What Are Halotron Fire Extinguishes?

As halo carbon-based clean agent, halotron fire extinguishers are ideal for handling fires in the corporate and industrial settings. They inhibit the chemical reaction of fire but do not leave any unsightly solid residue when used, so preventing damage to documents and other valuable sensitive electronics like computers, monitors and other office peripherals.

Halotron fire extinguishers were first introduced into the market in 1992 to replace the use of Halon-1211 or bromochlorodifluoro-methane (BCF), which was found to have ozone-depleting properties. The Montreal Protocol in 1987 restricted the use of both Halon-1211 and Halon-1301 because of the perceived environmental damage they caused. Although Halon continues to be used in the US, Middle East and Asia to date, using or even owning it is deemed illegal in Australia.

There are a number of replacements for Halon fire extinguishers available today like Halotron I, Halotron II, FE-36, and FM-200. These gaseous agents are dispensed in the form of quickly evaporating liquid, and also have no solid passages. These halocarbon-based alternatives have no ozone-depleting properties, and their atmospheric lifetimes have been significantly reduced. These can be used where Halon was specified and used before, although they may not be as effective.

The Halotron I is a chemical blend based on the raw material HCFC-123 and has a higher throw length compared to the other clean agents, owed to its reliably high boiling point. In comparison, this makes it more effective and easier to dispense even for the inexperienced user, as it can reach up to 45feet.

The Halotron-I has been approved for use in aircraft in Australia, replacing Halon-1121. And there's the FE-36, which is based on HFC-236fa. Like the Halotron-I, this is also an alternative to Halon-1121 fire extinguishers . And as it uses a clean agent, this is also ideal for office settings.

To replace Halon 1301 is Halotron II, which is a three-component total flooding agent based primarily on HFC-134a. This agent, however, discharges in gas form.

Another one that also discharges in gas form is the FM-200. The main advantage perceived for this is that the gas can reach all areas of the facility protected, and allows for minimal disruption in an office setting. Also an alternative to Halon 1301, these types of fire extinguishers poses no breathing problems for those exposed and does not block vision, allowing people to get to safety in cases of fire emergency. This type would usually require periodic servicing and maintenance. Monitoring is usually done electronically or by qualified installers / companies.

Contemporary Furniture Design – History And Influences

Contemporary furniture design came about through the combination of enquiring, innovative minds, advances in technology and the ability to produce incredible furniture at more affordable prices. The industrial revolution also played a huge part in this, particularly in terms of cheaper materials, access to factory space and the ability to create artistic furniture pieces at a price more suited to the public at large.

From the late 19th century, designers started to look towards sleeker, simpler designs for modern furniture. Whereas in the past furniture had been constructed almost entirely from wood, resulting in heavy overstated pieces indicative of grandeur and luxury. This access to new materials and different ways of working allowed designers to make more compact and modest sized items. These new furniture designs were easier to incorporate within any required living space and also gave the purchaser an opportunity to buy items that were an expression of their own personal tastes, with less limitations. Contemporary furniture design became known for being serviceable and functional but with a creative slant that saw modern furniture often viewed as pieces of art in their own right.

Odd angles, clean lines, curved shaping and materials such as metal and moulded plastic paved the way for modern furniture to infiltrate into our consciousness. It’s hard to ignore the striking designs of contemporary furniture pieces – the fluidity and sharpness often used in these designs made people really start to sit up and take notice of modern furniture.

Many designers of modern and contemporary furniture are also noted for being incredible architects – contemporary furniture is really about functional items being seen as architectural and artistic designs. Architects such as Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Frank Lloyd Wright and even Antoni Gaudi started to incorporate contemporary furniture design into their overall architectural visions. Gaudi would often design furniture pieces to complement the interesting nuances of his buildings, creating a harmony between the external structure and internal decoration.

Other notable contributors to the contemporary furniture movement include Marcel Breuer, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Eileen Gray, Le Corbusier and Lilly Reich. Mies van der Rohe invented the now famous and often copied ‘Barcelona chair’ and his contemporary furniture often used cantilevers to enable supportive yet delicate framework, often created out of chrome. Mies worked in collaboration with Lilly Reich for over a decade, sharing both a professional and personal relationship. In addition to her involvement in the design of the Barcelona chair, the couple also worked together to create the Brno chair, another iconic piece of modern furniture that continues to be cited as both inspirational and aspirational.

Capiz, Philippines, Asia Cut Foliages and Cut Flowers

Background

Following the collapse of the prawn industry in the mid-80's, an interesting industry slowly emerged in the early 90's as dynamic and aggressive women entrepreneurs turned their expensive hobby into a multi-million profitable and enjoyable "sunshine" industry. This paved the way to the birth of the Floriculture Industry in the Province of Capiz. From an obscure industry, it grows to become one of the rapidly expanding agri-business sectors in the province today involving more than 5,000 stakeholders, florists, landscape artists, contractors, technologists, input providers, farm technicians and gardeners.

Capiz is a major producer of potted orchids and orchid cutflowers, landscape materials, fresh foliages and potted ornamental plants in the whole of the Visayas. It is also recognized as one of the sources of the best and rarest ferns in the country today. Currently, it is slowly building a name as the premier source of exportable cutfoliages in the country.

Roxas City leads in the number of producers in the province with ten (10) commercial farms located here. It is also considered as the marketing center with the presence of 4 trading outlets such as the Paseo de Catedral, Balay Kapisnon, Teodoro Arcenas Trade Center, and Talon Garden Center. It is followed by the municipalities of Sigma, Dao, Panay and Ivisan. As of December 2005, total land area devoted to floriculture is estimated to be more than a hundred hectares.

Underlying the strength of the industry is the Capiz Multi-Purpose Cooperative (CMPC) which serves as the primary coordinating body of the cutflower and ornamental plant growers province-wide. It works closely with relevant national government agencies (NGAs), local government units (LGUs) and industry associations to provide an enabling business climate for the industry to develop and grow. All of the big producers in the province are members of the Capiz MPC. It is a duly registered organization with the Cooperative Development Authority and Department of Trade and Industry.

The local ornamental industry cluster is composed of the core industries, the supplier industries, and other industries that provide related and other services. The cluster is made of interlinked and interdependent key and supporting industries and institutions.

Vision

A unified, self-reliant, environment-friendly and globally competitive Floriculture Industry towards the improvement of the quality of life of its members and the community and be known as the "Cutfoliage Capital of the Philippines"

Service & Input Providers – this category include the following:

Landscape Artists – those who provide landscaping services to houses, public and commercial buildings, subdivisions, memorial parks, others. There are about 9 known professional landscape artists in the province at present.
Floral Artists -those who provide floral arrangement services for such occasions as weddings, funerals, debut, graduation, product launching, grand openings, etc. Most of the floral artists are concentrated at the Paseo de Catedral located near the Roxas City Metropolitan Cathedral since they are also cutflower traders.
Cutflower / Ornamental Plant Traders – are those who are engaged solely in selling cutflowers and ornamental plants. They either sell in a permanent stall / place (such as Balay Kapisnon, Paseo de Catedral) or are ambulatory (as most of the traders during municipal / city market days).
Input providers – include those who are engaged in selling of garden inputs and accessories such as organic fertilizers (Hacienda Olive), terra cotta / plastic pots, and soil-less plant medium.

Industry Status and Performance

Production

Cutflowers

The province produces only a few varieties of cutflowers in commercial-scale. These are orchids (white dendrobiums), roses, and asters (white & lilac). Other low-grade varieties produced in limited scale include dahlias, azucena, African daisies, assorted heleconias, and gladiolus (orange). Orchid cutflower and heleconias were at their production peak from1995 to 2000 with 4 commercial farms producing an aggregate yield of 1,500 dozens per week. Production volume slowly dropped over the past 5 years as more and more flowers coming from outside of the province flooded the local market. Currently, only 1 farm is growing orchids.

Fresh foliages and Live Plants

The foliage plants combine 80% of the ornamental plants industry in Capiz and has become an important source of livelihood for many families. Most foliage plants are grown in commercial farms and backyard gardens of Sigma, Dao, Panay, Ivisan and Roxas City.

The foliage plants are sold either as cut, potted or live plants. Potted plants serve as indoor and landscaping plants, while cutfoliages are for floral arrangements.

The demand for foliage plants is increasing. For the last 10 years, foliage plants wherever as cut or live, have the largest share in the export market. At present, Capiz is the only province exporting cutfuliages to Japan in the whole of Luzon and the Visayas.

Major Products Sold

The products and services of the industry include cutflowers, potted flowering plants and greens, cuttings, cutfoliage, landscaping materials, non-soil rooting media, floral arrangement services, landscaping services.
A. Cutflowers – are so called because they are detached from parent plants and are formed into bouquets, leis, arrangements, centerpieces and the like. They are grown and traded for their aesthetic value. They are given away in appreciation and as an expression of love, joy, and encouragement on such occasions as weddings, anniversaries, birthdays and special events like Christmas, Valentine's Day, Mother's Day, and All Saints '/ Souls' Day. Major cutflowers produced by the province are orchids such as dendrobiums, and vanda terrete; roses, puto-puto, heleconias and gladiola.

B. Filler Flowers – includes white and lilac asters, and baby's breath.

C. Cut and Containerized Foliage Plants – refers to fresh leaves, twigs and branches cut fresh and utilized in floral arrangement, evergreen, and foliage plants grown in container for interior and exterior decorations. Major cut foliage produced by the province are dracaenas, polycias, palmeras, song of India, song of Korea, kamuning, cordylines, bottlebrush, rhappis and ferns.

D. Pot Plants – flowering annuals, shrubs, herbaceous perennials grown in containers used for exterior and interior decorations. Most popular flowering pot plants grow here include orchids, euphorbia, hibiscus, and bromeliads.

Landscaping Materials – plants maintaining of evergreen and flowering trees, shrubs, herbaceous perennials, grass covers and furglass used for landscaping purposes. The following are some of the high-value palms grown in the province: Champagne, Bismarck, Hawaiian Fox Tail, Red & Blue Palm, and Sugar Palm. Meanwhile, some of the wide grown ground covers include mundo grass, golden peanuts, carabao grass, Bermuda grass, and chichi Rica.

Non-Soil Rooting Media- coco coir / dust, organic fertilizer, drift woods, fern wood and chips.

Organic Fertilizer – locally produced and manufactured soil enhancers. One of the brands commonly used is RANCAP which is made by Hacienda Olive in Pontevedra.

Services – landscaping, flower arrangement, plant cliniciquing / consultancy

Existing Trade Houses

1. Paseo de Catedral

Arsobizpo St., Roxas City

2. Balay Kapisnon

McKinley St., Roxas City

Tel. No. (036) 621-3445

3. Talon Garden Center

Primer de Mayo Street, Roxas City

VII. Industry Potentials

The industry has vast potential for development because of the following factors:

Available Technology and Support

§ Availability of viable production technologies from external sources.
§ Government and research institutions such as DTI, DA / BPI, DOST, PCARRD could very well provide the needed technical and logistical support for the development of the industry.
§ Production technologies are available for essential oil extraction which has large demands in the domestic and export markets.

Strong labor force and growers' association

§ Affiliation to industry associations at the national level
§ Existence of the Capiz Multi-purpose Cooperative, which serves as the umbrella organization of all cutflower and ornamental plant growers in the province.
§ The province has a supply of trainable labor force.
Favorable Environment
The province has no pronounced dry or wet season which is well suited to grow ornamental plants. The province is likewise seldom visited by strong typhoons.
Vast tracts of land are still available for development.

Growing Demand

Growing international and domestic demand due to the growing appreciation of the aesthetic value and environmental importance of ornamental crops.
Proximity to other Asian market which places Capiz in a good position to serve emerging markets.
Opening of the Iloilo international airport improvements capacity for international trading.

VIII. Projections

Imports (intra-national & international)

Fresh cutflowers will dominate the province's imports of ornamental plant products. These imported flowers are those which are not actually produced due to climatic conditions such as chrysanthemums, lilies, roses, anthuriums, stattice, gerberas, carnation and some varieties of gladiolas. Coming in close, will be other live plants, cuttings and slips which will also be used as planting materials or mother plants. Far in third rank are orchid seedlings. Flowers have seasonal demands

Payless Vs Famous Footwear – Understand the Differences and Similarities

If you are looking for shoes and you are wondering which store is better to go to, Payless or Famous Footwear, then you need to understand the benefits of choosing either store. Each store is good, but you are going to find some key differences that might make you choose one over the other. Right out of the gate, I can tell you that Famous Footwear has many name brand shoes while Payless does not. Nevertheless, this is not the only reason you might choose to go to one store over the other.

Now the main reason to go to Payless over Famous Footwear is simple. When you go to Payless you are going to pay less money. In fact, you might be able to get multiple pairs of shoes for what you would pay at the other store. When it comes to Famous Footwear, a lot of their shoes are athletic and there are not as many choices to get anything else. Payless offers other benefits such as nice looking bags and other accessories.

On the other hand, you have many people who feel that Famous Footwear has better overall shoes. This is referring to the quality. Many people think the quality is just better. Then you have some people who feel that Famous Footwear has more shoes overall. This may or may not be true depending on the size of the store you go to. However, one thing is for sure, most people agree that Payless has more accessories.

Most people believe that a discount shoe store like Payless is not good because the shoes are inferior. They believe this because they shoes are cheap. Understand that designer shoes are more expensive not only because they are made with expensive materials, but because the methods used to make them as well as the brand. The manufacturing process for making name brand shoes is usually harder, more work is needed as well. Some shoes might even be handcrafted, which is definitely going to make them cost more.

Payless has a similar manufacturing process for the shoes they make. But you are not paying a premium for the brand name attached to the shoe, which can be significant. I will use a certain name brand for example to shoe the different. You can get a Ralph Lauren polo shirt for $90.00. If you get the same shirt, same craftsmanship and quality at a place like Target it is only going to be $25.00 or less. This is because there is not a little jockey on the chest of the shirt. That is a difference of $65.00. It works the same way with shoes.

Famous Footwear is good for those who want name brands for less. Payless is for those who want quality without having to spend an arm and a leg because there is a certain brand name attached. Each store gives you the chance to find good deals. One just might have more of what you want then the other.

Sanitation in the Workplace: Prioritizing Health and Safety

There are some factors that should be considered for a business to run smoothly and for goals to be met fully. It can be a challenging task for a business owner to ensure that all of the factors such as the finances, equipment and supplies, as well as the employees are working together. Yet, one of the critical factors that should be taken into consideration is the health and safety of all the employees working for you, in any way. There are some precautions that you need to do in making sure that employees are safe and they know how to keep their self secure and protected. Also, everyone should be trained on how to deal with unexpected situations.

For a business venture to run smoothly, one of the things you can do is to be able to create and maintain a positive work environment where everyone can work smoothly. The workplace can be more inviting to customers and clients if they see that every employee is having fun doing their jobs through their happy expressions. Having employees enjoy their work can also make them be more productive and accomplish their tasks faster. Stress is eliminated if one works in a workplace having positive vibes. Thus, employees can be more motivated to do their tasks and enjoy every bit of time that they work.

The health and safety of everyone can be acquitted through sanitation, which is one of the factors. One way to sanitize the work environment is to provide the area with products for hygiene such as sanitizers to ensure that the spread of germs is avoided at any means possible. One example is during the winter season. At this time, there is a high probability that employees get illnesses such as colds. So, sanitation is needed in order for germs not to spread more and to keep everyone safe from acquiring some illnesses. Another way of keeping the workplace and employees safe is to have labels. Say, there are hazardous materials in the workplace; every employee should have made aware about it.

In cases that your business is on construction, make sure that every worker is provided with all the safety equipment as they work. They should always wear the appropriate attire for the job. By doing so, you can make sure that they are safe from getting any injury as they work. There should also be signs on danger areas for everyone to be aware.

Of course, there is also a need for the management to have employees trained on how to react during emergency situations. There may be unexpected situations such as earthquake that might happen so employees should be trained on how to deal with situations as such.

A business can be successful if every aspect is checked and maintained. One of the factors that can greatly affect the business is the employees. Thus, maintaining the health and safety of employees is a need. This can be done in many ways such as sanitation as well as giving them training in order to deal with unexpected situations right.

How to Wallpaper Over a Brick or Cement Block Wall

The problems of concealing grouting and rough surfaces are easily overcome. Lining paper, if properly applied, will stretch over and hide the rough patches and the effect can be completed by using a heavy or embossed wallpaper.

This technique also applies to walls built of cement blocks. If you are building with brick or cement block and know that you want to wallpaper certain walls, ask your builders to apply the mortar so that you have a nice flat surface, rather than raking out the joints. With existing walls, the secret is in preparing the raw surface.

These are the tools you’ll need:-

A long table or bench, a trough, sponge or foam paste applicator, scissors, soft brush for smoothing wallpaper on to wall, a ruler, plumb line, razor for cutting.

A paint sealer is applied to dry any moisture from the wall, then a latex based wallpaper liquid size. A well soaked pre-pasted wallpaper lining will be just sufficient to soften the size and bond the lining firmly to the wall so that when wallpaper is pasted over, it won’t weaken in any way.

The same principle can even be applied if you are papering over rough-caste walls (walls that have been plastered and raked or scrolled upon when wet). If your brick wall has an extremely rough and raised surface it will have to be plastered over prior to wall-papering.

Here is how it’s done:-

1. Prior to start working on an absorbent raw wall, you’re first step is to seal and size the wall. Coat it with a paint sealer and leave to dry overnight. Next apply a latex based wallpaper liquid size; this is especially good on absorbent surfaces. This takes about an hour to dry. If time is short you can apply two coats leaving an hour between coats, instead of the over- night sealer.

2. Apply pre-pasted lining paper. Soak it in a trough to soften and roll out to arm’s length. Fold over and back half-way, forming pleats to the end of the roll.

3. Holding the top piece of paper in one hand, and pleats in the other, stretch the first pleat along the wall and flatten out with sponge. Stretch next fold and flatten and so on to the end of the roll.

4. To paper around a corner, leave 25 mm (one inch) overlap and “butt” the adjacent strip of paper on to it.

5. Repeat soaking and folding procedure and bring next roll of paper lining overlapping approximately 6 mm (quarter of an inch) onto the first. By having paper on paper you will prevent the joins from edging into the grooves between bricks.

6. Leave lining paper to dry overnight. As it does so it will tighten and stretch out over grooves and rough patches on the wall surface.

7. Before applying wallpaper, coat again with the latex based wallpaper liquid size as added insurance that the lining paper has sealed properly and tightened on to the wall

8. The type of wallpaper used is important. It should be embossed or a heavy natural weave to ensure that the imprint of the design is not lost when pasted on.

9. Hang your selected wallpaper vertically in the normal way.

Sit back and admire your masterpiece.

Vertical Jump Test

An athlete's vertical jump is a stone in his sports career; in sports like basketball and volleyball, the player with the highest jump is the most scared score winner and defender of all. For Generations, people have been trying to figure out ways of enhancing the explosive power of a person's vertical jump. Aside from the great bout on unlocking the limits, it has also been a problem measuring the accurate progress of a person's vertical jump during his training.

Wall Nut
The most basic way of measuring the height of a person's vertical leap is by standing within a wall while raising one of your hands as high as possible, feet lying flat on the ground; afterwards, put a line or marker on the tip of your finger . This is known as the "standing reach". Put oil or powder at the tip of your fingers then jump several times and touch the wall so marks would be left behind to indicate your highest reach upon jumping. Measure the distance between your standing reach and the highest point you have made. This is the height of your vertical jump.

Kinematics
Some people use a more scientific and accurate way of measuring the vertical jump, by using a pressure pad, laser beams and kinematic equations. This is measured by taking note of the time an athlete can complete a jump before he falls back to the ground. The equation for this is h = g * t2 / 8, where (h) is for height, (g) is for the pull of gravity which is equal to 9.81 m / s2 or 32.2 ft / s2 and (t2 / 8) for the time an athlete can complete the jump from the ground and back to the ground in milliseconds. This equation if usually calculated by a software installed to a computer where the pressure pad and laser beams are connected.

Infrared Laser
This is also an accurate way of measuring the vertical leap of a player, where it is required to stand and jump in between two infrared laser planes facing each other. How does it work? Well, not as complicated as computing kinematic equations; in fact, it just works like jumping next a wall and subtracting your standing reach off your maximum jump reach. The only difference is that first, it is using infrared laser beams and second, it is a way lot more expensive than the regular jump and reach beside the wall.

Whatever method it is you are using, as long as you are sure that your vertical is gaining more and more power and you can feel that there really is progress in what you are doing, you are certainly getting somewhere. Question is, are you? If you are not pretty sure that there is ascension in your vertical jump training, I would advise you to seek help from vertical jump professionals.

5 Instructional Design Fundamentals – Simplified

Instructional Design (ID), simply stated, focuses on enhancing learning. From this short yet straightforward explanation, it follows that ID fundamentals are based on the way learning occurs. Derived from these fundamentals are strategies and teaching methods that trigger the most effective learning in the most efficient manner.

Here are the 5 ID fundamentals that budding instructional designers can use –

1. Understand learner's needs – Before beginning to prepare any instructional material, identifying the learner's requirements is of utmost importance. It is difficult to proceed if you do not have any information about what is to be achieved. Knowing about your audience background and learning outcomes sets the path for developing the training material. Most importantly, it helps outline the topics that need to be addressed.

2. Capture audience attention – People learn about new things for various reasons, be it a new found interest, seeking solution to a tricky situation or purely enhancing skills for personal and / or professional gains. The bottom line is, new learning does not begin until there is a pressing need to learn. This means, when you begin developing instructional material, first bring out the need and you will never fail to grab your audience's attention.

3. Move from simple to complex – Spare a thought for how humans learn about new things. Novel learning starts when one became interested in a topic. To know more about this new topic, one generally reads about its basics before moving to its complexities. People relate new information to what they already know and build upon existing knowledge base.

Knowing about the way people learn clearly points to the way you as an instructional designer should put forth information. Once you know the learners' current level of understanding and the objectives that they want to achieve, develop training material that moves from simple to complex ideas. Present easy-to-recall information such as definitions, examples, and non-examples before graduating to further details.

4. Move gradually – When was the last time you actually learnt something by zipping through its basics? Probably never … Speed ​​at initial stages of learning takes learners only so far.

A sound instructional design typically eases learners into complex ideas. It steadily builds on the basic conceptual knowledge, taking them ahead with sufficient hands on practice, and then finally to a stage where they can apply newly acquainted knowledge to assess a given situation and come up with solutions.

5. Solidify – "Practice makes one perfect." That's because practice solidifies the learning process. Same holds true for an effective instructional design as well. When developing training, in addition to presenting necessary information, include a healthy mix of practices and tests. Provide relevant feedback, summarize and give tips. All this helps solidify new learning so the learners retain it for a really long time.

The Different Types Of Paleo Snacks

A Paleolithic diet (commonly called a Paleo or "caveman" diet) is a diet lifestyle based on the theory that our bodies are not designed to eat processed foods and we should only eat those foods that would have been available during the Paleolithic era. It emphasizes natural, unprocessed foods that can be eaten without preparation. Paleo diet advocates claim that health problems like obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease are "diseases of civilization" caused by modern, packaged and processed foods.

The very first thing on the list of "Paleo Snacks" is "Fresh fruit of any kind." Nuts are on there (limit to 4 ounces a day if you're trying to lose weight) and dried fruit (limit to 2 ounces a day). Cold meats, raw vegetables, avocado and / or tomato slices, homemade salmon and beef jerky, hard boiled egg (limit to six a week – he's not a big fan of eggs) and unsalted sunflower seeds (limit to 4 ounces a day) are all on there.

Beef recipes are packed with nutrients such as amino acids, minerals, and proteins. Beef can be called a powerhouse of nutrients because it is loaded with 10 vital nutrients, that aids in tissue repair and Promotes body functions. Beef dishes are tasty and filling too. You can prepare these beef dishes on all special occasions or otherwise.

An excellent Paleo recipes resource is cookbooks. Paleo Cookbooks are a compilation of the best Paleo recipes available and they gather recipes for different types of meals. When you make stone age recipes with modern foods, remember you want to insure that all of the ingredients are free of (1) Grains, (2) Legumes including peanuts, beans, peas, soybeans, tofu, soy milk and flour (almond flour (4) Salt, (5) Yeast including bread goods, pickled foods, vinegar, fermented foods and fermented beverages (all contain yeast), (6) ) processed sugars, (7) excess added fats except for permitted oils. You should try and choose the leanest cuts of grass-fed free-range meats. remember, the mainays of the paleo diet are fresh fruit, vegetables, lean meats and seafood.

Nutrition is the ultimate legal drug that can make or break your performance, drastically improve recovery, and give you the added mental clarity and focus needed to get through nine grueling events in 48 hours.

Eat meat and vegetables, nuts and seeds, some fruit, little starch and no sugar. Keep intake to levels that will support exercise but not body fat. Practice and train major lifts: Dead lift, clean, squat, presses, clean and jerk, and snatch. Similarly, master the basics of gymnastics: pull-ups, dips, rope climbs, push-ups, sit-ups, presses to handstand, paralettes, flips, splits, and holds. Bike, run, swim, row, etc, hard and fast. Five or six days per week mix these elements in as many combinations and patterns as creativity will allow. Routine is the enemy. Keep workouts short and intense. Regularly learn and play new sports.

Going "paleo" is about creating a new lifestyle habit. It's about lifelong dietary change. Not the typical 2 week diet where you count calories, lose 5 pounds of water weight, then gain it back a week later.

Why the Africans Live in Huts

Whenever one sees a picture of a hut, one thinks of Africa. Indeed, huts have been the defining architectural hallmark of Africa, and throughout the continent, they have been the preferred building style.

Huts are a form of living space. Huts are usually round, with a peaked roof. They are usually made of mud or clay, with a wooden structure to support the building, and a single wooden pole in the centre, which supports the grass-thatched roof.

Many critics of Africa claim that Africa can boast no great cultures south of Egypt. By that, they often mean that there is no architectural evidence of greatness south of the Pyramids. Indeed, architecture or architectural remains are the accepted calling card of the so-called ‘great cultures’.

While most of Africa can boast no such fossil evidence, there is reason to believe that the architectural choices made by the Africans thus far are neither as accidental nor as simplistic as they may seem.

For one, most of Africa is warm to hot throughout the year, without an extended winter period. The most uncomfortable climatic period is the long rains, during which it rains a lot, mostly every day. However, in most of Africa, it showers, rather than rains. That means a quick and voluminous period of precipitation, unlike rain in Europe for example, which may be a slight but continuous precipitation. In addition, most of Africa, which lies at the equator, experiences almost equal twelve-hour periods each for night and day. This is in contrast to for example Europe, where in winter, darkness may be up eighteen hours long.

As such, most of life in Africa is lived outside. A shelter is needed only for the night, against the cold and as shelter from wild animals. There has never been a need to invest as heavily in shelter as has been done in Europe for example. Strictly speaking, there was rarely a situation in Africa where lack of shelter would have been life-threatening. In many African cultures, nomads, hunters, warriors and messengers were often away from home for long periods without having shelter.

Huts are often small, and made of the readily available mud or river clay, plastered over a skeleton of branches. They were completely inexpensive in both materials and labour. In many cultures, the women did the plastering, while the men did the thatching of the roof. Among the Maasai of East Africa, the woman builds the whole structure, which is referred to as a manyatta.

Because of this relaxed philosophy to shelter, the Africans were not enslaved by the acquisition of shelter as is often the case in the modern world. In today’s globalised world, buying one’s home is a lifetime liability that forces one to live chained to a mortgage, under the Damocles sword of a foreclosure. The exploitation of this fear in the U.S.A. contributed to the current worldwide financial crisis.

It is also worthy of note that almost all the famous architectural monuments of the great cultures were built by employing slave labour, forced and semi-forced labour. That has never been necessary in Africa south of the pyramids. In fact, shelter was so inexpensive that the nomads could walk away from their huts at a moment’s notice and walk off into the savannah – the epitome of freedom.

It also meant that no family was ever without shelter because shelter was unaffordable, unlike in today’s world where many families become homeless if they experience a financial upset midway through their mortgage.

In many parts of Africa, the huts were renovated and renewed once a year, after the harvest season and before the next rains. This was the period with the least work and was like a holiday. The harvest was in, and next agricultural season had not yet begun. The women renovated the walls of the huts by plastering with a new layer of mud or clay. White or ochre-coloured river clay was used as a cosmetic finish inside and outside the hut, as well as on the floor. Communities that had no access to river clay used a mixture of cow-dung and mud, or ash.

A good African housewife took this duty as seriously as caring for her own body. A capable wife could be identified by her impeccably-kept hut(s). The regular renovation also served an important hygienic function: river clay is a very clean and wholesome material that discourages the breeding of insects and other pests. Both clay and dried cow dung are similar to ash in this respect. Cooking-fire ash from non-poisonous burnt wood is pure enough to be used as an alternative for toothpaste.

Renovation also gave the woman a creative outlet: she could paint whatever motifs on her walls that she wished. The men re-thatched the hut(s), using grass, such as elephant grass which was mostly cut by the women. Among the Masaai, the women did the renovation work as the men were often occupied with the full-time job of protecting the tribe from lions and other dangers lurking in the savannah.

A very satisfying effect of this yearly renewal was the psychological effect. There was an atmosphere of renewal every year; of new life, of a fresh start, of soul cleansing and a doing away with the past. Every year. This is a very healthy psychological perspective. Festivals featuring dancing and feasting also accompanied this period.

In today’s world, acquiring a home has such a finality to it. A sense of being rooted and captured by one building for one’s lifetime.

Because they were low-cost, huts were also very flexible. One could build a homestead of huts: one for cooking, another for sleeping, another for receiving visitors, and so on. Every time one needed a new hut, one simply built one. Adolescent boys were given a piece of land where they could build their own huts, a distance away from the rest of the family. Their privacy was assured, and their activities within their huts were nobody’s concern. A lot of adolescents today would appreciate the idea of having one’s own hut.

Huts are very comfortable and exactly right for many parts of Africa. This is mainly because of the building materials used. Both clay and grass are good insulators, but are porous, and so allow a free flow of air. It is often very hot during the afternoons in Africa. The hut remains cool and is a welcome resting place. At night, when temperatures fall, the hut retains its daytime temperature, keeping the inhabitants warm.

Huts are also very low-maintenance. A well-renovated hut only needs to be swept once a day with a straw broom. There was no need to wipe, polish or dust. Accidents with liquids were undramatic because the liquid was simply absorbed into the earth. The only real danger was fire, since the thatched roofs could burn very quickly, trapping the people inside.

Recently, an architectural team in Switzerland has ‘discovered’ the virtues of clay as a building material. Clay is a strong, durable material that is easy to work with. Applied correctly, it can be used to build structures that are stable, durable and aesthetic without necessitating the use of paint and cement. Most important of all, clay is healthy. It has now been proven that clay filters out toxins from the environment. Modern building materials like cements, paint, fillers and metals release toxins that compromise human health and well-being. A building made of clay or mud is completely eco-friendly, provided the initial source was safe.

The Africans knew that a long time ago. Huts, made of natural ‘earth’ materials, fitted in with their basic philosophy of drawing on nature for all their needs, and only in the amounts that were needed. For example, calabashes and gourds were used as containers for milk, water, local beer, porridge, honey or any other liquid. Cooking pots were made of clay, as were water pots. Cooking sticks were made of wood.

Water stored in a clay pot has a pleasant, natural coolness, and smells of earth. Drunk out of a calabash, it has an additional woody flavour. Food cooked in a clay pot over a wood fire retains an inimitable earthy aroma, especially fresh beans or meat dishes.

Sleeping mats or sitting mats were woven out of rushes or made of animal skin, as was clothing. Some people constructed a raised clay platform covered with animal skins or rush mats to act as a seat or a bed. Stools were made of wood or woven from rushes. Women wore jewelry made from bone, horn, wood, stone, clay, beads or woven rushes. Foodstuffs were carried or stored in woven rush baskets or clay pots.

This philosophy of living in harmony with the bounty of nature led to zero garbage, since everything was biodegradable. Indeed, until the advent of modernity and urbanisation, Africa was a continent of natural beauty preserved in its entirety.

Sadly, present-day Africans are jumping wholesale onto the bandwagon of expensive homes built of derived materials, which require a lifetime to pay for and a fortune to repair and maintain. The materials used in modern buildings trap heat, smells and moisture and are often derived using procedures that harm the environment. The houses lack the wellness effect of sitting in a hut built entirely out of the earth. They are in keeping with the modern day trends of inflated consumerism, self-definition through possession and a careless disregard for the planet.

Happily, some are rediscovering the enchantment of huts. They have been re-designed in some cases to be much larger, with large windows, or combined in intersecting or interconnecting structures. A famous hotel in Nairobi, Kenya is built using this concept, with treated straw used for thatching.

Indeed, more and more people are re-discovering why Africans lived in huts.

Refrigerated Trailers – Secrets Exposed!

We have seen a lot over the past 12 years with portable refrigerated trailers. As the name implies there really are two key elements involved here, the refrigeration and the trailer. We have seen some folks get part of it right while most fail at both aspects when designing and building a small refrigerated trailers.

Let's start with the trailer. This is the foundation of everything we do. The regular cargo- enclosed trailer industry has changed over the years so much and they are cutting out the strength and durability we require for refrigerated trailers. It is important not to just get a trailer off the lot and try this at home like so many we see out there today.

Quality built refrigerated trailers should have:

1. Single Piece Aluminum roof
2. 16 "OC steel tube walls
3. Steel tube roof
4. Steel tube framed rear doors (not plywood w / aluminum skin)
5. Triple tube tongue
6. LED lights
7. Sub floor for superior insulation with aluminum underbelly
8. Load D or greater tires for better stability
9. No wood framing or wood walls / ceiling (lighter & stronger with no mold or mildew issues)
10. Reinforced front nose for refrigeration unit
11. Extended tongue with mounts for generator
12. Should be specifically built to be refrigerated trailers and built with strength and durability in mind. Please check out how important it is to use a trailer made of steel tube instead of z-post or hat post.

We have even seen people taking walk in coolers and putting them on a flat bed trailer. Be careful as many of these structures are not DOT approved and you can be fined or even worse injure someone. Use common sense, walk in coolers are great for sitting inside or outside a building but they are not designed for the rigors of the road going up and down and side to side, they offer no structural support.

The refrigeration is just as important and you definitely want to get this part right. The ideal solution for businesses is a unit that can be used as either a cooler or a freezer. Please make sure that even if you are purchasing a cooler that the refrigeration system has a defrost capability and preferably hot gas defrost. I mention this because so many folks find out the hard way that if you want your trailer to stay at 35 degrees then your evaporator has to be 12- 15 degrees cooler than that to maintain your temperature. Well it may take 12 hours or 24 hours but ever you are going to get an ice build up on your coil and you will need a way to defrost it or else lose your product.

Standard refrigeration units that have hot gas defrost are the most effective and fast way to defrost a system. The use of standard refrigeration will save you a bundle in repair and maintenance cost alone. We also recommend modifying your refrigeration system for transportation and do not use copper to connect the evaporator coil to condenser coil. Copper is a soft metal and will break easily. Hopefully these tips serve you well in your search for refrigerated trailers to purchase or rent.

Laminate Worktops

Composite worktops are slowly porous and therefore they are intolerable to staining and the only way to remove that staining is by rubbing the surface down a little with abrasive papers again. Something you've never got to do with laminate worktops as they are completely stain resistant.

Granite and Marble works can look fantastic and the price of them has been tipping now for quite some time. The trouble is that they are a natural product and you can never be quite sure of exactly what you are going to get. With laminate worktops the pattern is predictable even if some of the patterns are only reproducible every metre or so along the length of the worktop.

Granite and Marble worktops are also porous and have to be sealed against staining ~ there is a tendency for the sealing to wear down and even wear off as time goes by. Granite and Marble works are also extremely heavy ~ this makes installation a specialist job and it is impossible to cut a little bit off here and there to get the exact fit required ~ this again is never a problem when installing laminate worktops.

Stainless Steel worktops can look fantastic when new but soon dull down as a myriad of scratches occurs ~ this is unavoidable and indeed the worktops acquire certain sheen. Stainless Steel worktops, though, can not be cut to size on site and that is a disadvantage. Cost is also an issue with Stainless Steel worktops costing much more than laminate worktops.

Glass worktops are also offered theses days and there are some fabulous finishes available though they have to be made exactly to size off site and can not be trimmed to size on site. Glass worktops are sooner to scratching and thermal shock is not unknown either, laminate worktops are then again a better and more economic choice here too. Concrete worktops are also available but who would want to buy or use this option when there are concrete look-a-likes in laminate worktops?

So you would be well advised to think carefully how your worktops might look two or three years down the line and also consider the cost benefits of laminate worktops over the alternatives.

History of Skincare Part 13: The Elizabethan Era, 1500-1599

A Northern Renaissance

It took nearly one hundred years for the Italian Renaissance to catch up with the British Isles, but when it did, the results were spectacular. Under the rule of Queen Elizabeth I, England began a quest of expansion that saw the creation of new colonies throughout the world. Large portions of India, Africa and North America were built up under British rule. While the merits of British colonialism may be debatable, however, there is no doubt that the Elizabethan Era represented an expansion of thought as well as an expansion of political power. Legendary playwrights and poets such as Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare based their works on the same Classical material that had inspired the Italians a century earlier. Clothing became increasingly elaborate and make-up quickly followed suit. At a time when a much greater emphasis was put on appearance than on health, however, hygiene and skincare often fell by the wayside.

The Elizabethan Look

During this time, Queen Elizabeth’s look ruled the hearts and minds of British women. While clothing had become increasingly structured throughout the later part of the Middle Ages, Elizabeth took this sense of structure to new heights. Tight corsets were worn to give the body a smooth, shaped appearance. While proper hoop skirts had yet to be invented, women tied large pieces of padding around their hips to thrust their skirts out into wide, oblong hoops. Starched ruffles were worn around the neck and hair was often pinned into elaborate up-do’s. In spite of the extreme ornamentation of their clothing, however, the face was still the focal point of the look and cosmetics took on a much greater importance than they had in Medieval England.

Queen Elizabeth is often credited with being the first of her time to adopt a completely made-up appearance. While she may have been the first, however, the noblewomen of Britain quickly followed suit. Women would paint their faces with a white powder referred to as Venetian ceruse. The best ceruse was made of lead, carbonate and hydroxide. Less expensive alternatives were made from talc or boiled egg, although these were considered to be less effective. Once the heavy powder was applied to the face, women would rouge their cheeks with a red paint called fucus and paint their lips with vermilion. The first lip sticks were made during this time by putting sun-dried vermilion and ground plaster into a device similar to a pen. (Go here to learn more about the Elizabethan lipstick-making process: http://www.cosmetic-business.com/en/showartikel.php?art_id=1409 ) To add a glazed appearance to their look, women would coat their face, make-up and all, in a layer of egg white.

The Great Coverup

During the Elizabethan Era, elaborate make-up was seen as a sign of nobility, because few common people could afford the lead powders and dried vermilion used to create the popular look. As the century wore on, however, cosmetics also began to be associated with disease. Poor hygiene had led to a number of serious plague and smallpox outbreaks and many survivors still carried horrible scars and pock marks on their faces. While disease was rampant among rich and poor alike, only the rich had access to the expensive cosmetics that would cover their scars. Strengthening the connection between make-up and poor health, doctors at this time began to discover that lead powder was not as safe as had previously been thought. Women rarely washed their faces, choosing instead to layer new powder over the old, and years of this treatment were found to turn the skin underneath a dull shade of gray. While many doctors recommended switching to an alum or tin-ash based powder, lead prevailed in popularity.

Many women went great lengths of time without cleaning the powder from their faces. When they did want to remove their make-up, however, they found that the thick, caked-on lead was not easily removed with water alone. In order to strip the cosmetic layers, they turned to a combination of skincare science and superstition, washing their faces with everything from gentle rainwater or donkey’s milk to more astringent red wine or urine. Mercury was also among the common skin care products used to treat acne, wrinkles, scars and discoloration. While it did effectively remove these blemishes, it did so by corroding the surface of the skin and often caused scars that were far worse than those it removed. (Go here to learn more about Elizabethan cosmetics and hygiene: http://www.fragrancex.com/fragrance-information/elizabethan-makeup.aspx )

In spite of the health concerns of the day, Elizabethan women were known for their excessive beauty and cosmetic practices. It was these excesses, among others, however, that would cause a Puritan revolt in the next century and see Oliver Cromwell take control of the British throne.

How to Take Care of Your Boiler

In order to keep your boiler and central heating system working well, there are certain things you should do. Firstly, show some love to your boiler. It works hard all year round to provide heat and hot water to you and your family, and it causes very little trouble, asking for practically nothing in return. However, the one thing it does need is a boiler service, and this will help to make sure you are taking care of your boiler properly.

A boiler service is not a lot that you have to give your boiler in return for its consistent heat output and reliability. Many people just assume that their boiler is fine and there's nothing to worry about, but faults can occur at any time in a boiler's life. Plus, the older it is then the higher the risk something might go wrong. If you have a boiler and are planning to book a boiler service in, there are some other things you can do as part of your homeowner maintenance checklist.

Firstly, make sure you clean the boiler every now and then. We're not talking about getting deep inside and pulling it apart, but just a light dusting can make all the difference. Obviously, it largely depends where your boiler is kept, but some that are fully exposed will need to have the tops cleaned to make sure no dust particles are getting stuck inside the boiler.

In addition to this, check that the pilot light is on. When this goes off, you know something is wrong. You might not be able to check this on your own, which is fine, but you will often find it easy to identify on older boilers. Get the engineer out to check the pilot light if you are at all unsure. They are trained in this line of work.

Keep checking your radiators to make sure the heat is pumping through the house. If a radiator is cold, it could mean your central heating system is not working properly and this means your boiler is in need of a health-check.

How to Save Money Using Carpet Remnants

If you are looking to redo the carpeting in your home, you may wish to consider using carpet remnants in some of the rooms. This is something that may sound strange at first, but you would have surprised at the quality you can find following this money saving method.

All rooms are equipped with a TV, cable / satellite channels and a mini bar. Instead, this is a very popular method that people and contractors use in the smaller rooms such as bedrooms, offices, and dens. The do this for several reasons, all of which will help you understand why using such remnants can be very worth the little extra time it takes to find them either online or in the store.

First, you can save a lot of money by using carpets remnants. You can save over 50% versus traditional, full length carpeting, which can obviously add us in our current economic environment. Not only that, but you can find this discounted carpet remnants for all types and for all brands of carpets. So what is the reason for the discount? It's very simple – contractors and other carpet layers always have extra carpet. The main carpet rolls obviously will not fit perfectly for every home and job, so the leftovers are left for people to use as remnants.

Second, by using different remnants in various rooms in your home you can add a level of style that does not come when you use the same carpet through your whole house. So, you get savings and style at the same time.