Xbox 360 E71 Error Repair Tips

One of the errors that you can experience on your Xbox 360 e71 error. Quite often this problem may be accompanied with a ring of red lights on the front of your console. In this article you are going to learn what causes the Xbox e71 code, as well as if there is anything you can do to fix the problem.

Unlike the more common "red ring of death" and e74 problems, the Xbox 360 e71 error is not caused by overheating damaging the graphics processor unit (GPU) or video scaler (HANA / ANA) chip. However, the problem is that nobody is 100% sure what actually causes the e71 in the first place.

Most likely the problem relates to dashboard and console updates, such as the fall update of 2006. Also, the problem appears to arise from gamers incorrectly jumping their hardware or doing botched firmware hacks which then prevent the system from functioning correctly.

Have you recently updated your Xbox 360 in anyway, or have you (or anyone else) tried some form of firmware hack or flash? If so, this is probably the cause of the e71 code on your Xbox, however, it could also be completely random.

Fixing the Xbox e71 is quite tricky. Firstly, you could try completely resetting your Xbox 360. To do this, enter the dashboard, go to the right-most column, go and press "Initial Set Up" then follow the instructions on screen.

If you can not access this screen due to the e71 error on your Xbox 360, you can try holding the "Y" button on your controller as you switch the console on. This will enter the same process, and restore default factory settings. However, there is still a chance that this might not work, and that you could be stranded with the e71 code.

How to Flirt With a Girl – 3 Ways to Convey That You Are a Sexually Attractive Guy

Why does flirting even exist? Well, flirting is the non verbal way of showing that you are a healthy and available creature to the opposite sex. And believe me: You want to know how to flirt with a girl the right way to get one.

Even though humans are the most complicated creature in planet earth, there are some things present in our behavior that almost happen unconsciously when we see a potential sex partner: Males arch their back and stretch their pecs, females touch their hair and lick their lips, just to name a few. Next, the actual flirtation begin, and you want to be very conscious of what you do, because you're sending signals of interest and at the same time conveying that you are a valuable male who can secure the survival potential of the female. And that's the key to attraction: Conveying that you're a healthy and dominating male that are able to protect the female from the dangers of the outside world.

A studied made in 1996 showed that 92.1% of women feel attraction towards men in the first 5 minutes of non verbal interaction. The men who were more successful in this stage were the ones who planned an alpha male behavior from the beginning and at the same time played a dominant role in the flirtation process.

According to this study, there were some common aspects in the way these men behave:

1. -They maintain longer eye contact with women.
2.-They showed leading conversation skills when talking to other men.
3.- They were generally louder in their interaction with other man for the sole purpose of being noticed by women.

The whole purpose of flirting is to advertise yourself. You do not want to be seen as a follower, instead try to show a leader behavior when you're noticing that a woman is watching, in that way, you are going to be seen as the more valuable guy in the group.

Remember, flirtation is only the first stage for building attraction, do it right and the next stages will be smoother, do it wrong and you'll have to seek another opportunity or stay single for the rest of your life. It's all about nature, but you can be aware of the signals you are sending. Play your cards right and you're in for a good time. Learning how to flirt is extremely important for your success with women.

Using Bike Inner Tube As An Exercise Device (Hip Flexor)

I have already written several articles relating to the use of a old bicycle inner tubes as a very effective exercise device. There are two major reason you should consider at least giving this a try. One, you are saving the environment by recycling your old inner tubes and transforming them into an exercise device that can be taken anywhere. Secondly, for some reason, old inner tubes are simply extremely effective in performing a multitude of exercises in both your warm-up and main set workouts. Not to mention that they are free, easily transportable, and easily replaceable if lost. I very rarely go on a trip without several different types of inner tubes (light road racing tubes, regular road bike tubes, and mountain bike tubes).

The most recent exercise I developed for use with either your road bike tubes or mountain bike tubes is what I called the lyning hip flexor activation exercise. This requires that you lie flat on your back on the floor. Loop your inner tube around on itself so you have two loops in order to reduce the diameter of the tube in-half. Then lift both legs in the air with knees bent and at at 90 degree angle to the floor. Place the looped tube around your foot at about halfway up your arch. Then push one leg forward and the other back towards your chest activating your hip flexor. Focus on the pull back of the leg that is opposite the leg pushing forward.

This is a great move to include after you have foam rolled, completed your stretching routine, and are ready to re-activate your muscles prior to your main workout. You will immediately feel the difference once you first stand-up from this movement and begin to walk. You will be amazed at the more fluid feeling you experience in your hip flexor and overall forward movement. I highly recommend this exercise to activate your muscles prior to any and all bike rides and runs. This will help prevent muscle tears and pulls if done on a regular basis and before all workouts and races.

Please refer to my other articles that include using old inner tubes for use in maintaining strength and general health for your rotator cuff, glutes, and chest. Use various inner tubes for varying resistance in your training. As always start out with the lighter more elastic tubes and build up gradually to the standard tubes. I like to use the mountain bike tubes for the lower body and not for the upper body since they provide too much resistance.

Laminate Wood Flooring-Choosing Between Laminate and Wood Flooring

If you are considering using laminate wood flooring in some or all of your home and are wondering about the difference between laminate and wood, you may get a lot of different opinions. Laminate wood flooring has been used in Europe for decades and only in the last 20 years or so has it become more popular in the United States. But, it is not for everyone and every situation. Before you choose laminate wood flooring for your home, you should compare the qualities of both wood and laminate.

1. Installation: In the last few years both laminate wood flooring and real wood floors have become easier to install. They often use some kind of interlocking system, where you fit strips together without the use of glue, nails or staples. But, although most laminate wood flooring is made this way now, a lot of real wood flooring is not. If you plan on installing the floor yourself, with real wood or laminate, you should consider using the interlocking system. Laminate can be installed over virtually any surface, but wood can not be installed over some surfaces.

2. Durability: Real wood floors are durable for the long term, but they require a lot of care. If they are not specially treated with aluminum oxide they will scratch and stain fairly easily. Unlike laminate, it is also late to fading if it is exposed to direct sunlight. Laminate wood flooring on the other hand, is resistant to both scratches and stains. Both types of floors can be damaged by excessive moisture, so care should be taken if they are used in a bathroom or kitchen.

3. Care: A damp mop is all that is required to clean laminate wood floors. Real wood floors will require polishing and refinishing occasionally. Wet spills should be cleaned up quickly on either type of floor to avoid it getting underneath the boards and damaging the floor.

4. Longevity: A real wood floor can last 25 years or more with proper care. Laminate will not last more than 20.

5. Cost: Real wood is generally more expensive than laminate.

10 Tips for Hosting an Elegant Denim and Diamonds Party With Pizzazz

Staying at home in lieu of going on an exciting vacation doesn’t need to be boring. Gather your friends and family and get creative for various ways to entertain in your home. The latest hot party idea is an elegant Denim and Diamonds party. What exactly is a Denim and Diamonds Party? Use your imagination to get as elegant or country as you’d like, but a Denim and Diamonds party is an upscale event with great food, drink and entertainment. Guests are asked to wear casual attire such as denim jeans, but are encouraged to ‘dress it up’ by accessorizing with diamond-like sparkle (aka rhinestones!). Venues can include your home, backyard or rented elegant country estates for grand affairs or fundraisers.

Tip 1: Use What You Already Have on Hand

When you host an at-home Denim and Diamonds party, you need to get creative. There’s no sense in going out and buying a lot of items that you will never use again. Look around your home, basement and garage to see what you can reinvent or repurpose for your party needs. Outdoor tables can become indoor furniture with an inexpensive floor length fabric covering to meet your theme. Spend wisely on a few key items you need to pack a lot of punch for your dollar. Check out discount stores and clearance sections at more upscale stores to secure particular finds. Vases for table settings can be mix and match as can table and drink ware.

Tip 2: Choose Your Theme Colors

With a Denim and Diamonds Party – blue, white and anything that sparkles is a must-have! Integrate your colors into your table coverings and decorations. Check out craft super-stores to add sparkle to your table or buffet. Choose inexpensive glass stones, rhinestones or crystals and toss amongst your table settings to catch and reflect light from your table top candles. Colors for a denim and diamonds party can extend to your decorations, invitations, centerpieces and party favors as well.

Tip 3: Plan Ahead

Manage you time carefully and don’t put off shopping or decorating until the day before your party. Decide on your décor and estimate food and seating requirements at least a week or more ahead of time. If you need to engage a party rental service for tables, chairs or other food service items, plan this at least 2 weeks ahead and make your reservations with the rental company. Prepare as many food items as possible in advance – this will reduce your stress level and help you enjoy your own Denim and Diamonds party! Planning on grilling outdoors? Grill items ahead of time and keep in your oven on ‘warm’ so items can be ready when your hungry guests arrive.

Tip 4: No Time for Sit Down Dinner? Think Buffet!

Let’s face it, sit down dinners are nice when you are inviting only 3-4 close friends over for an intimate gathering. Hosting a party for 20+ requires fast, easy service of a buffet style setup. Presentation can be fun for a buffet. Create elevated levels by placing pots upside down beneath your table covering to create a staggered look for your culinary offerings. This is practical too and allows your guests to more easily reach for items around a crowded buffet table. Use baskets lined with denim-like towels for your biscuits/breads. Disperse country-themed sparkling items such as inexpensive crystals among your serving platters for extra pizzazz!

Tip 5: Candlelight and Fresh Flowers Are a Must

Whether you are hosting your party indoors or outdoors, candles add a special flair and ambiance. If outdoors, add floating candles to your pool. Cluster candles of varying height, colors and widths on your tables and walkways to create ambient lighting for your guests to enjoy. Citronella candles are available in a host of colors and styles to provide functional and beautiful purpose for keeping bugs at bay and guest comfortable.

Fresh flowers are a treat no matter what the occasion. But there is no need to splurge as fresh arrangements can get costly. Roll up your sleeves and check out your garden… Black Eyed Susans, Daylillies, Sweet Peas, and Butterfly Bushes and evergreen branches, offer inexpensive but fragrant bouquets. Place a glass in a cowboy boot and arrange your cut flowers for a true Denim and Diamonds centerpiece! Supplement smaller arrangements in smaller conversation areas with a few store-bought white roses.

Tip 6: Bring the Indoors – Outside or the Outdoors – Inside

You’ll want to pamper your guests even while outdoors. Add comfortable throw pillows to your patio chairs and pair you indoor dining room chairs with your outdoor country furniture. Crystal pitchers, silver platters and other metal (pewter) bowls make for an elegant presentation for beverages and appetizers. Need a little outdoors… inside? Add various evergreen branches to your arrangements or consider using outdoor decorative lighting such as string lights indoors to complement your Denim and Diamonds Party theme.

Tip 7: Make It Personal

It’s your party so add your own personal flair! Email is a convenient communication tool but a Denim and Diamonds Party calls for a more elegant strategy. Handwritten, themed invitations fit the bill for what to send to your guests. Your guests will be excited when they receive your Denim and Diamonds inspired invitation (invites shaped like denim Levi’s pocket complete with red tag and all?). Add some ‘bling’ to get the ‘diamonds’ theme going by using crystals and add-ons available in scrapbooking supply stores and craft super stores.

Tip 8: Keep It Cool

Backyard Denim and Diamond parties can get hot in the summer and cold in the spring or fall. Secure small fans with misters and camoflauge behind shrubbery and plants in your backyard. Use portable propane powered table top heaters and provide piles of blankets (western printed please!) to keep your guests comfortable for hours.

Tip 9: Always Have a Plan B

Always have a contingency plan because Mother Nature can be unpredictable despite your best plans for your Denim and Diamonds event. Keep your supplies well stocked for you last minute needs and plan ahead for what you will do if you need to move the party indoors due to inclement weather. Outdoor seating may be moved indoors and accented with throw pillows. Remember – these are your friends and they’ll have fun despite the weather!

Tip 10: Ask for Help if You Need It

Don’t be afraid to hire a party planner to consult with you on your plans prior to your party. If you can’t afford the planning – hire them to advise you on ideas, tips and decorating to help you organize and make it happen on your own. Keep it Simple! Hearty appetizers, classy cocktails and knock out decorations will make for a fun, stress free time for your elegant Denim and Diamonds party event!

Making Driftwood Picture Frames by Distressing New Picture Framing Timber

A driftwood picture frame is an elegant solution where you desire a unique distracted frame with timeless appeal. One of the techniques you can explore when framing your pictures is to use recycled timber or driftwood that you have collected but often driftwood timber is not available to everyone so you can try to create the look by using new timber you can get from your local hardware shop.

It's not difficult to make a driftwood looking frame but it does take some time and experimentation. All you need to do is visit your hardware shop and get some plain hardwood timber. Sometimes you can get the timber already in a picture frame profile and other times you may need to rebate or rabbet it to accept the glass, backing and picture. Then you can cut it to make it into a picture frame to fit your photo or artwork.

Now the way to get the new picture frame to look like it really is driftwood is to start with the raw wood and then use various materials and tools to distract the surface of the timber.

The first step is to fill any imperfections or nail holes in the frame and sand them back so that you've got a perfectly made frame. The object of trying to get this frame to look recycled or bothered is that the surface mimics a weathered old look. To achieve this you can use an assortment of tools including chisels, rasps, any jagged bits of metal that you've got, bunches of keys and all sorts of things can be used to actually apply different marks into the wood to give it a more natural look.

Start by poking around and making a few holes and rough marks on the wood. You can scrape it using a surform type rasp or a cheese grater type scraper and you can leave it quite rough, do not try to smooth it off. The idea here is that you're going to expose the grain. Take care to avoid the inside edge where the picture fits because that is quite a thin and fragile area. Just concentrate on further back from the sight edge. Try to create a sort of random lot of holes all over the surface of the frame and then you start rasping at it and use various metal objects and tools. Any sort of rough metal tool can be used to apply texture to the frame.

Keep scraping along the molding and remember you're trying to replicate the natural look of recycled timber. Now when you get to the corners you're going to need to use something a little bit pointy so that you can get right into those nooks. A good tool for this is an awl or small gouge. You can use sharpened screw drivers and old tools that have unusual surfaces. You can use bunches of nails they work quite well especially if you tape a whole lot of them together. Use the nails to scrape into the corners and other tight areas.

After you have given the frame a good going over what you want to do is take a look at the whole frame and step back from it. Have a look from a distance and see what the overall effect is. You do not want anything too even. The appearance needs to be random and the texture needs to look natural. Take your time because you can always add more work to it. You can go back and you can chisel bits off, you can add more little holes and tap holes with nails.

After a while you've got a furry, fuzzy kind of wooden frame with all sorts of shavings hanging off it. You then can burn sections with a blowtorch burning off some of the wood shavings. In other areas you can raise the grain by dampening it with water. The water causes the wood fibers to swell creating a different level of texture.

Sandpaper the frame with various degrees of wallpaper and try to maintain the textures you have been building up through the distracting process. The sand papering is to give the frame some areas of smoothness and add another detail to the complexity of the surface.

Once you are happy with the overall texture you have created you can add some layers of diluted gesso or diluted white paint to give a limed finish. Do not worry if the white color picks up some of the charcoal leftover from the burning process because it adds to the grayed driftwood effect you are trying to emulate.

When the paint is dry add various colors of wax crayons or other pigmented oil pastels into sections of the frame molding. Blend some of these color layers with old kitchen scourers, steel wool or different grades of wallpaper.

Look at the frame from a distance and see if the finish is what you desire.

Soften and blend the tones within the frame by further sanding or rubbing with scourers or steel wool.

When you are happy with the look of the frame you can finish the surface with a light coating of a good furniture wax. For an added level of finish you can dust powdered rottenstone or pumice into the wax before it has dried. Apply the wax with a clean cloth and after allowing adequate time for drying you can buff the surface with a polishing cloth.

Your frame should then have a natural warm finish ready to insert your picture.

Office Design – 5 Tips for a Great Reception Area

The office reception space is an often overlooked component in office design. From simply awkward to mysteriously absent, the design or presence of a reception area is regularly disregarded. To shed some light on how proper planning of this space can greatly benefit the efficiency and professional image of your business, I've put together the five most important design aspects of the office reception space and how to best use them.

1. Plan to have a reception area and a receptionist.

Not having a reception is mistake # 1. Have you ever had a meeting at an office where you've never been before and when you walked in you found yourself in the middle of all the employees with all of their work suddenly paused while they stared at you blankly. I have, and it makes a negative first impression. Plan to have a conspicuous reception area and staff it with a pleasant and informative individual who will keep your other employees from getting interrupted.

2. Where to put the reception area.

Place it at the entrance so that it's the first place a visitor will head. There's no point in having a reception area if visitors find it easier to interrupt other staff.

3. Lighting in the reception area.

Not just mistake # 3, but the most common mistake is lighting, and the most overlooked detail is lighting color. Have you ever walked into an office where the light makes everything look distasteful or sickly? Every bulb, whether fluorescent or incandescent, emits light which is measured on the Kelvin scale. Typical bulbs will be anywhere from 2500 – 7500 Kelvin, where 2500 is warm and yellow, and 7500 is cold and blue. A cold, blue light will make skin and even food look unpleasant so stick to between 3500-4500 Kelvin, which you'll find written on the bulb box.

4. Seating in the reception area.

This is very important to the office visitor, and how they perceive your business. This mistake takes two forms: 1) not having anywhere to sit, and 2) art chairs. If there is now to sit, your visitors will be left to either stand around or pace in your reception hall. Either option is uncomfortable and does not project a welcoming atmosphere. And by 'art chairs' I am referring a phenomenon most commonly seen in design offices and office designs created by those firms. Make sure your reception seating can actually be sat on and that it's comfortable and natural to sit in.

5. Open vs. closed reception desks.

If you're really worried that office visitors may attack your receptionist, then having a closed reception desk with a sliding window or slot is perfectly reasonable. Otherwise, it's mistake # 5. It tells your visitors that you assume they're undesirable, dangerous or otherwise untrustworthy. They're most commonly found in hospitals & police stations, which makes for a bad impression to your visitors.

The points above are just a framework of the most common office reception mistakes. Following these simple points will not only improve your employee's efficiency, but also the first impression visitors to your workplace form about your business. There are many other considerations that make for proper office design and the best possible way of getting a good return on your investment is to hire an experienced design professional.

Acrylic Trimmers – Essential Inventory of Dental Supplies

Dentistry involves a variety of procedures carried out to maintain oral health and restore or replace damaged teeth. Some of these are:

• Tooth whitening to remove stains
• Bonding to take care of chipped or cracked teeth
• Enamel shaping to modify teeth
• Veneers to cover the front side of the teeth that are worn or stained
• Braces to correct crooked or crowded teeth

To carry out these treatments effectively, the dentist needs quality dental equipment and instruments. These are the tools that help to examine, adjust, restore and extract teeth and treat the area around them. Every dental clinic must maintain an essential inventory of dental supplies to ensure that the patient can be offered quality treatment. These can be:

• Anaesthetics and drugs
• Instruments like hand pieces, burs and abrasives, acrylic trimmers
• Impression materials, cements and liners
• Cleaning and infection control products
• Restoration materials
• Dental equipment related to surgery
• Disposable bibs and gloves
• Endodontics materials

Prosthetic dentistry deals with the restoration or replacement of teeth. As a specialist area it focuses on recreating teeth that are missing or severely damaged using precision dental equipment.

This involves procedures related to fixing the following:

• Fillings to treat cavities
• Crowns to cover teeth fully and restore their function
• Bridges to replace missing tooth or teeth
• Dentures that replace a missing tooth or a complete arch
• Implants to replace one or more missing teeth

Dentists usually try and prevent the loss of teeth by maintaining the oral structure to promote oral health. For example, if a crown is required, besides treating the damaged tooth, its appearance is also taken care of with a variety of non-metal options ranging from acrylic, composite, ceramic and porcelain.

The most common materials for dental crowns used to be porcelain or gold. Gold was invariably used for teeth at the back of the mouth while porcelain was used on the front teeth for its aesthetics and similarity to a natural tooth.

Today a number of alternate materials are available. These can not only withstand more stress without wearing out the other teeth but also look natural. At the time of fixing the crown, the dentist must be careful while working with acrylic as it is a clear material.

A material of choice in dentistry

Acrylic is very popular for a variety of reasons and is used for a number of things like making impression trays. It is used as a tooth colored veneer to cover the surface of the tooth directly or on the crown covering the tooth to be restored. After the tooth is ready for the crown, a temporary crown made of acrylic is often used before the permanent crown is fixed. Using an acrylic trimmer, the crown is shaped carefully and used until it is ready to be replaced with the permanent crown.

Acrylic trimmers come in different shapes and sizes and are used for cutting and trimming various dental materials. They are generally pear shaped and used with a dental hand piece for grinding down acrylic bases or managing the thickness of the denture from the outside. The most popular ones are tungsten carbide acrylic trimmers.

With good quality dental equipment, supplies, instruments and medicaments, dentists help maintain oral health.

Overhead Handling of Materials in Industrial Environment

Material handling is one of the key phenomena in any industrial environment. The mechanical device to be adopted for such handling depends upon a number of factors such as weight of the materials, distance to be handled, frequency and repetitiveness of handling, economy of time and cost, safety and the process of manufacturing. An environment of high degrees of temperature and distancing away from such environment is another aspect that necessitates handling of materials through overhead cranes. There are a number of major industrial sectors that depend upon the deployment of Overhead cranes. They are Paper Mills, Steel Plants, Sugar Mills, Cement Plants, Chemical Sector and Railways.

An overhead crane, also called a bridge crane operating over the working environment, runs horizontally over two parallel runways coupled to a traveling bridge. The lifting component, hoist travels along the bridge to lift materials. It covers varying scope, depending upon the various processes involved in manufacturing. The basic objective of using overhead crane is to keep the hazardous elements such as heat, acidity, combustibility, distanced from the work force. For example, in a galvanizing unit, heavy structural materials are required to be dipped into a number of tanks for the performance of sequential processes such as acid tank for pickling, water tank for rinsing, chemical tank for fluxing and molten zinc tank for galvanizing. Similarly, in a steel plant, overhead crane does operations like feeding raw materials to a furnace, storing for cooling, lifting and loading of finished coils onto trucks and trains.

There are a number of established and leading industrial units in India who manufacture and export overhead traveling cranes and material handling equipments. If you are running any of the process type industries, you may find your requirement from a wide range of products such as industrial cranes, double girder overhead traveling cranes, industrial cranes, automated cranes and special purpose lifting equipment. You can easily get the spare parts and critical components to keep your cranes free of long breakdown. Before deciding to buy any of the overhead material handling equipment, you need to verify if the manufacturer is certified for ISO 9001: 2000, 14001: 2004 an 18001: 2007 so that you are automatically assured of the quality of the equipment that you are going to install.

Beside the equipment, you can find a number of services such as overhauling, erection, commissioning, installation, rail alignment, re-rating and revamping of EOT cranes, conversion of DC to AC Controls, automation of cranes, refurbishing of crane gearboxes. The manufacturer of EOT crane you select should be well-resourced with regard to Man-Material-Machinery-Money-Management. You should get your specific requirement fulfilled along with timely delivery and after sale services. If you are going in for a new engineering project, you may like to avail consultancy services with regard to designing, raw materials, specifications and dimensions of the machines that would suit to your project. You can avail services on turnkey basis covering every aspect of a project such as conceptualization, designing, fabrication, installation, commissioning and first trial run.

Low Dose Birth Control Pills

Reducing the side effects of birth control pills (cheers in the gallery!) led to the reduction of the amount of synthetic hormones, estrogen and progestin, that they contained and to the development of the ‘new generation’, low dose birth control pills. “Low dose’ won’t have much meaning for you if you don’t know what this term refers to so the basic information below may help.

So How Low can I go with the dose of hormone ingredients to still be effective at preventing pregnancy?

Good question, as not all birth control pills contain exactly the same amount of estrogen and progestin. I thought a useful reference for you would be a list of low dose and ultra low dose pills so that you can at least discuss the pros and cons with your doctor and see if you are a good candidate to move from say, a low dose 0.035mg estrogen pill down to an ultra low dose 0.020mg estrogen pill. You may find you experience fewer or reduced side effects. Generic brands in low dose birth control pills are also available.

Birth control pills with the very lowest amount of estrogen, that is 0.02mg of estrogen (usually ethinyl estradiol) are classed as ‘ultra low dose’ contraceptive pills. 0.020mg of estrogen is sufficient for contraception but the side effects of spotting and breakthrough bleeding are more common with these types of ultra low dose birth control pills than with low dose pills containing 0.030mg or 0.035mg of estrogen.

Here are some brand names of the “ultra low dose” birth control pills on the market , you may find a generic version on line now that you know what amount of estrogen to look for. The estrogen component is listed first and the progestin component second.

  • Alesse (Aviane,Lessina,Lutera,Sronyx) contains 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.1 mg levonorgestrel
  • Mircette contains 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg desogestrel

Pills containing 0.02mg- 0.035mg.of estrogen are classed as ‘low dose’ pills. Here are some brand names of “low dose” birth control pills :

  • LoOvral contains 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol and and 0.3 mg nogestrel
  • Nordette contains 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg levognorgestrel
  • Ortho-Cept (Reclipsen, Solia) contains 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg desogestrel
  • Desogen contains 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg desogestrel
  • Levlen21 contains 0.03 mg of ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg of levonorgestrel
  • Seasonale/Seasonique contain 0.03mg of ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg of levonorgestrel

If you are a fan of triphasic pills, here are some low dose ones: Cyclessa

Phase 1: ethinyl estradiol 0.025 mg and desogestrel 0.1 mg

Phase 2: ethinyl estradiol 0.025 mg and desogestrel 0.125 mg

Phase 3: ethinyl estradiol 0.025 mg and desogestrel 0.15 mg

In a study of 5,654 women, over six menstrual cycles, some used the popular triphasic Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 and others used Cyclessa. It was found that women who used Cyclessa had significantly less breakthrough bleeding or spotting and experienced an average weight loss of 4lbs. versus an average weight gain of 2lbs. with those who took Ortho-Novum 7/7/7.

Ortho Tricyclen Lo : 3 types of pill in the pack

  • each white tablet contains 0.025 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.180 mg of norgestimate
  • each light blue tablet contains 0.025 mg of ethinyl estradiol and 0.215 mg norgestimate
  • each dark blue tablet contains 0.025 mg of ethinyl estradiol and 0.250 mg of norgestimate

(Ortho Tricyclen and Ortho-Cyclen, each with 0.035 mg of ethinyl estradiol, contain slightly higher amounts of estrogen in each type of pill than Ortho Tricyclen Lo)

YASMIN and YAZ are two more low dose birth control pills containing 0.03 mg and 0.02 mg respectively

of estrogen but they have a different type of progestin from the other pills called drospirenone (3.0 mg). On the down side, since Yasmin/Yaz can increase levels of potassium, it is not recommended for women with liver, adrenal or kidney problems but on the up side, Yasmin/Yaz appear to reduce water retention and therefore bloating and in some women gives a sense of well being. These pills also have a following among acne sufferers as they seem to improve this skin condition in a lot of cases.As with many other types of birth control pills, Yasmin may not be suitable for you if you also take other over-the-counter pain relievers, potassium sparing diuretics, potassium supplements or specific medications so you MUST check this out with a physician first.

Nursing Moms

You will have heard of the ‘mini’ pill (progestin only pill or POP) which is usually prescribed for women who are breastfeeding or who have an intolerance to estrogen. A ‘Mini pill’ can be started immediately after childbirth or abortion. There is no 7-day break or dummy pills as there are with the combined pill and it must be taken at the same time every day. Micronor contains 0.35 mg norethindrone and NO estrogen whatsoever. In other countries some brand names include: Microlut 28, Microval 28, Locilan 28 and Noriday.

Pills that contain high amounts of estrogen or progestin are used for emergency contraception and are known as ‘the morning after pill’ or Plan B. One common pill is Preven -each blue film-coated pill contains 0.25 mg levonorgestrel and 0.05 mg (that’s MILLIGRAMS not micrograms) of estrogen – usually you take 2 doses, 12 hours apart. Plan B is a ‘morning-after’ pill that contains only one hormone, progestin (Levonorgestrel) Tablets, 0.75 mg.

Use Cornstarch For Skin Rash

There are various skin infections that affect a lot of people these days. Plenty of athletes suffer from jock itch and athlete’s foot. Some women have feminine itch. A lot of children have skin allergies too. The increasing numbers of skin related infections shows that you need to know the best method to cure or relieve it. These skin irritations will surely cause a lot of discomfort. Rashes may occur on various parts of the body like in your palm, groin, neck, thighs and feet. One thing that you need to do is to keep the affected areas dry all the time. The microorganisms that cause these skin infections like to be in wet and warm places. Powder is commonly used. You have to know that you can also use a simple household item like cornstarch for the skin rashes that you have.

WASH THE RASHES FIRST

The first thing that you need to do if you have rashes is to clean these rashes first. Use soap and clean water. Some rashes are caused by chemicals. Soap will help remove these harmful chemicals from your skin. After washing the rashes, you need to pat the affected areas to dry them up easily.

SPRINKLE

You have to dry up the affected areas immediately after washing. Use clean towel or blower. After doing this, you need to sprinkle the cornstarch over the rashes. It will help in keeping the rashes moisture free. It can absorb the excessive moisture in your skin. This will ensure that the growth of the microorganisms will not be fast.

You have to cover the affected areas with clean cotton cloth after applying the cornstarch. You have to do this so that cornstarch will have enough time to draw out the moisture from your skin before being shed off due to friction with your clothes. Try to do this for at least twice a day to ensure that it is going to take effect sooner.

IMPORTANT REMINDER

You have to observe the condition of the rashes after a few days of using cornstarch. You need to assess whether the condition has become better or worse. It is very important for you to remember that yeast infections will not respond well with cornstarch. It can even make things worse. Therefore, you have to make sure that it is not yeast infection so that you can continue with the treatment. Do not apply cornstarch if it is a yeast infection. It will just feed the yeast to grow further.

You have to visit your physician if some unusual signs and symptoms appear. If there are skin irritations or rashes on various parts of the body, it might be due to some serious conditions. See your doctor if you see too much blisters, bleeding or pus on the affected parts.

Cornstarch can help you get rid of skin rashes or irritations. These rashes must be kept clean and dry all the time. This will ensure that rashes will be healed immediately. The tips will guide you in using cornstarch correctly to cure skin rashes.

How To Read Your Construction Industry Financial Statements

How to Read Your Financials

Many smaller and mid-market companies in the construction industry find that critical information is misunderstood or ignored because their reports and schedules are inaccurate, often because the reports are used primarily as a tool for the accountant to prepare a tax return or to fulfill a bank -reporting obligation, so they do not contain enough information for you to control your business.

But your reports and schedules, when organized, will inevitably help your profits. They represent the "financial control" of your business. It is imperative to understand how to read your financials.

A Balance Sheet
In simple terms, a balance sheet is a snapshot of the assets and liabilities of your company in a particular moment in time. It shows where you stand with what you own and what you owe on a particular date. Your assets are listed "at cost" minus any depreciation or amortization taken over the ownership period of the asset; nothing is shown at fair market value. Your balance sheet should list the amount of money the stockholders will receive before capital gains taxes on liquidation, plus or minus the fair market value of the assets versus the value stated on the balance sheet, (or the "short fall" if there is a negative equity).

The purpose of the balance sheet is to control the accuracy of the income statement. If your balance sheet is substantively inaccurate on the opening or ending date of the income statement period, then the income statement will be substantially wrong. For example, the income statement for the year ending 12-31-06 would need an accurate balance sheet dated 12-31-05 and 12-31-06.

I met with a new client recently whose accountant not only lost his records for the past three years, but could not locate his records for the current year. Knowing that accountants do not ever lose that many records and knowing that accountants normally back up their computer records, I knew we had a big problem. My client thought he had generated about $ 6 million in revenue from the past twelve months as a result of the revenue generated from his high-end New York City co-op remodeling projects. He had pretty good job cost and billing data but needed bank financing. He had a horrible bid-to-award ratio, and he needed guidance with his plan of revenue and profit for his company.

He needed to know:
• What his margins should be in order to win bids
• How to identify who his customers should be
• If his bid margins allowed for profit after general conditions and overhead
• Whether he was making money or losing it
• What had happened to his business over the last three years

My client and I were in a situation where we could not wait for his new accountant to slowly reconstruct his last three years of records, so we sat down and created a balance sheet. I interviewed him to determine what he owned and owed, located records which included his bank statements; accounts receivable; retainages receivables; an inventory of his trucks and computers; his vendor and subcontractor payables; the amount of debt on his trucks, cars and equipment; the jobs he had in progress; and the estimated costs of those jobs to complete. With that information, I created a balance sheet that covered the beginning and the eleventh month of his fiscal year.

Finally, satisfied that we had two "good" balance sheets, we simply computed the change in his equity section from one date to the other, adding back in the dividends that were checks other than payroll or expense reimbursements to itself during that period. Then, we looked at the payroll records to compute what he earned in salary during that same eleven month period. Our final step was to combine what he earned in salary and profit for the eleven months reviewed. The combined information, within a quick couple of hours, gave us the amount the client had earned. So, when you are unsure of your financial situation, use this short-cut to make sure your balance sheet is correct. Otherwise, look no further at your financials; they will likely be inaccurate and useless.

Estimated Cost to Complete Jobs / Projects
It is my experience that nearly all contractors use the "percentage of completion" method of recognizing revenue and cost other than the residential developer / builders who use the "completed contracts" method of accounting for revenue and cost. "Completed contracts" means just that: When the job is completely done, you "book" or record the total income and expense of construction on the income statement. No income, job expense, profit or loss related to the specific job is to be recorded on the income statement until the home settlements. Prior to that, the job costs appear as an item on the balance sheet named "work-in-progress." Revenue appears as customer deposits, deferred revenue or an item of debt.

"Percentage of completion" means that revenue is recognized as income at the rate the job is completed. Job costs are recognized at the rate that they are incurred in ratio to both revenue recognized and total job costs expended to date, plus what is estimated to be incurred to complete the job. Your balance sheet will have an asset entitled "costs in excess of billings," meaning that you have costs you have not or can not bill right now to the customer on jobs in progress. A liability account, or "billings in excess of costs" means that the contractor has billed the customer for work not yet done – which is where all contractors would prefer to be placing the contractor ahead of the customer on a cash flow basis.

If the costs in excess of billings are greater than the billing in excess of costs, you will likely have a cash flow problem. This means that either you are spending faster than you are billing, your project managers are behind in getting their bills out, or you have costs on your balance sheet that are really losses such as job overruns or change orders that are not or will not be approved. All jobs with costs in excess of billings should be lumped together under a liability account on the current asset side of the balance sheet. Always double-check for losses not yet recorded. You, as an owner, may not know about the losses. A project manager may simply fall behind in billing, which costs you interest expense, poor vendor relationships, cash heartache and sleepless nights.

If your "bills in excess of cost" are always substantially higher than your "costs in excess of billings" it is good for current cash flow as long as that difference is rising. However, this will give you a false sense of cash security once the job comes to an end because the cash flow slows down. The excess billings over costs are not profit; they are simply a positive cash flow timing difference that will change from time to time.

The "schedule" of closed jobs and the open jobs "estimated costs to complete" should be prepared more than once a year when the accountants request it. This maintains a current review of each job's status and addresses problems while the job is ongoing, since you will have problems to face during the project. Do not wait until the job-close-out meeting to address them, when everyone wins they'll do better next time. Instead, confront problem situations earlier in the project. Review schedules and reports to estimate an opportunity to bid higher or correct a problem in the bid process. This is critical to remodeling companies, as most problems occur during the preconstruction process, specifically in estimating errors or "buy out" of material errors, and in remodeling, jobs are shorter, problems become permanent losses quickly, and persist more often than not in new jobs before the problem is identified.

The Benefits of Regular Reporting
Our firm instituted a weekly job review and estimated cost to complete process for one of our remodeling company clients, Xylem Builders, Inc (t / a Archadeck-South Shore & AX Builders). Job margins for the client increased by twenty points as a result of immediately identifying problems and making corrections in preconstruction in new jobs. The company has never incurred a monthly loss in now over a year, sales have continued to rise, they have attained a positive equity after 3 consecutive years of losses … all within two months of implementing weekly job reviews and estimated cost to complete. As previously stated, remodeling projects begin and end quickly, so mistakes will hurt the current job and likely repeat in new jobs. Those mistakes do not have to be repeated if you institute weekly reviews and estimates.

It can be difficult and time-consuming to correctly prepare an estimated "cost to complete schedule" for larger jobs in their early stages, yet it is worthwhile. You may continue to assum your estimate is correct. However, the estimator, project manager, job superintendent and controller must review a job early on to determine what is needed to complete and extremely improver looming problems as early as possible. That step will create better value engineering, change orders will be billed in a timely manner and job profit will increase.

Schedule of Cash Flow and Working Capital
The schedule of "cash flow and working capital" provides a map of where your cash resources covering the period of the income statement originated. It consist of profit, new loans or repayment (principal due more than twelve months in the future), purchases or sales of capital assets and depreciation. All of these have the effect of increasing or decreasing cash. An accurate reading of the schedule allows for better billing practices, better collection practices and advances slower paying of vendors and subs. It shows where and how money was used to absorb losses, the debt principal repayments and may contribute to faster paying of bills. It advances poor billing practices, slow receivables and reflects retention receivables, purchase of equipment or other assets. If the opening and closing period balance sheets are correct, then this schedule will be correct. Remember, though, if the balance sheets are not correct, do not waste your time looking at this schedule or any other financial statement because they will be wrong!

Working capital is defined as the total of "current assets" consisting of your cash, receivables, retainages, costs in excess of billings, work-in-progress, inventories and prepaid expenses minus your current liabilities. Your current liabilities are complied with your lines of credit, principal payments of debt due within twelve months, accounts payable, accrued expenses, accrued payroll, accumulated taxes, bills in excess of costs, customer deposits and deferred income. A greater than 1: 1 ratio is important.

Your bank may require a defined working capital ratio, so check your loan documents. If your actual ratio is too high, you're probably wasting the use of your cash and resources by making them too idle. A good business analyst will determine the amount of excess working capital / cash that is funding the income statement profit versus normal operations. I have seen many multi-generational businesses with excessive working capital, but upon quick analysis of a profitable income statement, I saw a generous financial income derived from discounts from vendor early pay, interest income and low interest expense. It was a poor business operation masked by the working capital wealth of the company.

Income Statement
Your income statement should be a validation of what occurs with your jobs in the field, assuming that your opening and closing balance sheets are correct. Your income statement should be in the same category as your job-cost comparison to your estimates, and it should be in a format that highlights whether components of your business are operating according to plan. In order for your income statement to be used as the effective management tool and "sanity check" that it was meant to be, the following components must exist:

• It must be an accrual, not cash basis statement. Accrual means you have recorded all your receivables and debt inclusive of payables on the balance sheet.

• It must include not only numbers next to the expense categories but also percentages of revenue next to the number.

• The only revenue in your top line should be job revenue. No interest income, rebates, purchase discounts or sales of equipment should be included.

• The costs of construction must be detailed to identify construction labor and payroll added costs, subcontractors, materials (not net of early pay discounts), equipment rentals, revenue-driven liability insurance, superintendents' costs or other direct costs of construction as detailed in the estimate and tracked in your job cost reports. Some or all of these are your "direct job costs". Labor, materials, subs, equipment rental, permits, direct insurance, etc., are at a minimum included on your job cost reports, regardless of software, and in the estimate.

• Indirect construction costs such as mobilization, trucks, pagers, cell phones, supers, trailers, etc., may be what you call "general conditions." Define what you mean by "general conditions," and categorize these costs separately on your income statement. This will allow you to see if the general conditions you are using in your estimates are making or losing money. General Conditions should be a profit center.

• Categorize your preconstruction costs of estimators and bidding / selling expenses separately on the income statement. Divide the number of bids or estimations produced into this total, and see what it is costing you to bid. Add that to your bid-to-score ratio and you may find that not only are you wasting money in bids you'll never get but also how much you are wasting.

• Keep the office and support staff under an administrative expense category. Be sure to allocate the workmen's compensation insurance, vehicle and equipment insurance, depreciation, payroll taxes, benefits, safety and training to the indirect or general conditions as appropriate.

• Show purchase discounts and interest income as "other income" after computing profit or loss from the construction operations. These are financial incomes which are earned due to ownership, equity and working capital, not from operations.

• Compare the percentage of gross profit from jobs completed and jobs in progress to your income statement. This should be done before general conditions are deducted when you compare the percentage of gross profit. Be aware of additional profit that you may earn in gross profit from the labor rate that you use in estimating versus your labor rate posted to job cost sheets or categorized on your income statement. If you use your own equipment in construction in lieu of renting it, separately analyze these costs to see if you are making or losing money in this regard. If you are approaching a profit from this, that's great, but it will likely distort the gross profit from construction if your estimate utilized a fair market rental rate.

Meet regularly with your outside accountants if they are construction knowledgeable or your construction business advisor and / or your controller on a monthly basis to review your balance sheet, income statement, working capital, source and use of funds statement and completed jobs / estimated costs to complete schedules. It establishes control in your business. It also helps create the "sanity" of profit, helps avoid the "insanity" of making the same mistakes over and over again and advances you from losing profit-or your construction business itself.

Plastic Model Kits Building – Assemble the Model

The task of assembling a scale model kit may seem difficult or tough to most of us at first. However, with a well plan and predetermined sequence of stages, you should be able to get the job done with ease and comfort. The difficulty level of assembly will greatly depend on the complexity of the chosen model. Plastic models that have more parts and details tend to take a longer time to assemble.

Here is a brief guide to assemble a typical plastic model kit:

1. Find a work place where you will not be disturbed or distracted. The area should be well ventilated and lighted. A large and flat top working table is recommended.

2. Read through the installation sheet carefully. Take your time to study and understand in details the sequence of building the model in stages.

3. Carefully check the individual part against the installation sheet. If the installation sheet includes a parts layout diagram, verify each part against it. This step is to avoid having any missing part prior to starting. Do not remove any part from its runner until it is required for assembly.

4. Remove each part as it is called for in the installation sheet. Use a cutter to remove the part instead of breaking it by hand. Sand away any rough edges from the cutting or unwanted mold lines.

5. Ensure the parts fit properly before assembling them with cement. At times, you are required to trim a part slightly to make a perfect fit.

6. Seam is a line formed when joining two parts together. To solve this problem, use a liberal amount of cement during assembly. Squeeze the joint hard until a bead of molten plastic appears along the seam. Wait till the bead is thoroughly dry and scrap it off to achieve a smooth and invisible seam.

7. Put aside small parts which require painting prior to assemble. These painted small parts are to be added after the rest of the assembled model is painted.

8. When your model is completely assembled, confirm again that there are no outstanding parts and all are installed as per the installation sheet.

9. Carefully inspect the completed model for things you might have overlooked such as molding lines you forgot to clean or seams that bought to be filled.

10. Once you thoroughly corrected all flaws, the assembly of your model is finally completed.

The entire process may take a while based on your experienced, skills and the chosen model. Take your time and do not rush the job and be rewarded with a piece of work you can be proud of.

Scaffold Towers

Scaffold Towers have been around for hundreds and thousands of years, dating as far back as the Egyptians using them for the pyramids, and the Chinese using them for the Great Wall of China, for use by people to build houses and all different types of buildings . Scaffolds are also used for repair on said buildings, cleaning, and other jobs that one may need to reach higher than one story. Scaffold towers are used on almost every construction site today, and are made mostly of metal, making them strong, light weight, and easy to assemble, compared to the wooden scaffolds that were used before the 1930s.

The smallest scaffold towers are approximately five feet tall, they are good for doing work on the outside of a house or other small building. Scaffold towers can get much taller than five feet however, and can be built to accommodate just about any buildings needs. The largest scaffold recorded was 650 feet tall, it was built around the New York City Municipal Building by Regional Scaffolding & Hoisting Company, and stood in place from the years 1988 to 1992. Another set of famous scaffold towers were the towers used to repair the Statue of Liberty, and they were just over 150 feet tall. Scaffolds are not only used for building, cleaning or repairing buildings, they are also sometimes used on apartment or office buildings, as fire escape routes.

Scaffolds can be bought through companies that sell pre-made scaffolds, which tend to be on the smaller side, or through companies that sell the parts to put your own scaffold together. There are kits with instructions on how to build particular scaffolds, or you can also purchase piece by piece and construct your own scaffold, depending on your needs and know how. Scaffolds can have little to no flooring, or they can have huge sections with floors on them which you can walk upon or set tools and other items on for your convenience. Always remember when you are around a scaffold tower, or using one, your safety is of utmost importance, always exercise caution and care. Please wear safety equipment at all times.

Architectural Interior Photographer Discusses: What Determines a Good Interior Photograph?

Interior Photography is the most challenging of all the professional genres of commercial photography. Every detail is critical; every prop must be correct and in just the right location; busy-ness must be avoided; things must be cleaned up and simplified; lighting can be challenging; and in addition to all that, one must understand how best to portray the "look and feel" of the space that architect of interior designer worked so hard to convey. The photograph will always be better than the reality! It will have clarity of vision; illustrate what your client is selling; have an atmosphere of light (usually created by the photographer's lighting); be inviting; have a feeling of "presence;" have a clean and simple look; and it will have drama and movement.

Some simple rules to start with:

1). Define your client: Who is your client? The architect, builder or realtor will want to show relationships of the design to the space and the intention and flow of the design layout. The interior designer will be concerned more with the furnishings and the details of their design. Architects like drama and usually do not mind some wide-angle distortion, whereas, the interior designer or the product photo my find distortion to be a problem. In any case, the distortion must be used judiciously – it has to contribute to the overall composition in an effective way.

2) Angle: The One point perspective or "head on" view is strong and symmetrical. The Two-point perspective may define the space effectively but pay close attention the how the space of the photograph is divided. The emphasis should be on 2/3 of the composition; do not divide the space in half. For architects and builders, be sure to show significant design detail and take into consideration how the spaces work together. Do not 'try to show too much – keep the viewer's attention on important elements. A couple of good photographs are far more effective than a lot of weak ones. Go for quality, not quantity. Remember the adage: "Less is more" – wide angle does not mean that one should show more, just because it is possible to do so. EVERYTHING in the photograph must hold it's own weight and be accountable to the overall composition. Every angle, line and detail has to "work" in the photograph.

3) Height: A low angle foreshortens and can be very nice for some views, however, it is important to show the important elements of the interior also. Be high enough to separate the elements and keep the composition clean and clear. Avoid a cluttered look and having things "grow out" from the tops of furniture, etc. Occasional a high view is required but usually I find that a little lower than eye level (if one is not too tall) is favorable and pleasant. The higher the lens, the more foreground distortion; A piece of furniture too close to the foreground (especially a round table) will be very distorted with a higher view. Often the foreground will determine the camera height. Having the foreground "fall" out towards the bottom edge of the photograph is very disturbing and must be avoided by either adjusting the camera height, camera position or moving the furniture back from the foreground.

4) Arrangement: After the angle has been determined, frequently the furniture must be rearranged to fit the format and perimeter of the photograph. Sometimes this may be subtle; other times it may be drastic. A pleasing composition and balance must be found and concerns such as distortion of furniture, tangents and "busyness" are addressed at this time. I always get the large pieces in place first and then work down to the smaller scale furniture from there. Everything must be perfect – from the direction and relationships of the furniture to each other as well as their relationship to the room. Always adjust everything "to camera" – the room setting may appear entirely out of place from another vantage point, but it will look correct from the camera position and that is all that matters.

5) Props: The final details in the set are the arrangement of the props. I start by taking out all the clutter and then carefully putting things back or finding other elements that compliment the space. Bookshelves are rearranged to look more uniform and uncluttered, desks and work areas, totally cleaned up. I almost always add fresh flowers and plants to "soften" the look and feel of the space as well as books to fill space on tabletops etc. I like to have height to contain the edges of the image; taller plants can work well for that. Kitchens are particularly challenging to prop; they must look clean and orderly but also look livable. I frequently use bread, bowls of fruit, flowers, etc. Simple breakfast settings of orange juice, coffee bagels and a newspaper can also work well. Pay particular attention to chair legs – they can get very busy looking if not handled carefully. In corporate settings, conference room chairs should have the legs and wheels all going in the same direction, the chairs should all be spaced exactly the same – again – it may not appear that way way from another position, but it must look very uniform form the camera position. A clean, styled uniform look, that is also loose enough to feel real, is the key to successful propping. One of the most important qualities that the interior photographer must have is patience as well as being extremely detail oriented. It is essential to have everything perfect; the direction of the cup handles; the arrangement of the flowers in the vase; the space between accessories on the table; lamp shades must be straight and undistorted; the color of the page in the open book. Every element in the interior photograph must "play" off and work with each other, as well as within the context of the whole.

6). Lighting: Good lighting separates the average photographers from the great ones. Light defines the feel of the space and it gives it a three-dimensional look. The trend laTely, especially since the advent of digital photography, has been to use predominately ambient light. For some clients and under specific conditions this may be acceptable, however, compared to what good lighting can do for the scene, the results are very flat, uninspiring and "dead" My approach to lighting varies depending on the space and client, but my philosophy is consistent – I light to create a beautiful photograph; my lighting always enhances the space and I use my lighting to lead the viewers eye through the space and feature important details and design elements. A good photograph will always look better than reality. Sometimes my lighting will simply enhance the existing light, other times I will totally transform the interior or the exterior of the building. Whether the lighting set-up is complex or simple, good lighting will always enhance the overall look of the photograph; it will add highlights and shadows, separate tonality (especially with dark with tones and shadows) and emphasize texture; it will bring saturation to color and a feeling of LIFE to what would otherwise be a lackluster image. Regardless of how beautiful the space is and how well the designed lighting adds atmosphere – adding lights will ALWAYS help the scene. The only exception to this rule would be in very large spaces, and even, then placing lights in strategic spots can make a big difference.

As with anything else in life, in order for one to excel in a particular field one must be passionate about it. Photographing interiors is a highly specialized field and it is not for the feint of heart. An Interior photographer must be very detailed oriented, and have a love for and at least a layman understanding of, architecture and interior design. Often times the client will totally depend on your expertise, so one's knowledge of what "works" in the interior photograph must be at least on a level as the professional what you are working for. Personally, I find the blend of technical details with aesthetics to be very pleasant; every shoot is like solving a puzzle – the work never gets mundane or boring.