Why You Need to Shock Your Pool

Shocking your pool is Step 2 in good pool care.

Shocking is as important as regular sanitizing with chlorine (step 1) and adding algaecide (step 3). All pools need to be parked on a regular, weekly or bi-weekly basis. Period.

Shocking your pool weekly helps rid the pool of organic & organic wastes such as sweat, cosmetics, suntan lotions, body oils, urine, contaminants brought in by rain or wind, bird droppings (most pools are outside, exposed to the surrounding air) dead bugs and small animals that "visit" your pool or even make up water. Proper shocking helps ensure that the sanitizer (chlorine) can concentrate on killing bacteria & algae rather than having to fight these other foreign materials.

When a pool is properly shocked, the pool stays cleaner, more sparkling, is less sooner to algae blooms and cloudy water. An added bonus is that you will use LESS chlorine over the course of the average swimming season. Shocking should be done at least every week or 2 weeks from pool opening to pool closing depending on use & current conditions.

Even pools using other sanitizing systems such as bromine, ionizers, salt generators (chlorine is still being produced), biguanides such as Arch Chemical Baquacil® or BioGuard® Soft Swim® must use the appropriate shock treatments to oxidize swimmer and environmental wastes on a regular , routine basis following the particular manufacturer's instructions.

But there's more to it! Are you shocking, trying to reach "break-point" chlorination or curing a chlorine demand? Let's take a closer look.

Regular Shocking.

"Regular Shocking" is just that. The pool is otherwise clean & clear. Algae is under control. There is no haze to the water. When you test the water (done twice each week), the Total Chlorine is the same as the Free Available Chlorine (FAC) – when using a DPD test kit. There are no Chloramines (chlorine combined with swimmer and organic waste) present.

Regular shocking should be done once every one to 2 weeks from the time you open the pool until closing or winterizing.

Regular shocking oxidizes swimmer and organic wastes that accumulate in the pool water over time. These wastes include sweat, urine, lotions, cosmetics, "stuff" that is introduced from the wind & rain. More recently, there is a concern for "stuff" or wastes that are bought in from normal "top offs" of municipal (tap) water or well water.

These wastes contribute to red, irritated eyes, hazy water, algae growth, and water that smells like it has "too much" chlorine. Actually there is not enough FAC. Shocking helps to "re-chlorinate" the chlorine. A properly treated chlorine pool should smell fresh and be sparkling in appearance.

Mono-persulfate shocks are OK to use from time to time to oxidize wastes, but chlorine shocks such as Cal-hypo or lithium are the preferred product. Liquid shocks? Sorry, but they are just not strong enough (11% versus about 50% available chlorine) to do a thorough job. Household bleach? Save it for the clothes in the laundry! Would you use pool chemicals to wash your clothes?

Typical doses: BioGuard® Burn Out® Extreme: 1 bag per 10,000 gallons (or any part of) every week or 2 weeks depending on weather and usage. BioGuard® Burn Out® 35: 1 bag per 6,000 gallons (or any part of) every week or 2 depending on weather and usage.

"Break-point" or super-chlorination.

The need for "break-point" or super chlorination comes when there is a build-up of chloramines or combined chlorine in the pool water. Chloramines are a combination of chlorine and usually nitrogen. When the chloramine situation becomes "bad" it is because hydrogen has combined with the nitrogen to form ammonia. This is also the preferred treatment for algae blooms and cloudy water.

The more chloramines present, the more dull the water becomes. The pool does not sparkle as it should. The added nitrogen becomes food for algae. The water smells like there's too much chlorine, but the actual FAC (the chlorine that is killing bacteria) is low or maybe even zero!

Here's an example: The total amount of chlorine in the pool is 2.0 ppm but the FAC is 1.0. That means there is 1.0 ppm of chloramines. Those chloramines must be completely destroyed or they will produce MORE chloramines and the situation will worsen. When you are treating chloramines, it's an "all or nothing" proposition.

In cases of very high chloramines, it is often a good idea to use a mono-persulfate shock (MPS) which will break up most if not all of these nitrogen bonds without adding more chlorine to the pool. This is good to do in cases where the FAC is over 1.0 ppm.

If your pool has less than 1.0 ppm FAC and lots of chloramines, follow that MPS shock with a solid chlorine shock of Cal-hypo or lithium shock. about a day later. Retest after 2 – 3 days for an accurate chlorine reading (MPS shocks will distort the actual chlorine for a brief time).

To reach break point, 10 times the amount of chloramines present must be reached to destroy the chloramines. In the example above, you would need to reach 10 ppm of FAC to reach break-point! So, a 10,000 gallon swimming pool with 1.0 ppm combined chlorine will require 4 (round numbers) lbs. of Calcium hypochlorite shock to reach breakpoint chlorination (or about 6 lbs. of Lithium hypochlorite).

Typical doses: At least Double or Triple the amount of regular shocking.

Chlorine Demand.

These are the typical symptoms if your pool has a chlorine demand problem: an inability to hold or maintain a normal Free Available Chlorine residual (1.0 ppm or higher) over several days, cloudy or hazy water, visible algae that just will not clear up . Behind the scenes, there are most likely chloramines that are combining and re-combining due to exceptional shock treatments. When "break-point" is not reached, chloramines recombine with a vengeance & become more difficult to destroy. Mono-chloramines can become dichloramines which, when allowed to worsen become trichloramines (used in tear gas!).

Treating a chlorine demand is similar to break-point chlorination except that the stakes are higher. Treatment must be complete and done at ONE time. It's like long-jumping the Grand Canyon; you must do it in one jump. You can not be short!

Most folks do not know that their pool has a chlorine demand problem until they have shocked & shocked & shocked but nothing has happened. The water will not clear. The algae persists. A solid chlorine level is almost impossible to maintain. Even a clear pool can have a chlorine demand. If the pool can not hold chlorine, yet the water balance (pH, total alkalinity & calcium hardness) is good and proper, then a chlorine demand most likely exists.

The best way to determine a chlorine demand is to perform a chlorine demand test. The BioGuard® Accu-Demand 30 is the best method available for testing. The test takes about one hour and is very accurate. In extreme cases, the test may call for shocking the pool with up to 50 lbs of shock in a 20,000 gallon pool. Do not be "shocked"! Sometimes, that is what's needed. There's no getting around it.

Here's another analogy: Let's say you have a leaky roof. The house is over 50 years old and there are already 2 layers of shingles on the roof. You want to save money by not removing the old layers so you insist that the roofing contractor (who knows what he's doing) NOT remove the old curled up shingles and simply install the new shingles right on top of the old. You sign the papers that YOU are responsible for the roof and its leaking, not the contractor. What happens with the first serious rainfall? The roof fails and it leaks. What must be done to correct the situation? Start from scratch! Rip everything off and start again.

The good news is once the chlorine demand is met., It is met. The pool will normally stay in great condition for weeks or months on end. But remember to shock the pool weekly or you could be back to a break-point or chlorine demand situation.

When shocking your pool, always …

  1. Use the full dose or amount of shock needed. Do not skimp!
  2. Do not guess the amount of shock needed. Know your pool's actual gallonage & calculate properly. For example, if you think you have a 16×32 foot inground pool with a 6 ft deep end, but the pool is actually 18×36 with an 8 ft deep end, the gallonage is going to differ by several thousand gallons and you will not reach break- point.
  3. Do not use the pool until the chlorine level comes back down to 3.0 ppm or less.
  4. Make sure that the filter system is operating properly.
  5. Remove the solar blanket or automatic pool cover to allow oxidized wastes to "gas off" and away from the pool water.
  6. Shock the pool the evening before a party and immediately after the party to keep sparkling, clear water. In this case a slightly higher chlorine level will help bathers with added protection from bacteria.
  7. Shock the pool after heavy rain storms.
  8. Be sure to rinse out and properly dispose of empty shock bags or bottles or containers. Do not reuse them.
  9. Brush the pool to help distribute the chlorine to all levels of the pool water.
  10. Indoor pools should have plenty of good ventilation to properly draw out contaminants that have gassed-off during the shocking or super-chlorinating process. Without good ventilation, waste gases will literally hit the ceiling and fall back into the pool.
  11. Follow all chemical label instructions.

Shock regularly, prevent problems. It's that simple.

The Nike Dunk – Shoes Designed For Basketball

Nike, Inc. launched the Nike Dunks in 1985 as a line of product positioned side by side the Nike Terminator. The plan was to bend the basketball shoe market a bit introducing colors instead of the usual white pair with black swoosh. They had their eye on the target and Nike knew what to do.

Designed for basketball

The Nike Dunks were really intended for the basketball players. Nike had the shoes designed with a lower profile outer sole compared to the previous shoes. The objective was to offer shoes that are lighter in weight, closer to ground, and equipped with better paneling for improved performance. The improvements were made so that the player could attain optimum pivoting and blocking.

To market the new line, a program called the College Colors was launched in various colleges and universities. Selected schools were signed up for exclusive Nike sponsorship. The jerseys were to be matched with the Dunks that will be provided for by Nike.

The eight schools that were chosen for the Dunks program included University of Maryland, St. John's University, Syracuse University, Villanova University, University of Iowa, University of Kentucky, University of Michigan, and University of Nevada.

The production for the Nike Dunks was put on hold for some time until Nike re-launched the line in 1998. The new Dunks had tongues made of nylon and arch support – those were the signature styles that differentiate them from the present releases. The shoes exhibited the classic university colors but new colors were also released.

Unexpected niche in skateboarding

In the early 2000s, the skateboarding market started to peak. Although many skaters already started to use the Dunks even during the 90s, it was not until 2002 that Nike launched the Nike Dunk SB, which targets the skateboarders.

Skaters or riders got attracted to the Dunks because of the same features that made them very good basketball shoes. The skaters needed shoes that will be comfortable for them as they ride their boards. The lower profile design of the outer soles made it possible for them to feel the board better. What made the basketball players move freely and function effectively on the court were the same features that made the skaters perform better with their skateboards.

Sneakerheads and their eye for fashion

Overlapping with the skateboarders, there emerged a pop culture where fashion was focused on the sneakers. This was also hyped up by the hiphop culture, which also started to flourish in the 90s. Sneakerhead refers to a person who collects shoes, which he intends to wear for purposes of fashion and everyday wear. Most often, the shoes of choice are those intended for sports like tennis or basketball.

The return of the Nike Dunks proved to be a successful more by Nike. With the new branch, Nike Dunk SB, the shoe line is now cashing in on their limited editions, which often sell at insane prices. The popularity of these special versions is attributed to the hype that is being given to the Dunks in the Internet.

House-Training a Puppy – Top 10 Survival Tips

House-training a puppy does not have to be a difficult or time-consuming process when you have the key points covered. I find that many new dog owners approach house-training as if they were dealing with another person.

Let me assure you that this approach will not work. You actually need to appreciate and take advantage of differences between dogs and people. For any kind of dog training, the most important difference is that dogs are creatures of habit and not creatures of reason.

You can not simply appeal with a dog or punish him in order to make him understand what you expect from him. You must correct his bad behavior and praise his good behavior. Then do this over and over until your dog gets it. Once you realize this key to successful dog training, house-training will become much easier.

I'm about to give you 10 of the most important tips for house-training your puppy. These tips, which apply to both housebreaking and paper-training, cover all of the essential components of successful house-training.

  1. Visit your veterinarian . This is always a good first step because it will help to ensure that there are no medical reasons preventing or hindering your house-training efforts. Plus, it's always a good idea to have a new pet checked out as soon as they're introduced into the family unit.
  2. Start house-training your puppy early . As soon as your new puppy arrives in your home, start house-training him. But, do not expect too much from a very young puppy. They have almost no control over their bladder and bowels. So it's up to you to get them outside regularly.
  3. Decide what method of house-training is right for your situation . If you live in a high-rise apartment building or if you're disabled or handicapped, you might want to consider paper-training rather than housebreaking.
  4. Get your puppy on a schedule immediately . Do not miss the importance of this step. Puppies need to eliminate shortly after they eat, drink, play, and sleep. If you can schedule these events, you can get them outside (or onto papers) at the appropriate time. This can speed training considerably!
  5. Use confinement and supervision religiously . Never allow your puppy to wander around the house unsupervised. I can guarantee that he will have an accident. And, every accident that goes unaccompanied slows the training.
  6. Consider Crate Training to speed house-training . When done correctly crate training is very beneficial for any puppy. It provides a secure retreat for your puppy and it also helps him to learn to control his bowels and bladder. That's because dogs by nature do not like to eliminate where they sleep. So as long as you do not leave him in the crate for hours on end, your puppy will try to hold it until you let him out.
  7. Correct an accident only if you witness it . Without you see your puppy eliminating in the house, you can not do anything except clean it up and try to supervise him better next time. If you do catch him, do something to interrupt him (like saying "NO!" In a strong tone) and get him outside immediately. Never hit him or try to punish him after the fact! You'll only be teaching him to be afraid of you. This could backfire causing him to urinate every time he sees you.
  8. Praise every successful elimination . Never miss the opportunity to praise your puppy profusely when he goes where and when he should. Praise is the golden key to successful and quick house-training.
  9. Be patient . Try to be as patient with your young puppy as you would be with your child being toilet trained. Different children take to toilet training at different speeds. The same is true for puppies and house-training.
  10. Be consistent . I saved this for last because its probably the most important. If you're not consistent in all your training efforts, your puppy will find it hard to recognize exactly what you want him to do. And, failure is assured.

Remember, your puppy would like nothing better than to please you. As soon as he figures out what it is that will please you, he'll be eager to do it! And, the training will be pretty much complete.

Therefore, your task is to make it very clear to him exactly what you want and expect from him. And you do this by correcting mistakes WHILE they're happening and by seeing his successes.

If you do this consistently , you can not fail!

Daily Lotion – The Benefits of Adding Body Lotion to Your Daily Regimen

Body lotion is something that most people, especially as they age, will use from time to time. Adding body lotion to your daily routine is a great way of improving the quality of your skin today and in the future. A daily lotion can contribute tremendously to the health of your skin. There are innumerable reasons why your skin will benefit from such a lotion; some of them are enumerated here.

One powerful reason is to heal dry skin. If you use lotion only once in awhile, your skin will feel more moist after applying the lotion, but it will return to being dry as soon as some time has passed. Infrequent lotion application does little to actually fix the damage done to your skin. If you use a daily lotion, your skin will gradually improve, and in time will be soft and smooth. Some lotions just make you think your skin is softer because they are themselves greasy or moist. A good daily lotion will make your skin actually become softer.

This is especially true for rough spots. Particularly vulnerable spots for roughness are joints such as the elbows, knees, or knuckles. The hands, too, because they are constantly being used and are frequently washed – which, while great for killing germs, can dry them out – are especially likely to be rough and cracked. A daily lotion can help to exfoliate dead skin cells and keep the new skin cells underneath moist and healthy.

A daily lotion can also seal in what moisture already exists in your skin. Cold weather is one of the largest culprits in stripping skin of its natural moisture, causing extreme dryness. Applying a lotion before exposure to the cold can help lock the skin's moisture in, protecting it from the weather. Also, applying a lotion after showering can help to restore what was lost by washing and also seal in the dampness that remains on your skin.

Good lotions will also resist the effects of aging on your skin, often through anti-aging ingredients such as hydrolyzed silk, which improves the elasticity of skin, something that often declines with age. Skin that is more elastic will be firmer and appear more tight, having fewer wrinkles and less sagging. Such ingredients will not only reverse the effects of aging that have already occurred; they will also prevent future aging of your skin.

Another often-overlooked benefit of using a lotion every day is the relaxation a wonderful-smelling lotion can provide. Aromatherapy has been shown to have many benefits for a person's emotional and mental state. Light, pleasant scents such as lavender have been shown to soothe and comfort, and some lotions contain such scents. Applying them to your body will surround you with the air of relaxation.

In these ways, a good daily lotion can provide many benefits to your body. The few minutes you will spend applying a lotion every day will be well worth it, and may even come to be some of the most treasured minutes of your day.

Importance Of Data In Accounting And Parties Interested In Accounting Information

The term “data” refers to primary details or numerical facts relating to an event or transaction. Data is stored and maintained on a computer or network. Computer Software like HiTech Financial Accounting process this electronic data. Data is also maintained as hardcopy or paper print. Since accounting limits itself only to those transactions and events which are financial in character, therefore, accounting data will consist of facts, financial in nature, relating to transactions and events of a business entity for the accounting period. Moreover, accounting data must be supported by documentary evidence. Thus, documents known as vouchers, support the data. Usually data is disorganized and disjointed in its raw form. It is not capable of being understood. So, accounting processes raw data into finished form of “information” to make it useful and meaningful, capable of being used in decision taking process by the various users of accounting information.

Thus accounting data processed by the accounting cycle produces accounting information. Data is collected, recorded, classified, grouped, valued, tabulated, arranged, summarized in order to present the same in the form of information for its use by the users to enable them to take decisions.

Accounting data Consists of financial transactions and events relating to an entity for the accounting period supported by documentary evidence (vouchers). For example receipts and payments are documented by payee’s receipt purchases by invoice, sales by outwards invoice, returns inwards by credit note; returns outwards by debit note; expenses by bills or payment rolls etc.

Thus the first and the most important function of accounting is to collect the data supported by the vouchers to ensure the authenticity of the same. Accounting processes consist of recording in the books of original entry (journal or sub- journals); classifying (posting into ledger) grouping (putting transactions of similar nature at one place in one account) valuing (finding the value at year end by balancing or valuing) tabulating (preparing list of balances and checking arithmetical accuracy) and preparing financial statements (Trading and Profit and loss account; Balance Sheet) in report form to communicate the information.

Now-a-days computer accounting software can manage this task very efficient in a matter of short time. Accounting information is presented mostly in the form of financial statements like Income statement (Trading and Profit & Loss account) Position statement (Balance sheet). Now-a-days statement of changes in financial position; value added statement; report on Human resources accounting; Social performance report etc. form part of accounting information

Difference between Data and Information

Data

1. Refers to details, facts about any event.

2. Is, generally, disorganized and disjointed in the form.

3. Is in raw-form and is the input of accounting.

4. Cannot be understood or made use of by the users.

5. It does not depend upon information.

Information

1. Refers to only those events which are concerned with entity.

2. Is properly arranged, classified and organized.

3. Is in the finished form and is the output of accounting.

4. Is understood and used by the users of accounting information for taking their decisions.

5. Information is based upon and derived from data.

Parties interested in accounting information

Accounting information is of interest to various persons who are directly or indirectly concerned with an enterprise.

Management:

A small business is generally carried on by the sole trader or by the partners. But a large business is usually conducted by an incorporated company which separates management from ownership. Managers’ responsibility is to operate the business efficiently and maximize the return on capital without jeopardizing the fund.

Management needs accounting information in

(1) selecting out of alternative proposals;

(2) controlling acquisition and maintenance of inventories (stock) cash receipts and payments;

(3) planning or budgeting for the future

(4) appraising the performance and

(5) devising remedial measures for the deviations of the actual results from the budgeted targets.

Owners:

Although owners initiate in contributing fund to the business yet they are the last to receive their claim on equity’s return on their investment. This is true not only in repaying but also in rewarding their capital. After meeting all the charges including employees’ salaries and lender’s interest profit if any can be distributed as a reward on capital. Naturally, the owners are interested in the safety of their capital as also for a reasonable return thereon, which rest on the concern’ s stability and prosperity. Accounting reports (annual) not only appraise the past performance but also assist in assessing future prospects of the entity. Such information is also very important for would-be-owners.

Creditors:

May be short-term viz, suppliers of goods, lenders of temporary advance or long-terms viz. mortgages, debenture holders etc. Although both are interested in the stability and earnings of the debtor firm yet the former specially looks to its short-term solvency i.e. liquidity whereas the latter is interested in long-term solvency of the firm.

Government:

Many products now-a-days are subject to excise-duty and sales Lax. Also the government regulates the prices of essential goods e.g.. drugs, vegetables, oil etc. So the Government is interested to know the costing information to administer excise duties and to regulate the prices of products. Government is also interested in the accounting information on the profits for income tax purposes.

Employees:

Steady employment and stability of business go together. Again trade unions are interested in sharing the profit of the firm in the form of bonus. Therefore, the employees are naturally interested in the accounting information provided by the annual accounting reports.

Consumers:

Price-increase is disfavored in almost all the quarters. Accordingly, a producer endeavors to reduce his product cost as also its selling price. Recently consumer protection associations have been formed to exercise control on the business and industry and also to make them aware of the “Social responsibility” towards society. Thus consumers also need accounting information.

Researchers:

The financial statements, being a mirror of business conditions are of inestimable value for research into business affairs. These statements are therefore of great interest to scholars undertaking research in accounting theory as well as business affairs and practices.

The nature of business income

One of the main objectives of financial accounting is to ascertain whether the business operations have been profitable or not. Accounting enables us to find out whether a business has earned profits or suffered losses during the accounting period.

Choosing the Right Laminate Flooring Underlay

The choice of your laminate flooring underlay will depend entirely on the conditions of the floor. The more you are aware of the conditions that the floor will be affected with the better you can prepare for its life. The floors get pressure from both the top and the bottom. Therefore, you need to provide good protection and conditions on both sides.

By following the right maintenance techniques, you can manage the top very easily. However, the bottom is another story. Once the flooring has been installed, you can not really work with the bottom side very easily. For this reason, it is essential to choose the best laminate flooring underlay.

Steps to choose the right laminate flooring underlay

When you decide on laying the floor, check the sub floors. You need to know if the material utilized is timber or concrete slabs. When you know about the material underneath, you will have to study it for damage or effects from moisture. When you're aware of the moisture level underneath and on top of the floor, the right laminate flooring underlay will protect the flooring.

Another important consideration is that the right laminate flooring will work effectively if you have a smooth sub floor. If it's very clean and has a smooth level then the laminate floor underlay will adhere better and not be prone to cracks. Therefore, for a concrete floor you must fill in any gaps and smooth out the surface completely. On a timber sub floor, you will simply have to nail down all the boards very nicely. To create the smoothest surface you might have to top it off with plywood sheets. The trickiest situation comes when you have a high level of moisture in the region and the sub floor is solid. These are made out of stone, concrete or bricks.

In this case, you will have to use the filler compound which is damp proof. Any of the gaps should be filled in and you should let it dry out completely before you start using the laminate floor underlay.

Now you need to work out the budget to choose the laminate floor underlay. You can have a combination or solid form between different materials. These generally include plywood, cork or foam. You can also build in more layers of sound proofing materials. However, these are slowly expensive so you can work out the additional elements based on your budget.

Clothing in Sub Antarctica

Clothing in Sub Antarctica is different but similar to clothing worn on the Antarctic continent.

The main difference is that in sub Antarctica it rains and it can be a cold, wet and windy climate. Most of the sub Antarctic areas of interest that Antarctic cruises and voyages visit and have stations or bases are islands or are on the Antarctic peninsula.

Most of the sub Antarctic islands and peninsula are subject to wet, drizzly and sleety conditions as the climate is kept above freezing point by the surrounding southern ocean.

This poses a challenge for the clothing as it needs to be waterproof, windproof and warm but it also requires to breathe allowing the perspiration and excess body heat to escape.

One of the most popular clothing materials which have all these properties is Gore-Tex. This is usually worn as the outer shell in a series of layers for clothing in sub Antarctica. Other windproof and waterproof materials are also used for Antarctica clothing, with venting panels and zippers to allow moisture and excess heat to escape

What to expect in sub Antarctica
While living and working for a year on a sub Antarctic island – Macquarie Island, it was of utmost importance to have the right gear and clothing so as not to risk exposure and hypothermia.

Ironically the most popular modes of transport are by foot or by IRB (Inflatable Rubber Boat), both are open to the elements, however by foot or walking has the extra problem of creating body heat and thus perspiration. If this excess body heat and perspiration is not expelled from your clothing you run the risk of hypothermia and exposure as the perspiration soaks your clothing and becomes cold or freezes.

On the IRB's the opposition was a risk as you sit in an open boat as you are traveling, increasing the wind chill factor. You had to keep dry from the outside and warm on the inside as your body does not generate much heat while sitting still.

So, as is the case with clothing on the Antarctic continent, the correct clothing layering is the trick.

Clothing in sub Antarctica: layering

  • Layer 1 – Polyester thermal underwear to wick away moisture from skin.
  • Layer 2 A warm insulating second layer such as wool or polar fleece jumper. Sleeveless turtle neck polar fleece vests are great if you will be walking or will be active as the arms are not restricted and they keep your torso core warm.
  • Layer 2; bottom – Shorts, preferably of light low water absorption synthetic material.
  • Layer 3 – Outer Gore-Tex or similar hooded jacket and long pants (waterproof and windproof outer shell)
  • Footwear – Synthetic low water absorption socks and Gore-Tex or similar hiking boots.

For most tourists visiting sub Antarctica the above list would be the most practical and suitable. Thick bulky ski type jackets are not a good idea for sub Antarctic regions as they will soak up the moisture and not allow the excess body heat and moisture to escape.

The idea behind the layering system is to be able too peel off or layer back on clothing layers, as necessary, in order to keep at the right temperature. The outer shell layer can be peeled off (pants and or jacket) as required if the weather warms up or the sun is out, then the second layer can be peeled off if necessary and so on.

Summary and tips:

  • Rely on the middle layer – Polar fleece or wool type jumper or vest for warmth.
  • The shorts are a good idea for that little bit extra warmth and wind-proofing for that most vulnerable part of your body. It also allows you to take off the outer shell pants if necessary but still have some protection and an insulating layer on top of the thermal underwear in that area.
  • The polyester thermal underwear will also keep you warm and wick away moisture from your skin

Sweet Things to Say to Your Boyfriend – 2 Hot Tips to Melt Your Boyfriend's Heart

So you want to know what sweet things to say to your boyfriend? After all, girls are not the only ones who can benefit from a little bit of sweet talk.

To be quite honest, guys can sometimes use a whole bucket load of sweet stuff. But do not expect them to ask for it. Your boyfriend, for one, would probably not admit that he wants you to say such things to him. So it's up to you to figure out what sweet things to say to your boyfriend.

Your boyfriend does not necessarily want to be told that he's the most beautiful boy you have ever laid your eyes on (although that works for some). Guys and girls are not made of the same ingredients.

Luckily, you have this article to help you figure out what sweet things to say to your boyfriend.

1) Call out his name … and then tell him "I love you."

You do not need an excuse to tell your boyfriend that you love him. A lot of people might think that the phrase is overused but I beg to differ.

Telling the person you love that you love him should be the most natural thing in the world. What I advise is that you spring it on him when he least expects it (but not if you two have not said these three words to each other yet!).

Casually call out his name name as if you want him to run a few errands for you. Once you have his attention, smile and tell him that you love him. This will be sure to leave a smile on his lips for the rest of the day.

2) You are the most wonderful guy I have ever met.

The word "wonderful" transcends the physical. However, other adjectives like "amazing" and "sexiest" will also do as long as you use them in superlative form. These sweet things to say to your boyfriend will insure him that you only have eyes for him.

Guys like knowing that they are special in someone's eyes. These sweet things to say to your boyfriend will make him feel even more special because you're the one saying them.

Cleaning Up Dog Vomit

Every now and then, your pooch is bound to get an upset stomach. Consequently, he or she may inadvertently vomit somewhere in your house. Whether your pooch throws up on your carpet, furniture, or carpeting, it is bound to be a stressful occasion for you. There are a few methods of dealing with dog vomit that you can attempt, and this article will attempt to review the most effective ones.

Keep in mind that vomit is very acidic. The longer you allow it to sit on the carpet, the more it will see into the fibers. The first order of business is to remove as much of the vomit as possible. If the vomit has become caked onto the carpet, adding a little water to loose it up and allow you to pick up more of the vomit. Next, apply a generous layer of salt or baking soda to the vomit stain. Then allow the area to dry. Then vacuum the area thoroughly. Repeat this step at least once. Afterwards, douse the area with club soda and gently blot until discoloration and odor begins to fade. This process should typically rid an area of ​​stains and odors.

If the home-made vomit removal remedy fails to properly clean your carpeting, there are various products you can purchase that are adept at cleaning vomit and other types of stains. Just be certain to purchase a non-toxic cleaning agent that is safe to use on your carpeting or any other location that your pet is likely to explore. A great example of one of these non-toxic products is Nature's Miracle Stain and Odor Remover. There are many other products that can also be effective.

Cleaning up your dog's vomit is never a pleasurable experience, but with some preparation and attention to detail, you can get the job done quickly and efficiently and have your carpet looking and smelling as good as new in no time.

How to Replace Suzuki King Quad Axles

ATV’s are designed for long term vigorous use. It is not uncommon for them to get muddy and dirty as they are also used to rough terrains and even rougher drivers. However, this makes them vulnerable to some damage and therefore it is not uncommon for the axle to give out over time.

A Thing or Two about Replacing Quad Axles

Replacing a Suzuki King Quad Axle can be a costly venture. Therefore it is important to keep your ATV in good working condition. Always inspect the ATV parts at least once a month and thoroughly clean them. Furthermore, depending on the make and model of your ATV, some axles may be a bit difficult to find or may require special ordering from a different state. Therefore it is always best to have a spare Suzuki king quad axle on hand. Should the current axle get damaged, the replacement will come in handy and the ATV will be up and running with little downtime.

Suzuki ATV and Quad Axles

Suzuki ATVs are known for their popularity and just like any other ATV they can also encounter broken axles. This article will focus on replacing Suzuki King Quad axles in order to better equip readers with the knowledge and procedures involved in successful removal and replacement.

Suzuki King Quad Axle Removal Procedure:

The entire process consists of two parts. The first part entails removing the defective Suzuki axle. The second part is about installing the new one.

Tire Removal – The very first step is to remove the tires in order to get to the quad axle. To do that, the ATV must be put on a stand or a jack.

Caliper Removal – Removing the tires will expose the break caliper. It must be removed in order to get to the axle. Remove it using the appropriate tools.

Hub Nut Removal – Getting to the Suzuki quad axle requires the removal of quite a lot of pieces. Next in line for removal is the hub nut. This is the most difficult part of the entire procedure as it requires a lot of force to loosen up the large hub nut. Once removed, the broken axle can easily be retrieved.

Suzuki King Quad Axel Installation:

The installation follows the exact same procedure mentioned above in reverse.

• Once the faulty Suzuki king quad axle is removed, simply slide the new axle in.

• Install the hub nut back in place and tighten it as hard as possible.

• Install the brake calipers.

• Put the tires back on the ATV

• Drop the ATV off the stand or jack.

The process itself doesn’t look much difficult on paper however in actuality it does require a certain degree of patience and skill. Nevertheless its not something one must go to an ATV mechanic to get fixed. ATV’s are similar to automobiles in many ways because the underlying mechanics of both types of machinery are the same. Suzuki king quad axles are sturdy pieces of equipment but even they can get damaged over the course of time. So push your ATV to the limits if you must, but do not overdo it.

What to Burn in Your Chiminea

Having an outdoor fire on a cool night can allow you to enjoy the outdoors and provide for a cozy area to gather and relax. A Chiminea makes a wonderful outside fireplace that is both heat giving and attractive. They are also portable, making it possible to use them just about anywhere in your garden or patio. If you are thinking of purchasing a Chiminea and are wondering what you can burn in it, the answer is pretty simple and I will outline the main types of fuel available in this article.

Charcoal

If you are using a Chiminea for the first time and wish to use it for cooking then it’s probably best to start with charcoal. You can purchase charcoal briquettes which are self lighting and require little or no effort to get going. Simply light with a match or lighter and away you go. It’s best to leave the fire burning for about 20 minutes if you are planning to cook anything.

Wood

Since Chimineas were made to burn wood, then wood is an obvious choice. It also produces the least number of sparks which makes it a safe option. Generally, hardwoods are the best to use, and if you like aromatic wood there are several different kinds to choose from.

Pinon wood gives off a wonderful pine scent and also chases misquotes away, making enjoying your fire even more pleasant. Cedar, especially red cedar, also gives off a wonderful aroma as does apple wood. In addition, if you want a bit more aroma in your fire you can dry orange or apple slices and add them in with your logs. You can also try mature pine cones. The Mayan people of Central America used ‘Ocote’ in their clay Chiminea which serves two purposes: it is a natural firelighter and also gives off a pleasant aroma when lit due to its high resin content.

Eco logs are a cheap, simple alternative and are made from compressing saw dust to form a log shape. They usually come in a wax paper bag which you can light directly and let burn in your Chiminea without the need for any other firelighter. They can burn for up to 2 hours so are worth having around to get a fire started, you can then add other fuel later on.

Other Sources of Heat You Can Use in Your Chiminea

You can purchase other kinds of fuel for your Chiminea as well. Propane and gas inserts are designed so that you can burn gas in your cast iron or steel outdoor fireplace. You can then remove the insert when you want to use wood. Another alternative to wood is alcohol gel. This burns cleanly and only produces water as a byproduct, making it safe for use indoors. However, if you are going to use a Chiminea indoors please use common sense when choosing where to position it and do not attempt to cook or add any other fuel as this could lead to a house full of smoke and possible asphyxiation.

What not to burn in your Chiminea

You should never burn treated wood or wood pellets. Treated wood gives off toxic fumes which can affect your health and wood pellets, such as those used in a wood pellet indoor stove, leave a long ash which can quickly build up causing you to spend more time cleaning out ash than enjoying your fire. Also avoid green wood, as it will not produce much fire but will cause a lot of smoke. Dry wood is always best to burn when using any type of wood fire. Never use gasoline or petroleum based accelerants to start your fire. These can be extremely dangerous and could even cause an explosion when used in an enclosed fireplace.

Most manufacturers will supply instructions and basic maintenance information with your Chiminea so please refer to the booklet provided. If in any doubt contact the supplier or the manufacturer direct and ask them for advice. And on a final note, if using a clay Chiminea always make sure that you place sand or stones in the bottom of it before adding the fuel as clay is prone to cracking with sudden changes in temperature.

Choose A Reliable Logo Design Company to Avoid Headaches And Get A Great Service

Normally, businessmen are looking for logo design services that are efficient and help the business develop in the fastest and easiest way possible. In this case, picking a serious and trustworthy company to offer you this type of services is vital.

Services

Lucky for you, some logo design services come with a bigger package than other companies. Here we can include creating logo designs for businesses, stationary design and printing, graphic design, personalized site design, campaigns and brochures for business and so on. Of course, the extra services may cost you a bit more, but at the end of the day you will see that this investment is profitable on the long run. However, keep in mind the following aspects.

Price

This is the first thing that everyone is interested in. And it is quite a normal perspective, since nowdays there are a wide range of design services, offered by many professionals at different prices. And here comes the distinction between affordable and cheap. For example when the price is cheap, you can expect the logo to be "borrowed" from somewhere else. In order to prevent accidents like these from happening, it is advisable to respect the paying range that goes around professionals. This should be a respectable one and it is better to pay a good price and receive quality rather than troubles and frustration.

Professional Services

Everyone avoids hanging around providers that are not serious or trustworthy. Who has the time or the energy to spend on them? No one! So in order to avoid them, pick a reliable company which has a good reputation and offers you professional services. The perfect company should dazzle you with an impressive portfolio and positive feedback coming from satisfied customers. This means that, no matter what type of service you need (logo or site design), the services offered should be delivered in time and professionally. No one likes to wait for a service since we all know time is money.

Money Back Guarantee

A great way to check if the logo design company is true to its standards is to check the customer services. If they are willing to pay back the money you have spent in case something goes wrong, then your chances are pretty good. There are cases when these companies ask for a pay upfront, but this should not worry. Who would want to be taken for a fool and lose money? It would be very unpleasant to work hard at a logo, site or graphics and then be informed that your services are no longer required. Everyone wants to work with serious people: companies with clients and clients with good businesses that can deliver the right services. Thus, if the services received do not correspond to the desires expressed, then a refund should be offered. Do not you think?

Conclusion

All in all, when deciding to hire the services of a logo design company you should remember the ideas discussed above in order to avoid misunderstandings. You will see that when you find the perfect company for your needs, working with them will become a piece of cake. Try it!

Art of Egypt – The Hyksos and the New Kingdom

The Hyksos, literally "Shepherd Kings," were a group of tribal Canaanite tribes who somehow migrated to Egypt. These races were Israeli in origin, and whether they invaded or just moved in, historians held divided opinions on that. However, they unanimously agree that from 1650 BC to around 1550 BC, Egypt was ruled by dynasties that were not essentially native Egyptians.

Those kings, mostly Semic in origin, and superior to the Egyptian techniques of warfare, moved in with a host of cutting edge technology (body armors, chariots, spears, etc), but almost subdued the minority and the elegant Pre-Hyksos Art of the Egyptians. Hyksos, in its basic character, was a more primitive form of art, to say the least. It was the art of the hunter-gatherer, as opposed to the "avant garde" Egyptian motifs of yesteryears.

Although the Hyksos used Egyptians artisans, their art was apparently rudimentary. Pottery, painting, and, especially, architectures fall prey to this primitive wave. In fact, when they moved in, the Pyramids were already half a century old. The Hyksos Art however, was way behind the finesse of Pyramid architecture, even at that point of time. Clay figurines of this period, called the "Second Intermediate Period," demonstrated an utter disregard to form, proportion, and color. That the Hyksos were different from Egyptians could not have had any more evidence evidence than these sculptures. The difficulties of Hyksos were crude, and mostly mud baked, as compared to the superior stone temples of the Egyptians.

Almost after a hundred years of reign, the Hyksos Kings were finally driven out by Ahmose-I, who ushered in the era, the "New Kingdom" (1550-1070 BC). In this period, the entire Egypt was united under a single Pharaoh and the Hyksos were untraceable on the Egyptian territory. New brands of dedicated artisans, termed as, "Servants in the place of Truth," were intended to decorate the tombs of the kings of this era. Magnificent rock tombs of the Pharaohs became the landmarks of this golden era of Egyptian Art and architecture.

Although Thebes remained the cultural heart of this "New Kingdom," these artists built a set of exquisite tombs, at a place now known as Deir el-Medina. Recognition to the individual artist names, an uncommon practice in the ancient societies, became famous norm in this rule. For instance, from the old records it has been established that an artist named "Khonsu," was the master architect of a major of royal tombs. Most art-loving monarchs of Egypt namely, Thutmose, Nefertiti, and Tutankhamen belong to this era, which, in a way, was a period of Egyptian Renaissance. In this melee of re-birth of Egypt, most evidences of Hyksos Art were either destroyed or chiseled out. This stands as an unfortunate reminder of the vengefulness from the most noble of the artists of the ancient era, the Egyptians.

Leather Furniture Consumer's Guide – Abbreviated Version

Planning on buying leather furniture? Did you know there are different types of leather? Which is best for you? Read on and learn some important tips to keep in mind when shopping.

Start by thinking about the usage patterns you expect with your new leather pieces. Will the furniture be placed in an active, "high-impact" setting with children, pets, food and drinks galore? Or, is your home a quiet, "low-impact" environment?

Quality leather is a remarkably durable material that will offer many years of comfort. However, the right type of leather should be selected based upon how you expect the furniture to be enjoyed. As a leather furniture repair and restoration specialist, I repeatedly hear from my clients how their sales person, designer, etc. never told them the leather would stain, fade, tear, etc. So, avoid these problems by learning a few simple keys and asking a few simple questions. To understand the issues let me take you through a mini-primer about leather.

There are two ways of painting upholstery grade leather — with dyes only or with dyes and pigments. Leather colored strictly with a dye is referred to as unfinished, whereas pigmented leather is classified as finished. So, what's the difference?

If leather is colored only with dye then there is no protective coating. It is sometimes referred to as "pure-aniline" leather. (Aniline is a type of dye that colors leather.) This leather is soft, supple to the touch. Its color is rich and deep as dyes are translucent and they penetrate, often completely through the leather. The leather's natural beauty is accentuated by the dye giving the furniture a luxurious look and feel. Only the finest hides can qualify to be unfinished, so unsurprisingly, it's the most expensive category. However, there is a dark side. This class of leather stains easily (these hides are highly porous) and the color fades, in some cases very quickly. (UV's the culprit.)

Finished leather is colored with the same aniline dye as unfinished leather however these hides go through a secondary coloring process. A pigmented coating (finish) is applied that is chemically engineered specifically for leather. It has to flex and allow the leather to breath so it has unique attributes that differentiate it from common wall paint. Pigmented leather finishes are opaque, creating a colored film on top of the hide. The color coating is then augmented with a clear coat forming its primary protection. This clear coat also dictates the sheen, from gloss to matte. Quality finished leather may not feel as soft and supple as unfinished, but will be able to withstand the rigors of an active household. It will not stain almost as readily. It's easier to clean, and fades so slowly, you'll never notice it.

Your first key is placement. Simply put, active, high impact environment like a family room, media center, conference room, dining room, etc. dictates finished leather. A low impact home, with UV tinted windows and little threat of staining can indulge the beauty of unfinished leather.

The next step is to consider your budget. This is where your expectations are appropriately set. There are two primary considerations, the leather and the frame.

Top-grain leather is the most durable, but will cost more. This is the epidermis of the skin which offers vast majority of the hide's durability. Split-hide leather (leather "split" from the epidermis) will not stand up to the test of time in an active household, but as a low grade is generally more affordable. If you want a piece that will last a long time, then you must insist on top-grain leather.

The internals or guts of the furniture should be considered. Is it constructed using hard wood appropriatively joined with tight, solid fits, or is it slapped together with cheap press board, staples and cardboard? (No kidding, cardboard.) Clearly, solid construction will cost more, but offer many years of trouble free service.

Color selection is something else to think about. The lighter the color, the more maintenance it will require to keep the leather looking new and clean.

Finally, is it all leather or did the manufacturer sneak in some vinyl? Vinyl and all its fancy name derivatives like leatherette, leather-mate, leather-match etc. is a synthetic, not the real deal. It will not feel or wear like leather. It's less expensive than leather, but simply does not have the durability of quality leather.

So, based on your budget, set your expectations correctly and think about how the piece will be used. Then when you shop ask the following questions.

1. Is the leather finished or unfinished? Remember to consider placement and usage patterns.

2. Is it top-grain leather? If it is not, it will not have the durability you think you're getting.

3. Is it all leather or is some of it vinyl? Do not be duped.

4. How is the frame constructed? Remember the story of the three little pigs? If it's going to last, it has to be well built.

With the answers to these questions at least you'll know what you're buying. For more information, go to this web-site advleather.com/

Wilson NCode Tennis Racquet Reviews – A Buyers’ Guide to Wilson N5 NCode Tennis Rackets

Wilson nCode tennis racquets has been a popular choice of tennis racquets of many tennis players. This tennis racquets has been specially designed to suit every tennis players including beginners and professional’s tennis players.

The Wilson nCode n5 tennis racquets structure is the brand new updated version of the Wilson n5 racquet series. To ensure the performance of the racquets, it has been made with the new Wilson’s nCode technology and the Wilson Triad technology for the racquet frame. With these improvements, the nCode n5 racquet quality has been greatly improved compared with the classic n5 racquets. Players can now enjoy the new racquets with the handle and the racquet head which are separated by a thin strip of iso-zord material which provide smoother and softer feels while using this tennis racquet.

In addition all Wilson n5 nCode racquets uses Nanofoam inside the frame, this stiffens the frame for better control with vibration absorption functions. With the combination of 3 advance technology from Wilson, therefore nCode tennis racquet provide tennis players with both great control, good feel, and play comfort.

Below are the Wilson nCode n5 Tennis Racquet Specifications:

Head Size:110 sq.in/ 710 sq.cm

Length: 27.25 in / 69 cm

Strung Weight: 9.7 oz.

Balance: 10 pts Head Heavy

Swing Weight: 329

Beam Width: 26.5 mm Dual Taper Volcanic Beam

Composition: nCoded Hyper Carbon, nCoded Graphite

Power Level: Medium

Swing Speed: Moderate

Grip Type: Micro Dry Comfort

String Pattern: 16 Main / 20 Crosses

String Tension: 53-63 lbs.

Suitability Level: Suitable for both intermediate beginners players.

Wilson’s company has done a lot of research of improving the tennis racquets to make it more playable and comfortable. This is what n5 tennis racquet series made off. Tennis players will start to enjoy it after first attempt to use this racquets and some players even play for hours using nCode n5 tennis racquet.

The racquet is light weight but has the swing power and stability of a heavier racquet due to it’s heavier racquet head. Since it is light it is also suitable for defensive tennis players.

Wilson nCode n5 tennis racquets usually comes with shinning red and black colors.