Found the Perfect House For Sale? Hire an Inspector

Buying a home is both exciting and nerve-wracking. It is often cited as one of the most stressful life experiences, along with having a baby and getting married. Even if a buyer and his real estate agent find the perfect house for sale, there's uncertainty. So what's a homebuyer to do to seek a little peace of mind about this major decision? Hire a professional home inspector.

What Is A Home Inspector?

There used to be a time when buyers did not hire a third party inspector unless the house for sale was old or visibly in need of work. Buyers relied on their own review of the home and the information provided by the real estate agent.

Now inspections are quite common. Most real estate contracts allow buyers to have the home inspected. Even in the case of new home purchases, hiring an inspector is a good idea. An inspector is a trained professional who can identify any problems or potential issues with a house for sale that the buyer or even real estate agent would not be able to discern.

How To Find A Good Inspector

Finding the right inspector is harder than it may seem. There are many to choose from and what they check varies. Your real estate agent should be able to provide a few recommendations. After that, a buyer needs to do his or her research to make the right choice.

The American Society of Home Inspectors is a great resource for finding information about the state requirements for home inspectors. The organization can also refer buyers to local home inspectors who are members. ASHI, and most other professional organizations, provide members with training and certification programs. Be sure to ask about professional memberships and affiliations when interviewing an inspector.

Ask for references of past clients and call them. Make sure at least one of the referred clients have been living in their home for several months or more. Some issues will not show up until months after closing.

It is vital to understand what the inspector will and will not do. Some inspectors check the roof, some will not. What about the swimming pool? Do they check all appliances, or just heating and cooling systems? What about checking for lead and asbestos? Ask for a sample report or checklist. Does it provide standards for each item listed, or is it just a checklist?

Finally, ask about errors and omissions insurance. This insurance essentially covers the inspector if he misses a problem or issue. Not all inspectors carry such insurance and it does not necessarily mean that they're a bad inspector. However, if they do not carry insurance, it's a good idea to get a written explanation of the inspection company's policies when a mistake occurs.

Housing Inspection Costs

The average cost to inspect a house for sale is between $ 300 and $ 400 per inspection. However there can be additional costs. For example, testing for Chinese drywall can cost $ 200. Expect to pay about $ 100 for a radon exam. Asbestos tests can cost $ 50 or more. Make sure the inspector provides a full description of what's covered under the base price, and what tests and inspections are add-ons.

Ultimately, an inspection should save money and headaches. If any issues are found, a buyer should be able to work with his or her real estate agent to renegotiate the price of the house for sale. If the problems are too significant, the buyer may abandon the deal. Even if the inspector finds no issues, a few hundred dollars is worth the confidence that a good inspection can provide.

Turkey House Plans – All You Need To Know Before Deciding on A Turkey House

So you have been raising a few turkey poults in the backyard for your own family’s consumption. Now you want to take your turkey project to the next level and raise more than what your family needs. What do you do now? How exactly do you scale up? The first thing you need to seriously think about is how to come up with turkey house plans.

From this point on, you should be ready to have room for adult turkeys, both males and females, and provide them with an environment that is conducive to reproducing and raising their own babies. If you have been into turkey poult-raising, you will find the next level easier because there is not a lot of difference from what you are currently doing.

Deciding on the best turkey house plans are an important factor in the success of your turkey raising project. Most turkey house plans will have provisions for heat lamps, which regulate the temperature in the breeding space. If you are looking at several plans, it is recommended that you choose one that is scalable. This way, you can scale it up should you decide later that you want more turkeys, or scale it down, if you want to downsize your stock.

Turkey house plans typically come with an accurate list of the materials that you need. For best results, stick to the list of materials unless you can make knowledgeable alterations to the plan. For example, purchase the required length of wood, as well as the required number of meters of meshed wire fence. The roof is something that you can have flexibility with. You can pretty much use any material of your choice for the roof, as long as it provides protection to the turkeys against exposure to the elements.

Finally, the typical turkey house plans should also have areas for males and females to breed. The breeding space should be comfortable enough to accommodate turkeys for the week-long breeding period. After the breeding period, the females will need a nesting box to lay their eggs in. The nesting box should be big enough to fit the nesting turkeys, as well as small enough to protect the eggs as they are laid one per day. It normally takes a week to fill the nesting box with eggs. After the week-long laying of eggs, you have the option to take the eggs away to incubate them, or leave them there for their mothers to warm until they hatch.

6 Fun Facts About the History of the Alabama Crimson Tide

At the University of Alabama, football is king. The school’s gridiron squad has won numerous national titles, has had renowned coaches and players, and was even featured in the motion picture “Forest Gump.” While most fans of “Alabama,” “Bama,” or “UA” know these details, you might be unaware of some others. Here are some facts about Alabama football, which fewer football fans know:

1. The “Crimson Tide” nickname originated from a muddy game

Prior to becoming the Alabama Crimson Tide, people commonly referred to Alabama’s football squad, as the “Crimson White” (named after the school colors) or “Thin Red Line.” Then in 1907, Alabama played its arch rival, Auburn. Alabama was a huge underdog, and the teams played in a “sea” of red mud. However, Alabama battled Auburn to a 6-6 tie. Later, a sports editor named Zipp Newman popularized the nickname “Crimson Tide.”

2. No Alabama player has won the Heisman Trophy

Ironically, despite all the success of the Alabama Crimson Tide’s football team, no player has won the Heisman Trophy award-given to the most outstanding NCAA football player in a single season. In 1993, David Palmer became the closest Alabama player to winning the award. David “The Deuce” Palmer, played wide receiver for the Crimson Tide, and would later play seven seasons with the NFL’s Minnesota Vikings.

3. Alabama has won 21 SEC titles

The Crimson Tide’s football record is simply outstanding. Here are some of its accomplishments, throughout the years:

o 12 National Titles

o 25 Conference Titles (21 SEC)

o 51 Bowl Games

o 92 All-American Players

4. Paul “Bear” Bryant had a .834 winning percentage as Alabama’s coach

Coach “Bear” Bryant is a legend at Alabama. He led the Crimson Tide to six national championships, which is half of the team’s all-time 12 national titles. Bryant also coached at Texas A&M University, the University of Kentucky and the University of Maryland. However, Alabama was where Bryant had his most success. Bryant earned the nickname “bear” when, at 13-years-old, he wrestled a bear as part of a theater’s promotion.

5. Alabama’s elephant mascot dates back to 1930

The origin of the school’s elephant mascot was the 1930 season. At that time, Coach Wallace Wade was the team’s general. During a game versus Mississippi, an Alabama fan shouted, “…the elephants are coming!” referring to Alabama’s huge, aggressive players. Everett Strupper, a sportswriter, reported the incident.

6. Three former Alabama coaches are in the College Football Hall of Fame

Since the Hall of Fame first opened its doors in South Bend, Indiana (1951), it has inducted 16 Alabama players, and three coaches. The coaches inducted were Wallace Wade (1923-1930), Frank Thomas (1931-1946), and Paul “Bear” Bryant (1958-1982). The Hall of Fame inducted Bryant as both a player and a coach.

The football history at Alabama is simply amazing. It includes 12 national championships, Coach “Bear” Bryant, and some aforementioned less famous facts. Use Alabama Crimson Tide merchandise to cheer on the team to its next historical moment-another national championship!

The Easiest Way to Measure for a Fireplace Grate

Making sure you have the correct measurements is a vital process when purchasing a brand-new fireplace grate. We will walk through the process to obtain the right measurements for a new fireplace grate.

You will need a few things to help you:

Measuring Tape for correct measurements, paper to write those measurements on and a pen or pencil to write with, and depending on the light levels in your room, a flashlight might help. We also recommend that you wear some clothing that you don’t mind getting dirty, because there is a good chance you will get dirty and sometimes that soot is hard to get out of your clothing.

Step 1 – Measuring the Width:

Measure the width of your fireplace opening in the very back of your fireplace and write this measurement down. Make sure to get as far back as possible for the most precise dimensions, this is where the flashlight might be helpful.

Measure the width of your fireplace opening at the front of your fireplace and write this measurement down.

Now that you have both the back width and front width, deduct 6 inches from each dimension. If, for example, your front width is 42 inches, then you would subtract 6 inches, which would offer you a final width of 36 inches. If the rear width is of 38 3/4, you would round to the next whole number then subtract 6 inches for the final 32 inches.

You will need the rear width to make sure you are purchasing the right grate size, as they can be found in numerous various back widths. Some fireplaces have a radical taper and some fireplaces have no taper at all.

NOTE: The most common mistake when ordering a fireplace grate is to only look at the front width and ignore the rear width in a tapered fireplace. This typically ends up in a costly return after paying shipping. Be sure to confirm that all measurements before ordering.

Keep in mind that fireplace grates are categorized by their front width, you may need to look at several sizes before you find one that will fit your fireplace.

Step 2 – Measuring the Depth:

Measure the depth of your fireplace from the fireplace door, or from the beginning of the fireplace opening and write this measurement down.

Now that you have your depth dimension, deduct 6 inches from this measurement.

Ideally, you want to have about 3″ on all sides of the grate to ensure appropriate feature & air flow.

Step 3 – Find your Grate:

With these dimensions, you now have a guide to start searching for a new fireplace grate! We hope this short article was valuable to you.

How To Build A Rat Rod – From Beginner To Expert

So you have finally decided to build your Rat Rod car and you feel that you know what to do, but if you are smart, you will always be open to suggestions. Knowing the basics will help you get a good start.

For those of you who are new at this, keep it simple. No one wants their project to remain a project, and not a driver. Beginners should save up a bit more money and try to get something that runs and drives. Bodywork and modifications can be done at your leisure, as long as your Rat Rod doesn’t have huge holes in it. Spend more time customizing your Rat Rod than fixing it. Messing with a car when you don’t have the experience is very tough, and although you might have some friends to help, chance are they will not always be there to help you. Don’t get a Rat Rod that has electrical issues or motor problems. It’s most likely that someone has “patched” it up to get it sale-able and now you are stuck with someone else’s headache. Don’t fall in love with a piece of junk. Let your brain choose your new Rat Rod, not your emotions.

For those of you that have been doing this for a while, here are a few tips for you. Keeping the cool factor with Flathead Fords and 392 Chrysler Hemi’s are great. Nothing show a better Rat Rod then with period correct parts arranged and selected in a tasteful manner. Try not to find anything old and rusty and just weld it to the car or bolt it to the motor. Having a unique powered car is cool though. There is nothing wrong with the old reliable Chevy small block, and with all the aftermarket parts out there, you can make it look correct for that era. Big blown motors are not necessary as Rat Rods are not made to be driven at the strip, but if you have the means, you can do it, but like we always say, keep it period correct. Find a blower from the early 40’s or 50’s. Big fancy drum brakes from old Buick’s are popular. Use your imagination and keep it cool.

Whether you are new at this, or are just looking for other ideas for a new build, make a plan, and follow through with it and build the Rat Rod of your dreams.

Studying for 1Z0-497: Oracle Database 12c: Essentials

Passing the Oracle Database 12c: Essentials exam (1Z0-497) will earn exam candidates the Oracle Database 12c Certified Implementation Specialist certification. It will also make them an OPN Certified Specialist in Oracle 12c if they are employed by a company that is part of the Oracle Partner Network (OPN). Partner companies with employees who are certified as OPN specialists gain a higher level of specialization in the OPN program. As such, this credential makes you a more attractive employee to companies that are part of the Oracle Partner Network.

The 1Z0-497 exam is a standardone test and is not part of any track. To earn the related certification requires only passing the exam. There is no required training or other pre-requisites. The 12c database will be Oracle's flagship product for several years to come and this exam will be a popular one for some time. This exam covers many of the same topics as the 12c database administrator track but does not require the same depth of knowledge. That said – it also does not provide the same level of prestige. While this certification generally would not be a direct stepping-stone to a position as a DBA, it may lead to a job with an OPN company that you can use in working towards employment as an Oracle DBA.

As with any Oracle certification exam, your first step should always be to visit the topics page on the Oracle University website. The OU topic lists are always complete and will provide you with a roadmap of exactly what you need to learn when studying for the test. The exam will never cover any material that is not in some way related to the subjects listed there. The 1Z0-497 exam has fifty-two topics broken into twelve different subject areas. The areas covered by the exam include the following:

  • Oracle Database Software
  • Administration & Configuration
  • Oracle Database 12c New Features
  • Maximum Availability Architecture
  • Backup and Recovery
  • Monitoring
  • Administering Users and Security
  • Software Installation and Maintenance
  • Oracle Data Structures
  • Oracle Database Instance Architecture
  • Oracle Multitenant Architecture
  • Oracle Network Architecture

The exam has eighty-five multiple-choice or multiple-answer questions. You will have a maximum of one-hundred and twenty minutes to answer all of the questions. The passing score is seventy percent. Oracle exams have no partial credit for multiple-answer questions, they are either right or wrong. Questions that are left unanswered are counted as incorrect. For this reason, you should always answer every question on the exam – even if that means picking an answer at random.

Available on the Oracle 12c documentation website is a 2-Day DBA manual. Reading this book would make a fairly good start in preparation for the exam. Much of the information in that book is on topics relevant to the test and the coverage level is similar to what you will be asked. The Oracle Learning Library has several interactive tutorials that go hand-in-hand with the 2-Day DBA manual that can also be useful in preparation for the exam. Candidates who know absolutely nothing about Oracle might want to read the Oracle Concepts manual first in order to get a firm grounding in the various elements that make up an Oracle database.

This exam covers a number of subject areas to a fairly shallow depth. The exam does not require candidates to have an extensive knowledge of any single objective. Once you have obtained the topics from the Oracle University website, use them as a checklist while you prepare. Focus on learning a reasonable amount of information about each topic rather than trying to become an expert on any single topic or group of topics. Only after you are comfortable that you understand them should you schedule the exam. Good luck on the test.

Wound Dressings – Composites

Composite dressings are dressings that combine the advantages of multiple layers, providing more than one function in wound care management. Each layer of dressing is physiologically distinct. To learn how to use these dressings, and when not to, read on.

Product Overview

Most composite dressings have three layers. The bottom layer is usually composed of a semi-or non-adherent material, which allows moisture to travel though to the next layer while preventing the dressing from sticking to the freshly granulating tissue of the wound bed. The middle layer is generally composed of an absorbent material which pulls moisture away from the wound bed, keeping it moist but preventing maceration of the skin. It also helps to inhibit bacterial growth and assists in the process of autolytic debridement. The outermost layer protects the wound from bacterial invasion and allows air to circulate. The outer layer also prevails moisture from leaking through to the top layer of dressing, allowing for less frequent dressing changes.

Indications

  • Partial- and full-thickness wounds
  • Wounds that have minimal or heavy exudate
  • Wounds with granulating tissue
  • Wounds that are necrotic (have necrotic tissue)
  • Wounds that have a combination of necrotic and granulating tissue

Contraindications

  • Patients who are very dehydrated
  • Patients who have fragile skin ie. the elderly

Advantages

  • Can be used as both primary and secondary dressings
  • Can be used on a variety of wounds with varying degrees of exudate
  • Easy to remove, as the bottom layer is usually non-adherent
  • Prevent maceration of the surrounding skin
  • Have antibacterial properties
  • Facilitates autolytic debridement
  • Shape well to different wounds on different parts of the body
  • Can be cost-effective, owing to less frequent dressing changes

Disadvantages

  • Some of these dressings are not appropriate for use on infected wounds (check the manufacturer's directions for use)
  • Composites with an adhesive border require that there be intact skin around the wound edges
  • Some insurers will not reimburse for these types of dressing when they are used as secondary dressings

As each of these dressings are different, it is important to read the manufacturer's instructions for use. They should be changed when scheduled, or when recommended by the manufacturer. To learn more about these dressings and others, you may want to consider becoming certified as a wound care specialist. The benefits to you and your patients are immeasurable, and WoundEducators.com is dedicated to helping you take this all-important step in your career. Because Medicare and other government entities are now holding health care professionals responsible for outcomes in wound care, the time has never been better to consider becoming a wounded care specialist, able to handle any type of wound you may encounter in your practice.

Why Reflexology Is Becoming More and More Popular

Put simply, reflexology is the application of gentle and controlled pressure to specific points on the feet, hands, or ears. Reflexologists work on the notion that these areas and reflex points correspond to different body organs and systems. They believe that applying pressure to these points has a positive effect on their patients’ organs and general health.

For example, reflexologists believe that a specific spot in the arch of the foot corresponds to the bladder point. When a reflexology practitioner uses their thumbs or fingers to apply pressure to this area, bladder functioning may be improved.

Although reflexology is not used to diagnose or offer a cure to health problems, millions of people around the world use it to help with their symptoms or to complement other treatments when addressing conditions such as anxiety, back pain and headaches.

Reflexology offers enormous and varied benefits. Helping with the symptoms of stress and aiding pain management are two of the most common reasons why people seek out reflexology therapy.

Reflexology to Reduce Stress

Reflexology techniques involve finger or thumb “walking”. In other words, reflexologists “walk” their fingers or thumbs across different areas of the feet in a set sequence. They also massage and knead the patient’s foot using their whole hand. The experience is typically firm, but gentle, and does not cause any discomfort or pain. Results vary from patient to patient, but the soothing action of reflexology generally induces a deeply relaxed and peaceful feeling.

Reflexology to Reduce Pain

Reflexologists work on the understanding that illness is caused by blockages in the meridians or energy channels. These blockages slow the flow of life enhancing energy, also known as ‘chi,’ causing a build up of negative energy, which results in pain or disease.

There are over 7,000 nerve endings in the feet. These are connected to the entire body through the central nervous system. Reflexologists work on the belief that massage of the feet (therefore massage of the nerve endings) encourages the body’s self-healing abilities.

Reflexologists believe that their techniques have the ability to restore the delicate balance between the different body systems and functions, thus restoring harmony within the body. As a result of this, tension is removed from the body, stress is reduced and pain is diminished.

Reflexology treatment is becoming more widely used and increasing in popularity due to the deep relaxation effects it typically has on the body.

Starting a Cleaning Business, Get Free Cleaning Logo Ideas!

Did you recently get an LLC for your cleaning business but having a terrible time coming up with any logo ideas to go on your website and business card?

Have you been looking for free cleaning logo samples for weeks and all you can think of is a bucket and a broom or a mop?

Have you been surfing websites with pictures related to cleaning for your brand identity but to no avail?

Small startups face these issues because they do not have the appropriate knowledge and expertise of designing a logo but they still try to design it on their own. A well-designed logo has 3 key elements: Imagery, font, colors.

Here they are in detail …

Here Are 3 Free Cleaning Logo Ideas That Will Get Your Creative Juice Flowing ….

1) Best Color Combinations For Your Logo

Usually cleaning companies use shades of blue and white in their logos because these colors are associated with hygiene and purity. Not only this, blue color also symbolizes trust and dependency. Tans and grains appear good on a business card, but they do not really send the message of 'clean' like white does. Cleaning businesses are now increasingly using green and lemon color to signify the freshness and environmental-friendly element.

Green, brown, and some shades of yellow can give a feeling of dirt or grime, something you definitely want to avoid in a cleaning company logo.

2) The Imagery For Your Logo

Ensure that your logo makes sense. For example, a logo for a dry cleaning company that includes aircraft imagery serves no purpose, and will not be memorable. It does not mean that you should not be creative.

A leaf logo could be a great option if you focus on green cleaning. Just make sure that your imagination appeals to your target audience. The image to be used in your emblem depends upon what you want to covey to your target audience. It can be anything from shimmers, sparkles, glints, water, mop, duster and other cleaning equipment.

3) Logo Fonts

Decide one and stick with it. Make sure that it's very easy to read from a distance. Traditional font for details / small print is always easier to read than a script one, 'copperplate' is very businesslike. Select a crisp, elegant font but not a display font. Nothing bold. When designing your logo, use a different font for your tag line.

Once you have your logo designed, use it on every piece of marketing -no exceptions. Use the color palette from your logo to create your other marketing collateral. Get your cleaning business off to the best possible start by viewing free cleaning logos samples and getting cleaning logo ideas including carpet, window, house, dry cleaning, green, and blur business logos.

Thunder Explained

Let me set the scene; off somewhere in the distance the sky is dark, the winds pick up and the temperature drops slightly, those dark clouds are soon overhead and suddenly the sky lights up with a bolt of lightning followed by a booming clap of thunder. Thousands of years ago your first thought may have been that the gods were arguing and Zeus just thread the first punch, but today science has given us a slightly more reasonable explanation.

First things first; thunder comes with lightning and vice versa. In fact thunder is created because of lightning which is why you will always experience the two together. In that case we should to a quick overview of how lighting works. When lighting occurs it can heat the air to 70,000 in just a few milliseconds – now that's hot! With the air heating up so fast to such a hot temperature something dramatic must happen and if you've been in a thunder and lightning storm you know just how dramatic it can be – maybe you've joined your dog whimpering in the closet a few times or maybe you've had to peel your cat off the ceiling. The drama happens because a high majority of the electrical energy from lightning is transformed into heat and disappears into the atmosphere but less than 1% of the energy from lightning is converted into sound while the rest is converted into light and this is where thunder comes into play.

With this huge increase in pressure and temperature the air expends aggressively – think of your emotions when someone cuts in front of you in line after you've been waiting for an hour – at a rate faster than the rate of sound. After that shock wave goes beyond 30 feet it becomes the sound wave that we all know as thunder. It is very similar to a sonic boom created as a jet executes a flyby. Thunder is basically exploding air that moves along lighting. There are a few variables that will greater or less the loudness – which is measured in decibels – of the thunder and those include humidity, wind velocity, temperature and clouds.

The science community has certainly come a long way from the earliest belief that thunder was part of the arsenal of the gods or that it was a collision of the clouds.

Foundation Wall Cracks, Cause, Effect and Solution

There are no perfect houses and that would include its foundation. Whether you have a new home or one that’s a hundred years old, house foundations crack. Houses shift and settle after construction. Houses will have cracks in either the cosmetic finishes or structural components. Most of these cracks have no structural significance. The common types of cracks in foundation walls will include;

Vertical (or near vertical) cracks; Just because a wall has cracked doesn’t mean that it has failed or that corrective action is required. If the crack is narrow (1/8 inch or less), is nearly vertical, has no lateral separation between the adjacent portions of the wall, and no water is leaking through the crack, no action generally is required. This is a shrinkage crack and occurs as moisture in the wall evaporates causing the wall to shrink into the voids created by the escaping water. This type of crack is controlled, or minimized but not eliminated by, using horizontal reinforcement steel, which helps distribute the stresses in the wall. If horizontal steel is present, you are more likely to get several very small cracks instead of one or two much wider cracks. Another method of limiting shrinkage cracks is to control the amount of water used in the concrete mix.

Reentrant Cracks; Whenever a concrete element has a sharp angle, there is a concentration of stress. This almost always results in a crack called a reentrant crack that emanates from the inside corner. It may be vertical, horizontal, or diagonal as it exits the corner. This phenomenon exists in nearly all materials. Round openings can dissipate the stress but this is not practical in concrete wall construction. The typical remedy to reduce this type of crack is the placement of steel reinforcement in the corners. It will not eliminate these crack but keep they tight and controlled.

Horizontal cracks; Horizontal cracks require greater scrutiny. Most residential foundation walls are designed to span from the footing or floor slab to the connection of the floor structure above. An 8-inch concrete wall in normal soil conditions usually is strong enough to withstand the forces exerted on the wall with no vertical reinforcement. Exceptions include areas with high ground water conditions or in expansive soil conditions. If there is vertical reinforcement in the wall, a horizontal crack is probably not a concern. An expert should be consulted when a horizontal crack appears to evaluate whether there is a structural risk.

These cracks typically result from one or more of the following;

1. Soil settlement beneath the footing resulting in downward movement of the footing, and shifting is common to most newly constructed homes.

2. Alteration of the local water table whenever a new home is built. Specifically, the soil beneath the home dries; the resultant soil shrinkage causes minor settlement of the footing which can result in hairline cracking in the foundation walls.

3. A new home, without of furniture and effects, does not impose a significant load on the foundation. Once all of your furniture and appliances are moved in, the weight borne by the foundation, and the structure in general, increases and causes some flexing (or movement) of structural members throughout the building. This increased load can cause hairline cracks in the foundation.

4. Drying shrinkage. While poured concrete is dries and hardens, it will shrink. The major factor influencing drying shrinkage is the total water content of the concrete. As the water content in poured concrete increases, the amount of shrinkage increases. Significant increases in the sand content and significant reductions in the size of the coarse aggregate used in poured concrete increase shrinkage because total water content is increased and smaller size coarse aggregate provide less internal resistance to shrinkage.

5. Thermal expansion and contraction of concrete. Concrete poured during high daytime temperatures will contract as it cools during the night, this can be sufficient enough to cause cracking if the concrete is restrained.

6. Restraint; The restriction of free movement of fresh or hardened concrete subsequent to the completion of placing (pouring of concrete) in formwork or within an otherwise confined space; restraint can be internal or external and may act in one or more directions.

7. Subgrade settlement or movement. The dropping of soil or the footing due to their mass, the loads imposed on them, or shrinkage or displacement of the underlying support.

Most foundation cracks are minor and insignificant; they are common to both poured concrete and block foundations. Structural cracks (horizontal) in residential foundations are usually the result of settlement and/or horizontal loading. They can be the result of hydrostatic pressure or the use of heavy equipment next to the foundation. The possible implication of cracks in your foundation is moisture penetration, moisture that can ruin finished wall coverings, floor coverings and furniture.

Water will leak through a foundation crack if there is enough hydrostatic pressure to force water through the crack. If a waterproofing system was installed during construction, the basement may not leak even if there is a large crack. Keep in mind that waterproofing is not the same as damp-proofing. Installing an exterior waterproofing system after the wall has been backfilled can be cost prohibitive. The best solution is the use of an epoxy injection system. It will adhere to the side of the cracks and actually may strengthen the wall. These systems can be DIY but is it highly recommended that they be applied by a professional.

If you take anything away from this article…take this. All foundations crack, your foundation, my foundation and most of these cracks are insignificant and have no structural implications. If you do have a concern about the size and type of crack call a professional to evaluate.

Beginners Guide to Timber Decking Kits

Timber Decking Kits for your Patio & Garden

Garden Decking has witnessed a revival of late, which is possible attributable to the fact that it is a simple, elegant, and easy to create feature which adds both practicality and usability to your garden.

Constructing a decking kit is a rewarding and simple experience – and one which is open to almost any practical-minded individual or half-competent DIYer. By following just a few instructions, you too could create a highly practical area within your garden, which can be enjoyed by for all the family.

First up, ensure that the garden timber decking kit is constructed from ethically sourced, sustainable timbers. Ethically managed forests help ensure that the deck boards have been harvested from sustainable sources. Pine deck boards are the most common deckboards in the UK – typically at 12.5 and 14.5 centimeters wide. Ensuring that your deckboards are grooved will also ensure that the deck provides extra grip in wet weather conditions, so try to source timbers which have at least four grooves. Reversible deck boards will give you the option of perhaps four or seven grooves.

The construction process begins with the preparation of your ground area – the space on which the deck is to be built. Having removed the weeds, rocks, and other unwanted objects from the ground, start by laying a weed control membrane underneath the area on which your project is to be constructed. This will help prevent any further weeds from growing up through the timber boards.

Once the ground area has been prepared, the project will begin constructing the wooden joist frame. This will typically be constructed from C16 grade softwood, 4 "x2" in profile. Raised projects will use 6 "x2" timbers mounted on steel post anchors.

Now that the timber joist frame is in place, the framework will provide a solid base onto which the deckboards can be laid. Timber decking boards should be laid at 5-6mm intervals, to allow the timber to expand and contract under different weather conditions and seasons.

If you wish to install a handrail system, this will be supported vertically by the use of either steel fence post spikes or the more conventional bolt-down steel anchors.

Timber decking kits need not cost the earth – pretty much anyone with fundamental DIY skills will be able to complete an elegant and practical ground deck. Decking kits can be easily adapted for level ground decks, and raised decks can help accommodate uneven ground or a sloping garden. Decking kits are often consider cheaper than a paved decking area, and far more environmentally friendly.

Finally, ensure that all decking timbers are protected with a quality decking stain. Sadolin 2 in 1 Deck Stain and Preserver is specifically good value, and offers a very high level of finish and quality.

How to Make a Glass Fan Light in a Timber Door Frame

Fan lights are found on top of a long door frame. They are usually made of glass with a vent of one inch above the glass. They allow light and air movement in and out of a room. They are normally fitted on door ways of all rooms except wash rooms and lavatories. In rooms where the corridor has no adequate light, they assist by allowing it into the passage. This light is from windows in the rooms. The glass is fixed into a rebate using timber beading’s nailed to the door frame.

The fan light can be of made of clear sheet or frosted glass. This will depend on the amount of light intended on the passage and the door location. The vent above the glass can be covered with a gauze wire. This will stop the insects and flies from crossing from the open lobbies into the rooms. The fan light can be introduced on door frame existing in a house. Where door frame heights are greater than ten feet, a fan light can be used. This will also give good door frame aesthetics.

The fixing of the glass fan light starts with measuring the size of the opening above the door. The glass is then cut, leaving a one inch gap at the top. The glass should be cut leaving space at the bottom and side of the frame. This will allow it to slide into the rebate of the frame without getting stuck. The beading’s to be used should also be measured and cut at forty five degrees at the ends. This will allow a smooth joint at the corners. The wire nails to be used should not break the beading when being hammered in.

When the glass is slid into the rebate, panel pins are hammered into three spots round. This are for ensuring the glass does not rattle when the door is closed. Also in the case of wind gushing into the room when windows are opened. The beading is then hammered onto the rebate also using the panel pins. The beading should fit flush with the rebate. After it is fixed, painting of this timber is then carried out. This should match the door frame paint. After apply three coats and it dries, the glass is cleaned to remove any paint marks.

Characteristics of Sound

Sound in brief but remarkable terms is a vibration, that our ears perceive by the sense of hearing. Most commonly vibrations travel to our ears via the air. The ear then converges these sound waves into nerve impulses that are sent to our brains, where the impulses become sound. To say all that in a more technical language: Sound "is an alternation in pressure, particle displacement, or particle velocity propagated in an elastic material" (Olson 1957). Sound is also a series of mechanical compressions and rarefactions or longitudinal waves that successfully propagate through media that are at least a little compressible. What causes sound waves is known as "the source of waves". Examples of sounds sources is: A violin string that vibrates upon being bowed or plucked.

The four characteristics of sound are frequency, wavelength, amplitude and velocity.

The frequency of sound is the number of air pressure oscillations per second at a fixed point occupied by a sound wave.

The amplitude is the magnitude of sound pressure change within the wave. Basically this is the maximum amount of pressure at any point in the sound wave. A sound wave is caused literally by increases in pressure at certain points causing a "domino effect" outward, the higher pressure points are the crests in a sound wave , and behind them are low pressure points which tail them. These are known as the troughs on a wavelength graph. Sound's propagation Velocity depends largely on the type, temperature and pressure of the medium through which it propagates. Because air is almost a perfect gas, the speed of sound does not depend on air pressure.

The frequency range of sound that is audible to humans is approx. between 20 and 20,000 Hz. This range of course varies between individuals, and goes down as are age increases. Sounds will begin to damage our ears at 85 dBSPPL and sounds above approximately 130 dBSPL will cause pain, as a result are known as the: "threshold of pain". Of course again this range will vary among individuals and will change with age.

Dante's Inferno – A Summary of the Circles of Hell

Dante's Divine Comedy is a journey through the afterlife of Inferno, Purgatory, and Paradise.

The Journey begins with Dante lost in a dark wood. His only escape is down through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven, guided by the poet Virgil.

This epic poem tracks that amazing journey through the afterlife. Dante first enters the afterlife through the gate of Hell.

The Gate of Hell – Cowards who refused to take a stand for or against God

Forever running and getting stung by wasps.

Circle one – Limbo

Virtuous pagans, Virgil, Plato. Unfulfilled desire and hopelessness.

Circle two – The lustful

Francesa and Paolo. Cleopatra. Eternally being swirled in wind.

Circle three – The gluttons

Guarded by the three-headed dog, Cerberus. Eating slime and muck.

Circle four – The prodigal and the miserly

Hoarders and wasters pushing an intense stone against each other.

Circle five – The wrathful and the sullen

Thrashing and bodies torn apart in dark filthy water.

Circle six – The heretics

Living in smoking tombs.

Circle seven – The violent, the suicides, the blasphemers, the sodomites, the usurers

A river of boiling blood guarded by Centaurs. Souls become a forest of suffering trees, others torn apart by dogs, rain of fire, mutilation.

Circle eight – Fraudulent, pimps, seducers, flatterers, simonists, sorcerers, corrupt politicians, sewers of division, falsifiers, alchemists, thieves

Eternally walking and tormented. Living in excrement. Stuffed into holes. Heads turned backwards. Boiling tar. Lead capes. Snakes. Flames.

Circle nine – Sinners against family, betrayers, traitors against country

Encased in ice. Home of Satan. Cannibalism. Judas being eternally chewed by Lucifer.