How to Fix Libcairo-2 Dll Error

Libcairo-2.dll is a file module and process of Windows Operating System. It is essentially required by system to run various programs. It helps in some of the language pack of installation processes and settings that system contains. But sometimes it initiates to displays frequent error messages in several formats, some of them are as follows:

  • "The file libcairo-2.dll is missing."
  • "This application failed to start because libcairo-2.dll was not found. Re-installing the application may fix this problem."

Error occurs when Windows becomes disabled to read and processes the settings that are required to run the programs correctly. Error warnings appears while installing particular applications and when at startup and shutdown of Windows. In some cases if this dll file gets removed, corrupt or misplaced then it generates numerous error. Infection of Trojans, virus and other malware propagates corruption and destruction of several files and leads to errors. Beside theses reasons the major cause behind such errors is mostly a registry issues.

It has been found that the dll error displays when you try to run specific applications. The issues that cause error system can not read the file that needs to run correctly. It can be fixed by installing the software again that causes errors. In many cases dll files could be deleted, lost or damaged that makes your system devoid to process the programs. You can fix it by replacing the damaged and infected dll files and also register it again for proper functioning.

But re-installing and replacement of dll file is not the complete solution to fix error. During the process of uninstalling the programs few leftovers of dll and registry entries remains on the hard drive of your system and continuously throws error messages.

As the results system leads to blue screen, crashes, failure of hard drive, system freeze up, sluggish system performance and many other issues. In order to fix this error and to stay away from its consequences, it is suggested to use Libcairo-2.dll Error Fix Tool.

This significant error fixing tool perfectly blocks the error messages. It is specifically designed to clean junk, trash, damaged and corrupted database of dll files as well as registry files.Libcairo-2.dll Error Fix Tool works as a multipurpose tool that protects your system against virus or Trojans that gratuitously uses the CPU and system resources.

Two Excellent Peanut Butter Dog Treat Recipes For You and Your Pup!

Giving your pet something that they will like is the greatest thing you can do as a pet owner. One thing that you can give is a peanut butter dog treat. Dogs love peanut butter. Here are a few peanut butter dog treat recipes that are top on our list:

1. Safflower dog beats – Who would think that by adding safflower to a recipe that you would have a winner? But there are many health benefits to be had by your dog if you just give it a try. The ingredients you need for these are:

  • 1 1/2 cups water
  • 1/2 cup safflower oil
  • 2 medium eggs
  • 3 tablespoons creamy peanut butter
  • 2 teaspoons vanilla
  • 1 1/2 cups whole wheat flour
  • 1 1/4 cups unbleached white flour
  • 1/2 cups cornmeal
  • 1/2 cups rolled oats
  • Additional flour for rolling

Preheat oven to 400 ° F. You need to mix all of the following ingredients into a big bowl: Water, Oil, Eggs, Pea nut Butter, and Vanilla. Use a wire whisk to stir. Slowly add the flour, cornmeal, and oats. Take one-third of the dough and place on a floured surface. Some flower to the top of the dough. Gently knead it. You can add the additional flour as you need it. Roll out to 1/2 – 3/4 inch thickness and then you will want to cut it into shapes using dog cookie cutters that you bought. Place on an ungreased baking sheet. Bake for 20-25 minutes. Leave in the oven for and additional 20 minutes after turning off the oven.

2. Gourmet Lollipop for Dogs – Having a lollipop is fun, even for dogs. That is why with this peanut butter recipe, you can really give your dog a great treat. The ingredients you are going to use for this are:

  • 1 cup creamy peanut butter (natural is best)
  • 1 cup cornstarch
  • 2 tbsp. cold water
  • 1 tbsp. carob chips (optional)
  • Compressed rawhide or bully sticks

Stir all ingredients together in a microwave safe bowl. Microwave on 50% power for 30 seconds at a time until the ingredients are warm. Stir after each 30 seconds in the microwave. Spray the lollipop molds with cooking spray. Scoop the peanut butter into the molds that you have created. If it is still thick then press the mixture into the molds. Fill each mold 3/4 full. Let them sit for 5 minutes. Press the rawhide sticks into the peanut butter. You need to make sure the stick is placed in the middle, with the top being covered. Refrigerate overnight.

The above recipes will give your dog a tasty treat that is suitable for a healthy snack.

5 Things to Consider When Designing an Office Layout

Moving into a new office space can be a daunting experience if you have never done it before. There are many factors to consider (both internally and externally to the office environment) which will impact on the suitability of the space and the most optimum use of it for your business. This article provides information on the 5 most important factors to consider once you have confirmed your new office location.

1. Segment the office space using office plans to scale

Before moving into the office space, ensure that you have correctly analyzed the space for existing staff and furniture as well as any anticipated growth over the occupancy period. Once you have understood your space requirements for the entire occupancy period, you can then create office plans which accommodate for your immediate and long term needs.

2. Install office partitions within open plan spaces

If you are going to create segmented areas within an open plan office, install glass partitions. Glass partitions help to increase natural light within partitioned spaces and are also cost effective to install and remove as you require. Glass partitions also provide a higher level of professionalism to an open plan office, making the office look more accommodating to staff and visitors. Office partitioning requires some advanced planning but with external advisors the implementation can be simple and cost effective.

3. Do not compromise on value add areas such as staff break out areas

The biggest downfall with open plan offices is an underestimation of a business’s growth. Ensure that the space you are committing to is viable to accommodate your business regardless of changes in operational size. Compromising on break out space for extra desk space will be detrimental to the morale of the staff.

4. Ensure sufficient lighting is available in all areas

Having natural light within an office space is a crucial element to keep staff motivated and productive at all times. Ensure that your office layout takes lighting into consideration and that any office partitions or storage furniture does not block natural light out.

5. Invest in the advice of office refurbishment specialists

If you have a large open plan office that needs to accommodate a large number of staff, invest in specialists for office refurbishment. London based refurbishment specialists can advise, design and build office layouts to suit the requirements of businesses of any size.

Using Graphic Design Inspiration and Avoiding Plagiarism

One of the most difficult things to do is gain inspiration without copying or stealing someone else's ideas. Because we are surrounded by designs and art in everyday lives, trying to find that fine line between inspiration and theft proves to be problematic at times. Especially when you take into account that all designs are essentially influenced by the earlier created works of art we are surrounded by. The Internet alone has millions upon millions of graphic design inspiration at your fingertips. These days, with so many resources so readily available, finding inspiration for a design is pretty easy. The difficult part is taking the idea and making something new of it. How do you do that, you ask; by incorporating various concepts, approaches and design features together.

When doing a search for graphic design inspiration, do not stop at one idea. Keep your searches going for additional designs that are related or similar in color, content and structure to what you are looking for. The objective is not to choose one design and duplicate it, instead find a collection of elements that can work together in a different way. As you're doing your search you should be looking at the design and picking it apart to see if any piece can be meshed with another to create something fresh. Your ultimate goal is to combine the best components of each of these, creating a new design that inspires you.

Once you've gathered some inspirational ideas, take a deer look and study the fine details that really make them stand out and catch your eye. Look for typography, light effects and gradients; these are the subtle details that bring the design to life. You should be asking yourself, "Why do I love this design so much?" Once you have it pinpointed it will be easy for you to create a new vision with different concepts. When you're finished, it should not look like an imitation of any of the other designs. It should be a renovated design created with the contribution of them all. You must work to fuse the different elements with common stylistic methods to transform your design into something brand new.

There is no guidebook that teaches you how to search for graphic design inspiration and not commit plagiarism, but there are some forthright ways to avoid it. By using the strategies mentioned above we can all help the circulation of new ideas, creating new inspiration for everyone.

Engineered Wood Joists – A Technologically Advanced Way To Build

Engineered wood joists are a technologically advanced way to build, which allows you to be more eco friendly than building with traditional dynamic lumber. Engineered lumber beams can be manufactured from smaller trees. Any construction project that calls for wood joists can use engineered lumber joists in the construction.

Modern technology has developed engineered lumber which has many advantages over traditional lumber joists and studs:

  • Engineered joists are more uniform in structural integrity, which allows the contractor to install them without the typical sorting and discarding of inferior standard lumber.
  • Engineered lumber joists offer more load bearing capacity than the same sized dynamic joists. This allows fewer joists to be installed in order to carry the same load.
  • Engineered beams can span greater distances than standard wood beams. This gives the architect and homeowner more design flexibility and lowers costs.
  • Engineered joists will save money as fewer joists are required to bear the same load. This will save money on material, labor, and transportation costs.
  • Engineered lumber joists offer more support and rigidity than standard lumber. There will be less deflection in any floor that uses engineered wood, especially over greater spans. The floor will have a more solid feeling, indicating superior construction compared to standard floor joists.

Using engineered i-joists in your construction project will benefit the environment in several ways, which may not be apparent at first glance. Since engineered lumber is lighter in weight, less fuel will be required to transport the material than standard lumber. Engineered i-joists are cut to exact lengths at the factory so there is less waste at the construction site and less material discarded which needs to be hauled to a landfill. The resins used to manufacture engineered wood products are toxin free. Small measures individually, but when multiplied over millions of construction projects, can make a significant difference to the environment.

Overall costs incurred at the construction site can be reduced by using engineered wood products for the same reasons. A fewer number of engineered wood joists are required to build the structure so less labor time is required to construct the building. Less time spent cutting to length decrees labor time, and less weight per joist requires less man to position engineered lumber joists and further decrees labor costs.

Engineered i-joists save money, provide a better constructed home, and are more eco friendly than typical dynamic lumber joists. It's hard to find a reason not to use engineered wood in all aspects of your construction project.

A Review of Ducati 1098 Carbon Fiber Termignoni Exhaust Silencers – Money Well Spent?

One of the first changes that a lot of Ducati owners make to their bikes after being run is to change the stock exhaust silencers for less restrictive aftermarket ones. This has the twofold effect of making the bike louder and also releasing a few extra training ponies (as if a 1098 really needed it!) – Oh, and they look great as well! Bonus!

There are a dazzling array of manufacturers who are producing two full systems and slip on silencers for the Ducati range, however due to the success of their products in racing, and the fact that they are the weapon of choice for the factory Corse Racing team, Termignoni has arguably edged it's way into pole position as the number one Ducati exhaust manufacturer.

Termignoni have a wide selection of systems to fit the 1098 family, from slip on silencers to full titanium and carbon fiber race systems at a full 70mm diameter. It is the carbon fiber 1098 silencer kit that we are having a look at today and is the focus of this review.

Contained in the kit is the complete inventory required to fit the less restrictive carbon silencers including an updated race ECU to adjust the fueling to match the increased airflow, and also a high throughput performance air filter to balance out the additional fueling. In addition there are the mountings and bands to support the pipes under the seat, so in summary this is an entire turn key solution.

Fitting is not beyond the realms of a competent home mechanic, the pipes are precision made and as such fit without the need for any tweaking, the only tricky bit being the installation of the air filter which requires tank removal. Other than that the ECU replacement is exactly that – remove old, insert new (with battery disconnected PLEASE !!), pipes bolt into place and job done.

So how do they work and sound? Well, starting with the easy answer first – they sound awesome, deeper, more boomy but without the muffled sound of the stock pipes. The kit does include a pair of decibel killers in case your neighbors are members of the sound police but it sounds good even with these inserted.

Now to the harder question, do they work? Well, without putting every bike on the dyno it is impossible to comment fully, suffice to say that typically you will see up to an 8% increase in horsepower, impressive given the already high state of tune on the stock engine.

As a conclusion, these are an absolute no brainer, lighter than stock which is always good, sound absolutely fantastic, release a few more horsepower, are easy to install and look like they should be on the grid of a world superbike race. Final bonus is that they are some $ 700 cheaper than the titanium variant.

My only reservation, and it is a small one, I am not a fan of race ECU's as there is a massive variance in output of stock bikes so one size fits all approach is not ideal – I prefer the infinite tuneability of a Power Commander, however these pipes do work well with the race ECU so would not worry too much about the later as it is all within tolerance. So yes, money well spent indeed!

For reference they are Ducati Part No: 9115707B and fit the following bikes -1098 2007/2008, 1098 S 2007/2008

Spray Foam Equipment

Expanding spray foam insulation is a type of insulation based on spraying the insulating foam directly over the area to be insulated. Just as foam board insulation requires foam core boards, expanding foam insulation uses spray foam.

Spray foam insulation is a relative of foam board insulation, using a quite similar material to foam core boards, with the main difference being in the method of applying the insulation itself.

If you intend to insulate your entire house for example, or any other large building, you have two options: one is to hire a specialized company that will do it for you, with a corresponding fee of course, or, if you are a hardcore DIY fan, you may attempt to install the insulation yourself.

It might sound an untouchable idea at first, but with a little study and care you will find that the DIY method might be the cheapest and why not the more enjoying option.

If you are serious in thinking about DIY spray foam insulation, you must first know what equipment you need. The following is a short description of the basic components of a foam spray machine.

The proportioner:

This is the heart of any spray foam machine. It is the part that creates the foam by proportioning the components and pushing them further. The best one for all around use would be an electric one, but make sure it has intuitive controls and balance pressure valves.

The spray foam hoses:

These are basic hoses, which have the sole purpose of transporting the foam from the proportioner to the spray gun. The hoses come in different colors, diameters and lengths, and it's always a good idea to use hoses that are corrosion protected, to prevent any nasty surprises.

The spray foam gun:

If the proportioner is the heart of the installation, then this is the hand. Inside the gun, the two components of the foam are mixed and expelled at certain pressures towards the surface to insulate. The moment the two components come into contact they react, so care must be taken after usage, to avoid clogging. Before, before buying one, try and find out how easy it is to clean.

Al these components will help you succeed in insulating your house. Spray foam insulation can be used instead of foam board insulation, but you should take into account all the advantages and disadvantages of the two insulation methods.

The Importance of Regular Home Improvement

Home improvement, by definition, is making changes to one’s home by making improvements on the house’s looks. Home improvement is usually done by professional contractors, handymen, and even the house owner himself. Home improvement is important because real estate’s value appreciates more if a property is well-maintained. Home improvement is seen by many as unnecessary cost. However, losing value of a real estate is usually caused by neglect in a property’s maintenance. Therefore, in the long run, regular maintenance is crucial for the property’s value to appreciate.

Regular home improvement jobs and renovations will surely make your current living conditions more favorable. People do not easily notice that some areas of the house need improvement. In the long run, regular maintenance will reduce the serious structural damages to your property. It is also important to note that there are different maintenance schedules for different areas of your house. For instance, plumbing should be checked monthly. Ovens, heating systems, smoke detectors, and the like should also be checked monthly to prevent unfortunate disasters. The garden area should be maintained regularly and should undergo rigorous maintenance every four months. This is to prevent insects and termites infestation which can cause significant damage in infrastructure. The landscape of a house should also be in good appearance to help preserve your property’s value. Refrigerators should be checked every three to four months. Check for faulty or loose wiring and avoid energy overload. The roof, on the other hand, should be checked at least every six months. Check for shingles and leaks and take care of them right away. Watch out for blocked gutters as this can lead rainwater to go inside your house. If your house is made mainly of wood, have a regular termite exterminator team visit your house.

Aside from these standard areas in the house that need improvement, remodeling or renovating is also a good idea. It can also add value to real estate. Remodeling can be as simple as changing the paint color in your living room or laying a different color of carpet in your bedroom. Something this simple can make significant changes in your house’s ambience. Renovating can be as major as tearing down the common wall of two rooms to make them one big room. Tearing down walls creates a bigger space which can be used for many purposes. Additional extensions can also be done. Additional space that can be used as garage space is useful. Home improvement tasks that require massive construction should be done by professional contractors. Make a list on what you want changed inside your homes and consult with a team of contractors. This way, you will have an idea on the costs that will be incurred as well as the extent of the repairs and improvements you can do.

Home improvement is important because essentially, it is considered taking care of your home. Aside from the additional value it gives your property, preventive maintenance and remodeling is always good to decrease future damages in your property.

3 Effective Ways to Fix PS3 Internet Connection Problems

I got problems connecting PS3 to Internet the other day. There is a popping up error message on my screen when connecting. However, my laptop can get access to internet very well through the same router. Fortunately, after some time-consuming research, I find the way to fix this PS3 internet connection problem. Here is what I did …

Firstly, update my wireless router. As you may know that router drivers software need to be upgraded periodically in order to function at their best. Make sure that it is updated to the pasted version to avoid any possible disturb.

Secondly, change the SSID and WEP password. SSID (Service Set Identifier) ​​is the name of your wireless network. You may discover different wireless network listed there, choose your own one. Remember to lower the security if you use WEP Encryption because high security may cause PS3 internet problem. And add your PS3 as an accepted device if you WAPs are set to filter MAC address.

Thirdly, go to Internet Connection Settings. PS3 internet connection problems are often solved by changing the network settings. Follow the steps listed below:

a) Change your DNS server address to the OpenDNS servers: 208.67.222.222, and make sure your PS3 settings are on automatic / easy.
b) Locate the IP address of your router.
c) Open a web browser (Firefox that is what I use) on a computer connected to your router (For the PS3's browser did not work you have to use a computer).
d) Manually type in the IP address of you router into the address bar.
e) Ensure to enter the correct username and password you ever set if asked. If you never set one, you need to enter the default username and password. You can find them on the manual of your router. Try username "admin" with no password in case you can not get any information there. But there is only a little chance you can get through.
f) Once you get in, enter manually "DNS Primary and Secondary". Enter DNS address 208.67.222.222 as primary and 208.67.220.220 as secondary.
g) Check and see if PS3 Internet connection problem still exist.

Hope they are helpful.

Doggin’ Philadelphia: 10 Cool Things See When You Walk Your Dog

“If your dog is fat,” the old saying goes, “you aren’t getting enough exercise.” But walking the dog need not be just about a little exercise. Here are 10 cool things you can see in greater Philadelphia while you hike with your dog.

FOLK ART

In 1855, a hotel entrepreneur built a new inn on Rex Avenue. To draw attention to his hostelry he constructed an Indian from old barn boards and propped it up on top of a rock overlooking the Gorge. In 1902, when the Indian Rock Hotel was long gone but with the silhouette still there, artist Massey Rhind was commissioned to make a representation of a “Delaware Indian, looking west to where his people have gone.” The kneeling warrior has gazed up the Wissahickon Gorge ever since. A switchback trail leads to the Indian Statue where you can get close enough to pat his knee. And take in a breathtaking view.

MONUMENTAL M0NUMENTS

The Multi-Use Trail rolls past reconstructed huts and parade grounds that transport you back to the Revolution. The National Memorial Arch, a massive stone tribute dedicated in 1917, stands out along the route. The inscription reads: “Naked and starving as they are, we cannot enough admire the incomparable patience and fidelity of the soldiery. Washington at Valley Forge, February 16, 1778.” In the southern part of White Clay, reached by the Twin Valley Trail, is the Arc Corner Monument marking one end of the 12-mile arc which forms the Pennsylvania-Delaware state line, unique in American political boundary-making. The circular divide dates to William Penn’s directive of August 28, 1701, when Delaware was still a part of Pennsylvania, known as the Lower Three Counties. A little more than 1/2 mile to the west is another monument marking the tri-state junction of Delaware,Pennsylvania and Maryland.

AMERICAN CASTLES

Breaking out of the woods at several points on the hilltops you are greeted with an unparalleled view of Granogue, one of the more spectacular of the American castles dotting the Brandywine Valley’s chateau lands.

MOVIE LOCATIONS

Flying concentric circles outward from Philadelphia, Hollywood location scouts for Oprah Winfrey’s movie project, Beloved, spotted the Fair Hill terrain and selected it as the backdrop for the film’s rural scenes. A ramshackle 19th-century tenant farm was constructed and much of the movie shot here. The producers decided to leave the movie set intact, to deteriorate naturally. You can wander among the fake buildings and even knock on the styrofoam stones.

COOL FORTS

Where else can a dog climb into an actual battery and scan the Delaware River where gunnery officers once aimed guns capable of accurately firing 1,000-pound projectiles eight miles like he can at Fort Mott State Park? Fort DuPont, named for Civil War fleet commander Admiral Samuel Francis duPont, saw active duty in three wars before becoming a state park. The 1-mile River View Trail, a grassy loop path, begins in the marshland along the Delaware River and finishes in shaded woodlands. The trail takes you past several ruins of the military installation, camoflauged to river traffic, and features sustained views of the Delaware River and Fort Delaware on Pea Patch Island.

REMARKABLE BRIDGES

In the farthest northern section of Tyler State Park is the longest covered bridge in Bucks County. The 117-year old Schofield Ford Covered Bridge burned in 1991 but after five years of fundraising the 166-foot, two-span crossing was entirely rebuilt by volunteers on its original stone abutments using authentic period materials and methods. An elaborate, reinforced wooden railroad trestle bridges a ravine on the Glen Trail. The trail runs by a stream under the trestle and there are sweeping views of Wenonah Woods from the top.

A walk through Brandywine Park provides a quick lesson is the history of bridge architecture. The classical arch form is represented in grand style with the magificent stone viaduct across the river and numerous reinforced concrete spans. There is even a small iron arch bridge over the mill race. A prototypical 19th century pier and girder iron bridge transports trains over the Brandywine. And the pedestrian footbridge across the water, the Swinging Bridge, is a little suspension bridge employing the same engineering principles as the mythical Brooklyn Bridge.

A floodplain is a safety valve for the release of a raging creek’s overflow. Along the Paper Mill Trail, just off the Creek Road Trail, is an exhibit on managing these protective wetlands that create a unique wildlife habitat. The stone double-arch bridge next to the floodplain exhibit was built in 1847. The fall line on the Pennypack Creek was the natural choice for fording the creek back to Indian days. William Penn was not so patient in waiting for the tide to take the water away each day and in 1683 he asked that “an order be given for building a bridge over the Pennypack.” Each male resident was taxed in either money or labor to build the bridge, which, when completed in 1697, became the first Three Arch Stone bridge in America. Designated a National Civil Engineering Landmark, the bridge over Frankford Avenue in Pennypack Park is the oldest stone bridge still carrying heavy traffic in America. Germantown Pike was the first road to be started in Montgomery County, dating to 1687 when funds were allocated for a “cart road” from Philadelphia to the Plymouth Meeting settlement. Later extended to present-day Collegeville, an eight arch stone bridge was built to span Skippack Creek in 1792. An equestrian trail crosses the bridge, which is the oldest bridge in continuous, heavy use in America. Ashland Covered Bridge, built in the days before the Civil War; the adjoining Succession and Flood Plain Trails visit meadow, marsh, pond and forest landscapes.

Theodore Burr built a bridge spanning the Hudson River at Waterford, New York in 1804. He added an arch segment to the multiple truss bridge popular at the time, attaining a longer span. Patented in 1817, the Burr Arch Truss became one of the most common in the construction of covered bridges. The Larkin’s Bridge, a 65-foot long, 45-ton “Burr Arch” covered bridge erected in 1854 and rebuilt in 1881, was relocated to the northeast section of the park in 1972. Larkin’s Covered Bridge is the only remaining legacy of Milford Mills.

In 1850 Albert Fink, a German railroad engineer,

designed and patented a bridge that used a latticework of rods instead of cables to reinforce stiffness. This construction was cheap and sturdy, making the Fink Truss one of the most commonly used railroad bridges in the 1860s, especially favored by the powerful Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Only one Fink Truss bridge remains in the United States – an abandoned 108-foot span in Zoarsville, Ohio. A wooden reproduction of a Fink Truss is in a field at Warwick County Park for you and your dog to climb.

CANAL LOCK

Pennsylvania’s first canal system was cobbled together in 1815 using 120 locks to stretch 108 miles from the coal fields of Schuylkill County to Philadelphia. Railroads began chewing away at canal business in the 1860s and the last coal barges floated down the Schuylkill River in the 1920s. Today, the only sections of the canal in existence are at Manayunk and Lock 60, built by area name donor Thomas Oakes, at the Schuylkill Canal Park. In 1985 the Schuylkill Canal Association formed to keep the canal flowing and maintain the lock and towpath. In 1988, the area was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

CHAMPION TREES

The Taylor Memorial Arboretum provides a 12-Tree Self-Guided Tour. The collection is especially strong in Far Eastern specimens and spotlights three Pennsylvania State Champion trees: the Needle Juniper, the Lacebark Elm and the Giant Dogwood. Also on the tour is a Dawn Redwood, an ancient tree known only through fossils until 1941 when a botany student tracked down living specimens in rural China. Some of the first seed to come to America resulted in this tree. Liberated from their sun-stealing neighbors of the crowded woods, the “King” and “Queen” White Oaks have spread out into a massive canopy of leaves. The “Queen” measures seventeen feet around at the thickest part of the trunk and the “King” is closer to twenty. The two trees are part of the “Penn’s Woods” collection of 139 trees standing when William Penn arrived to survey his Pennsylvania colony.

The arboreal oldsters reside at the last stop of the nature trail. bacterial infection. Awbury Arboretum in East Germantown was the summer estate of 19th century Quaker shipping merchant Henry Cope. Across the 55 acres are plantings of groves and clusters of trees set amidst large swaths of grss fields in the English landscape garden tradition. You can investigate more than 200 species, mostly native, in your informal explorations of the grounds. Old macadam paths lead to most areas of the odd-shaped property. Also on the grounds are wetlands surrounding an artificial pond.

BARNS

While many of the Hospital Farm’s buildings have disappeared, the unique dairy barn remains. Built in 1914, it is shaped like a wheel with four spokes. The fame of the hospital’s dairy operation was widespread. In 1961 alone, nine cows produced 1.1 million pounds of milk – more than 300 pounds of milk per cow per day.The Visitor Center is a restoration of a 1923 Sears & Roebuck mail order barn. A century ago Sears sold anything and everything by mail – including kits for building houses and barns. The kit, which could cost as little as a few hundred dollars depending on style, would include rough lumber, framing timbers, plank flooring, shingles, hardware, sash and paint. Usually shipped by train from the west, the barn kit would be loaded onto a freight wagon and hauled to the building site for assembly by local carpenters.

COOL ROCKS

Forty million years ago an igneous explosion occurred underground here and cooled very quickly leaving behind a particularly fine granite rock. Tourists and students of geology alike made the pilgrimage to the Falls of French Creek to study the rock formations. Granite quarries mined the rock and granite from Saint Peters once received an award at the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago as “a fine-grained polished cube, a good building and ornamental stone.” The quarries closed in the 1960s and many pits can still be seen. Today the giant boulders in French Creek are ideal for your dog to sramble on – or just lie in the sun. Mountain in State Game Land #157. The mountain is essentially a ridge of diabase boulders and the trail to the top calls for almost continuous rock-hopping, a technique called bouldering. The basaltic rock provides incredible traction.

And our vote for the coolest thing of all on Philadelphia trails – the “Ringing Rocks” in Ringing Rocks Park where the rocks ping when struck by a hammer – or thud on “dead ” spots.

copyright 2006

Three Ways to Build a Motorcycle

Some people build custom bikes because they are cheaper than buying one. Others just want the I-built-that feeling as they look at it. Still others might want customization that they can not get in an "off the shelf" model.

When someone decides to build a motorcycle, there are three paths to take depending on budget, mechanical skill, design aims, and past building experience. Those paths are custom bike kits, a rolling chassis, and building the whole thing from a collection of motorcycle parts.

Custom Bike Kits

The simplest choice for someone who has never built a bike before is to try one of the many custom bike kits out there. You get a box that has everything you need to build the bike from the ground up except the paint.

Kits are great for first-time builders. If you can follow instructions, you end up with a bike put together with your own hands. You do not have to worry about picking the wrong parts or whether two pieces will work together. You will make mistakes along the way, but they will tend to be safe mistakes that will not ruin the build.

The biggest downside is the cost. This is perhaps the most expensive way to build a custom bike. You are also limited as to how much customization you can do. Sure you can swap out the included parts with others of your choice, but that means throwing away pieces you've already paid for.

Rolling Chassis

A rolling chassis is a partially assembled bike that you can customize. It includes the frame, handlebars, wheels, gas tank, and other basic parts. You need to add an engine and a transmission then finish it off with custom pieces.

This is a good middle-of-the-road choice. A rolling chassis is cheaper than one of the kit bikes while keeping the advantage of pre-selected parts that work together. Since all you have is the undering framework, you still have lots of customization options.

Building a bike from a rolling chassis requires more skill on your part, since you are going to have to choose the other parts yourself.

A variation on the rolling chassis is to take an existing bike, cut it down to the frame, so producing your own chassis. A used bike will probably cost less than a rolling chassis and you will be removing the parts that have seen the most wear and tear such as the engine.

Building from Scratch

The ultimate in a custom bike is one that you select all the motorcycle parts yourself. The bike becomes a true expression of your personality because every nut and bolt was hand selected. Needless to say this build is beyond most first-timers and even most second-timers.

You can either go cheap, cannibalizing parts from junk bikes, or expensive, buying high end custom chopper parts. This is definitely a blank canvas and the ultimate challenge for the bike builder.

Buttons – History and Facts

When did buttons begin to be used? What was used to secure clothing before them? Some history and facts about the button:

  • Button-like objects have been found in the Indus Valley of ancient Pakistan and date back to around 2000 B.C.E. These were not used for fasteners, but for ornaments. Before they were used for fastening, pins, leather lacing and belts were used to secure clothing.
  • Before buttons could be used as fasteners, the button hole had to be devised. Evidence dates the first button and button hole closure systems to the 13th century in Germany. This may have been a solution to the problem of how to secure clothing that was becoming more and more form-fitting, without having to resort to sharp pins.
  • As with most anything that is new, they became a fad. Buttons and button holes covered the clothing of the well to do. The number of them and what they were made out of became a status symbol. It has been rumored that King Louis XIV of France spent over $5 million on them in his lifetime.
  • Ever wonder why men’s suit coats have non-functioning buttons sewn on the sleeves? Some say they are just for decoration, but there is also the story that King Frederick The Great of Prussia started the practice in the 18th century. The rumor goes that after an inspection of his troops, he ordered that buttons be sewn on the sleeves of their coats to discourage them from wiping their noses on them!
  • The Scovill Manufacturing Company in America made a set of gold buttons with the profile of George Washington on them that were presented to Marquis de Lafayette during his U.S. visit in 1824.
  • With the increased cost of ivory in the 19th century, button manufacturers began to make them out of a nut from a specific kind of palm tree in South America. This is called vegetable ivory, or corozo. When the nut is dried, it is a very reasonable facsimile for genuine ivory, and is still used today.
  • The first buttons made from celluloid, one of the first types of plastics, were made in the 1860’s.
  • Before World War One, most button manufacturing was done in Europe, specifically England. After the war, the United States became the center of button making until modern times.

How to Build a Brick Grill

Are you contemplating the possibility of constructing an outdoor grill made of bricks? It is not as difficult as you may believe. All you need to do is some careful preparation like making sure that you have all the bricks that you need and cement mixture and an adequate amount of time. An outdoor made of grill is a good choice compared to the standard grill made out of metal that most individuals are using. It costs a little more but you will not have to worry about the lifespan of your grill.

How to Construct Your Very Own Brick Grill

Once you have decided how big the grill that you will construct, request a substantial quantity of bricks from your local hardware and have delivered near the location of your outdoor grill. It is advisable to build it on a flat surface like a cement slab. This will ensure that your project will not be affected by any changes in an uneven surface. A good option to save cash is to construct a cooking area with legs.

Make a square exactly the size of a standard grill and install four brick in each of the square's corners. Then place bricks and cement up the four posts until you have four sturdy legs about three feet high. Install a level across each support to make sure that they are all the same height.

Use a saw to make a rectangular shape wood the width of columns of the square but thirty-six inches longer. Place the wood on the upper part of the four columns that possess an overhang of eighteen inches on both sides. This makes an excellent preparation area for a minimum amount of money. For additional support, utilize cement anchors to lock the wood to the bricks.

Place bricks into two rows across the base of the brick grill up to the four corners. Make sure that you will use a fire resistant mortar to close any openings or cracks in your project. You do not want any fire from the coals destroying the wood. Use a mortar mix to install bricks into two rows around the outside area of ​​the bottom of the brick grill.

Repeat the process on the back and both sides until the bricks are eighteen inches high. Utilize a level to make sure that it is straight.After determining the dimensions for your grill you can now look for its grate. Look for the grate that you will need it in your local barbecue store. If you have a substantial budget, buy a brick that is ceramic covered because they are more resistant to rust.

Now that you know the basics of constructing an outdoor grill, you are one hundred percent sure that it will be successful and all you need to do is beginning cooking your favorite foods.

Can I Save the Planet?

Ideas to save the planet include grand schemes that only Governments could attempt, down to the small but incrementally effective actions of individuals.

The 'every little helps' approach has a lot to commend it. Everyone can take a unique part, guided by his or her own preference, yet collectively there is great effect. And there are so many options.

We could save water by putting a bucket in the shower, fixing leaky taps, only running the washing machine when it is full, and taking shorter showers.

We could conserve energy by switching off the lights, installing energy saving globes, lagging the roof or only opening the fridge door when we have to.

We could travel less. Between us we made 2.5 billion aircraft journeys in 2009, the result of an ongoing surge in wandering the globe helped by growing affluence and a 60% drop in ticket prices over the last 40 years. Projections are for 3.3 billion journeys by 2014, but we could choose to move around less often.

We could eat less meat. The 'mean American diet' (often referred to by the killer acronym MAD) requires 71% more land and 340% more active nitrogen (the key nutrient for plant growth) to produce than an average vegetarian diet. Being a vegetarian massively reduces your environmental footprint.

All these personal choices are mitigation actions. Ideas for changes to behavior that reduce demand on energy and natural resources and also reduce pollution. Even if only half of us acted on these suggestions we would lower global energy demand, reduce water use and ease the pressure on a host of natural resources. If we all did it, then we might save the planet.

And this is where these articles usually finish. Yes we can! Go turn off the light or even run for office and get some big schemes cooking.

What if the planet does not need saving? Suppose that the trajectory of human exploitation and appropriation of resources is just part of the rich journey of life on earth. Then, by definition, I can not save it.

Convention says that a catastrophic meteorite strike killed off the dinosaurs. What if they had already become so numerous as to have ate themselves out of all available cycads and the dark clouds from all the dust simply tipped a balance that was already teetering?

There is always an alternative explanation to convention. One alternative to saving the planet is that it's not up for being saved. Sure it is changing, and much of that change is a result of human activity from land clearing to pollution. But the earth has changed before and will again.

Perhaps a better question is 'can I save myself?' Not in the selfish sense of pushing to be the first into the lifeboat of a sinking ship, but to save a sense of self and a personal relationship with the earth. This has more depth than conserving electricity and, in time, answers all the questions.

Attic Insulation

If you are told that your attic along with the roof are two of the weakest places in your thermal insulation system it is possible that many may not believe. According to statistics poor (or absent) attic insulation will account for up to 15% of the total energy loss in your house. Insulating an attic which is generally unheated is vital in the home energy saving process.

What is really the attic in your building?

Attic is defined as the space enclosed by the building wall and is located directly under the roof. As this is an area generally not occupied continuously by anyone (except in special designs and home modifications) it is unheated. Some components of utilities such as water heaters, hot water storages, air conditioning and heating air ducts and also goods storages may be located here depending on the volume of space available. Typically the roof and the floor are insulated although more often than not inadequately.

Areas of heat loss in an attic

Some major points of heat loss have been identified by researchers. For example;

  • Roof
  • Attic floor
  • Air vents
  • Attic access
  • Poorly identified hot / cold air distribution ducts and,
  • Poor insulation in hot water tanks and plumbing

The silver lining in the whole issue is that of all insulations of an old or new building attic insulation is the easiest to tackle. And in most cases can be transported out by semiskilled amateurs as a DIY project during during a weekend!

Types of attic insulation

Commonly used attic insults are as follows:

  • Cellulose Insulation – loose fill
  • Cellulose Insulation – Stabilized Insulation
  • Fiberglass and mineral wool Insulation- loose fill
  • Fiberglass and mineral wool insulation- batts
  • Expanded Polystyrene or Phenolic foam insulation- rigid boards
  • Cellular Foam Insulation – sheets of Butyle and Nitrile rubber foam etc.

Tips for DIY enthusiasts

  • The use of cellulose insulation is currently gaining grounds over fiberglass and mineral wool insulation. The reasons being none other than economy! The thermal resistance value "R" per unit material cost for cellulose fill is the lowest for any attic insulation.

Further the modernized material does not require a vapor barrier (subject to local building codes permitting it)

  • The cellulose loose fill can be filled in between timber joists. This may raise dust posing a health hazard. Adequate precautions are advised. These fibers may settle about 20% over the time. An overfill of at least this amount is there recommended. On the other hand stabilized cellulose material does not show this weakness and is therefore better suited for the job in spite of the higher price.
  • On the other hand the EPS, PF and cellular foam slabs can be easily cut to exact size between joist spacing and also can be fitted over them completely eliminating any thermal bridges unlike fiberglass, cellulose material etc.
  • Handling of Fiberglass or mineral wool insulation should be done with care. Protective clothing and masks need to be worn.
  • Check all hot water plumbing insulation and renew if necessary. Continuous insulation through out is essential. Check near the storage tanks for weak insulation and rectify as needed.
  • Hot / cold air ducts are easily neglected items in an unconditioned attic. Poor seals between flanged joints, weak insulation in these places and elsewhere, non continuity in insulation etc. may cause high thermal energy losses.
  • Another cause of heat loss from conditioned areas to the attic is the recessed light fittings. Caution should be exercised when insulating the fitting as this will also entrap the heat emitted by the lamp leading to disastrous fires. Seeking manufacturer's instruction is therefore essential in this matter.
  • Vent grilles to and unheated attic is essential for proper ventilation of the occupied areas. Special care need to be taken to prevent obstruction of these grilles (generally located at the periphery of the attic floor).