Solve the Freeze Problem of Outlook 2007 with OST To PST Converter

It is easy to access Outlook mail objects, such as e-mails, tasks, journals, attachments, appointments, and messages without Internet connection. The overall credit goes to the OST files. These files allow you to use mail objects without Internet connection. Using the OST file is the same as using MS-Office file. Whenever you connect with the Exchange server, all the data of the OST file gets automatically converted to PST. But sometimes, it happens you are unable to use mail objects because you fail to synchronize OST files with exchange server. So, there is a need to convert OST to PST file. For conversion, use a third party OST to PST converter tool.

Discussed below is an error that appears when you use Outlook 2007, Outlook application halts after some time and does not allow you to access Outlook application:

"Event Type: Information
Event Source: Outlook
Event Category: None
Event ID: 30 Date: 5/10/2008
Time: 8:33:44 AM
User: N / A
Computer: SBS-Computer
Description: The store C: Documents and Settings user.domain Local Settings Application Data Microsoft Outlook outlook.ost is being reconciled with the indexer for the following reason: Non-matching max change numbers. "

Causes:
The cause for the occurrence of the above error message is corruption or destruction of your OST file.

Solution:
Such errors can be resolved easily. First repair the corrupt OST file. For checking the OST file, execute OST Integrity Check tool. For executing this tool, follow the below steps:

– Close Outlook.
– Open Scanost.exe. This program is located at drive: Program Files Common Files System MSMAPI LocaleID folder.
– From the Name list of profile, select a profile that contains OST for checking.
– A dialog box will appear that requests you to Connect or Work offline, select Connect.
– Check the Repair Errors check box. If you uncheck the Repair Errors check box, then the tool does not make any change even if changes are required.
– After performing all the above steps steps, choose Begin Scan.

If you are not satisfied with the results of OST Integrity check tool, then use a third party OST to PST converter tool. OST to PST converter tools are read-only tools built with advance technology to securely convert OST to PST file. Built with simple graphical user interface, these tools are easy to understand.

Stellar Phoenix Convert OST PST tool easily converts OST to PST without changing the original structure of the OST file. The tool restores OST to PST onto any drive that can be found by the host operating system easily. The tool employs advance scan and normal scan – whichever is required – to recover OST content. It supports MS Outlook 2010, 2007, 2003, 2000, and 2002. You can download a demo version of the software to preview its functionality.

Why You Need to Shock Your Pool

Shocking your pool is Step 2 in good pool care.

Shocking is as important as regular sanitizing with chlorine (step 1) and adding algaecide (step 3). All pools need to be parked on a regular, weekly or bi-weekly basis. Period.

Shocking your pool weekly helps rid the pool of organic & organic wastes such as sweat, cosmetics, suntan lotions, body oils, urine, contaminants brought in by rain or wind, bird droppings (most pools are outside, exposed to the surrounding air) dead bugs and small animals that "visit" your pool or even make up water. Proper shocking helps ensure that the sanitizer (chlorine) can concentrate on killing bacteria & algae rather than having to fight these other foreign materials.

When a pool is properly shocked, the pool stays cleaner, more sparkling, is less sooner to algae blooms and cloudy water. An added bonus is that you will use LESS chlorine over the course of the average swimming season. Shocking should be done at least every week or 2 weeks from pool opening to pool closing depending on use & current conditions.

Even pools using other sanitizing systems such as bromine, ionizers, salt generators (chlorine is still being produced), biguanides such as Arch Chemical Baquacil® or BioGuard® Soft Swim® must use the appropriate shock treatments to oxidize swimmer and environmental wastes on a regular , routine basis following the particular manufacturer's instructions.

But there's more to it! Are you shocking, trying to reach "break-point" chlorination or curing a chlorine demand? Let's take a closer look.

Regular Shocking.

"Regular Shocking" is just that. The pool is otherwise clean & clear. Algae is under control. There is no haze to the water. When you test the water (done twice each week), the Total Chlorine is the same as the Free Available Chlorine (FAC) – when using a DPD test kit. There are no Chloramines (chlorine combined with swimmer and organic waste) present.

Regular shocking should be done once every one to 2 weeks from the time you open the pool until closing or winterizing.

Regular shocking oxidizes swimmer and organic wastes that accumulate in the pool water over time. These wastes include sweat, urine, lotions, cosmetics, "stuff" that is introduced from the wind & rain. More recently, there is a concern for "stuff" or wastes that are bought in from normal "top offs" of municipal (tap) water or well water.

These wastes contribute to red, irritated eyes, hazy water, algae growth, and water that smells like it has "too much" chlorine. Actually there is not enough FAC. Shocking helps to "re-chlorinate" the chlorine. A properly treated chlorine pool should smell fresh and be sparkling in appearance.

Mono-persulfate shocks are OK to use from time to time to oxidize wastes, but chlorine shocks such as Cal-hypo or lithium are the preferred product. Liquid shocks? Sorry, but they are just not strong enough (11% versus about 50% available chlorine) to do a thorough job. Household bleach? Save it for the clothes in the laundry! Would you use pool chemicals to wash your clothes?

Typical doses: BioGuard® Burn Out® Extreme: 1 bag per 10,000 gallons (or any part of) every week or 2 weeks depending on weather and usage. BioGuard® Burn Out® 35: 1 bag per 6,000 gallons (or any part of) every week or 2 depending on weather and usage.

"Break-point" or super-chlorination.

The need for "break-point" or super chlorination comes when there is a build-up of chloramines or combined chlorine in the pool water. Chloramines are a combination of chlorine and usually nitrogen. When the chloramine situation becomes "bad" it is because hydrogen has combined with the nitrogen to form ammonia. This is also the preferred treatment for algae blooms and cloudy water.

The more chloramines present, the more dull the water becomes. The pool does not sparkle as it should. The added nitrogen becomes food for algae. The water smells like there's too much chlorine, but the actual FAC (the chlorine that is killing bacteria) is low or maybe even zero!

Here's an example: The total amount of chlorine in the pool is 2.0 ppm but the FAC is 1.0. That means there is 1.0 ppm of chloramines. Those chloramines must be completely destroyed or they will produce MORE chloramines and the situation will worsen. When you are treating chloramines, it's an "all or nothing" proposition.

In cases of very high chloramines, it is often a good idea to use a mono-persulfate shock (MPS) which will break up most if not all of these nitrogen bonds without adding more chlorine to the pool. This is good to do in cases where the FAC is over 1.0 ppm.

If your pool has less than 1.0 ppm FAC and lots of chloramines, follow that MPS shock with a solid chlorine shock of Cal-hypo or lithium shock. about a day later. Retest after 2 – 3 days for an accurate chlorine reading (MPS shocks will distort the actual chlorine for a brief time).

To reach break point, 10 times the amount of chloramines present must be reached to destroy the chloramines. In the example above, you would need to reach 10 ppm of FAC to reach break-point! So, a 10,000 gallon swimming pool with 1.0 ppm combined chlorine will require 4 (round numbers) lbs. of Calcium hypochlorite shock to reach breakpoint chlorination (or about 6 lbs. of Lithium hypochlorite).

Typical doses: At least Double or Triple the amount of regular shocking.

Chlorine Demand.

These are the typical symptoms if your pool has a chlorine demand problem: an inability to hold or maintain a normal Free Available Chlorine residual (1.0 ppm or higher) over several days, cloudy or hazy water, visible algae that just will not clear up . Behind the scenes, there are most likely chloramines that are combining and re-combining due to exceptional shock treatments. When "break-point" is not reached, chloramines recombine with a vengeance & become more difficult to destroy. Mono-chloramines can become dichloramines which, when allowed to worsen become trichloramines (used in tear gas!).

Treating a chlorine demand is similar to break-point chlorination except that the stakes are higher. Treatment must be complete and done at ONE time. It's like long-jumping the Grand Canyon; you must do it in one jump. You can not be short!

Most folks do not know that their pool has a chlorine demand problem until they have shocked & shocked & shocked but nothing has happened. The water will not clear. The algae persists. A solid chlorine level is almost impossible to maintain. Even a clear pool can have a chlorine demand. If the pool can not hold chlorine, yet the water balance (pH, total alkalinity & calcium hardness) is good and proper, then a chlorine demand most likely exists.

The best way to determine a chlorine demand is to perform a chlorine demand test. The BioGuard® Accu-Demand 30 is the best method available for testing. The test takes about one hour and is very accurate. In extreme cases, the test may call for shocking the pool with up to 50 lbs of shock in a 20,000 gallon pool. Do not be "shocked"! Sometimes, that is what's needed. There's no getting around it.

Here's another analogy: Let's say you have a leaky roof. The house is over 50 years old and there are already 2 layers of shingles on the roof. You want to save money by not removing the old layers so you insist that the roofing contractor (who knows what he's doing) NOT remove the old curled up shingles and simply install the new shingles right on top of the old. You sign the papers that YOU are responsible for the roof and its leaking, not the contractor. What happens with the first serious rainfall? The roof fails and it leaks. What must be done to correct the situation? Start from scratch! Rip everything off and start again.

The good news is once the chlorine demand is met., It is met. The pool will normally stay in great condition for weeks or months on end. But remember to shock the pool weekly or you could be back to a break-point or chlorine demand situation.

When shocking your pool, always …

  1. Use the full dose or amount of shock needed. Do not skimp!
  2. Do not guess the amount of shock needed. Know your pool's actual gallonage & calculate properly. For example, if you think you have a 16×32 foot inground pool with a 6 ft deep end, but the pool is actually 18×36 with an 8 ft deep end, the gallonage is going to differ by several thousand gallons and you will not reach break- point.
  3. Do not use the pool until the chlorine level comes back down to 3.0 ppm or less.
  4. Make sure that the filter system is operating properly.
  5. Remove the solar blanket or automatic pool cover to allow oxidized wastes to "gas off" and away from the pool water.
  6. Shock the pool the evening before a party and immediately after the party to keep sparkling, clear water. In this case a slightly higher chlorine level will help bathers with added protection from bacteria.
  7. Shock the pool after heavy rain storms.
  8. Be sure to rinse out and properly dispose of empty shock bags or bottles or containers. Do not reuse them.
  9. Brush the pool to help distribute the chlorine to all levels of the pool water.
  10. Indoor pools should have plenty of good ventilation to properly draw out contaminants that have gassed-off during the shocking or super-chlorinating process. Without good ventilation, waste gases will literally hit the ceiling and fall back into the pool.
  11. Follow all chemical label instructions.

Shock regularly, prevent problems. It's that simple.

Suspended Timber Floors

The majority of older houses in Britain have suspended timber floors (also known as hollow floors) in the ground-floor rooms. However, during and after the Second World War, timber became scarce and restrictions were placed on its use and availability, so other forms of construction were employed. The solid floor was introduced as a suitable and economic alternative at ground level.

Suspended timber ground floors

A suspended timber ground floor consists of a number of boards sometimes tongued-and-grooved – or sheets of man-made boards such as chipboard or plywood, laid over and supported by timber joists. The joists are 400mm to 600mm apart and are supported by 100mm x 50mm timber wallplates which are in turn supported by the main walls of the building, or by sleeper walls built up from a layer of concrete beneath the house, or by a combination of the two. To prevent the timber floor from absorbing any moisture, the wallplates are bedded on top of a suitable damp-proof course.

Suspended timber upper floors

Like suspended ground floors, upper floors consist of timber boards or sheets of man-made board laid over and supported by timber joists. Suspended timber floors which are not at ground level are often called single floors because the joists bridge a single span they run from wall to wall.

As it is not possible to give additional support to upper floors by using sleeper walls, the joists of single floors are bigger than those of hollow ground floors and usually bridge the narrowest span – often across the narrowest part of the room. If the joists bridge spans greater than 4.0m, timber or steel cross-members (called binders) may be used to give intermediate support. Joists in a single floor tend to flex, so rows of struts may be laid across the floor between the joists to make the floor stiffer.

The ends of the joists may be built into the walls, or supported by joist hangers built into or fixed on to the face of the wall. If the joist end is built into the wall, this part should be treated with preservative to protect it from decay.

The ceiling of the room underneath the floor is usually lath-and-plaster or plasterboard fixed to the underside of the joists. Plasterboard may have a plaster ‘skim’ finish.

Solid ground floors

The cross-section of a solid floor consists of a number of layers of different materials.

The first layer is 100 to 150mm of consolidated hardcore com¬posed of crushed stone and clean broken bricks. This is to level out any unevenness in the ground caused by the excavation and to provide a firm and level base for the floor slab.

A 50mm-thick layer of fine ash, sand or weak mix concrete is laid over the hardcore to bind the surface. This blinding will also give a smooth even surface for laying the damp-proof membrane on. The damp-proof membrane should never be laid directly on to the hardcore – it may puncture.

The damp-proof membrane may be placed above or below the floor slab. In the latter case, the DPM will keep the floor slab free from moisture. A wide range of materials are suitable as DPMs: hot and cold poured bitumen, asphalt, epoxy pitch compounds and 1000-gauge polythene sheeting.

The floor slab (concrete) can vary in thickness from 100 to 150mm and have one or two layers of mesh reinforcement, depending on the area of the floor and its intended use. The concrete slab may have a cement screed laid over its surface, depending on what type of floor finish is to be used.

To provide extra insulation, 50mm sheets of expanded polystyrene can be added between the slab and the screed.

Three Ways to Build a Motorcycle

Some people build custom bikes because they are cheaper than buying one. Others just want the I-built-that feeling as they look at it. Still others might want customization that they can not get in an "off the shelf" model.

When someone decides to build a motorcycle, there are three paths to take depending on budget, mechanical skill, design aims, and past building experience. Those paths are custom bike kits, a rolling chassis, and building the whole thing from a collection of motorcycle parts.

Custom Bike Kits

The simplest choice for someone who has never built a bike before is to try one of the many custom bike kits out there. You get a box that has everything you need to build the bike from the ground up except the paint.

Kits are great for first-time builders. If you can follow instructions, you end up with a bike put together with your own hands. You do not have to worry about picking the wrong parts or whether two pieces will work together. You will make mistakes along the way, but they will tend to be safe mistakes that will not ruin the build.

The biggest downside is the cost. This is perhaps the most expensive way to build a custom bike. You are also limited as to how much customization you can do. Sure you can swap out the included parts with others of your choice, but that means throwing away pieces you've already paid for.

Rolling Chassis

A rolling chassis is a partially assembled bike that you can customize. It includes the frame, handlebars, wheels, gas tank, and other basic parts. You need to add an engine and a transmission then finish it off with custom pieces.

This is a good middle-of-the-road choice. A rolling chassis is cheaper than one of the kit bikes while keeping the advantage of pre-selected parts that work together. Since all you have is the undering framework, you still have lots of customization options.

Building a bike from a rolling chassis requires more skill on your part, since you are going to have to choose the other parts yourself.

A variation on the rolling chassis is to take an existing bike, cut it down to the frame, so producing your own chassis. A used bike will probably cost less than a rolling chassis and you will be removing the parts that have seen the most wear and tear such as the engine.

Building from Scratch

The ultimate in a custom bike is one that you select all the motorcycle parts yourself. The bike becomes a true expression of your personality because every nut and bolt was hand selected. Needless to say this build is beyond most first-timers and even most second-timers.

You can either go cheap, cannibalizing parts from junk bikes, or expensive, buying high end custom chopper parts. This is definitely a blank canvas and the ultimate challenge for the bike builder.

The Advantages of Grille Guards for the Front End of Your Rig

For all of us driving a custom pickup, Jeep, or off-road vehicle, we know how important protecting the front end is. Whether you're hitting the back roads, constantly on a jobsite for work, or just cruising through town, it's good to know that you can count on that extra protection up front that you get from a custom fit grille guard.

Grille guards are designed to sit out front of your existing grill, thereby keeping it and all that sits behind it wayward tree limbs, stumps, rocks, and so on. They are also an excellent barrier if you should happen to bump into something like another vehicle, a tree, telephone pole, and mail box. They do wonders at absorbing the impact of such collisions.

Another wonderful advantage to adding a grille guard to your rig is that they are made to look good, and to look strong. Typically made of formed tube steel, you will find them in black, chrome, and stainless finishes, and most custom designed to fit your vehicle. No more intensive cutting, torching, and welding, but a true, easy to install, fit. You can pick from one piece, modular pieces, and even headlight guards – so that you can pretty much design and cover what you want to.

You may hear other terms used when referring to vehicle front end protection such as bull bars, push bars, brush guards, and grill guards. Oddly enough, grill guards and grille guards are the same product – just a spelling preference. Nothing more. Brush guards are one of the more common front guards, because they are designed to protect the bumper, grille, paint job, and beyond from getting scratched up by brush, branches, and the like. Push Bars are more of a combination guard and unit to assist in pushing other vehicles. The Bull Bar usually comes with a skid plate, and is more focused on protecting the lower front end from low lying stumps, boulders, and concrete contraptions that might be lying in wait, below your normal sight line.

Grille guards are available from a number of top quality manufacturers, such as CSI, Rugged Ridge, Westin, Cobra, and others. Each has their own styles and looks, so it is important that you do some serious shopping before you decide on the right one for you. These are all easily visible on the many on-line aftermarket auto accessory web stores, complete with pictures. All this makes it easy for you to visualize what this will look like on your particular rig.

All in all, the grille guard is a wonderful addition to the front end of any truck, jeep, 4×4, or off-road rig. Great protection for the grille, bumper, paint, lights, radiator, and so on. And just a great look up front – which really dresses things up right. So, do not delay one more minute, just start looking around, both on line and around town. Check out other vehicles like yours and see what others have done. Find what you like – and get that front end protected!

Screened Porch Kits

Did you spend last summer not sitting on the porch because of bugs – especially mosquitoes? Maybe you did sit on the porch but simply felt it was too exposed for your taste. It was the case, then you really need to think about getting a screened porch kit before our outdoor time starts.

Porch enclosures are more than just putting up wood and stapling in some screening. You now have many options. Metal framing comes in various colors, wood comes in various types (eg, cedar), the roof can be insulated aluminum or flat pan, the screens can be fiberglass or solar, you can have insulated kick panels, and even include a doggy kitty) door.

It is important to consider your environment – especially if you live in an area with heavy snow or extreme weather conditions. The structure needs to be sturdy enough to withstand snow (and snow does weigh a lot) as well as large amounts of rain, or maybe even hail (if you live in an area where tornado activity is present).

Probably one of the best benefits of a porch enclosure is that your outdoor items including furniture, tables, decor, etc., are going to be protected from the elements – such as direct sunlight and heat. This alone is what makes a porch enclosure a great value. That and the longevity of use. This is why after you have installed your newest addition, it can easily be used as a warm and inviting sunroom, and / or have expired usage time to become a three-season porch.

As with any type of renovation, you can choose to do it yourself or hire someone to do it for you. In either case, a screened porch kit will be used – simply because a kit has all the necessary pieces. Having a plan is key since this will become an addition to the outside of your home. Take into account how the porch will look and the best way to make it really look like an integral part versus something that was just quickly put up.

Depending on what type of area you live in, you may need to get permission from a homeowner association as well. They will want to see the plans and – most importantly, know exactly how the outside will look. For example, are you using the same material as the outside of your home (eg, vinyl or wood) and will it be painted the same color. Do not be surprised if their response pushes you into make a more formalized plan – something you should be doing anyway.

Overall, a screened porch kit is an excellent investment – both from the additional usable footage it adds to your home (and it will increase the value of your home) and the enjoyment it will give you for years to come. It is amazing how one small change can bring about such quality of life.

Brick Paver Durability

How durable are pavers? Do they last longer than concrete slabs? Which is more prone to cracking? If I want a new patio or driveway, which product is going to give me the most bang for my buck? When trying to decide whether to use pavers or concrete, these are some of the primary questions people ask. Lucky for you, we have the answers!

Pavers and concrete are very similar. In fact, both products are made with cement. When you hear pavers referred to as "brick pavers", typically, that means the paver was made with clay instead of cement. Pavers are technically concrete; however, they are produced prior to installation and have to adhere to certain technical definitions to be considered a paver. The definition of a concrete paver is a cement based product that is produced with aggregate, sand, water, and color dye which contains a maximum aspect ratio of four and typically has a surface area less than one hundred square inches. The aspect ratio of a paver is its length divided by its thickness. A common four inch by eight inch brick shape, which is two and three eighths inches in thickness has an aspect ratio of 3.37. The reason the aspect ratio is so important is that it quantifies the durability of a paver. If you have a large concrete slab with a few expansion joints cut into it and you want to determine how strong it is relative to its own size, then the aspect ratio is the quantitative way to figure it out. Let's say your driveway is ten feet wide and one section, between expansion joints, is ten feet long. Now, in order to determine that slab's aspect ratio, you'll also need to know how thick the slab is. Let's give your concrete contractor the benefit of the doubt and say he loved your driveway extra thick and that it is six inches from top to bottom. If you take the length, ten feet and covert it to inches, you'll get one hundred and twenty inches long. Now, divide one hundred and twenty by the thickness of the slab, six inches, and your aspect ratio is twenty! What does this mean? Basically, it means that your concrete slab is a lot longer and wider relative to its thickness and therefore more brittle and easier to crack.

When compared to concrete, pavers cost more. Not only do they cost more to produce, but the steps taken to properly install them are more numerous and costlier than those taken to install concrete. Beneath pavers, one and a half tons of base material needs to be installed and compated for every one hundred square feet of area. This means that not only do you need to purchase this material and pay for its delivery, but you also have to excavate the area you areaving to a depth that will not only accommodate the paver, but also about four to five inches of base and sand.

If you make the investment in pavers, you will not be disappointed. Sure, they cost more than concrete slabs, but they are much more durable and less likely to crack. In fact, most pavers come with a twenty five year warranty against cracking! Their color, shape, and texture options are unmatched and they will last a lifetime. Contact Park Avenue Pavers for more information about your new paver patio!

Understanding The Ways Of Getting Lumber

Often people or construction businesses who work with wood want to get wholesale lumber in order to save money. However, it is important to understand the differences of wood and how to buy lumber so the lumber is still a good quality at a low price.

There are three ways lumber is harvested. The first is clear cutting which removes all saw logs as well as everything else that can be chipped to make paper. It takes fifty years after clear cutting for another crop of timber to be harvested. This time span is required for the thicket of new sprouts to thin out and grow survival trees at a normal rate.

Loggers choice leave the decision of what to harvest up to the logger. They will remove anything they can to make money and leave the rest. Trees that are smaller than twelve inches in diameter and larger trees have no value. This is because they are either defective or there is no market for their species. For example, beech is rarely requested. Walnut and cherry trees greater than 10 inches are usually removed. It takes a generation before woods can be harvested again.

Selective logging removes trees someone has decided need to be removed. A local forester removes both mature and worthless trees. This leaves young trees behind to fill gaps. Forests harvested this way can be logged again in half a generation.

The way lumber is harvested has an environmental effect. This makes it important to buy lumber from a company who understands these environmental concerns when harvesting their lumber for sale.

There are many ways to buy lumber. Lumber can be bought in tree and log form. This is the most complicated way to get lumber. There will be obvious defects, like branches. There will also be subtle irregularities that can be hard to notice, like in the bark that can hint at defects within the wood.

When buying logs, the purchaser will need to understand how to dry the wood without ruining it. They will also need to learn how to use lower grades of lumber from logs in projects. Despite these issues, this is the cheapest way to get lumber, but it takes a true expert, a large team of woodworkers, and a lot of time. This is not the avenue for industrial purposes.

If the purchaser does not live near where hardwood is produced, as much of the world is, then this option will not be beneficial anyway. Lumber is marketed internationally and shipping for lumber is surprisingly cheap.

If a buyer does not know where to get lumber, they can ask a local shop that supplies handmade wood products. They can also investigate where construction companies that utilize wood get their lumber from.

Suppliers deliver wholesale lumber no matter where the buyer is from. Sometimes, these suppliers require that the purchaser buy a minimum amount of lumber. This could be as little as 200 bd ft or as much as 500 bd ft. Each supplier will have their own rules. Suppliers usually have buyers buy grade lumber. In each grade, lumber may differ substantively in quality.

An even less expensive route to buying lumber is to buy wood in lower grades. The key to buying in lower grades is to have the knowledge and ability to pick through a stash of lumber to find clear cuttings. These cuttings will efficiently make use of clear wood between defects.

For example, a type of lumber that will produce very little waste is cheap # 2 common polar. In walnut and cherry, the # 1 common grade is one half the top grade price. The # 1 common grade has less sap. There will be a good stash to choose from so little waste is incurred.

How is Laminate Floor Made?

If you are researching laminate flooring because you are considering installing one in your own home then you may be wondering how is laminate floor made? The first thing that you should know about the production of laminate flooring is that it is made from 4 basic layers, the wear layer, the patter layer, the core and the balancing layer.

The first layer in a laminate floor plank is the balancing layer. This layer is also sometimes referred to as the bottom layer or the stabilizing layer. Its job is to resist moisture and to stabilize the floor plank.
? The second layer in a laminate floor plank is the core layer. This layer is made up of a high density fiberboard that has been installed in resin to make the core tough and water resistant.

The third layer in a laminate floor plank is the pattern layer. The pattern layer is a thin paper that has been printed with a specific wood grain and finish. This is what makes the plank look like a hardwood flooring plank.

To protect the pattern paper a clear wear layer is added to the floor plank. The wear layer is made from a melamine resin which is extremely durable. This is the layer that protects that plank from gouges, stains and moisture penetration.

Now that you know the answer to the questions, "how is laminate floor made?" you can now focus your research on other areas. Some of the topics that you may want to research about laminate floors are what to look for in a laminate floor product, how much does it cost, where you can install a laminate floor and who makes laminate flooring.

Runtime Error 217 – How to Fix This Common Windows Error

Runtime Error 217 typically shows when you use an application on Windows, and an error occurs. The big problem with this particular error is that it’s continually being shown for a wide number of different reasons. This makes it quite difficult to resolve, if you don’t know exactly what the problem is & how to fix it. This tutorial should show you want to do…

The typical Runtime 217 error is caused by problems ranging from registry errors, Msvcrt.dll being outdated, viruses and some other menial problems. In order to resolve this issue, you need to take several steps to fix the various problems that are causing this error, as follows:

The first thing you need to do to repair the Runtime 217 error is to fix the outdated “Msvcrt.dll” file that could be on your system. One of the main causes of this error is the way in which Msvcrt.dll is left outdated when you try and update your computer, making it important that you’re able have the most up to date version of this file on your system. To do this, it’s advisable that you use the Windows update feature to repair the various damaged elements of the Msvcrt.dll on your system, which should stop the 217 error in most cases.

After you’ve done that, you should look to correct the “regional” settings for your system. The regional settings determine what language & time settings you have, making it important that you’re able to have them working as smoothly as possible. To do this, you need to click onto your time settings for your PC and ensure they are set to be the correct time for your current location.

It’s also advisable that you replace the “StDole32.tlb” file on your PC. This is a template file that the likes of Microsoft Office & Windows uses to display information. It’s often the case that this file will either become damaged or corrupted, leading your computer to be unable to load it, causing big problems for your system. To fix this, it’s recommended that you download the file from the Internet and replace it on your PC.

Proceeding these steps, it’s also recommended that you use a “registry cleaner” to fix the various errors that are inside your system. One of the main causes of the 217 error is to have various problems inside the “registry” database, making it highly recommended that you’re able to fix the various registry errors inside your system in the most effective way. The registry is basically a big database inside the Windows system, which stores vital settings & information for your computer. This means that if you’re looking to use a file / program that needs to use the registry, it needs to be able to read the various registry settings it requires to run. Unfortunately, one of the big problems for computers is the way in which many registry settings either become damaged or corrupted, leading to problems such as the Runtime Error 217.

Best Fishing Presents: Present Ideas For Fishing Enthusiasts

Do you have a present to buy for a fishing lover? If so, this article will give you many ideas to ensure that the present you buy will be well appreciated and put into use to catch big fish.

First of all, you should know what type of fishing the recipient prefers. Does he / she fish in creeks to catch little trout? If so, you may wish to get a fly box with an assortment of flies. A fly fishing vest would delight any amateur fly fisherman / woman. (as long as they don`t already have one!) Come to think of it, hip waders would also be a perfect present for trout fishing enthusiasts.

If the fisherman is a bass fisherman or fisherwoman there is no better gift than a bass bucket of tackle. This gift basket is packaged in a minnow bucket and is filled with brand name tackle for bass fishing. It contains lures, hooks, bobbers, sinkers, jigs, line, swivels, floats, stringer and more. Can you imagine the excitation a bass fishing lover will get from this present?

If you need to buy a present for a saltwater deep sea fisherwoman / fisherman, ideal present ideas would include a fisherman`s toolkit or a fisherman`s outdoor tool collection with such goodies as knives, flashlight, scissors, cutting board, scale, file , gloves and rugged storage case.

On the other hand, if you are not sure which type of fishing the person practices, or if they fish for whatever is in season, here are the most popular presents for fishing this year … A multi-tool for fishing is sure to be a hit with fishing lovers. With such goodies as a hook remover, fish scraper, flashlight, knife, measure, scale and scissors, a good multi tool should definitely impress and amuse. A fancy tackle box or tackle bag is another idea, as is a t-shirt with a fishing message on it or a fishing book such as Bob Izumi`s 101 Best Fishing Tips.

A fishing magazine subscription will unduly receive rave reviews since this is a present that keeps on giving throughout the year. The recipient will be reminded of your thoughtfulness many times during the year.

Finally, if you want to get really creative, a custom made fishing gift basket is a good idea. Create this gift basket filling it with things you know the fishing lover in your life will enjoy such as fishing lures, attractant spray, a fishing magazine, fish batter and newer little gadgets like a rock to sharpen his fishing knife and water resistant gloves.

Common Myths And Facts About Breast Augmentation

In your search for the best breastfeeding augmentation surgical services, you may have come across quite a bit of conflicting information about the cosmetic surgery. Such contradictions may seem overwhelming, but you should not give up in your search for the truth. All you have to do is seek out credible sources to differentiate the myths from the facts.

1. Unproven Assumptions About Implant Safety Issues

Just about any medical procedure would have some kind of side effect. However, some people tend to exaggerate the extent of certain side effects, based on unproven assumptions. This is particularly so with safety issues relating breast implants.

Some of the early occurrences in the initial adoption of breast implants, as recorded by the Therapeutic Goods Administration, may have led people to develop an exaggerated conception of the safety issues concerning implants. In the early 1990's, without rigorous and systemic studies on the safety of implants, people's opinions were easily swayed by anecdotal reports of silicone gel leaking from implants and spreading through the body.

The negative perception created by such unverified reports may have been further cemented by the restrictions and additional conditions imposed on breast implants by regulatory authorities. This would have made the public come to the conclusion that such implants were certainly bad for the regulators to restrict their supply. What the public may not have realized is that such restrictions were not based on verified studies on the implants' safety.

Some of the concerns that people had was that leakage and / or diffusion of silicone gel contributed to an increase in systemic diseases. Women who adopted implants were also concerned about such problems as capsular contracture around implants, resulting in loss of sensation, hardness, distortion and even pain.

Fortunately, once proper research was carried out to verify safety concerns, it was found out that silicone implants were not responsible for connective tissue disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma. Cancer was also ruled as a concern in the adoption of silicone implants. In fact, it's actually quite interesting that silicon is naturally found in the human body.

The complications that can actually arduce due to the use of implants are much less harmful and usually occur when implants are left to stay for too long until they age. In such situations, you may experience capsular contracture. At such a point, you would require corrective surgery to replace your implant.

2. Facts About Mammography

Just as you demystify the myths surrounding augmentation surgery, you should also find out about proven facts of the operation.

It's true that implants do obscure mammography images of tumors. This inevitably interferences with early detection of breast cancer, causing a delay in diagnosis.

Fortunately, special techniques are being adopted to minimize such implant implant. You should also realize that there is a certain proportion of obscured mammograms even in women without implants, as indicated by the FDA.

In some instances, both saline and silicone implants can rupture while you go mammograms. You surgeon would advise you on how to handle such situations.

Once you understand the real fact about augmentation surgery and eliminate the myths, you would know exactly how to get the best from your operation.

Stair Parts – Your Stairway to the Best Stairways

You may not notice it, but you use the stairs almost every day. Even if you live in a bungalow (which often times also has stairs for a relatively elevated level of the house), you may encounter (and use) stairs in work, in the mall, in transport system stations, or where it is that you will need a travel vertically.

You might notice that even in this modern world, when a building with one hundred floors can have as many elevators and escalators it needs, stairs are still a necessary or integral part of the main building structure. First, of course is because stairs are really an integral part of the whole structure of a domestic or commercial (high-rise) building, not to mention that it will of course still work (or more approbably, be used) even without electricity. Second, even the elevators and the escalators are working; you may always find the need to use the "waiting-free" traditional stairs, especially if you will just go up or down a level or two. Moreover, especially during these times when programmed exercise regimen is rare opportunity for the busy worker, ascending and descending stairs are a great exercise in itself! And of course, (these is especially true for homes) a grand-looking stair way is always a good point for your house, which is reminiscent of the elegant stairways that you can only see on mansions and palaces. With these functions, it is absolutely necessary that a stairway is beautiful and sturdy. And one sure way to have both beautiful and stable stairway is to make it decorative and sturdy stair parts!

There are many different kinds of stair parts. First, is of course in terms of the materials, there are wooden stair parts, metallic stair parts, marble stair parts, concrete stair parts, stone stair parts, among others. They can also differ from their general shape, design, and color. These differences in stair parts of course account for the differences in stairways themselves. You can construct your stairway by using only one type of material, as in the elegant marble stair ways of large houses or you can use a combination of materials, which is common in modern houses. You can focus also have a combination of designs, although more common is the use of only one design. The important thing is that the final design of your stairway will not just be pleasing in your eyes (and of the others who will see it), but also of course is stable enough to withstand constant use (for obvious safety reasons).

Generally, when choosing the Stair Parts for the intended stairway, the design of the whole house is considered, for it is important that the design of the stair parts (and eventually, the stair way) will complement that of the rest of the house, after all, it is an integral part of it.

Basic Components of Cellular Systems

1. Introduction

There are various cellular systems in the world, such as the GSM and CDMA. The design of these cellular systems are complicated but the architecture of most cellular systems can be broken down into six basic components.

In this article, I will illustrate the six basic components that can be found in most cellular systems.

2. Six basic components of Cellular Systems

The architecture of most cellular systems can be broken down into the following six components:

a) Mobile Station (MS)

A mobile station is basically a mobile/wireless device that contains a control unit, a transceiver and an antenna system for data and voice transmission. For example, in GSM networks, the mobile station will consist of the mobile equipment (ME) and the SIM card.

b) Air Interface Standard

There are three main air interface protocols or standards: frequency division multiple access (FDMA), time division multiple access (TDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA). These standards are basically the medium access control (MAC) protocols that define the rules for entities to access the communication medium.

These air interface standards allow many mobile user to share simultaneously the finite amount of radio channels.

c) Base Station (BS)

A base station is a fixed station in a mobile cellular system used for radio communications with mobile units. They consist of radio channels and transmitter and receiver antenna mounted on a tower.

d) Databases

Another integral component of a cellular system is the databases. Databases are used to keep track of information like billing, caller location, subscriber data, etc. There are two main databases called the Home Location Register (HLR) and Visitor Location Register (VLR). The HLR contains the information of each subscriber who resides in the same city as the mobile switching center (MSC). The VLR temporarily stores the information for each visiting subscriber in the coverage area of a MSC. Thus, the VLR is the database that supports roaming capability.

e) Security Mechanism

The security mechanism is to confirm that a particular subscriber is allowed to access the network and also to authenticate the billing.

There are two databases used for security mechanism: Equipment Identify Register (EIR) and Authentication Center (AuC). The EIR identifies stolen or fraudulently altered phones that transmit identity data that does not match with information contained in either the HLR or VLR. The AuC, on the other hand, manages the actual encryption and verification of each subscriber.

f) Gateway

The final basic component of a cellular system is the Gateway. The gateway is the communication links between two wireless systems or between wireless and wired systems. There are two logical components inside the Gateway: mobile switching center (MSC) and interworking function (IWF).

The MSC connects the cellular base stations and the mobile stations to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or other MSC. It contains the EIR database.

The IWF connects the cellular base stations and the mobile stations to Internet and perform protocol translation if needed.

3. Conclusion

This article aims to provide an introductory guide to the architecture of a typical cellular system and identify the six basic components found in most cellular systems. This article offers an insight towards how a cellular system is designed although different cellular systems may have variations in their own implementations.

Finding A Car With A Long Life Expectancy

According to Consumer Reports, the average car will last 150,000 miles. If you are buying a newer model and keeping it properly maintained, it may last until 200,000. That still leaves a few car shopping expeditions in the average consumers lifetime. For many of us, car shopping fills us with dread. So we want to start with a car that is naturally inclined to last longer than average.

Honda and Toyota still lead the pack in producing the most reliable cars. But according to a 2010 issue of Consumer Reports, General Motors is stepping up its game to improve previous models and some new models, such as the Cadillac SRX, the Chevrolet Camaro and Equinox and the Buick LaCrosse V6 have a reliable rating from the beginning. Ford remains the most reliable of American made models, while Chrysler is the lowest ranked. And the car hailed by Consumer Reports as yielding the best predicted reliability was the Porsche Boxster.

Retired schoolteacher Irv Gordon drove his red 1966 Volvo P1800 for 2.5 million miles and holds the current Guinness World Record, as certified in the mid 1990s. Of course, such occurrences are extremely rare. But there are services available and steps you can take to increase the longevity of your car, most of which concern the taking proper care and maintenance per the vehicles manual.

A good start for any car owner is to read the manual. Consult it often, and don’t be afraid to take any questions to the dealership. Another simple step is to keep the car clean. Spending oodles of money isn’t necessary, but you should be sure to keep up with routine maintenance. Check fluids every few months (or as suggested by the car manual) to make sure they stay at the proper levels. These include radiator coolant and brake, windshield washer, power steering and transmission fluids. This is very important because these fluids lubricate different parts to reduce friction, heat, and the overall wearing down that can occur over time. Check your manual to see how often the oil and oil filter should be changed; the answer can differ depending on how many miles you drive.

So, if you want to buy a car that will outlast the average of 150,000 miles, start with a car that has a dependable reliability rating, such as a Honda, Acura, Subaru or Ford. If you are buying used, be sure and run a vehicle history report. You can save time searching for your car by using a car search engine such as Piefind.com. Piefind searches multiple classifies ads to bring you a list of relevant possibilities, saving you time and energy.