How to Fix Libcairo-2 Dll Error

Libcairo-2.dll is a file module and process of Windows Operating System. It is essentially required by system to run various programs. It helps in some of the language pack of installation processes and settings that system contains. But sometimes it initiates to displays frequent error messages in several formats, some of them are as follows:

  • "The file libcairo-2.dll is missing."
  • "This application failed to start because libcairo-2.dll was not found. Re-installing the application may fix this problem."

Error occurs when Windows becomes disabled to read and processes the settings that are required to run the programs correctly. Error warnings appears while installing particular applications and when at startup and shutdown of Windows. In some cases if this dll file gets removed, corrupt or misplaced then it generates numerous error. Infection of Trojans, virus and other malware propagates corruption and destruction of several files and leads to errors. Beside theses reasons the major cause behind such errors is mostly a registry issues.

It has been found that the dll error displays when you try to run specific applications. The issues that cause error system can not read the file that needs to run correctly. It can be fixed by installing the software again that causes errors. In many cases dll files could be deleted, lost or damaged that makes your system devoid to process the programs. You can fix it by replacing the damaged and infected dll files and also register it again for proper functioning.

But re-installing and replacement of dll file is not the complete solution to fix error. During the process of uninstalling the programs few leftovers of dll and registry entries remains on the hard drive of your system and continuously throws error messages.

As the results system leads to blue screen, crashes, failure of hard drive, system freeze up, sluggish system performance and many other issues. In order to fix this error and to stay away from its consequences, it is suggested to use Libcairo-2.dll Error Fix Tool.

This significant error fixing tool perfectly blocks the error messages. It is specifically designed to clean junk, trash, damaged and corrupted database of dll files as well as registry files.Libcairo-2.dll Error Fix Tool works as a multipurpose tool that protects your system against virus or Trojans that gratuitously uses the CPU and system resources.

Dimensions of Group Dynamics – Keys to Effective Group Learning Discussions

In an age when active involvement of learners is recognized as crucial to effective learning, teachers and instructors in all settings are using group discussions as a method to promote more active involvement.

While some critics caution that brain-based learning research tells us there is still a need for time for individual reflection, it is hard to deny the fact that group activities promote more active involvement on the part of most learners. In addition, they are cost-effective and relatively easy to implement.

Teachers look for creative ways to structure group tasks, but some fail to recognize the importance of effective group functioning in achieving learning objectives. Simply turning over a task to a group is often not enough. The group must be able to function to perform the task while at the same time achieving beneficial learning outcomes for each participant in the group.

The academic discipline of Social Psychology has been studying how individuals perform in groups for decades. While there may be some debate over some issues, a review of the literature reveals five key dimensions for group functioning cited by most experts. Although there are differences in terminology, the underlying meaning is the same. The following five dimensions were popularized by Organizational Psychologists Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in their book, Spectacular Teamwork. Here are the dimensions:

1. Power and authority
2. Roles and responsibilities
3. Norms and standards
4. Morale and cohesion
5. Goals and objectives.

All groups – even those coming together for the first time – will exhibit these dimensions to varying degrees depending on their personal experience. In seminar and workshop settings, participants come from organizations structured under a “boss.” In the absence of a designated leader, some groups may choose to elect one. In other cases, a member emerges to fill the role. The point is, at some level, someone in the group must have or take the power and authority to provide direction to the group.

In some highly structured work groups, roles and responsibilities for different aspects of group functioning are assigned. Person A might be the designated timekeeper while Person B is the designated group recorder. In other cases, roles are assumed and different members may play different roles at different times.

Norms and standards are guidelines for acceptable behavior. For example, some work groups have discussion standards that only allow participation when the leader recognizes an individual. Other groups have norms that allow some individuals to contribute little to the discussion without being challenged. In a seminar setting, these norms and standards will develop over time, but initially, they are nothing more than the sum total of the experiences of the participants.

In the early stages of development, groups lack cohesion or a sense of togetherness. Consequently, morale is often neutral. Over time, effective functioning leads to increased cohesion and successful outcomes breeds a sense of morale.

Finally, all groups have goals and objectives. The most obvious is the group outcome as defined by the task. However, each individual in that group has his or her own goals and there can be a great deal of divergence across those goals. In some cases, individual goals can actually be at cross-purposes, making it difficult for the group as a whole to work towards a common objective.

Burton Air Review

The Burton Air snowboard is another version of the Custom Snowboard which includes CARBON I-BEAM in addition to the technology applied onto the Air.

The Burton Air is 100$ cheaper than the Custom but generally snowboarders purchase the Custom one. The Custom really has more pop because of that Carbon inside, but only experimented riders will see the difference.

The Burton Air now includes many sizes and suits big guys needs with decks ranging from 145cm to 166cm.

Technically, the Burton Air has a Negative Core Profile which results in having a softer and more freestyle flex and torsion suitable for park, pipe and rails riding.

The Super Fly Core makes the board lightened and loaded with pop as it is a vertical sandwich of hard and soft woods.

The DualZone EGD adds solidity to the edges for more control and durability with added wood grain next to the edges.

The Fiberglass used is the TRIAX RESPONSE, basically one lengthwise layer of fiberglass topped with two layers of diagonal glass yielding to more torsional stiffness and thus a more precise carving and turn initiation.

The base is obviously the Sintered one and Burton Air features the Sintered Vision Base which is highly porous for a nice wax absorption (better gliding) but also to put a nice Vivid Design.

And a personal Burton touch adds strength to the deck by tuning the deck especially for a long season. Their technic is to overbuild the board and put it in a machine which simulates the conditions of an entire riding season.

Now that you have learnt about the technical features behind this Burton Air Snowboard, you can admit that this deck is a solid one and fits many conditions. Before you decide to shop for a Custom, think twice and try the Air and you will see that it’s already a great machine. For those who have big feet you should have a look to the Royale snowboard, a replica of the Air.

Google Chrome Crash Fix – Complete Repair Tutorial

Although Google Chrome is one of the most popular and also advanced Internet Browsers that is available today, it does not come without some drawbacks. Because Google Chrome is such a highly sophisticated developed piece of software, which has been designed to make your Internet browsing experience the best and nothing else, the problems that come with it are sophisticated as well. Users of Chrome have reported various errors and issues with the browser, such as Crashing, Stalling, Error messages. Other users have claimed that they have had issues with Flash Player not functioning properly, this leaves many people stranded and unable to view certain web pages. All of this evidence put forward Google Chrome's issues has been led to believe that the browser is easily susceptible to damage and corruption.

Many of the reasons why users have encountered these sort of problems while using the browser are things such as:

  • Vital Chrome files have been badly damaged and corrupted
  • Many files have been deleted or misplaced
  • Windows settings have been changed
  • Parts of the registry have become damaged or corrupt

In order to fix the issues that many of you are seeing, you should follow these simple steps that are outlined below.

  1. The first thing you should do is to restart your computer, it could be that your computer has just encountered a slight glitch that is causing Google Chrome to continue crash and display various error messages. If this is the first time you have encountered this then restarting your computer to refresh the settings. If you continue to experience this then proceed to step 2.
  2. If you continue to experience issues with Google Chrome then it is recommended that you re-install the Google Chrome application. In doing so you are allowing your computer to read the files better, and also repair any damaged or corrupt settings that may have been causing the issues. To do this, follow these steps: Click "Start> Control Panel> Add / Remove Programs" Locate "Google Chrome" Click UNINSTALL next to it When the application loads, select "REMOVE" (not repair) Follow the uninstall process Restart your PC .
  3. Step 3 is to remove any add-ons and plugins. Add-ons and plugins are a great way for people to customize their Internet browsing that will benefit them, however many of these add-ons and plugins can cause Google Chrome to crash. To remove any add-ons and plugins follow these steps: Open up Google Chrome. In the address bar type chrome: // extensions. Click Uninstall, or Click Disable if you think you may use the addon in the future. Restart your browser.
  4. The next step is to carry out a scan of your registry. This step is extremely important as many vital files that are needed for Chrome are kept in this delicate database, which is easily susceptible to damage and corruption. The registry is not just for storing important files for Chrome, it houses many different important files that are needed by other applications. Often your computer will try to read files that are located inside the registry however sometimes it can not do this because it is confused, so leading to the corruption of many files.

Taking a Look at the Arched Back Lumbar Stretcher Extender

According to Medline Plus, back pain affects 8/10 Americans at some point during their lifetimes. The National Institute of Health reports that a number of factors can increase one's risk of developing back problems, such as being overweight or out of shape, aging, having a job that requires lifting, smoking, poor posture or disease.

Back pain can also come as a result of kidney stones, cancer, tumors, stress, infections, arthritis or pregnancy. To minimize the risk, it's important that we remain flexible and neatly stretched. One of the products people are using the $ 14 Arched Back Lumbar Stretcher Extender Model # 83-4866V by Trademark Global.

To use the Arched Back Lumbar Stretcher Extender Model # 83-4866V, you position the product at your shoulder blades and lie down on your back, allowing the arch to follow the natural curvature of your back. Keep your knees bent with your feet flat on the floor and stretch your arms out over your head for the optimal stretch. You may move the product slowly up or down to provide added pressure where you need it. Amazon recommends that you purchase a pillow like the REAL-EaSE Neck Support (Brookstone) to give yourself a pillowy head and neck support while stretching. Some people find it works best if you slowly pull your knees up to your chest and rock gently to crack your back.

The Arched Back Lumbar Stretcher Extender Model # 83-4866V has received a number of five-star reviews at Amazon. One man says he uses the product after golfing to stretch out. Other people use the stretcher extender following surgery or to treat the pain of bulging disks. This product is used by patients with sciatica, injured rotator cuffs and dull aches from working at a computer all day long. Lisa W. from Ohio says, "Since I started using the stretcher at least twice a day, I have noticed an improved range of motion, and an ease of motion in my shoulders with less pain."

Many consumers note that the Arched Back Lumbar Stretcher Extender Model # 83-4866V is much easier to use than an inversion table and much cheaper than paying a chiropractor. However, they also find that stretching over an exercise ball can often do the same job – if not better.

Not everyone reports the enjoyable "spell cracking" experience that the most ardent reviewers report, but everyone notes that it is at least comfortable and relaxing to lay on. As with any back pain relief product, you're likely to be disappointed if you're looking for a magical cure-all. Yet if you're looking for a product that promotes greater flexibility, stretching, relaxation and relief of tension, then you will enjoy this product.

A Migraine and Tension Headache May Be Relieved By Simple Self-Massage Technique

While it may seem like the most effective way to combat a headache is to reach for an over-the-counter or prescription pain-killer, it's possible that a natural solution may not only attach your headache faster but may attack the pain at its source . If tension or migraine headaches are caused by muscle tension, then it makes more sense to relieve the tension instead of just numbing the pain.

Tension Headaches

Three of the muscles belonging to the suboccipital group at the base of the skull are reasonably responsible for many cases of tension headache; These muscles are the rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor and the obliquus capitis superior. All three muscles attach to the skull; the first two connect to the topmost cervical vertebrae in the neck, and the third connects to another muscle in the neck.

The suboccipital muscles are responsible for head extension, or raising the head. Commonly, these muscles are tight in people with forward head posture. This postural dysfunction occurs when the head extends forward of the body's center line; the suboccipitals must work overtime to keep the head facing forward from this position.

Place your fingertips on the back of your head and arch your neck back; you'll likely feel the muscles in your skull tense up. When the suboccipitals tighten, they exert a pull on muscles through the skull. This tension is believed to result in tension headaches – the throbbing, aching and tightness that wraps around the head for anywhere from hours to days.

Chronic tension in the suboccipital muscles can cause trigger points – knots that form in the connective tissue surrounding the muscles that make it difficult to relax them. Myofascial release is a targeted form of massage therapy designed to loosen tight connective tissue. You can practice self-myofascial release (SMR) at home with the use of a trigger point device to treat suboccipital tension.

You can view a video of suboccipital SMR at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kHF95SF8cYw . Be careful not to roll over your spell when performing this technique. When you encounter a tender knot, pause on it and apply deep, sustained pressure for 30 seconds.

Migraines

There is a theoretical connection between migraine headache and the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle. This muscle connects to the dura, a pain-sensitive protective layer that supports the brain. Tension in this muscle can exert a pull on the dura, and this may cause migraine pain.

See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14979889 for more on this connection.

If dural traction is the cause of your migraine headaches, then simple SMR may be enough to relieve pain. Before taking medication next time, consider trying out this technique.

On top of myofascial release, you'll need to work to correct postural distortion and other causes of chronic muscle tension like stress. Chronic pain often has a complex of causes and, therefore, solutions; seek out natural treatments before investing in risky and invasive methods.

Getting More Information About Sony VAIO VPCCB190X

Sony VAIO VPCCB190X is a notebook that is available in two different sizes, including 14 "and 15.5". This is known as C series of Sony Laptops. The company offers its customers complete customization of their notebook and get the specifications of their choice. The options of customization include all high-profile specifications and you would be able to adjust it according to your requirements and budget.

The machines offer the operating system of windows 7 home premium and you can choose to get professional 64-bit by paying 50 dollars additionally. The processor choice is between Intel Core i5-2410 M (2.3 GHz) and Intel Core i5-2540 M, though one hundred dollars are additionally charged for the higher specification. This laptop is available in four colors, which include Bolt Black, Neon Orange, Neon Green and Lightning White. There are also two options in the battery of the system, firstly there is a normal battery which provides a battery time of 4.5 hour at default setting and you can choose to get a high capacity battery by paying $ 100 more which would give you the battery timing of 7.0 hours.

There are four options available to choose from for your display, two of them are for the size of 14 "laptop and the other two are for 15.5" laptop. The 14 "laptop offers a choice between 14" display with LED backlight technology, which provides resolution of 1366 x 768, and 14 "display with LED backlight technology that provides resolution of 1366 x 768, which requires the additional payment of $ 50. "laptop, the choice is between 15.5" Display with LED backlight (1366 x 768) and 15.5 "Full HD VAIO Premium Display (1920 x 1080). This machine also provides a choice in graphic card of the system which includes AMD Radeon HD 6470 M with 512MB V-RAM and AMD Radeon HD 6630 M with 1GB V-RAM hybrid graphics & wireless display technology.

The memory choices include 4GB DDR3-SDRAM-1333, 6GB DDR3-SDRAM-1333 with the additional price of $ 100 and 8GB DDR3-SDRAM-1333 which requires the additional payment of $ 200. You also get to choose between different hard drive, which ranges from 320 GB Hard Disk Drive (5400 rpm) up till 750 GB Hard Disk Drive (5400 rpm) which would require you to pay $ 110 additionally. Different choices are also available in optical disc drives and by default; you would get CD / DVD player / Burner.

This laptop also features an antivirus program but you would have required to pay additionally for that, however you can also choose to get a free trial version of the antivirus program or you could also opt for the antivirus program. The company also offers a choice between warranties package between 2 and 3 years.

Flat Roof Insulation – Is it Really Worth the Cost?

Flat roof insulation may seem like a nuisance. After all, why would a flat roof need insulation? There is only a small level of space involved. Just how much heat and dampness can possibly be trapped in such a small area. Furthermore, is it really necessary to insulate a flat roof? Well, you might like to know that the spaces inside a flat roof are just as important as the spaces between any other roof area, including sloped roofs. Anadequate amount of insulation can do a large amount of long-term damage, just like any other structure that requires insulation.

Why is insulation actually needed for a flat?

In fact, the need for proper FRI far outweighs the need for insulation for sloped roofs. Why? Because flat roofs have an extreme exposure to the elements of extreme heat and cold. And they are FLAT. Unlike shingled roofs, water, ice, and heat seriously play havoc. There is no release of pressure or run-off.

Look out for the damage!

Because of the design, the no-slope, the flatness of it all, damage is more likely to occur. And because many homes and commercial buildings have large amounts of square footage benefit the flat it can easily become a serious trap for major (and often unseen) damage. All the moisture from the kitchens and bathrooms and laundry rooms usually get stuck. Unless the insulation is really up to par and the ventilation is also where it bought to be, the odds of reckless flat roof damage is almost inevitable.

Bottom line – Is flat roof insulation worth your time?

Most professional insulators agree that is most definitely worth the time. But it needs to be done right. Insulation goes hand-in-hand with ventilation. Both insulation and ventilation need to work in unison. Think of this as a symbiotic relationship both working together as one. It is actually a very beautiful working relationship. The insulation protectors and shields while the ventilation releases and provides much needed new air for the flat roof to breath. When this relationship is designed to work at a 50% by 50% ratio the conditions can become extremely optimized for amazing results.

The results show in the form of longering roof materials, big savings in energy cost during the summer and winter months, and much better conditions for you as a human while existing and living your life in your house or building. And over the years this added comfort and energy cost savings is certainly worth the investment and time of properly acquiring good FRI and ventilation.

In conclusion, insulation (and proper ventilation) can make the difference between a happy, comfortable living space or a very unhealthy, uncontrollable atmosphere that will always results in constant damage and ongoing repair and maintenance costs, years after year. Do yourself a huge good turn by hiring a professional to thoroughly check the conditions of your flat roof. It will pay big dividends for you and your peace of mind.

Adopting a Non-Egoic Model For Therapy

Introduction:

Much of what is motivating for human behavior is action that serves the ego of the individual. The term as it is being used herein, may not relate directly to the psychoanalytic view of ego which is conceptualized as the buffer between the Id and the Superego, but more of ego addressed to a broader and more universal definition of all things related to the self of an individual. Therefore ego in this writing relates to the individuality and one’s singular identity, which some may consider the foundation of personality.

Society has become increasingly “self-focused” and there exists in many arena of culture a fundamental tyranny generated by the supremacy of entitled selfhood. Some might call the entitled self, by negative labels such as selfish or self-centered, but for the purposes of this paper those labels are unhelpful and un-descriptive in nature. What is clear is that rampant entitled selfhood has created or supports many societal woes and personal tragedies. Entitled Selfhood, can play out in any number of possibilities in the lives of an individual, for example one might enter a helping profession to meet some need of their selfhood and when that need is not readily met through their labor with clients, they become fatigued and overly stressed, which may indeed contribute to burnout in professional service providers.

There exists a natural occurring psychological heuristic which each normally function human being possesses, that makes comparisons and judgments almost constantly while conscious and alert. The foundation of those comparisons and judgments are based in comparisons to the individual self, with those things that support the ego being “good or right” and those that do not support the ego as being “bad or wrong”. This binary mental activity is most often in servitude to our selfhood. Herein lies a danger for the healer, it becomes very easy to apply our own evaluations to others and judge the goodness or appropriateness of their behavior based on what our individual measuring stick might be.

To function optimally it is essential for the counselor/healer to understand and effectively restructure their own ego dependency and demandness, so that they are not burdening others with their judgments, biases and injunctions. Perhaps the most successful way to achieve this release from the tyranny of the entitled selfhood is to find avenues of compassion and charity that do not come with price tags. Price tags are the expectations that are often the companions of the entitled self. When one has the price tag of acknowledgement, recognition, or the price tag of being a savior to others, this makes the helping about the counselor/healer’s ego needs.

Healing begins when the counselor/healer find within themselves the ability to consistently invite the helped into a sanctuary of acceptance, compassion and charity. That singular activity can provide tremendous results even without techniques or skills. This is not a new idea in the field of helping others, but has remained a steady and supportable component of the philosophic fabric of creating healthy change in others.

Moving Toward Non-Egoic practice

The idea of NON-EGOISM may be a new concept, but hopefully it will be a concept that opens the windows of heaven and admits a light and warmth that has been missing in clinical work. In the changing clinical world where the practitioners are focusing more on strengths, and helping clients move through their problems using the skills that they already possess, it is time to look at the Non-egoic models of therapy. It is herein postulated that one cannot truly be strength’s based if one has not achieved a certain ability to be consistent in selfless charitable compassion. Some might say that love unfeigned by the demands of emotional or psychological price tags.

Perhaps a definition of this concept might serve to the reader at this point. On first hearing there have been a number of therapists that seem perplexed by the idea of non-egoic models of therapy, preferring instead to focus on the individual, and therapies that are designed around the egoic nature of the human condition. While it is thoroughly and completely apparent that all human beings are egoic there are certain practical considerations that must be equally apparent. Each individual possesses an abundance of unique history that has embedded particular meaning and value within the contextualized relational architecture of living life on a daily basis. Much of this meaning is in service of preserving the entitled selfhood of an individual. One of the challenges faced when adopting a non-egoic view of the helped is that is counterintuitive to our fierce though false sense of a separate individualism, seeing the entitled self as a unique and separate being from everyone and everything else around them.

Defining Non-egoic approaches to therapy falls into two distinct frames. One frame is the counseled and the other frame is about the counselor. The entitled selfhood which is a form of egotism in therapy has a long and well established history; it is easy to acknowledge that most of the traditional approaches of therapy, other than systems approaches have treated the individual as a unique entity, which is absolutely true. The challenge is that the traditional models tend to attend too little to the relational architecture within which the unique individual lives. Non-egoic models tend to look at the unique individual as an interacting agent with the relational environment or architecture.

The second and maybe the most important aspect of non-egoic models of therapy have to do with the clinician. Many times the clinician’s entitled selfhood becomes an element in the therapy of the individual. Milton Erickson used to compare this to inviting a guest to dinner and then dictating what, and how they should eat. Many therapists want to control the kind and type of experience the client discovers as they participate in the therapeutic process. Still others have set semi-rigid ideas of how recovery and healing appear, and have in the past taken the stance that clients that did not fall into line with their “superior belief” of how it should be were guilty of resistance. This all communicates an interaction with compassion price-tags, of varied value and urgency for the counselor/healer.

Most Human beings possess the egoic view of life, seeing themselves as separate from everything and everyone else. Developmental psychologists cherish the stage named individuation childhood development as a profound and necessary step in one’s ability to differentiate the self from the world. This differentiation creates a totally personalized and unique view of reality, what one might label as a personally subjective reality. This process of individuation is not complete in most people until they finish adolescence. Clearly there are many sound psychological and emotional reasons to see the self as separate from the world and environment within which one functions. The difficulty becomes that in the rush to cherish this egoic separatism a tremendous truth is lost. That truth is that all things are inseparably interconnected; therefore, we are never truly alone. In fact one might argue that many mental health issues are related to this feeling of separateness and aloneness live out in the lives of people who are interacting with a relational architecture within which they fell disconnected or disenfranchised.

In physics, the idea of Presence (heightened awareness of self and environment) is expressed in the theory of energy. In simple terms, the entire universe is composed of the presence of energy in various forms. Each cell in our bodies is a function of energy, each breath we take, every step, every movement, every relationship; every event is an expression of energy. It is impossible to consider that we might separate ourselves from the source of energy. Indeed, even after death, our energies transmute into other energetic forms. This idea is so elementary; a universe without energy is inconceivable and absurd. Egoic separatism minimizes and ignores the fact that while each person might be considered individual, the relational architecture within which the life of this INDIVIDUAL unfolds is an exchange of energy with everyone and everything they interact.

The therapist or counselor that understands the relational architecture of an individual, or at least as much of that structure as possible, will be more effective in helping the individual find recovery, hope, healing and connection. This professional views the relational architecture as a living organism that is in the business of exchanging energy within the framework of an individual’s life. The therapist does not over focus on one individual element of the relational architecture, and therefore therapy will look and feel very different from individual therapies which are highly egoic in nature.

What is being suggested in this work is that it is possible to transcend the normal egoic dimensions of the individual and explore other realms that are mystical in nature. For example, a physicist can describe the mechanics of gravity, and these mechanics can be measured. It is recognized immediately that if there were no gravity, this universe would not hold together. Our normal experience of life is filled with ideas of multiple things that seem solid and separate. We have a strong intrinsic sense of the world as a binary production where there are clearly definable (this & that; here & not here; right & wrong) that encourages the development a perspective that distinguishes fundamental differences in shape, color, form, solidity, temperature, light, and so on. Therefore, when looking at a client it is easy to become deceived by the habituation of all the mental differentiations and distinctions that actually arise out of a basic limited ability to perceive the individual as a part of an interactive system rather than a standalone entity.

The therapist who manages to observe and attune to relationships and human beings as on-going acts of creation can be free from the rigid expectations of what healing should look like. Creation is an unceasing phenomenon. The important point, however, is that creation itself is a process. Generally it is impossible to know the starting point so exploring the mental archeology of a problem provides a limited benefit to the therapist in understanding the current creative process within which clients are involved.

A metaphor that illustrates this point is taken from the work of Rabbi Abner Weiss If we walk into a room with a light shining, we do not know when that light was turned on. Many people have taken the egoic stance that help cannot be derived until it is known when the light was turned on, or the history around the lighting. This does little for the light shining in the room. In much the same way, an individual is operating and has been for some time, looking at the process of what they are doing is much more productive than trying to plumb the depths of their collective histories. Returning to the metaphor of the light; it may have been turned on the instant before we walked in.

Imagine that the creation of the relational architecture works the same way. The therapist is a creator, in as much as they can help a unique individual reformulate the functioning of their relational architecture. Taking the stance that a client is in a constant state of creation suggests that it is never known if the existence of a certain form will persist, or if something will instantaneously take on a completely new form. Indeed, although there are few absolute truths in this creation, one of them is that things are constantly changing. This means that we never have certainty from one moment to the next if the sustained flow of creation will persevere.

The point of this is very simple, egoic focus on the individual thoughts, feelings and behaviors feel comforting and familiar to the therapist, but have limited effectiveness in understanding or clarifying the dynamic creational experience of an individual’s relational architecture. Eckhart Tolle (2005) asserts in A New Earth that one of the greatest challenges facing a person is how he or she transcends the tyranny of the ego and it’s endless striving to be gratified which tends to have the effect of influencing people to look for satisfaction out of themselves, be it material object or something conceptual which they may associate with increased worth, love, likability. Many helpers have been trapped by their ego strivings, looking to meet their needs through the helping relationship. These strivings can absorb attention, energy, effort and distract the helper from being fully present with the client.

The Features and Benefits of Revolving Doors

There are now many door options available to architects when designing commercial, public or educational buildings. These can be manual, automatic, or a combination of both, but the underlying needs and requirements are likely to be the same e.g. effective, safe, and easy for the user. Revolving Doors made their first appearance in a New York Restaurant in 1899 but there’s Patent evidence to suggest that a Philadelphia resident actually thought of the idea over 10 years earlier. So why over 100 years later is this idea still so relevant and so widely used?

The Features

Revolving doors essentially consist of a series of 3 or 4 panels which are also known as wings or leaves. These panels are attached to a central vertical shaft around which they rotate. The whole structure is enclosed in a cylindrical structure and the panels are spaced in such a way that in normal operation the door is never really open i.e. there is no clear direct passage from the street into the building which can bypass the panels. The panels and enclosure generally incorporate glass for safety as well as aesthetic reasons. The glass allows people to see others using the door and to regulate their movements accordingly.

Automatic versions have a powered central shaft and use sensors to stop and start the door in potentially unsafe situations. There is generally a speed control feature, and the doors themselves can be folded back to create a clear space through the opening for emergency situations or for moving large objects in or out of a building. The direction that the doors revolve actually differs in different counties. For example the predominant movement of UK revolving doors is clockwise with a right hand side entry. In Australia and New Zealand however the situation is reversed. In U.S. in the 1940s a fire in a popular Boston nightclub meant that lives were lost because there was only one revolving door as an exit. Since then revolving doors have been made collapsible, and a hinged door of equivalent capacity is generally placed next to the revolving door. This other door also assists with disabled access.

The Benefits

These doors have an obvious aesthetic appeal and can enhance the look of a building. They provide energy and they save money. This is because they are never actually open as they allow people to enter and leave a building. This means that valuable heat is not lost, and any air conditioning balance is maintained. In very tall buildings the revolving doors stop the effect of air being sucked up and down through the building through the vents and doorway depending on the different temperatures inside and outside. These doors are very effective at keeping a regulated flow of people in and out of a building which enhances safety, and they are easy for people to use particularly if they are carrying bags and other objects. Their one way operation means that they can also be very useful for security where certain areas can’t be bypassed or avoided or where a certain direction flow is necessary e.g. airports.

Aluminum Alloys 7075 and 6061: Differences and Practical Applications

What are the main differences between aluminum alloys 7075 and 6061 and where are they best used for? While these are both extensely used in the manufacture of bicycle frames and components, there is a world of difference between the constitution and application of the two.

Where Lies the Difference?

The primary difference between aluminum alloys 6061 and 7075 starts with their main composition. Aluminum 6061 uses magnesium and silicon as its main alloy element while aluminum 7075 uses zinc. In general, aluminum grade 6061 is highly weldable using tungsten inert gas (TIG) or metal inert gas (MIG), highly resistant to corrosion and exhibits good mechanical properties. Alloy 7075, on the other hand, exhibits better tensile strength but is considerably less resistant to corrosion.

The mechanical properties of both alloys predominantly depend on the temper or heat treatment of the material. Annealed or pre-tempered grade 6061-O provides the least tensile strength (18,000 psi) and yield strength (8,000 psi) while tempered grade 6061-T6 provides the most tensile (42,000 psi) and yield strength (35,000 psi) among the 6061 alloys .

For the 7075 alloys, the un-heat treated 7075-O comes at the lower end of the tensile and yield strength spectrum (40,000 psi and 21,000 psi, respectively) while 7075-T6 provides the most tensile (74,000 to 78,000 psi) and yield strength (63,000 to 69,000 psi).

Practical Applications

Since alloy 7075 is considerably more expensive as compared to other aluminum alloys, it is only used when cheaper alloys would not be enough to do the job. It is most commonly used in applications that require high strength-to-density ratio. As such, 7075 is the alloy of choice when it comes to transport (automotive, aviation and marine) applications.

Due to its lightweight nature, 7075 is also used in the production of hang glider airframes, rock climbing equipment, lacrosse stick shafts and bicycle components. Alloy 7075 is also used in the manufacture of M16 and precision rifles for the American Army, the Desert Tactical Arms and the French armament company.

Alloy 6061, on the other hand, is considered to be the aluminum alloy of choice for general purpose use. The alloy's highly resistant nature makes it suitable for the production of heavy-duty structures such as truck and marine components, tank fittings, scuba tanks and other high pressure applications. It can likewise be used in the manufacture of homebuilt aircraft, small utility yacht and boats, bicycle components, fly fishing reels and aluminum cans for food packaging. In addition, 6065 is also the most suitable alloy for hot forging.

So, whether you simply want to know what material your bicycle frame was made with or you want to determine the most appropriate material to use for a particular project, knowing the difference between alloys 6061 and 7075 can come in quite handy.

Cognitive and Behavioral Learning Theories

Here's a short primer on Cognitive and Behavioral Learning Theories

Behavioral learning theories suggest that learning results from pleasant or unpleasant experiences in life while cognitive theories of learning suggest that learning is based upon mental processes. However, in an admonishment against being too closely guided by any one set of pedagogical principles, Johnson (2003) suggests that a fixation with process oriented educational theories among those in the politics of education has not served the education community well by aligning practitioners into separate camps.

A behavioral view in psychology has held that exploratory analysis of cognition must begin with an examination of human behavior (William & Beyers, 2001). Behavioral theory has benefited from the work of early researchers such as Pavlov, Thorndike, and later on the work of BF Skinner. Work relating to the development of behavioral theories in educational psychology has allowed theorists to explore ways in which human action could be controlled through manipulation of stimuli and patterns of reinforcement.

Cognitive theory as it relates to epistemological processes within the individual is based upon the idea that learning comes about as a result of processes related to experience, perception, memory, as well as overtly verbal thinking. Since the 1970s, information processing theory has been a dominant focus of study for cognitive theorists. Although the list of theories associated with cognitive theory is an expansive one to say the least, for the purposes of this paper, it is appropriate to mention several contemporary theories on cognition including: information processing theory, schema theory, and situated cognition theory.

Informational processing is based on a theory of learning that describes the processing of, storage, and retrieval of knowledge in the mind. Factors such as sensory register, attention, working memory, and long term memory play a significant part in this theory of cognition. Schema theory offers that human beings interpret the world around them based on categorical rules or scripts; information is processed according to how it fits into these rules or schemes. As an epistemology, schema theory focuses on meaningful learning and the construction of and modification of conceptual networks. Signed cognition theory postulates a social nature of learning located within a community of practice in which knowledge is socially constructed.

An important component of this type learning, apprenticeship, is informed by social learning theory. Situational cognition as a theory posits that the individual is not a passive vessel, but rather, is an active self-reflective entity; as such, cognitive processes develop as a result of interaction between the self and others.

Another loosely related concept linked to social cognition is the construct of reciprocal determinism. This is a behavioral theory under which it is theorized that the environment causes behavior and at the same time, behavior causes the environment. Under this theory, personal factors in the form of (a) cognition, affect, and biological events, (b) behavior, and (c) environmental impacts, create interactions that result in a triadic reciprocality (Pajares, 2002).

References

Johnson, B. (2003). Those nagging headaches: perennial issues and tensions in the politics of education field. Education Administration Quarterly, 39 (1), p. 41-67.

Pajares, F. (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficiency.

Williams, R. & Beyers, M. (2001). Personalism, social constructionalism, and the foundation of the ethical. Theory and Psychology, 11 (1), p. 119-134.

Acoustic Jazz Guitars – Some Fascinating Facts

Acoustic guitars produce sound by acoustics through vibrations of its six strings. They have a rich history; Spain has a big contribution in developing it. The art form of jazz music has been around for quite sometime now. The jazz guitarists choose their instruments very carefully as they want a clean dry note with little or no effect. They go in for acoustic guitars of a specific kind.

Brief History Of The Instrument:

Let's first try to look at the history of the acoustic jazz guitars. Cithara is the earliest form of modern acoustic. Romans introduced these instruments, after that Moors developed the shape and made it a four string one. The six string guitar lute was very popular in Europe. The Spanish introduced a guitar like instrument Vihuela, which looked like a guitar but had to be tuned like a lute. This was then developed further and it took the current form. Modern acoustic guitars are of different types: twelve string guitar, classical guitar and bass guitar etc.

Classical guitars: They consist of nylon strings which are played by the fingers.

Twelve string guitars: This is made of six courses of paired up strings. It is a guitar often used for playing rock and roll, jazz and folk music.

Acoustic bass guitar: There are only four strings in this guitar; these strings are made of steel.

There are several types of acoustic jazz guitars like the Russian, Portuguese guitars, flat top and arch top guitars, extended range guitars etc.

Jazz Players' Guitar Selection:

There is a wide selection of instruments available for jazz players. Traditionally, they are hollow body semi acoustics, though it's not always like that. These tend to favor P90 or hamburker style pick-ups to produce the desired sound. Earlier, only acoustic guitars were used for jazz. However from 1940s, many guitar players started using the electric guitar on a regular basis. They used an archtop electric guitar with magnetic pickup.

But in 1990, there was a fresh interest amongst guitarist to go back to the acoustic jazz guitars. Now they were experimenting with archtop acoustics guitars with floating pick-up. European spruce, Sitka spruce and Engelmann spruce are mostly used for the resonant tops of flat-top or arch top models. Some guitar makers also use Red Spruce or Western Red Cedar for the acoustic jazz guitars. The archtop guitars most often have Quilted Maple and Curly Maple backs.

There are a small number of handmade flat-top and arch-top guitars. Mass produced guitars made by several manufacturers, are also available. Building a guitar takes six months for a jazz guitar. Builders spend time to choose the maples, spruces, exotic woods, building instruments. Finally they apply hand rubbed lacquer finish. Due to unavailability and high cost of premium quality tone wood, many manufacturers have started making guitars with alternate species of wood. All musicians agree that a good solid top is the base for good quality of the guitar's tone. Many jazz players prefer acoustic acoustic guitars with laminated sides and back.

A perfect guitar suitable to the different styles of playing jazz, takes time and fine artsmanship to achieve. Acoustic guitars are very interesting instruments; they are hassle free in handling and easy to carry. Before the invention of electric guitars, all guitars were acoustic. The terms classic guitar, steel string guitar, folk guitar, all are actually used for acoustic guitars. The various combinations of woods, strings, along with the design and construction elements contribute to the overall performance or tone of the guitars. Experts believe that tone of well-made acoustic jazz guitars improves over time.

Islamic Art – How Did it Begin?

Islamic Art that evolved the time followed the death of the Prophet (PBUH) was mostly described in the architectural manner. This form emerged in countries where ever Islam prevailed and personified the Muslim precepts in its motifs and themes. As the wings of Islam spread from Africa to Egypt and from Spain to Persia, it gained strength and substance. The origins lay in its rich and artistic Arabian heritage as different kinds of art were utilized to express the unqueness of Islam without any form of pictorial depictions.

Islamic art was developed over time by a unique blend of various arts from the Byzantines, the Copts, the Romans, and the Persians. Therein lays the greatest asset of this art, its skill to fuse the native designs with imported ones to achieve a completely distinct end result. The one common factor in all kinds of Islamic art is the abstract embellishments and designs. Most utilized the curved and interlacing lines in bright and vibrant colors to enhance the various styles. The finest pieces of this art and architecture throughout the world are clearly distinguishable by the vivacious colors in floral designs.

The current form of such art is believed to have emerged during the rule of the Umayyad caliphate (661-750). Thereafter, many divergent periods of Islamic art and architecture transpired. Therefore, this art is most commonly classified according to the reigning empire when the art work was created. Most museums and art galleries have categorized their collections by the different Muslim dynasties including the Umayyad, Abbasid, Safavid, Ottoman and Mughal.

As Islam is a diverse religion that encompasses people of various ethnic backgrounds, the Islamic art is also much diversified to accommodate all ethnicities of its followers. It has the ability to unify various elements into a beautiful piece depicting the many facets of the artist. Islamic art avoids any form of human or animal representation in it. This is because of the Muslim belief that no one can replicate the work of Allah. Thus all art is invariable found in the form of floral, geometric and abstract shapes and lines. Many good books are also available for those who are interested in learning more about its history and descent through time to its current version. World travelers notice the specific regional features of Islamic art vary from terrain to terrain to encompass that particular place's history into it.

Mourne Park House

The Four Winds of Heaven

The first time I visited Mourne Park, some 15 years ago, Julie Ann Anley took me on a whistlestop tour. “It’s great!” she laughed. “No one ever bothers us here because the house isn’t architecturally important.” This was no tourist attraction like Belvoir Castle. The country house as time capsule may have become a cliché, coined in the Eighties when Calke Abbey came to the public’s attention, but it certainly applied to MPH.

The last time I visited the house, in April 2003, it was teeming with members of the public prying over the soon-to-be-dispersed contents. The period perfection was starting to unravel. Small white auction labels hung from everything including the kitchen sink. A striped marquee consumed the courtyard and the building itself was looking the worse for wear.

The auction was the result of a long and bitter family feud which erupted following the death of Nicholas Anley in 1992 that dragged through the law courts until the beginning of 2003. On 14th February, without much filial or sibling love, it was finally settled.

“It’s something which all our family very much care about,” Marion Scarlett Russell, Julie Ann’s younger daughter told the BBC’s Northern Ireland rural affairs correspondent Martin Cassidy back in 1994.

“We’ve always known that this house and its land were non negotiable and it was something we would do everything to keep,” agreed her older sister Debonaire Norah Needham Horsman or ‘Bonnie’.

But this harmony of thought abruptly ended following disagreements over how the estate should be managed. Events reached a dramatic climax when Marion removed what she considered to be her fair share of the contents from the house in a midnight flit. Her refusal to reveal the whereabouts of these ‘chattels’ as the courts insisted on archaically calling them, resulted in her spending a week at Her Majesty’s pleasure.

Five years of arduous legal wrangling costing hundreds of thousands of pounds only ended when it was finally agreed that Marion could keep her share and the other two siblings would auction off their two thirds of the contents.

MPH was the seat of the Earls of Kilmorey (pronounced “Kilmurray” – what is it about the upper classes and their delight in nomenclature mispronunciation whether Calke as “Cock”; Belvoir as “Beaver”; or Blakley as “Blakely”?).

The family can trace its roots back to an Elizabethan soldier, Nicholas Bagnel, founder of Newry. The 4th Earl of Kilmorey died in 1962. Just before his death the family inheritance was rearranged because he had no sons, allowing his nephew and heir, Major Patrick Needham, subsequently 5th Earl of Kilmorey, to waive his right of succession to MPH in exchange for assets of equal value. And so the title returned to England where Charles I had created the original viscountcy in 1625.

This compromise allowed the 4th Earl’s widow, Lady Norah, and her two daughters to continue living in the house. Patrick’s son, the 6th Earl, is better known as Richard Needham, former Conservative Northern Ireland Economy Minister. He is now the deputy chairman of a vacuum cleaning company and declines to use his Anglo Irish title. However his son styles himself Viscount Newry and Mourne.

Nicholas, the son of the elder daughter of the 4th Earl, married Julie Ann at the start of the Sixties and moved into the converted stables at Mourne Park. He inherited the house minus the title in 1984.

Julie Ann may have modestly described the house as being architecturally unimportant and it is no competition for the baronial battlements of Ballyedmond Castle or the symmetrical severity of Seaforde House. But it is a rare example of a substantially Edwardian country house in a county where Victorian or Georgian is the norm.

MPH oozes charm with its long low elevations hewn out of the local granite and its lavish use of green paint on window frames and porches, bargeboards and garden furniture, and the abundance of French doors. Much of the interior decoration dates from the early 20th century which lends the house a nostalgic Edwardian air.

And the setting is second to none. Looming behind the house are the craggy slopes of Knockcree Mountain rising 130m above the oak and beech woodlands that make up the estate.

A Victorian visitor, W E Russell, waxed lyrical on Mourne Park, as archived by Dr Anthony Malcomson. ‘The scene… from the front entrance is indeed very fine. Before you, in the precincts of the mansion, is a lake. Beyond this lake, the demesne stretches away with a gently rising slope, which hides the intervening land, till one can fancy that the sea waves lap the lawns of the park.’

The genesis of the mansion dates from 1818 when the 12th Viscount Kilmorey (1748-1832) employed Thadeus Gallier (later anglicised to Thomas Gallagher) of County Louth to build the central block. It most likely replaced an earlier house on the site.

Gallagher, an architect or ‘journeyman-builder’, had already built Anaverna at Ravensdale a decade earlier. Baron McClelland commissioned this five bay two storey house near Dundalk in 1807. It’s now the home of the Lenox-Conynghams. Too grand for a glebe, too modest for a mansion, this middling size house, tall, light and handsome, stands proud in its sylvan setting overlooking a meadow. The large fanlight over the entrance door in the middle of the three bay breakfront is partially obscured by a glazed porch, but otherwise Gallagher’s design is untouched. Semicircular relieving arches over upstairs windows introduce a motif he was to later employ at MPH. At Anaverna he proved himself to be a designer of considerable sophistication.

Gallagher’s son James, who recorded in his autobiography that his father worked at MPH for nine months in 1818, emigrated to New Orleans where he carried on the dynastic tradition of designing fine buildings. His grandson, James Gallier Junior, was a third generation architect and his 1857 New Orleans townhouse is now the Gallier House Museum.

The first of six incarnations of MPH, Gallagher’s design was a typical late Georgian two storey country house with Wyatt windows on either side of a doorway similar to Anaverna’s with a fanlight over it. Next, a third storey was added was added and then some time after 1859 a new two storey front of the same height was plonked in front of the existing house, so that the rooms in the new block have much higher ceilings than in the older part.

The replacement façade is three bays wide like the original front but in place of Wyatt windows is bipartite fenestration set in shallow recesses rising through both storeys with relieving arches over them. It is the combination of these paired windows and gentle arches, like brows over the eyes of the building, which gives the front such a distinct look.

In the central breakfront the shallow recess starts over the entrance door which is treated as another window, flanked on either side by a window of similar shape and size. A low parapet over a slim cornice partly conceals the hipped roof which wraps around the roof lantern of the Staircase Hall.

Contemporaneous improvements were made to the estate itself. In the 1840s the 2nd Earl (1787-1880) – the Kilmoreys had gone up a rung on the aristocratic ladder when his father, the 12th Viscount, was made an earl for his services to the development of Newry – commissioned a ‘famine wall’. It was a method used at the height of the Irish potato famine by many Big House families to create work to keep locals from starving. The cheaply built granite walls also profited the estate. Kimmitt Dean records that the 2nd Earl built Tullyframe Gate Lodge, the third of four gate lodges, at this time. Whitewater Gate Lodge was built in the 1830s and Ballymaglogh Gate Lodge in the 1850s.

But it was the alterations of the 3rd and 4th Earls which gave MPH its Edwardian flavour. “Not fit for a gentleman to live in!” exclaimed the 3rd Earl (1842-1915) upon his inheritance. His remedial gentrifications began in 1892 when he added rectangular ground floor bay windows onto the front and continued until 1904 when he built a single storey wing perpendicular to the back of the house. This wing contains Lady Kilmorey’s Sitting Room and the Long Room, the latter completed in time for his son’s 21st birthday celebrations.

Between 1919 and 1921 that son, by now the 4th Earl (1883-1961) built a sprawling flat roofed extension onto the avenue side of the house and relocated the entrance to this elevation. Double doors framed by pairs of squat square pillars formed the new entrance, balanced on either side by the two windows of the Billiard Room and Lord Kilmorey’s Study. The 3rd Earl completed the estate buildings with Green Gate Lodge, a two storey house finished in the same granite as MPH.

A century of each generation making their mark on MPH has resulted in a fascinating building full of surprising changes in floor levels and ceiling heights. The main block is arranged like three parallel slices of a square cake, each different in essence. The oldest three storey slice at the back of the house has low ceilings and small windows, some retaining their Georgian panes. The middle top lit slice contains the Long Corridor which runs parallel with the Hall, the Staircase Hall and the Inner Hall. Finally the newest slice contains the enfilade of reception rooms: the Billiard Room (formerly the Large Drawing Room), the Dining Room, the Ante Room, the Blue Drawing Room and above, the principal bedrooms with their plate glass windows.

The back of the house overlooks a courtyard enclosed by the Long Room on one side, a low two storey nursery wing on the other side and the obligatory row of outbuildings parallel with the house.

All the rooms on the ground and first floors were open during the auction preview weekend. I began the tour that I had gone on a decade earlier, only with a written rather than personal guide and without the troop of 13 Persian cats which had followed us around the first time round.

“Come on, get out of this room!” Julie Ann bellowed to the cats as she shut the door of each room. “Otherwise you could be locked in for a year or two!” I commented to her, “At least you won’t have mice.” She replied,” They just watch the mice race by.”

Now people were talking in hushed murmurs as if at a wake, quietly leafing through issues of The Connoisseur in the Estate Office and thoughtfully gazing at caricature prints in the Rosie Passage.

The Hall, arranged like a long gallery with paintings hung on white panelled walls, is the first in a processional series of spaces which culminates in the Staircase Hall, the most exciting architectural moment MPH has to offer. The staircase was extended between 1919 and 1921 to stretch out in the direction of the new entrance while the original flight of stairs through an archway into the Inner Hall was retained. Above, more archways and openings afford tantalising glimpses of bedroom corridors filled with the shadows of ghosts.

Close to the new entrance, Lord Kilmorey’s Study had an air of formality in contrast to the intimacy of Lady Kilmorey’s Sitting Room which is tucked away at the back of the house. A 7m long oak bookcase, used as a temporary display cabinet for the preview (sold for £3,000) and a chesterfield sofa (sold for £800) completed the butch mood of the good Lord’s room. On the other hand, the femininity of Lady Kilmorey’s Sitting Room was exaggerated by the delicate double arched overmantle (sold for £1,000) and the 17th century Chinoserie cabinet on a carved giltwood stand (sold for £11,000) similar to those in the State Drawing Room of 11 Downing Street. HOK auction staff were making last minute notes on a pile of books in the middle of the floor. The house no longer felt private.

The three main reception rooms were quintessentially Edwardian. Chintz sofas and family portraits mixed comfortably with period pieces. ‘Shabby chic’, another Eighties cliché, is an apt description. Decades of decadence had descended into decay, where once the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) had whiled away halcyon days.

In the Billiard Room an off-centre timber and brick chimneypiece defiantly declares this room to date from the 1920s. Paint was peeling, curtains were crumbling.

An air of faded grandeur pervaded the Long Room. Triumphal flags now in tatters and coloured wall lamps dulled by the passage of time hinted at past glories and parties long forgotten. A suite of oak bookcases was supplied by John McArevey of Newry to fit between the rows of windows running the length of the Long Room. One pair sold for £3,000.

The kitchen had lost its lived in look which I remembered. It was neater now with rows of copper jelly moulds and tin pots arranged museum-like along the painted pine dressers. High up on the wall above, the clock had stopped.

The principal bedrooms with their straightforward names – the Avenue Bedroom, the Corner Bedroom, Caroline’s Room, the Best Bedroom, His Lordship’s Bedroom and Her Ladyship’s Bedroom – had plain sturdy furniture. A mahogany breakfront wardrobe and matching half tester or four poster bed dominated each room, accompanied by a matching desk and pot cabinet. On average the wardrobes sold for £3,000; the beds for £5,000.

The bedrooms looked slightly sparse. Perhaps they had been fuller in happier times. Minor bedrooms and servants’ rooms had brass beds (the one in the Housekeeper’s Room sold for £70), lower ceilings, less dramatic views, and were full of clutter. Not for much longer.

“People say it’s as if time stopped in the house,” Philip Anley said on the opening day of the auction. “That’s a tribute to mum,” he added, acknowledging Julie Ann’s efforts to maintain MPH.

Sales had taken place at Mourne Park before. Shortly before his death, Nicholas had sold more than half the 800 hectare estate to Mourne Park Golf Club which extended from a nine hole to an 18 hole course. A decade before he had bought out the interest of his aunt, Lady Hyacinth, which meant her family removing various heirlooms in lieu of any stake in the house itself. The inheritance of the title and estate had already split in 1960. However this sale was different. It heralded “the end of an era” according to Philip.

Herbert Jackson Stops’ introduction to the 1920s sale catalogue of Stowe springs to mind. ‘It is with a feeling of profound regret that the auctioneer pens the opening lines of a sale catalogue which may destroy for ever the glories of the house, and disperse to the four winds of heaven its wonderful collections, leaving only memories of the spacious past’. A rare level of honesty compared to recent excuses of selling off the family silver from ‘wanting to share chattels with others’ to ‘streamlining the collection’.

Sara Kenny from HOK Fine Art conducted the auction, raising a total of £1.3m. Prices were high with dealers bidding against collectors against locals. “My dad worked on the estate so I want some sort of keepsake,” I overheard one bidder say. It seemed everyone wanted their piece of MPH’s history.

Auction excitement reached fever pitch on the last day when lot 1391 came up for sale. It was the Red Book of Shavington, in the County of Salop, a seat of The Right Honble [sic] Lord Viscount Kilmorey’. For those who don’t know, Red Books were the creation of Humphrey Repton (1752-1818), a pioneer in the field of landscape architecture. He created or transformed over 200 English estates. His mantra was natural beauty enhanced by art. His practice was to complete a Red Book for each client.

The Shavington Red Book was a slim volume encased in red leather containing his proposals for ‘improvements’ outlined in neat copperplate handwriting and illustrated with maps, plans, drawings and watercolours. Several bidders appreciated its historical importance and exquisite beauty. In the end it went under the hammer for £41,000.

The 3rd Earl of Kilmorey had sold Shavington, the family seat in Shropshire, in 1881 to pay for debts his father had accrued. He crammed much of the furniture into MPH. Shavington items auctioned included two early 19th century pieces by Gillows of Lancaster which both sold for £11,000: the Corner Bedroom wardrobe and the architect’s desk from the Library.

Mourne Park estate may not have benefitted from the romantic touch of Humphrey Repton but its rugged character, derived from the granite face of Knockcree, remains unchanged from faded 19th century landscape photographs. The same can’t be said for the interior of the granite face house.

“I’ll always remember the day you visited Mourne Park,” Julie Ann said. Strolling up the old drive she continued, “As the day the boathouse collapsed.”

And sure enough, the gabled boathouse, which had stood there for centuries, not so much collapsed as gently slipped into the lake like a maiden aunt taking a dip in the water. After a few ripples, it disappeared. Forever.

Fifteen years later, masterpieces and miscellany, a record of Edwardian living in its original setting, are now gone, just like the boathouse. It is a sad ending for the collection that formed the soul of one of Ulster’s Big Houses. Sad for the family and for the people of Newry and Mourne whose toil allowed the family to amass a fortune in antiques.

In the middle of the 320 hectare estate still stands the house itself, stripped of its contents, naked as the classical statues that once graced the lawns around the lake, awaiting its fate.

Since this article was published, Marion Scarlett Russell placed MPH on the market with Knight Frank for £10 million. The asking price has now been reduced to £6.5 million. It is still for sale.