths, and it's always a good idea to use hoses that are corrosion protected, to prevent any nasty surprises.

The spray foam gun:

If the proportioner is the heart of the installation, then this is the hand. Inside the gun, the two components of the foam are mixed and expelled at certain pressures towards the surface to insulate. The moment the two components come into contact they react, so care must be taken after usage, to avoid clogging. Before, before buying one, try and find out how easy it is to clean.

Al these components will help you succeed in insulating your house. Spray foam insulation can be used instead of foam board insulation, but you should take into account all the advantages and disadvantages of the two insulation methods.

Your Fireplace's First Fire

As winter approaches, you may be one of the lucky few that have recently installed a new fireplace in your home. Whether it is a typical brick fireplace, or a contemporary type there are some things you need to understand before you start your first fire. One contemporary type, ventless gas models, essentially require the user to turn it on and the technology takes care of the rest, but other types require the user to build a fire similar to building a fire at a campsite or in an outdoor fireplace.

Here is a quick checklist and brief description of each item to get you started:

-Open the damper of the chimney

-Ensure the chimney has positive draft. In other words, the chimney and fireplace are designed to suck the smoke from the fire up the chimney shaft and outside the home instead of your living room. To do this, simply light a match and hold it adjacent to the start of the chimney outlet inside the firebox. The flame of the match should bend in the direction of the outlet. If this happens, your chimney is ready to go.

-Building a perfect fire starts with using seasoned firewood cut to the appropriate length. Seasoned firewood has typically been cut, split, and stacked a season prior to when it is used. If you do not have access to timber, you can find several local vendors which will be happy to sell you a cord of firewood.

-Place crumbled up paper under the wood grates, usually ten pieces of paper will work, then cover with small kindling or a premanufactured fire starter log.

-Safely light the crumbled up paper and its fire will light the kindling on fire. Once the kindling is on fire and is burning brightly, place a few (no more than three) small pieces of seasoned firewood onto the fire.

-Place the fireplace screen over the hearth or close the door on the wood burning fireplace insert.

-After the season firewood is burning swiftly, add a few additional pieces being careful not to tumble out the fire and not to overload the firebox creating excess heat.

While the fireplace is in use, it is important that the fireplace screen is in place for safety purposes. Many individuals have purchased contemporary fireplace accessories, including beveled glass enclosures or have designed their brick fireplaces to have integral inserts which have doors as opposed to screens or enclosures. Which ever type you have, safety remains first as burns from a fireplace can be very serious.

Gatso Speed Cameras – Understanding Them And Avoiding A Fine

If you’ve been flashed by a speed camera out on the road, it’s more than likely it will have been a Gatso camera because these are by far the most common type of camera currently in operation around the UK. Seeing that flash is often a cause for despair, which is why understanding how these cameras work can be so useful. Knowing what activates the cameras will help you to control your speed and avoid any unnecessary points or financial penalties.

First, though, what does ‘Gatso’ stand for? Unlike most things, it’s not some complicated, technical anagram that’s been condensed into weird and wonderful shorthand. In fact, it’s short for Gatsometer BV, a Dutch company that has made and supplied these cameras for over 50 years. The cameras are a familiar sight to most motorists, who’ll recognise the distinctive yellow boxes with a square hole for the camera lens. While they may come to be superseded by other, more advanced models, currently there are approximately 7,000 dotted around UK roads. So keep your eyes peeled.

The cameras work by projecting a radar beam onto passing vehicles which picks up on excess speed and activates the camera. The camera will then take two pictures, 0.7 seconds apart. The first will be a conventional picture, while the second will be infra-red which is used to see through any dirt or anything else obscuring the registration plate. Because the flash of the camera is disorienting and potentially unsafe for the driver, these cameras usually only snap you as you are driving away from them. However, you may find yourself snapped head on as a result of a speeding car on the other side of the road.

The camera determines the speed of your vehicle by looking at small white lines that have been painted on the road in the designated ‘speed trap’ area. The distance between these lines denotes a certain number of miles per hour, typically 5mph. The camera counts the number of lines passed between the two photographs to produce solid evidence of the speed at which you were travelling. Therefore, if the camera snaps you passing through seven 5mph lines in a 30mph zone, you’ll be shown to have speeded.

Modern speed cameras automatically determine your speed and send out a fine whereas images sent by older cameras are checked by staff at a central processing plant. While both methods are usually reliable, the modern, automatic cameras are more susceptible to errors. If you receive a fine for speeding that you don’t think is justified, it may be worth analysing the photos yourself to see if you can realistically contest the charge. The photos should be sent out with the fine, so if you haven’t received them, make sure you obtain copies. Also, it’s important to note that you must receive the penalty notice within 14 days of the incident for it to be valid, although there may be exceptions in cases where ascertaining the identity of the driver is more difficult, such as when a company car is being driven.

Fireplace Accessories – Things You Need

Fireplaces are becoming extremely popular, not so much for heating the home, but for recreational purposes. This popularity is providing an explosion of fireplace accessories , equipment and safety equipment. A visit to any home improvement store will reveal an almost mind blowing array of choices that are available for fireplaces today. So, how do you choose, how do you know what you need and what is essentially fluff?

There are some items that are a must to have if you are using a fireplace in any capacity. These fireplace accessories include; a wood cradle, heat resistant gloves, a fireplace screen and pokers to name a few. Great, now you know what you need, but what exactly are they for and how do you know which ones are the best picks for you?

A wood cradle is an important fireplace accessory if you are carrying your wood through your house before it reaches the fireplace. This nifty little device is available in a variety of styles, colors and materials. It does just as the name suggests, it is a place to store the wood until it is burned. Because it has a cradle shape, it keeps the annoying little pieces of bark that falls off of the wood from becoming embedded in the flooring that surrounds the fireplace.

The next set of essential fireplace accessories falls into the important category of safety. When dealing with fire, safety should be the first concern. Using fireplace accessories such as gloves and pokers will help you to keep your hands, arms and fingers safe when working with the fire. While the fireplace screen keeps people, especially kids and pets a safe distance from the fire.

A good place to find a selection of fireplace accessories is at a home improvement store. They generally have a large enough assortment of supplies to give you a choice, but not so many as to confuse you. However, if you are looking for both selection and a knowledgeable staff, visit a fireplace specialty store. These stores are staffed with people who can answer any of you questions on which gloves protect the best to what kind of firewood burns hottest.

Another great way to decide which fireplace accessories interest you the most is to visit friends and family that have active fireplaces and see what they are using. Do not be afraid to ask if you can build a fire with their tools and equipment, get a feel of working with the accessories before you purchase your own.

While burning wood and building fires is fun, please do not neglect fireplace accessories that are used for safety reasons, these are what you will be happy you purchased when you really need them.

Insulation and Air Conditioning Unit Size

An HVAC contractor can determine what size of air conditioning unit to install in your house, but will that size unit be the best unit for your home? There are many variables to consider when having a new unit installed in your home. These variables are brought together by a load calculation performed either by your contractor or a mechanical engineer. How do they do it though? What can make an engineer designate a larger home with a unit smaller than what is in another home with fewer square feet in some instances?

Let's use the three little pigs as an example (with some artistic license). The first little pig lives in a metal house that sits on a pier four inches off the ground. The second little pig lives in a wooden home that sits on a concrete slab which has been beloved into the ground. Finally, the third little pig lives in a house built with 10 inch thick mason blocks, also sitting on a slab. None of the homes are insulated. All of these houses have the same internal dimensions, but they will have different load calculations, which means, they may each have a different sized air conditioning unit.

A load calculation is a mathematical function put together to determine the amount of heat that needs to be displaced in order to cool or heat a home. The main reason for the differences in the load calculations is what is called the R-value of each home. R-Value is a measure of thermal resistance (the 'R' comes from the word, resistance) of a substance or an object. Although you may not be able to determine the R-value of your home, you can easily understand the concept by taking a look at each of the little pigs' houses.

The metal building the first little pig lives in is off the ground. This allows outside air to flow under the home as well as over and around it. Air flowing under a home decreases the R-Value of the home since it's another route for heat to enter or escape the home. Also, because this house is made of metal, it is a better conductor of heat than other materials, so that also decrees the R-value of the home. The lower the R-value of the home, the larger the unit needed to heat / cool it. This home has an extremely low R-value.

The wooden building the second little pig lives in is on a slab which was scattered in the ground. The slab keeps the floor of the home a relatively even temperature through the year, summer or winter. The wooden walls are built of one inch thick clapboard siding and less less heat conduction as well. Neverheless, without added insulation, this home conducts heat in or out fairly easily as well. The R-value in this home is higher than that of the metal home. It's possible that this home can use a smaller central air unit than the metal home.

Finally, we come to the brick home constructed on a concrete slab and built of 10 inch mason blocks the third little pig lives in. Although this home has a wooden roof, it is constructed of a thick wood with a higher R-value than that of the wooden house, and is shingled with a better quality shingle which is designed to reflect heat rather than absorb it. Since this house is also on a concrete slab, there is no outside airflow underneath it. The 10 inch walls work very well at insulating against heat conduction. These materials all work toward this home having a very high R-value. This high R-value causes the home to hold whatever temperature air inside for a longer period of time. This means a smaller air conditioning unit can be used in this home than in the previous two.

How a home is insulated plays a key role in how much heat must be displaced to keep the home cool or warm. To cause a central air system to work as efficiently as possible, better insulated walls, floors, ceilings, doors and windows are key. If these things are used, then a home is well on its way to becoming a 'green' home. The air conditioner will run less often, and it will run for just the right amount of time in order to cool the dwelling adequately and use the least amount of energy possible.

If you really want to know the answers for your house, call your local HVAC expert.

A Comparison Between uPVC Windows and Timber Frame Windows

uPVC windows, vinyl siding or rigid vinyl windows as they are often called around the world are made from unplasticised polyvinyl chloride. Whereas timber frame windows are obviously made of wood. Both window types have their drawbacks and advantages.

Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride is a plastic. And it is this fact that is at the heart of the problems with uPVC windows. Plastics are notoriously hard and expensive to recycle or dispose of safely. In many countries unwanted plastic just ends up in landfill sites. Vinyl windows are made from PVC. The US Environmental Protection agency classes the dioxins that are given off in the production of PVC as carcinogens. Furthermore, if vinyl windows are burnt they give off carcinogenic dioxins. This is worried news if you consider the possibility of house fires and also the reality that many fires occur in landfill sites where the majority of unwanted uPVC ends up.

In contrast timber frame windows are much easier to dispose of at the end of their life. The wood can be recycled, burnt to make energy or allowed to biodegrade. The only environmental problem with timber frame windows is that timber is a precious commodity and deforestation is a very real threat to the future health of the planet.

Putting aside the environmental issues surrounding uPVC windows and timber frame windows, it is clear that in other respects vinyl windows are better. Timber frame windows are subject to continuous damage by the extremes of weather. Too much rain will make the wood rot. Too much humidity will make the wood swell and too little moisture will make the wood shrink and crack. It is necessary to constantly be repairing timber frame windows to ensure they last.

Whereas, uPVC windows are imperfect to the changing conditions of the weather: they will last for over 25 years with minimal maintenance required.

Timber frame windows are bad insulators. They let out a lot of heat in the winter and allow in a lot of heat in the summer. In comparison uPVC is a good insulator. Installing uPVC window frames with double glazing will significantly reduce your heating and cooling bills.

Wooden frame windows provide a soft target for house breakers. It takes only a matter of seconds to open a timber frame with a pry bar. Compare this with uPVC windows which provide no place for a pry bar to gain purchase and are very difficult to force open. Furthermore double glazing is not easy to smash through. On top of that most new uPVC windows come with multi-point locking systems as standard.

Finally, in America, Ireland and the UK homes with uPVC windows are generally easier to sell and go for more money. In short because of the energy saving and improved security aspects of uPVC windows they make a house a more desirable investment.

Thus, it is hard to decide which is more important – the environmental concerns with uPVC windows or the obvious financial benefits that they confer. The future for these type of plastic windows may depend on such recycling processes as Texiloop developed in Europe and Vinyloop developed in Japan which can safely recycle plastic without releasing polluting dioxins into the environment. At the moment these technologies are very expensive. It is a shame because the insulating ability of vinyl windows means that they can be used to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from powerplants that burn fossil fuels to generate electricity.

You Need to Understand the Extent of the Sin of Fornication and Adultery Which Are Against God

Have you read of the story of Joseph and Portiphar’s wife in the Bible? The Go to Genesis 39:6-12. Most youths and individuals of our present generation will marvel and exclaim “wow!” he is super human to resist such a caliber of lady and who knows, she may be as well a very pretty woman. But if you understand why fornication or adultery is sin against God, then you must have understood why Joseph did that, and you can also have the strength to say “NO”. Here are several reasons:

1. Such sin gives Satan a chance to taunt Christ and ridicule His sacrifice on the cross. It is Satan who charges God, “You are unfair to expect mankind not to sin! sin is my invention, and it is so strong that it is impossible to say ‘No’ to it! The Bible says Christ died to save His people from their sins: not in them. (Matthew 1:21) ha ha ha! look at your ‘child’ who has fallen into adultery-that proves I am right, God, and You are wrong! Christ has died in vain.” If Joseph had said “Yes” to Mrs Potiphar, Satan would have taunted God like this.

2. It is because of our sin that murdered the Son of God on the cross. “He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities” (Isaiah 53:5); that hurt! Someone may object, “Yes, but was nearly two thousand years ago. and His suffering was “once for all” and it is finished now. My continued sinning doesn’t hurt Him any more!” This is the lie that many professed Christians believe. Let us read how Hebrews describe man’s fresh re-crucifixion of Christ.

There is no longer any sacrifice that will take away sins if we purposely go on sinning after the truth has been made known to us. What, then, of the person who despises the son of God? Who treats as a cheap thing the blood of God’s covenant which purified him from sin? Who insults the spirit of grace? (Hebrews 10:26).

This was what Joseph “saw”, and his faith kept him from doing it. It wasn’t fear that held him back. He didn’t say, “oh, maybe my father or my brothers will hear about it”, or “perhaps I will get a venereal disease.” or “maybe portiphar’s wife will get pregnant by me.” No! “By faith Joseph…” felt a deep heart-appreciation of the sacrifice of the son of God for the sins of the world. How could he treat it as “cheap”? “Thank you, Lord, for saving my soul!” he prayed; he would not “insult the spirit of grace,” nor “crucify the son of God and expose Him to public shame.” Yes! Joseph may have lived years before Christ won born on earth, but in general he saw the mercies of God, His grace as something not cheap to be thrown in the gutter by compromising his faith. Thank God for Joseph! The world owes a great debt to him….

3. Adultery or fornication always brings sorrow and suffering to someone; in fact, there is murder wrapped up within it. Millions of people, for example, openly recognize that abortion is murder; and it is almost always the result of sin. Even when fornication or adultery is done only for “recreation” or “fun”, someone will surely get hurt. The pleasure of the moment is offset by the guilt that will remain, poisoning the heart and life. In order to silence the sense of guilt. many people simply renounce all title to heaven, give up, and choose to go to hell. They may appear outwardly to be happy once they have made that final choice, but as Jesus says, “Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.” And they know it. And since it takes two people to commit fornication or adultery, one has led the other to the loss of his/her soul eternally. also many a marriage is poisoned within the painful memories of pre- or extramarital sexual transgression; and again, the children are the unfortunate losers. They are deprived of the happiness and peace of a home every innocent child has a right to have. Their parents always bear the “wound and dishonor” that their sin brought (see Proverbs 6:33).

Many girls are also led into prostitution. They are to blame, of course, but others are to blame also. Those who patronize them help to make and keep them what they are. What a misuse of human capability! Even when the girls become so hardened that they have forgotten how to shed tears and have become dehumanized as it were, the misery is deep. Joseph didn’t want to add to this destruction of humanity. And it was in Africa that this mighty victory was won for the world!

4. All this resultant pain and suffering Christ feels. The Bible teaches, “In all their affliction He [Christ] was afflicted” (Isaiah 63:9). HE feels it even more keenly than we humans feel it. for He sees the end from the beginning. “His souls was grieved for the misery of Israel” because of their wrongdoing (Judges 10:16). A wise writer once said:

Few give thought to the suffering that sin has caused our Creator. All heaven suffered in Christ’s agony; but that suffering did not begin or end with His…. humanity. The cross is a revelation to our dull senses of the pain that, from its very beginning, sin has brought to the heart of God. Every departure from the right, every deed of cruelty, every failure of humanity to reach His ideal, brings grief to Him…. As the “whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together” (Romans 8:22), the heart of the infinite Father is pained in sympathy. Our world is a vast scene of misery that we dare not allow even out thoughts to dwell upon. Yet God feels it all. In Order to destroy sin and its results He gave His best Beloved, and HE has put it in our power through cooperation with Him, to bring this scene of misery to an end- Ellen G. White..

This is what Joseph “saw”. This is why, when Potiphar’s wife offered him that alluring, almost over-mastering temptation, he said “How can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?” Someday we shall see all the fruits that have been borne by the seeds of sin. It will be a terrible sight. God will not say one word to condemn us- He won’t need to. We shall condemn ourselves, and the whole universe will condemn us as the world today condemns Hitler. Is it not good that the Holy spirit convicts us of sin today so we can find repentance before it is too late?

God has revealed His grace for the salvation of all mankind. That grace instructs us to give up ungodly living, and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright and godly lives in this world, as we wait for the blessed day we hope for, when the glory of Our great God and savior Jesus Christ, will appear. He gave Himself for us, to rescue us from all wickedness and to make us a pure people who belong to Him alone and are eager to do good (Titus 2:11-14).

Window Security Locks: Your First Defense Against Burglary

Window security locks are your first defense against burglary. Today, you have to ensure that your home and / or business is safe from intruders, probably more than ever before. The economy is weak and so, crime is up. This said, criminals will try to break into your home or business through its easiest means-windows. It only makes sense that your locks should be as strong as possible.

Read on to learn how you can make sure your existing window security locks are up to par, and if not, how to find ones that will really defend your home or business against intrusion.

Inspect Your Windows

The first step in making sure your windows are as secure against burglary as possible is to inspect your window. Are they cracked or are the locks rusted or worn? Is the wood around the window solid and not rotting? All of these variables are key in determining the safety of your home and whether or not to upgrade your window security.

Inspect Your Window Locks

There is often a huge difference between the window locks that were installed when your house was manufactured and the products reported to as "window locks security". Unless you have installed new windows recently, and asked for highly secure window locks, you are likely to just have locks that lock your window in place. These are not enough to discourage an intruder. For ultimate window locks security, your locks should have made heavy duty or something comparable, large so the prospective intruder can see them, and possibly key operated.

Security Locks Window Options

Depending on how elaborate you want to get with your window home security, you could choose to enlist a security company or stop down to your local hardware store to purchase and install your own locks. In either even, you should know the basic kinds of security locks for window security that exist. The most effective for preventing window entry are:

  1. Fanlight Locks: these locks are often metal and have a bolted latch for opening and closing the window.
  2. Key Operated Locks: these types of locks are as you might expect-operated to lock by key access. If you choose this option, make sure that you store your key in a secure place-since this security requires two step precaution.

Other Options to Consider

While window locks window security is a great start to your home or business' safety, you should also be considering other options to fully bolster your home's security, and secure you and your family from intrusion. Two other great ways to stop the intruder in his / her tracks are window bars / grille / gates and window security film. The former are often tamper-resistant bars placed on the outside of your window, so that even if they break your window, they can not get through the bars or gate. The latter is a thin, clear, heavy duty plastic shield placed on the pane itself, which introduces your window from shattering or breaking, so that an intruder can not enter through the window. These are good options to consider when purchasing window security locks, as add-ons.

Hardwood Floor Vs Laminate

The flooring is among the most essential features of your home making just any room fit for its purposes. Other than its utilitarian qualities, it is also among the most important interior design element that captures the preferred ambiance from which other décor and additional furnishings are based on. Thus, choosing the best flooring for your New York home is among the most major decisions homeowners have to make either for a new construction or floor replacement project. This article compares two of the most popular choices when it comes to flooring with insights ideal whether you are in Manhattan, Long Island, Brooklyn, Queens or Staten Island.

Especially in older homes of the rich, hardwood is a common material utilized for the luxurious warmth that it offers both in look and feel. With proper care, its unsurpassed beauty and exquisite appeal can be enjoyed from generation to generation. These past few decades, home building and remodeling materials have undergone a lot of revolution with the advances in technology. One hardwood alternative that has been gaining popularity is laminate. Once just an imitation of its more expensive counterparts, modern laminate products now boasts of enhanced durability.

To know whether hardwood floor or laminate is the best choice for you and your New York home, here are the major considerations in the selection and the pros and cons of both flooring types:

Look and Feel

When it comes to look, a lot of people may be fooled at first glance. Laminates are synthetic flooring that simulates other materials perfectly because of its photograph appliqué layer. But other than the look, hardwood floor possesses other such tracks that laminate lacks including its inherent warmth and more comfort when walking.

Cost and Installation

Cost is probably the area where you've found the greatest difference when it comes to comparing these floor types. Laminate flooring ranges from $ 7 per square foot to the more durable averaging $ 11. Manufactured in inter-lock design, installation is easier and the material can be laid over almost all kinds of sub-flooring. Hardwood on the other hand, would start around $ 11 and the price increases depending on the style, finish and the rarity of timber. Its installation is best done by a qualified contractor due to the advanced skills on carpentry and precision in cutting that the project requires.

Maintenance

When it comes to cleaning, both flooring will require regular sweeping and mopping. But hardwood will need more care in preserving its protective finish and appeal. Through time; stains, moisture and scratches will take their toll and make your floor look worn but sanding it down and refinishing will make it achieve its former glory again and again. Other than the low cost, laminate is popular for its resistance to scratch, stain and spills but once chipped, it can be irreparable.

Home Value

While hardwood could never beat laminate when it comes to cost, the boost to home value that you would enjoy is considerable. Hardwood is a favorite of both realtors and many homeowners for the good value that it adds to your home, making your investments payback in time. This makes up for a great choice when it comes to remodeling investments.

How Structural Analysis of Buildings Works

Structural analysis is one of the most significant elements in Building Structural Engineering. Structural analysis is used in quite a big amount for steel detailing, reinforcement detailing, concrete detailing and industrial region. Structural analysis needs massive concentration and strategy planning.

Structural -analysis of buildings combines current and emergent technologies to produce accurate prediction of different types of reinforced concrete structures, residences and other building structures for different end uses. Structural- analysis basically works out as a method of prediction of behavior of any building structure.

Structural -analysis works according to set of certain laws of physics and engineering mathematics required to study and predict the behavior of building structures. Structure analysis consists of predicting the behavior of any building’s structure. This covers following:

– How your building -structure is going to handle loads

– How capable your building- structure will be when it will face stresses

– How your building -structure will withstand external forces and loads

Structural -analysis services can workout brilliantly in followings:

– Reinforced Cement Concrete Structures like buildings, tanks, retaining walls etc.

– Structural Steel plate girder, truss girder, gantries, industrial sheds etc.

– Deteriorated structures

– Wooden structures like fish repair centers, sheds, residential structures etc.

– Composite structures

– Pre-stressed and Post-tensioned structures like parking structures

Here structural- analysis mainly focuses on computation of deformations, internal forces and stresses as far as above mentioned things are concerned. It is to drive the building design process or prove the soundness of a building’s design without a dependence on directly testing it.

How To Build The Side Of The Arm Muscle – 5 Tips

Building a well-sculpted body requires more than knowing just a few types of exercises. Rather, you need to target specific muscles in each part of your body with specific exercises designed to work those parts.

Take the arms, for example. Most people who work out focus mainly on the biceps (front, inside of arm) and triceps (back of arm). But, what about those muscles on the sides of the arm? By targeting those muscle groups, as well, you stand to gain muscles in place you never knew you had them.

Here are 5 tips for how to build the side of the arm muscle:

1. The upper part of the side of your arm is called the medial (side) deltoid:

First, let's get our terminology straight. When we talk about the side of the arm muscle, we really need to distinguish between two types of muscles: the medial deltoid and the brachialis.

The deltoid muscle – which extends directly down from the shoulder blades and into the top of the arms – actually has three parts: front, side, and back. The medial (side) deltoid is the one that looks like it is on the side of your arm.

2. The lower part of the side of your arm is called the brachialis:

Moving down your arm a bit, you have a separate muscle called the brachialis. This is located between the biceps and triceps muscles.

Together, a set of well-developed medial deltoid and brachialis muscles will give the sides of your arms the look you want.

3. For your deltoids, do side lateral rises:

There are a number of exercises that can work out your medial deltoid muscles. We focus here on side lateral rises. Here's how:

a. Pick up two light dumbbells (5-15 lbs.).

b. Stand with your feet apart, about shoulder-width.

c. Hold the dumbbells just in front of your body with the palms of your hands facing each other while slightly bending your elbows.

d. Raise the weights out to the sides and upwards in a semicircular arc until they are just above shoulder level. Hold this position for a moment, then lower them back to the starting position.

e. Repeat.

4. For your brachialis, do the dumbbell bent-over row:

A great exercise for your brachialis muscles is the dumbbell bent-over row. Here is what to do:

a. Stand with your knees bent and your upper body at about a 60-degree angle.

b. Now with the weights fully extended down in your arms, bringing them straight up to your chest by contracting your shoulder blades fully.

c. Inhale and then slowly return the weights to the starting position.

d. Repeat.

5. Also for your brachialis, try reverse curls:

Here is another good one that is designed to increase the size and definition of your brachialis:

a. Stand up straight, with your back and head straight forward and upward.

b. Grab a barbell with palms out and down (rather than up and toward you). Grip the bar at shoulder width, slowly raising the weight with your elbows tight up against your body.

c. Once the weight has reached the top, lower it slowly back down to the starting position.

Bonus tip: by focusing mentally on the muscles you want to really build up while you do these exercises, you can actually improve the intensity of the workout that these muscles get. By focusing on them, your body will naturally send more energy in those areas.

Try these tips on how to build the muscles on the sides of your arms.

Auto Body Repair – Does Bumper Repair Have to Be So Expensive?

There's a very good chance that you have damaged the bumper on your car at some point in your driving career. Your bumpers are the most exposed parts of your car. They're the most likely to be damaged. And … they're designed to be repaired quickly and easily.

There's also a very good chance that something much worse than having your bumpers damaged has happened to you: you almost certainly have overpaid by as much as double to have those bumpers repaired.

Body shops have two solutions to bumper repair: repaint the whole bumper (if the paint is damaged but it is not misshapen) or replace it (if the bumper has been cut, dented, or misshapen). There's one option that they almost never consider: repair and repaint just the area that has been damaged.

When I owned a body shop I was shocked at how many healthy bumpers with minor damage (bumper rash on the corners, a dent with no paint damage, scratches across the face) were removed and discarded by body shops. The body shops were more than happy to toss bumpers that were 90% brand new because they could mark up the cost of the new bumper to the customer. And they were just as happy to paint the entire bumper for small scratches and scrapes covering just 10 – 20% of its surface area because the paint, primer, labor were all marked up as well. In sum, the tactic of body shops is to make jobs as large as possible because bigger jobs yield bigger profits, and it's not the customer that's paying … it's the insurance company (do not fall for that – you pay and then some over time when they increase your rates slowly). The average bumper repaint is about $ 450. A replacement is usually $ 800.

There is a sub-industry that car dealers use but the public is mostly ignorant of: the spot repair business. Spot repair techs specialize in bumper repairs. They can reshape, refill, recolor, and re-clear almost any bumper that does not have damage done to the tabs that attach it to the car (that's 80% of bumper damage, by the way). Contrary to what body shops will tell you, bumpers can be fixed, and just the area that has been damaged can be painted. This does require some skill. The painter must know how to properly scuff beyond the damaged area, blend in the paint, and apply the clearcoat so that the repair is undetectable.

What's the average charge for a corner scuff, the most common of all bumper repairs? About $ 250. And here's a HUGE bonus: most spot repair techs are mobile. That means they come to your home or office. A bumper corner can be sanded, primed, painted, and cured within 90 – 120 minutes. Ask your local car dealers for their "bumper repair guy." There's many in your area doing work you just did not know indicated for prices and convenience that you would be silly to ignore.

Cotton Vs Synthetic Towels – Which is Better?

There are a lot of opinions surrounding the relative merits of cotton vs. synthetic towels. Both of them are really fine to use. And whether toweling off after a swim during your stay at a hotel or after a bath at home, it really all boils down to personal preference. Since both have their own pros and cons, you might find that one is better suited to your tastes than the other. Your choice is just that – your choice – no better or worse than what other people prefer. But there are differences.

Recently, the use of cotton towels by many hotels and health spas has declined. This is probably because synthetic towels are generally less expensive and dry faster than 100% cotton. Generally, cotton towels are very good at absorbing moisture. This is the reason why bathrobes are most often made of real cotton. They are able to absorb the water from your body in no time at all so you can avoid feeling cold when you step out of the pool or jacuzzi.

However, this strength of cotton towels is also its weakness. Although cotton towels are very good at absorbing moisture, it also takes a lot of time before they dry out. This means that they are pretty much useless once they are soaked with water. Even if you wring them out completely, you still will not be able to rid them of moisture to make them usable again in the short term. This is why you'll find that swimmers often use some cotton towels when they are training. It gives the used towels a chance to dry up completely.

Synthetic towels, on the other hand, are free from this particular flaw of cotton towels. When absorption ability is the main issue, there is no doubt that that cotton towels will win hands down. However, synthetic towels are able to get rid of absorbed water completely even with a simple wringing. It's reliably easy to remove the moisture completely and you do not have to use so many towels. A synthetic towel is reusable in this way, and relieves you off the burden of having a pile of towels to wash frequently all at once. You can use them for longer periods of time between laundry.

The other disadvantage of using cotton is that the cotton towels are softer and often less durable than synthetics. After you have used them several times, surviving the wash becomes more of a challenge and they tend to get threadbare quicker. Unlike synthetic towels that are able to go through many more washings and stay intact, cotton towels are more prone to damage with regular use. Synthetic towels are also good for use in more demanding jobs like spills. However, when absorption quality is concerned, cotton towels are still better.

The common wisdom says that cotton is more luxurious than synthetic. But since both of them have their pros and cons, you can just choose the one you think is best suited for your taste or particular use, although many people purchase towels as an afterthought and cost and / or impulse become the overriding purchasing factor.

Blown-In Home Insulation – Turn Your Leaky Home Energy Miser

Blown-in home insulation is one of the proven home improvement methods to keep the cold at bay in winter. The method of cramming the insulation into your walls has been found by most people to be quite difficult. But the attempts are worth making as they make your old energy-liberal house an energy miser.

The blown-in insulation process has a myriad of variations, depending on the materials to be used such as fiberglass, foam or cellulose. By retrofitting these materials into the leaking walls or loft space, your house will be able to retain the heat. Here, your house turns into an energy mister and reduces energy consumption as it does not require heating systems to warm up the indoor temperature. Therefore, you can mitigate energy bills up to 20 to 30 percent. So, do not you want to adopt blown-in home insulation to control thermal fluctuation and keep chilling winds at bay?

Blown-in insulation can be done by selecting any common home insulation materials. Once fitted, effects of this typical insulation are guaranteed and last for the life of the house. However, the inconvenience of blowing in materials puts off most of the homeowners from adopting this. Even the most determined DIY installers find it hard to obtain the necessary equipment and difficult to learn how to handle the equipment and issues pertinent to blown-in insulation.

Considering such inconveniences, it is best to hand over your home thermal insulation project to a registered pro. Also, a registered installers' involvement comes with the seal of guarantee that ensures effectiveness for up to 25 years. Therefore, once a specific area that is emitting heat and gaining cold air from the outside is insulated following the blown-in method, it becomes completely resistant to heat transfer.

Fiberglass-based home insulation is the most suitable for loft insulation and insulating other difficult-to-access areas. Fitting fibreglass insulation materials is quite critical for laymen. Also, fiberglass materials tend to fluff up due to lack of proper care and methodological approaches during blowing in to the targeted area. Here, fiberglass materials are submitted to be left to professional contractors to avoid risks and ensure optimal effect of the insulation.

While you select any insulation material, it is imperative to follow the government as well as the manufacturers' recommendations, considerations, consider R-value of the materials and also follow compulsory achievable depth (per square foot).