Make Your Relationship Better – How Consideration Can Build A Relationship That Lasts

People come to me all the time and ask how they can make their relationships better. I have a simple formula that works like magic. All you have to do is just put it into practice and you will see what I mean. I call it the three c’s. Let me tell you about them. The first c is cooperation and I talked about it in a previous writing. The second is consideration and that is what we are going to talk about today. Finally there is comfort which I will discuss in a future blog post or article.

What does it really mean to be considerate? In a nut shell being considerate is just showing regard for another person’s feelings or circumstances. The easier way to think of it is to look at it like this. When you are being considerate you are taking into account that you are not walking in their shoes so you have no idea what it is really like. You are looking at all the obstacles in their way and taking time to think about how this might affect them.

Considerate people do not snap back when their partner is a little short with them. They take into consideration that the partner has had a hard day and that they probably aren’t meaning to be short. Considerate people listen more than others because they know that the other person has their own unique set of problems and the only way to understand them is to ask and listen. Considerate people complain less and help out more.

I heard a doctor on the radio today say “it is a scientific fact that husbands that do more housework get more sex than other husbands.” I posted this up on Facebook and the resounding response (primarily from women) was “DUH!” If you are considerate with your partner you will find that the rewards are exponential. Being considerate, like the other two c’s, is not hard. It is just something you have to keep on your mind and focus on.

Being considerate is the best way to grow your relationship into the healthy partnership that you desire, well it’s the best way if you include the other two c’s with it. Read more and find out about how comfort is the final c that brings it all together! With the three c’s you will find your relationship growing and more healthy that you might have otherwise believed.

The Dangers of Using Almond Oil to Treat Dark Circles

While quite a few websites are suggesting the use of almond oil for getting rid of dark circles beneath the eyes, there are a few well known problems that can surface.

To begin with almond oil, also identified as laetrile in its edible form, comes from almonds, which are nuts. Food Chemistry Journal figures that over sixteen and a half million Americans have an allergy to nuts. Most of who aren’t even cognizant of it since the symptoms are slight and treated as an ordinary belly ache or an inexplicable rash. Regardless, should those folks use it to cure dark circles, they are introducing an allergen right next to the eyes, one of the bodies most delicate areas and will probably experience anything from a slight to a terrible allergic reaction.

Another reason to be worried is that eating almond extract is not recommended for pregnant or breast-feeding women since a number of studies have hinted at a hypothetical chance of birth defects. Cyanide discharge can and has happened if the enzyme beta-glucuronidase is introduced. That enzyme is present in the human gut and inside the nut itself. There is a procedure which can get rid of the cyanide molecules, although it is still poisonous if absorbed in generous amounts. Since some folks could use almond oil to treat their dark circles excessively, this may possibly be a serious dilemma.

The least harmful type of almond oil used for dark circles therapy is called sweet almond oil. The bitter almond oil version has been responsible for sickness and fatalities in a few noted cases. Actually, the FDA has prohibited the usage of bitter almond oil for medical usage; nonetheless, it is accessible for uses such as aromatherapy because it’s unlikely to contact the skin or be taken internally. The trouble is that the community is mostly ignorant of the differences concerning the two types of oils and could regrettably try to make use of the bitter almond oil as a dark circles therapy by accident.

With all the unnecessary dangers summarized above, we’re not certain why a person would choose to take the risk of employing these beneath their eyes. Particularly since there are many FDA sanctioned alternative remedies that don’t present the unsafe side effects for getting rid of dark circles beneath the eyes.

Surgery is another option. However, this is usually only a last result in the most severe cases and usually only provides a moderate improvement.

Basic Equipment You Will Need to Start Woodturning Projects

While it is easily understood that a wood lathe is needed to begin woodturning projects, there are a few other necessities before starting. Many of these are already found in the typical woodworking shop while others will need to be purchased.

The basic wood lathe comes with one or two faceplates for bowls and other large work; a spur center and tail center for holding spindle projects; and a couple of tool rests for different sized work. No cutting tools are generally supplied with the lathe.

While experienced turners will purchase individual tools, it is advisable for the beginner to get a beginning set. This will contain the necessary tools for spindle work. Usually this will be a roughing gouge, a couple of spindle gouges of different sizes, a couple of skews of different sizes, a couple of scrapers of different sizes and a parting tool. Such a set should be high speed steel, not carbon steel which is cheaper but does not hold an edge very long compared with high speed. Later on bowl and faceplate tools can be purchased or made. If the beginner is anxious to begin turning bowls, a one quarter inch bowl gouge will get them started and different sizes can be purchased later on.

Once the tools are purchased there needs to be a means to sharpen them. Woodworkers new to woodturning will be amazed at how often turning tools need to be sharpened. The usual means to a good edge is a grinder however most shop grinders have wheels too coarse to give a good edge on high speed steel. An aluminum oxide wheel of appropriate size should be purchased. It should be around eighty grit and a wheel dresser to keep it round and clean is really a necessity.

While some turners consider a sharpening jig to be a luxury, for a beginner it is almost a necessity. Sharpening woodturning tools freehand is a skill in its own right if not an art. Learning it at the same time as trying to learn woodturning is difficult and learning to turn with dull tools is almost impossible. A jig should be purchased or made at the very beginning.

One of the things that makes woodturning special is the ability to much of the time sand and finish a project on the lathe. Sandpaper in grits from eighty to two hundred twenty is usually found in the workshop but some turners like to go as high as two thousand grit for some projects. Usually up to three hundred twenty will be fine. Danish oil and similar finishes work well for most woodturnings and again is a typical supply of most shops.

Safety is an important part of any woodworking shop and work around a wood lathe is no exception. A face mask to protect from flying wood is a necessity as is a dust mask to protect the lungs from sanding. Hearing protectors are good to have. Most lathes are fairly quiet but saws, drills, sanders and dust collectors as well as other shop tools can cause hearing problems.

Tools to ready the wood for the lathe will likely be already in the shop. Bandsaws and table saws are often used and a chainsaw is a part of most woodturner's arsenals of tools.

A quick look at a woodturning catalog will convince any aspiring woodturner that bits and pieces can be acquired for years to come but these should get one started. Certainly a lot of enjoyment are contained in these few simple items.

Gatso Speed Cameras – Understanding Them And Avoiding A Fine

If you’ve been flashed by a speed camera out on the road, it’s more than likely it will have been a Gatso camera because these are by far the most common type of camera currently in operation around the UK. Seeing that flash is often a cause for despair, which is why understanding how these cameras work can be so useful. Knowing what activates the cameras will help you to control your speed and avoid any unnecessary points or financial penalties.

First, though, what does ‘Gatso’ stand for? Unlike most things, it’s not some complicated, technical anagram that’s been condensed into weird and wonderful shorthand. In fact, it’s short for Gatsometer BV, a Dutch company that has made and supplied these cameras for over 50 years. The cameras are a familiar sight to most motorists, who’ll recognise the distinctive yellow boxes with a square hole for the camera lens. While they may come to be superseded by other, more advanced models, currently there are approximately 7,000 dotted around UK roads. So keep your eyes peeled.

The cameras work by projecting a radar beam onto passing vehicles which picks up on excess speed and activates the camera. The camera will then take two pictures, 0.7 seconds apart. The first will be a conventional picture, while the second will be infra-red which is used to see through any dirt or anything else obscuring the registration plate. Because the flash of the camera is disorienting and potentially unsafe for the driver, these cameras usually only snap you as you are driving away from them. However, you may find yourself snapped head on as a result of a speeding car on the other side of the road.

The camera determines the speed of your vehicle by looking at small white lines that have been painted on the road in the designated ‘speed trap’ area. The distance between these lines denotes a certain number of miles per hour, typically 5mph. The camera counts the number of lines passed between the two photographs to produce solid evidence of the speed at which you were travelling. Therefore, if the camera snaps you passing through seven 5mph lines in a 30mph zone, you’ll be shown to have speeded.

Modern speed cameras automatically determine your speed and send out a fine whereas images sent by older cameras are checked by staff at a central processing plant. While both methods are usually reliable, the modern, automatic cameras are more susceptible to errors. If you receive a fine for speeding that you don’t think is justified, it may be worth analysing the photos yourself to see if you can realistically contest the charge. The photos should be sent out with the fine, so if you haven’t received them, make sure you obtain copies. Also, it’s important to note that you must receive the penalty notice within 14 days of the incident for it to be valid, although there may be exceptions in cases where ascertaining the identity of the driver is more difficult, such as when a company car is being driven.

How to Eliminate Cockroaches From Your Home

Cockroaches survive in dirty humid areas and are commonly found in apartments and dorms. Hiring an expert exterminator is often a good option, but there are steps you can take into your own hands for household pest control. Household bug control might be very difficult when it comes to killing cockroaches, therefore preventative methods ought to be taken before they infest your home.

Follow the common sense methods below for pest control management to avoid an infestation of roaches.

Keep Trashcans, Drains and Counters Clean

Roaches always like to hide in the daytime, and make their appearance during the night time. Frequently spotted in the kitchen, they are attracted to food left out on the kitchen counter, trash receptacles, sinks as well as old filth. Make it a priority to keep all of these places be very clean.

Put Remaining Meals Away to Avoid Cockroach Infestation

Place uneaten meals inside the refrigerator, cabinets or inside the garbage. Dump any waste and clear your kitchen sink of filthy dishes regularly. Run the kitchen sink garbage disposal frequently to remove food residue.

Sprinkling the kitchen sink and the garbage disposal with baking soda gets rid of lingering smells which often appeal to roaches. You can ask the pest exterminators to spray outdoor garbage receptacles during pest elimination visits. In between pest elimination visits, employ organic pest control treatments.

Seal Places that Cockroaches can Enter for Household Pest Control

Roaches frequently come in through places wherever there is moisture, have an exterminator or possibly a handy person investigate regions in the home around all drains, dish washers, toilets, tubs as well as run offs from gutters for access points. Close off all possible areas where a cockroach might be able to enter.

If you do have a pest management company come to your home, request for them to use chemicals outdoors that are not harmful to animals or kids.

In case you are residing in an apartment or dorm, it can be very difficult to permanently get rid of cockroaches mainly because you would need to have confidence in other people’s living habits. It is very possible to reduce the occurrence of these annoying pests and keep your apartment or dorm free from roaches. You just have to be persistent in keeping things clean and regularly make use of the above mentioned tips.

Sinus Infections And Sinusitis – Possible Causes – Usual and Unusual – Nurse’s Guide

If you’ve been suffering from sinus infections or some other type of sinusitis, which basically means an inflammation of the sinuses, you may be wondering what’s caused it. Although it’s not always known and sometimes can follow a cold or may be confused with a cold you may have some ideas of your own. You’ve no doubt heard of the most common causes.

Many people still think sinus infections are caused by bacteria and want their doctor to give them antibiotics. But most sinus infections are NOT caused by bacteria and are caused by invasive or noninvasive fungus, which you can find as household mold. So you want to eliminate that possibility first and get rid of any mold that you may have in your house, apartment, and condo or even in your motor home.

Look under and around toilets and bathtubs and showers. The bathroom is the most common place and also search the kitchen. If you have any plants in your bedroom make sure to remove them all. If you have a lot of plants in your house and continually have sinus problems or get sinus infections then consider removing them although it’s good to have the oxygen they emit.

Less common causes of sinusitis and sinus infections or factors that contribute to them are: nasal obstruction due to certain conditions including swollen adenoids, nasal polyps, foreign bodies, tumors and any surgeries you’ve had, dental infections, tooth extractions, dental surgery and oral surgery.

Consider indoor pollution so ventilate the house as much as possible by opening the windows and doors especially in the winter months if at all possible when many people routinely get sinus problems, sinusitis or sinus infections.

Then there are barotraumas which are injuries due to changes in ambient pressure resulting form activities such as air travel or scuba diving.

Other problems include immune system problems which can be from birth as congenital or as acquired. More serious causes can be due to underlying disease such as cystic fibrosis or ciliary dyskinesia and cleft palate, conch bullosa and a deviated septum.

The more familiar causes are to dust, sawdust and other particles you can find in the air such as pollen, chemical pollutants and dust mite leavings. People often get sinus infections around remodeling work in their homes or if they’re around construction both indoors and outdoors. So look through these causes and think about the environment around you as to what could be causing your sinus infections, sinusitis or other sinus problems. Know that you can treat most of the common causes yourself at home with natural sinus treatments and home remedies.

Beginners Guide to Timber Decking Kits

Timber Decking Kits for your Patio & Garden

Garden Decking has witnessed a revival of late, which is possible attributable to the fact that it is a simple, elegant, and easy to create feature which adds both practicality and usability to your garden.

Constructing a decking kit is a rewarding and simple experience – and one which is open to almost any practical-minded individual or half-competent DIYer. By following just a few instructions, you too could create a highly practical area within your garden, which can be enjoyed by for all the family.

First up, ensure that the garden timber decking kit is constructed from ethically sourced, sustainable timbers. Ethically managed forests help ensure that the deck boards have been harvested from sustainable sources. Pine deck boards are the most common deckboards in the UK – typically at 12.5 and 14.5 centimeters wide. Ensuring that your deckboards are grooved will also ensure that the deck provides extra grip in wet weather conditions, so try to source timbers which have at least four grooves. Reversible deck boards will give you the option of perhaps four or seven grooves.

The construction process begins with the preparation of your ground area – the space on which the deck is to be built. Having removed the weeds, rocks, and other unwanted objects from the ground, start by laying a weed control membrane underneath the area on which your project is to be constructed. This will help prevent any further weeds from growing up through the timber boards.

Once the ground area has been prepared, the project will begin constructing the wooden joist frame. This will typically be constructed from C16 grade softwood, 4 "x2" in profile. Raised projects will use 6 "x2" timbers mounted on steel post anchors.

Now that the timber joist frame is in place, the framework will provide a solid base onto which the deckboards can be laid. Timber decking boards should be laid at 5-6mm intervals, to allow the timber to expand and contract under different weather conditions and seasons.

If you wish to install a handrail system, this will be supported vertically by the use of either steel fence post spikes or the more conventional bolt-down steel anchors.

Timber decking kits need not cost the earth – pretty much anyone with fundamental DIY skills will be able to complete an elegant and practical ground deck. Decking kits can be easily adapted for level ground decks, and raised decks can help accommodate uneven ground or a sloping garden. Decking kits are often consider cheaper than a paved decking area, and far more environmentally friendly.

Finally, ensure that all decking timbers are protected with a quality decking stain. Sadolin 2 in 1 Deck Stain and Preserver is specifically good value, and offers a very high level of finish and quality.

Screened Porch Kits

Did you spend last summer not sitting on the porch because of bugs – especially mosquitoes? Maybe you did sit on the porch but simply felt it was too exposed for your taste. It was the case, then you really need to think about getting a screened porch kit before our outdoor time starts.

Porch enclosures are more than just putting up wood and stapling in some screening. You now have many options. Metal framing comes in various colors, wood comes in various types (eg, cedar), the roof can be insulated aluminum or flat pan, the screens can be fiberglass or solar, you can have insulated kick panels, and even include a doggy kitty) door.

It is important to consider your environment – especially if you live in an area with heavy snow or extreme weather conditions. The structure needs to be sturdy enough to withstand snow (and snow does weigh a lot) as well as large amounts of rain, or maybe even hail (if you live in an area where tornado activity is present).

Probably one of the best benefits of a porch enclosure is that your outdoor items including furniture, tables, decor, etc., are going to be protected from the elements – such as direct sunlight and heat. This alone is what makes a porch enclosure a great value. That and the longevity of use. This is why after you have installed your newest addition, it can easily be used as a warm and inviting sunroom, and / or have expired usage time to become a three-season porch.

As with any type of renovation, you can choose to do it yourself or hire someone to do it for you. In either case, a screened porch kit will be used – simply because a kit has all the necessary pieces. Having a plan is key since this will become an addition to the outside of your home. Take into account how the porch will look and the best way to make it really look like an integral part versus something that was just quickly put up.

Depending on what type of area you live in, you may need to get permission from a homeowner association as well. They will want to see the plans and – most importantly, know exactly how the outside will look. For example, are you using the same material as the outside of your home (eg, vinyl or wood) and will it be painted the same color. Do not be surprised if their response pushes you into make a more formalized plan – something you should be doing anyway.

Overall, a screened porch kit is an excellent investment – both from the additional usable footage it adds to your home (and it will increase the value of your home) and the enjoyment it will give you for years to come. It is amazing how one small change can bring about such quality of life.

Work Design and Technology

To increase employees’ job satisfaction and productivity technology is used by organizations to redesign jobs and work schedules. Technology changes the organization’s work style and employees’ performance analysis process. Technology is not just an instrument which transfers input to output. This term is used as such a machinery and instrument which is sophisticated in natures and develop output through computers and other electronic instruments. This technology looms the industrial sectors and now cloth can be produced much quicker and faster than before.

Electronic instruments developed for money transfer and finance management, open dynamic progress in banking and finance sectors. Workplace style and work lives of employees are being affected by technology. Continuous improvement is demonstrated in any organization to enhance productivity and efficiency simultaneously. This continuous improvement requires modification in all organizational processes. The term re-engineering comes from developing a better electronic version. In any organization, re-engineering fundamentally demands altering the ways we do things.

Its primary rule is to commence from a plan sheet to rethink to alter current management system. This redesign means to spruce up the process by removing antiquated elements from any work design.

Management responsibility is to understand the key elements and core processes that insert worth to organizations’ distinctive competencies. Since early 1990s, process re-engineering has been popular and all major companies of European countries and of America have introduced some changes in support of work redesigning. The employees, who continue their jobs after redesign process in organization, found that they are not doing the same job. Work redesign process can include more employees’ services excellence, interaction with customers, coordination with suppliers and colleagues, more responsibilities, creativity, follow-up and incentives.

It is mostly tough on employees and takes 3 to 5 years to complete the whole process re-engineering. During this time period, workers get anxious while taking more responsibilities, challenges, new work style and because of risks involved. Implications for process re-engineering is designed and selected on individual and group basis. Employees’ motivation and reinforcement, cyber loafing and ethics related steps are taken on individual basis. Along with decision making, communication & coordination and organizational politics are taken on different look; for group level implications.

By introducing new technology in workplace, job rules and interpersonal relationships are also being changed. For analyzing work tasks its characteristics need to be understand first. These task attributes, collectively affect different jobs and determine employees’ performance, motivations and relationships. Tasks attributes mainly include expertise variety, task identity and its significance, independence provided and feedback. By keeping in mind these tasks characteristics employees’ development need strength can be evaluated for specific job; on the basis of core job dimensions, critical psychological state and personal and work outcomes.

Technology is also facilitated in establishing an ideal work design to enhance overall performance. Organizations are looking towards offering alternative work schedules options for employees. Employees need flexibility in a changing work place and work schedules options as in organizations they act as a strategic tool.

Fireplace Designs

There are people that would like to have a fireplace in their homes, not because they would like to enjoy a nice warm fire but because they like how it makes the house appear. For whatever reason that an individual would like to have a fireplace designs, the two most important things to consider are; the location and what will be used to power it.

The decision to go ahead and build the fireplace can now be out in order if the correct measurements have been taken. There are various materials used to build; tiles or marble. Tiles act like a mirror and reflect the heat. This is an added advantage because heat is spread evenly throughout the room. You can get ideas from visiting ancient homes or asking companies that specialize in building them to build one for you.

To know what fireplace designs you would like, understand what you want to achieve in the end of it. If you want to have a modern look, then go for the electric fire design which is formed like a cube in the wall. With this design, there need to be wires behind the wall that are connected to the power supply to provide the power required.

The modern fireplace designs save us the trouble of not having to deal with fumes, smoke, ashes or clearing up the mess when the ashes become too much. This makes it so much more convenient and appealing. They do allow us to enjoy the warmth of a sizzling fire even though we can not use them to make sausages.

Pallet Cutstock Remanufacturing

Let me take you on a small journey up into a little area in British Columbia, Canada, known as the Fraser Valley Lower Mainland. If you were to drive thirty miles east from Vancouver you would run into a small town called Abbotsford and it is here where your pallet journey begins!

If you're not familiar with the lumber industry, that's okay, I'm going to keep things real simple for you. There are two kinds of mills. First, you have primary mills that take the trees that have been turned into logs (branches have been cut off) and then debark the logs. These mills are also known as scragg mills and cut the log into boards and timbers of various shapes hiring to get the best value on premium wood. There is always wood that does not make the "grade" and this goes into what is called the falldown pile. As mills have become more efficient over the years using very sophisticated equipment including laser eyes, there has become less and less falldown but that's another story.

So, where does this falldown go? Again, to stick with the basics of our topic, a lot of it goes into what is called Economy Lumber. This grade is below construction grade lumber and it is this grade that the secondary mills or remanufacturers (remans) use to cut into various smaller components like pallet cutstock.

Now each mill may vary on how they cut and what saws they use but for the most part, pallet remanufacturers here in the lower country will bring in 2×4 and 2×6 Economy lumber that ranges in lengths anywhere from 8 'to 20'. Now-a-days with the new heat treated regulations, the wood is bought heat treated and kiln dried (HT and KD) and then bought to the chopsaw that will cut the lumber to length. Most pallets are standard sizes of 48 "by 40" like the GMA specs (Grocery Manufacturers Association) but do you know why?

Lumber comes in at various lengths and mills try not to waste anything because it's paid for! So, they will use multiples of whatever size best fits. So a 48 "or 4 'board would be best cut out of 8', 12 '16' and 20. 'There would be no trim loss which saves money for both the mill and the client. of multiples of 10 'and 20'.

After the board is chopped to length, it then goes to the Re-saw that will take either the 2×4 or 2×6 and split it up the middle which results in two pieces. Usually one piece is good (Utility) and the second piece is not (Expendable). The boards are then re-stamped with an HT stamp, graduated and then stacked onto pallets. They are then bound with strapping to hold them all together and then they are put into the yard waiting to be picked up by the trucking company. For stringers, or runners (the part that the boards get nailed to) have a different journey. After they are chopped to 48 "usually, they are then stamped, graduated and brought to the notching machine. Then the stringers are stacked and placed into the yard like the boards.

Now we're ready for the final journey. A trucking company is called and they come and pick up usually about 22 packs of various lengths depending on the order, paperwork is made for customs and then the shipment leaves our neck of the woods and is shipped down to California where a pallet company nails everything together and ships out the finished pallet to their clients.

Finishes For Furniture

Finishing not only protects the wood but also enhances its natural beauty. A good finish is one that beckons an onlooker to touch it and examine its beauty more closely.

A good finish can not be hurried. It takes careful work and time to produce. When done correctly the end results are very satisfying and enjoyed by all who see it for many years. So take your time and do it right.

The factors involved in selecting the most appropriate finish depends on what the item is and type of wood it is made from, how and where it is to be used, the environment it will be placed in, and how much time and / or money you are willing spend. The information below should narrow the choices for most people. Remember you can call any professional restoration shop in your local area for help or free advice.


This type of finish is a good choice for woods with natural color and relatively tight grain such as Walnut and Cherry or naturally high resin woods like Rosewood and Teak. This finish does not require staining the wood first but can be applied over any wood stain that has properly dried. Keep in mind that all oils will darken wood. If a lot of "elbow grease" is used rubbing between coats and an adequate number of coats are applied the finish will not show water marks or surface scratches and is more heat resistant than lacquers or varnishes.

Advantages Negatives

easy application long application time

no equipment needed darkens wood

easily repaired low wear protection

low cost


A beautiful and durable finish can be obtained with a quality varnish. There are two types of varnish, regular and urethane. Regular varnish has a deep amber color and adds a mellow tint to the final color. Urethanes are clear to light yellow and are more resistant to scratches and ware. A clear, dry day and a dust free room is required to obtain a good finish. Temperature of the room, the varnish and the wood should be between 65F – 75F degrees.

Best results are achieved by spraying, but a skilled person with a good brush can produce a beautiful finish also. Colored varnish, sometimes referred to as stain varnish is not recommended for brushing by amateurs. Spar varnish is an excellent coating for surfaces subjected to moisture or heat.

Care must be taken when shaking or stirring varnish when brushing application of the material is used. Shaking or rappid stirring can creates bubbles which are hard to brush out and may appear as small dents when the varnish has dry. Adding a little thinner and / or letting the varnish "rest" before use after mixing will minimize this problem. Stirring is better than shaking and may be necessary to mix-in flatting agents that have settled on the bottom of the container.

Advantages Negatives

scratch resistant slow drying

little equipment needed optimal condition for application

water resistant / proof skill needed for brush work

some hard to repaired

Urethanes can not be

used over other finishes


Because of shellac's limited durability, it is not recommended for heavily used furniture. This finish is brittle when dry, scars easily and water spots. It is also soluble in alcohol, so it can not be used for dressers where cosmetics containing alcohol are often placed.

Advantages are that it is easy to use, dries quickly with a gloss and can be rubbed to a satin or dull finish. It is often used as a sealer coat over stains, as a filler on fine grained woods or to cover knots before painting.

Advantages Negatives

easy application easy to scratch

no special equipment rub-out to lower sheen

easily repaired low wear protection

medium cost no chemical protection


Lacquer is the most widely used finish on furniture. It makes a very durable finish that resists water and alcohol. It does not darken wood color and its color does not darken with age like many varnishes do. In recent years there has been several advances in lacquer finishes. Pre and post catalyzed lacquers today have superior hardness, with improved scratch and ware resistance. Lacquer is difficult to use with a brush because it dries so quickly. For this reason it is not recommended for use by amateurs. There are brushing lacquers that have retarders added to slower trying time, but the best application by far is spraying.

Advantages Negatives

durable skill required to apply

fast drying costly equipment

easily repaired

chemical resistant

Opaque (paint and enamel)

Opaque paint and enamel finishes are often used on wood with no particular beauty or to cover old finishes in bad shape without stripping.

Be sure the surface is clean, smooth and dry. Paint will not stick to a greasy surface. You do not have to remove the old finish; sanding the surface will make a foundation for the priming coat. If the article to be painted is new, look for any knots. These should be covered with a coat of shellac.

Mix paint and enamel well before using. Pour a small amount into can to use and keep remainer covered.

Advantages Negatives

hides defects slow drying time

little equipment needed covers wood grain

easily repaired poor adhesion over

low cost old finishes

Special Finishes

These types of finish are achieved by various processing techniques and often employ one or more kinds of finishing materials to produce the desired effect.

Pickled finishes are made with white or another color over a natural or lightly stained wood color. The effect is similar to the old blonde finishes of the 40's and 50's, except it is usually done on furniture with lots of crevices for the white to stick into. The result has a more interesting texture with the natural grain of the wood showing through and highlighted with the white.

Antiquing is a blended or shaded finish achieved by applying one or more contrasting colored glazing liquids over a painted base. Traditionally, the glaze is applied over white. Today any color base and glaze combination is acceptable. This type of finishing was very popular in the 60's and 70's.

Photo and fake wood grain finishes are found on low end furniture most often made of flake board construction with plastic fasteners. This type of inexpensive furniture is "disposable" and was not designed to be restored, but rather to be replaced.

How Doors Can Lighten a Room

The popular TV programs being made about people building their own self-designed homes are watched by millions. These buildings are typically shaped to fit the land they are located in or to meet the preferences and quirks of the owners, which can mean very visibly different houses. One thing that does appear to be a constant about these homes is that they almost always have a large amount of glazing, often employing large sliding windows which offer expansive views from the inside and which can be opened up for easy access to the outside space. These illustrative glazed areas are often the most expensive single item on the project, so why do people feel the need to spend their money in this way?

It seems fairly obvious that introducing more light into the home is something people feel is important and this is quite understandable as who does not feel better on a bright summer's day than on a rather dingy day in winter? Light is a precious resource and it is natural that we should want to maximize it to enhance our lives, however, building our own home with a wall entirely made of glass is not an option open to everyone, so what the less foster among us do? In years gone by, any aperture even if it was glazed was a sure way to lose heat from the house and before central heating keeping warm was a significant preoccupation for the residents. So the question was how to get more light into a house without compromising the need to keep warm.

One of the darker parts of any home is the upstairs landing as it normally has no natural light being merely a means of access to the rooms leading off it. You may not notice in older homes that there are often windows above the doors on a landing (known as fanlights) to allow light from the rooms off the landing to be introduced into what would otherwise be a rather dark and unwelcoming space. This was a rather limited way of creating more light but interior designers were constrained by the fact that glass was a potential hazardous material as it shattered it was dangerous to the occupants. The development of safety glass which is now used in glazed doors has meant this is no longer a constraint and more light can now be bought in through the glazed panel in the door, which is much more effective than a fanlight!

The creative use of glazed inner doors in many homes has meant that not only is more light introduced but it can be done with style and as part of an overall design theme. Improvement production processes mean that glazed doors are within the pocket of most as is the opportunity of using them to enhance a home. The choice of glazing used to be clear or frosted, (usually for the bathroom) but now, there are a variety of glazing options to suit all tastes. Clear glass is still available but there is also bevelled, diamond cut and even etched patterned glass to make a glazed door really be a design feature as well as carrying out its main function of light enhancement.

The modern trend towards having a light and airy living space lends itself to having more glazing as part of the interior design. There are a lot of glazed internal doors in the market and suit both traditional and contemporary settings and can really open up a room and flood it with natural light, so there's no excuse for sitting in the dark!

10 Natural Ways to Get Rid of Cellulite Entirely

Although getting rid of cellulite has developed to be a disturbing issue to many people, there are very effective ways that you can follow to help you achieve your goals. Cellulite is among the most disturbing skin conditions that commonly occur in women than men. It is thought about by hormonal imbalances, poor diet, weight gain, lack of enough exercises among other causes.

Cellulite normally lowers your self esteem as a result of forming unpleasant looks on your skin. Once you are through with reading this page, you will have the ability to treat cellulite on your skin because the page outlines shortly some of the most effective procedures of getting rid of cellulite completely.

1. Apply apple cider vinegar

Besides being the best and effective way of getting rid of cellulite completely, apple cider vinegar serves as the best hair treatment. As a remedy for cellulite, apple cider vinegar can be directly taken orally where 2tbsp of apple cider vinegar and 8 ounces of water are mixed and taken or 3 parts of apple cider vinegar and one part of water mixed and applied on the affected area. Great improvements will be felt after a very short period of repeated usage of apple cider vinegar.

2. Regulate your diet

Avoid food with a lot of fats and sugar and instead, consume a lot of fiber and wholegrain to help in getting rid of wastes as well as toxins. Beside, consume a lot of fruits and vegetables and drink plenty of water on a daily basis. Beside, stop smoking, drinking alcohol and caffeine consumption and salty foods.

3. Apply grapefruit oil

Having astringent skin toner properties makes grapefruit oil an effective remedy for cellulite. Beside, getting rid of cellulite, grapefruit oil plays a role of an effective cleanser to your system.

4. Use horse chase nut bark

The horse chase nut bark has aescin which is vital in getting rid of cellulite. Horse chase nut not only removes cellulite from your skin but is also used to get rid of wrinkles, ease nighttime leg cramps, tone the walls of veins, and make the fragile capillarity that have been damaged by trauma more stable.

5. Use juniper berry oil

Juniper oil serves to detoxify the cellulite on your skin leaving it clear and good looking. Simply apply a few drops of juniper oil on the affected area and massage; the juniper oil massage is vital in boosting the circulation.

6. Use lemongrass oil

Lemongrass oil gets rid of cellulite from your skin by accelerating hydration as well as lymphatic detoxification, tightening elastin and strengthening connective tissues. Apply a small amount of lemongrass oil on the affected area and thoroughly massage; repeat the process twice a day for a few weeks and the cellulite will be completely gone.

7. Try Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo Biloba is a plant that is famous in treating many ailments associated with blood circulation. It is usually concerned with bringing back to normal the flow of blood in the legs and arms and thus getting rid of cellulite formed around these places.

8. Use seaweed

If you want to get rid of cellulite the natural way without any bad side effects then seaweeds are plants for you. The seaweeds effectively removes cellulite from your skin through making you lose weight. You use the extracts from these plants orally by tablets or its supplements.

9. Try Artichoke

Artichoke is a form of vegetable that contains a lot of the therapeutic properties which are important in getting rid of unwanted fats as well as fluids in the body. Thus Artichoke is among the most effective herbs that play an important role in removing cellulite. You can drink its juice, eat cooked artichoke or get its leaf extract from the pharmacy.

10. Try Green tea

This is another perfect remedy for cellulite; it is a very effective way of getting rid of cellulite entirely. It is a very strong antioxidant that assists in boosting blood circulation. This is the reason why it is effective at getting rid of cellulite.

Truth be told, getting rid of cellulite completely is not an easy thing; many people have tried but with no fruitful results. But you will find it different when you apply one or more of the methods of getting rid of cellulite discussed in this page.

Unraveling The Uniqueness Of Vietnamese Lacquer Art

Vietnam art is one among the many art traditions, which has absorbed multiple influences without sacrificing its uniqueness. The history of Vietnamese art and painting narrates an elaborate tale of influences, especially the Chinese and French of the colonial period. Surviving these influences, Vietnamese art has emerged from dormancy and is once again seeing the limelight, especially in France and other European countries. Vietnamese paintings in lacquer have played a major role in the sustenance of the entire tradition of Vietnamese art and paintings.

Vietnamese lacquer art works date back to more than two thousand years. Lacquered items found in ancient tombs in Vietnam, date as far back as the third and fourth centuries B.C. The first instances of lacquer work in Vietnam were found in household items and wares such as the links in the planks of fishermen’s boats, peasant household basket ware and wickerwork, sumptuous gilded objects, mother-of-pearl inlay work in furniture and so on. Later the traditional lacquer technique was applied to paintings, thus creating a new genre of art. Initially, these lacquer paintings portrayed the scenic beauty of nature but with the changing socio-political scenario, socialist and communist overtones overshadowed every other theme. However, during 1980’s and 1990’s, the younger generation of Vietnamese artists rejuvenated the old art form, along with introducing some innovative experiments.

Currently, lacquer art works are produced in large numbers in Vietnam, particularly in the Phu Tho Province. The entire process requires careful attention and patience. In the Phu Tho Province, resins are harvested from the Rhus Succedanea Tree and converted into natural lacquer, which is then applied to paintings and fine art. The traditional process of lacquer painting requires a minimum of 75 days and is quite complex. Lacquer paintings are done on wood and any imperfections on it are first sealed with lacquer. Traditionally, lacquer comes in three colors- brown, black and vermilion. Artists also use a new technique called chiseling, which gives a richer mix of colors and an apparent sense of size and distance. Next, the wood is covered with a piece of cloth glued to it, using the sap of the lacquer tree and then coated with a layer of the sap mixed with earth. The board is sand papered and recoated with a layer of hot sap. The board is then polished to lend a smooth black surface with a brilliant luster. Once the board is prepared, the painter begins to give expression to his imagination. He draws the outline and applies color one by one so as to let each coating dry slowly. Polishing and washing are the final steps of the procedure, which should be attended with great care. These add a brilliant shine to the surface of the painting. Years of experimentation have produced some great stuff where Vietnam artists have used such materials as plant ash, crushed eggshells, gold and silver to beautify their works.

Such patient and laborious work ought to be unique and this perhaps, is the reason for the growing popularity and demand of Vietnamese lacquer paintings today. Realistic themes depicted in so many works through each historical period, convincingly confirm the expressive, inexhaustible resources of lacquer art. Such Vietnam artists as Nguyen Sang, Nguyen Tu Nghiem, Le Quoc Loc, and Sy Ngoc have contributed greatly to enhance the value and prestige of Vietnam Art and painting, especially the lacquer tradition.