Jeffrey Archer’s "Old Love" Redefines Love Story

The “Old Love” of Jeffrey Archer is a unique amorous tale between two brilliant students of English literature from Oxford. Archer makes an exploration of the theme of love from a completely unusual standpoint. The rendition is fiercely honest while he portrays a chronic sense of envy and rivalry between two sworn arch-rivals in the Oxford University: William Hatchard and Philippa Jameson. Initially, their aggressive competition unsettles their tutor Simon Jakes. In their constant intellectual debates, Philippa confronted the deep, confident voice of William with her high-heeled boldness. The mutual hatred was absolute. Their sharply perceptive and analytical mind refused to be submissive to each other. Indeed, this fierce sense of competition enabled them to outshine everyone else in the field. Given the background of 1930’s she, to him, was “that silly woman” and he “that arrogant man”. Yet strange is the way of destiny that an unusual love story should blossom between the bitterest of academic rivals!

This rivalry assumed an unpalatable intensity when both excelled as toppers in their final degree exam. The Charles Oldham Shakespeare’s essay writing competition fed fat to this fire of passionate jealousy and became a life and death question for each to defeat the other.There were liberal exchanges of scornful remarks between the two to play each other down. However, things took a dramatic turn when William unwittingly discovered about the death of Philippa’s father (who was a Vicar) from cancer, and also, his secret dream to let his daughter study in Oxford and win the Charles Oldham award. The sight of silent sobbing of his proud and powerful adversary stirred up a sudden feelings of empathy in his guts. He got over his tentative doubts and offered to accompany her to her village for the burial ceremony. They held hand for the first time and discovered the new bond of friendship as they started their journey to her village. They communicated with each other spontaneously while returning to Oxford which bounces Philippa back to her normal competitive spirit. She slowly discovers the growth of her new found intense attraction for William. The latter secretly enjoys this interesting conversion in the Vicar’s daughter.

The transformation of hatred into love has always been a captivating subject in itself, and Archer makes the situation entertaining with the employment of sparkling wit in their conversation. They make a visit to Stratford and have meals together. But their first date was far from usual: it is a unique blend of warmth and intellectual antagonism! If this instinctive antagonism triggered a strong sense of hatred before, now it drew them closer. In fact, this killer instinct became a delirious source of entertainment for both. Archer makes the reader question if intense hatred could indeed be an expression of hidden attraction?

Anyway, the situation takes a quirky turn while returning from Stratford. On their way back to Oxford, Phillipa and William had to spend the night in a car as the petrol gauge showed empty. The former obviously did not miss the chance of expressing her doubt about the cerebral power of a person who couldn’t even read a petrol gauge! The day next William gave her the reason why he let the car run out of petrol: He said with a rare sense of humor: “My father told me if I spent the night with a barmaid then I should simply order an extra pint of beer, but if I spent the night with the vicar’s daughter, I would have to marry her.” He came down on his knees and said,” Will you marry me if I win the Charles Oldham?” Philippa answered that “as there is absolutely no fear of that happening I can safely say, yes… ” When William declared his love for her she told him not to show his face in Somerville again if he failed to win Charles Oldham. The readers wonder if the writer reveals Philippa’s secret wish that she could marry himeven at the cost of losing Charles Oldham! Otherwise why would tears come to Philippa’s eyes when a girl informed her that she had won? It was a moment of crisis for her because between the conflicting emotion of ambition and love in her heart, the latter had won and for once the proud girl confessed, “I do love nothing in the world so well as you; is that not strange?”

However, when she discovered that William was a joint winner, her puckish spirit returned as she said ” I take thee for pity” to which William replied ” I yield upon great persuasion… ” They were locked in a passionate embrace, and after that, they were never apart for more than a few hours. Strangely, their honeymoon in Athens ended up in a heated argument over the relative significance of Doric and Ionic architecture!

Later in life, this constant battle of wit prevented their romance from dwindling into boredom and banality. Their serious research works and creative activities, though on different fields, kept them deeply connected. After three years, “with well-received D. Phils”, they moved on, in tandem, to college teaching. But their fierce encounters continued and their sharp wit at each other’s expense would flash across the dinner tables at Oxford. However, those who understood their love felt envious of their unique relationship! They were childless yet their life was not tasteless.

Returning home after the celebration dinner (being declared the Joint Professor), their heated argument over Proust’s monumental work took such an intimidating turn, that a policeman, nearby, asked Philippa “Is everything all right madam?” “No, it is not”, William declared “this woman has been attacking me for over 30 years, and to date the police have done deplorably little to protect me”. Yet, beneath this apparent antagonism, their bond continued to grow stronger with each passing year. Interestingly, their intense love was inseparable from their zealous intellectual antagonism which lent a peculiar aura to their relationship. When Philippa was made the Dame of the British Empire, William referred to her as an “Old Dame” he had to live with now. It is this bitter-sweet flavor of their love which defines their marriage.

The most irritable habit of Philippa to William was her determination each morning to complete “The Times” crossword before he arrived at the breakfast table. One fine morning in June, William, studying the clue, filled in the eight boxes left incomplete by Philippa. Philippa’s instantly retorted that there was no such word. To the delight of Philippa the word “Whym Wham” could not be found in the shorter Oxford Dictionary. William assured her that the word could be found in OED on his desk, made for scholars like him. William left the breakfast table with sharp comments on Philippa’s limited command of English language and that she will have to eat a humble pie at Somerville’s Gaudy Feast as she reads the collected works of John Skelton…

William left with a sigh, kissing his wife on her cheek, wishing he had lost Charles Oldham. Philippa replied that he did indeed because it was highly inappropriate during those days to declare a woman as the sole winner! Having closed the front door, as she entered the kitchen, Dame Philippa suddenly suffered her lone heart attack. She called out to William hoarsely but in vain. The news of her death was conveyed and the story ends with a note of dark humor in the suicidal note of Sir William (who shot himself with his pistol): “Forgive me, but I had to let her know”. There was the volume of the work of John Skelton held open in one of his hand with the word “Whym Wham” underlined neatly, his fingers stiff and cold around it. Such weird ending, subtly hints at the essence of special relationship this couple shared so that they rise above the great marriage vow “TILL DEATH DO US PART.” Archer’s love story excels because death could not part Sir William and Dame Philippa! Even while following his wife to her grave, William felt the need to camouflage the inseparable bond they shared, and the insufferable loneliness he would feel without her… he does it with a wry sense of humor!

Weak Hamstrings: Cause Of Lower Back Pain

Tight, inflexible hamstrings get a lot of attention as a cause of lower back pain, but weak hamstrings may also be the source. The hamstring is actually a set of three muscles that run from the pelvis to the knee in the back of the thigh. These muscles are used to facilitate the bending of the knee behind the midline of the body while the hip is extended, such as when running or walking. The group also helps to keep the knee aligned.

Tight quadriceps and weak hamstrings are a common muscle imbalance. We tend to use our quads more in everyday life, and many popular exercises at the gym emphasize the isolated development of quads. There are two main ways in which weak hamstrings can cause back pain.

1. Biomechanical

Hamstrings work with the quadriceps to stabilize movements of the knee and pelvis. This requires that the muscles are equal in strength, length and flexibility. If the hamstrings are weaker than the quadriceps, then the pulley system formed by the muscles is disrupted. The tighter, shorter quadriceps will pull downward on the pelvis in front and upward on the knee, since the hamstrings are too weak to exert a counterbalancing pull.

When the pelvis is pulled down in front, the lower back arches inward. This is called hyper-extension of the lumbar spine. Tight hip flexors and erector spinae muscles in the lower back often accompany weak hamstrings because of this postural change. As vertebral angles change in the spine, there is an increase of pressure placed on the back side of spinal discs, which can lead to premature disc wear, bulging or herniation. These disc changes can cause sciatica.

2. Fatigue

Weak hamstrings can quickly turn into tight hamstrings. Weak muscles tire quickly due to their lack of strength, and tired muscles go into contraction to protect themselves from further use. This forcible tightening of the muscle sets up a ripe situation for strain; the quadriceps fire into action before the hamstring has recovered and lengthened. A pulled, strained or torn hamstring can result.

When the hamstring is injured, the body will naturally compensate for it by employing other nearby muscles to do the work the hamstrings normally do. Lower back muscles may be called into action when the leg is moved, though this action is beyond its scope of natural duties. The muscles in the back and hips that compensate for hamstrings can become sore and strained.

Signs Of Hamstring Weakness

There are a few symptoms that point to hamstrings as the cause of back pain. If your hamstrings are weaker than your quadriceps, you may notice that your bottom sticks out and that you have an exaggerated lumbar arch.

If you have localized pain in the hamstring and pain in the lower back, then a strained hamstring is indicated.

Another sign of a quadricep/hamstring imbalance is clicking or cracking of the knee when it is bent or straightened.

Prevention and Treatment

Hamstring weakness and injury can be prevented by pursuing an exercise regimen that includes both strengthening and stretching of the muscle group, balanced with strengthening and stretching of the quadriceps. See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGTcgPVexrI for a number of hamstring exercises. See 4 hamstring stretches at http://physicaltherapy.about.com/od/flexibilityexercises/a/hamstingstretch.htm.

Treating a well-established muscle imbalances requires a combination of myofascial release and targeted exercise. If your quads have been chronically tight, they will need to be forced to relax and re-lengthen. Foam rolling at home or myofascial release performed by a practitioner can accomplish this. Once the quadriceps have regained elasticity, the hamstrings can be developed.

A pulled hamstring can usually be resolved with a brief period of rest and ice. The above steps will need to be taken in addition to rest and ice to prevent re-injury if a muscle imbalance is responsible for the strain.

It is important to understand that weak hamstrings may be at the source of back pain and hamstring strain. Keeping your body in balance will help to resolve lower back pain.

Ball of Foot Pain – Causes and Treatments

Ball of foot pain is classically defined as metatarsalgia (MET – tuh tar – SAL – juh). The term metatarsalgia is used as a catch-all term used to describe a number of medical conditions which cause pain under the ball of the foot. The long bones in the foot are called metatarsals and the end where the metatarsals meet the toes are called the metatarsal phalangeal joints. Combining the name of the bones, "metatarsal" with the suffix "algia" means pain appropriately describing this condition. The heads of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th metatarsals make up what most consider the ball of the foot. These joints are the most commonly affected due to excess pressure, overuse and / or microtrauma, which results in inflammation and pain.

The most common symptom is deep, achy pain under the ball of the foot which can become sharp or stabing with standing or walking. There may be shooting pain or tingling in the toes, which would indicate an inflated nerve. A feeling of walking on a lump or cord or a "bunched up sock" under the foot is common. The pain is usually worsened with walking and long periods of standing, especially when pushing off of the ball of the foot. Narrow shoes can increase the pain and rubbing or massaging the forefoot may alleviate the pain.

A few of the common causes of ball of foot pain include faulty foot mechanics, structural deformities such as hammertoe or dropped metatarsal, ill fitting shoes and being overweight. Many times it's a combination of the above contributors which results in metatarsalgia. Faulty foot mechanics are an inherited trait resulting in abnormal motion of the foot. In forefoot conditions, tight calf muscles and overpronation (over-rotation and foot collapse) cause excess pressure on the forefoot. Tight calf muscles cause the heel to lift early when walking and this redistributes the weight towards the front of the foot. Over-rotation of the foot and arch collapse, in combination with hypermobility of the 1st ray (arch and great toe) causes the weight to shift from the great toe to the smaller toe joints when walking. An essential and abnormal force is placed on a small area of ​​the foot during "push off" and these results in repetitive strain, irritation, inflammation and pain of the small joints (2nd, 3rd and 4th metatarsal phalangeal joints) in the foot. Specific conditions, such as a neuroma or second metatarsal overload syndrome may develop.

âEUR¨Runners have a high risk of developing metatarsalgia because of the repetitive forefoot impact, but any sport which involves push off at the forefoot can be a potential problem. When an athlete changes their training regimen by adding hills or sprints, excess pressure can cause pain and inflammation at the joints in the forefoot. Poor quality shoes, lacking support and shock absorption can contribute to the development.

Structural deformities such as hammertoes can cause pain under the ball of the foot. The hammertoe is a crooked toe which causes retrograde force on the metatarsal head. As the toe cocks up, the head of the metatarsal is pushed down. The metatarsal head is now prominent on the bottom of the forefoot and more susceptible to increased pressure. Many people will complain of the feeling of a lump or nodule under their foot or complain about walking on a bone under the ball of the foot.

Poor quality or ill-fitting shoes are one of the more common reasons for the development of ball of foot pain. Narrow, tight shoes compress the forefoot and force the metatarsal heads together. This position impairs normal function of the foot when walking and increases rub and irritation in the forefoot area.

Treatment involves identifying and addressing the cause of the problem. In many cases it is a combination of faulty foot mechanics, poor quality shoes and an change or increase in a training regimen or recent weight gain. Orthotics should be used to control abnormal foot motion and disperse pressure more evening. Shoe should be rigid along the sole, only bend in the toe area, have at least a 1/2 heel and have adequate support. Calf stretches or night splints can be used for those with tight calves to eliminate the heel lifting early during walking. There are a variety of metatarsal pads which can be used to distribute the pressure under the ball of the foot to help alleviate pain and accelerate healing.

Thermal Spray Foam Insulation

Thermal Spray Foam Insulation is used in buildings, and refers to the application of thermal insulated materials, which are applied using various spraying methods, into a roof space or wall cavity to prevent heat loss.

The application of this process is normally completed within two days. Thermal spray foam insulation does not particularly address ventilation or sound proofing issues. It simply refers to the insulating materials being used to slow heat loss. The effectiveness of it is usually evaluated by its R-value, but this does not take into account construction or local environment factors. Thermal spray foam insulation is  easy to apply. Foam insulation is sprayed onto or into the underside of the roof within the attic/loft space, and dries to a rigid foam.

 Thermal spray foam insulation is an important factor to achieving thermal comfort for the buildings occupants, and thermal spray foam insulation reduces unwanted heat loss, and reduces the energy requirements of cooling and heating systems.  Thermal spray foam insulation simply refers to the insulating materials being used to slow heat loss.

One of the most effective types of insulation spray is polyurethane foam, which has been specifically formulated for use within the insulation industry.

This type of foam is a very cost effective insulation material, and works in two ways by keeping the desired space or area warm in winter and cool in the summer. It can also help with the problems that arise from condensation, and is an ideal solution for ambient and cold storage.

Polyurethane foam is easy to apply, lightweight in structure and can cover large areas quickly and efficiently, making it a very cost effective solution for many commercial requirements.

The application of foam spray uses a rigid polyurethane foam which sprays to a fine cellular structure with high compressive strength and good adhesion and insulating qualities. Many of these foam spraying techniques and materials do not contain or use any CFCs.

Thermal spray foam insulation will adhere to most structures and other materials such as fibre, sheet metal, cement, asbestos sheeting, concrete and steel. When sprayed it can expand to over thirty times it thickness. It is lightweight in structure, weighing only three kilos per square metre at a depth of fifty millimetres. (approx)

Insulating a building with this method will help to keep it warm in the summer and cool in the winter, reducing temperature control costs and providing a dry and comfortable environment for staff and workforce, and controlled storage for stock and materials.

Thermal spray insulation can offer the following benefits:

  • Domestic installations can be carried out within a day
  • Stop leaking roofs
  • No need to re-roof
  • Reduced carbon footprint.

Spray insulation is widely used in the domestic, agricultural, marine, and commercial industries.

Coping With Foundation Creep on a Sloping Site

Foundation creep is a common type of foundation damage found in houses built on sloping sites. With this kind of damage, a foundation element (wall, footing, slab or pier) can begin to move downhill in response to gravitational forces, soil pressure and other factors. Since foundation elements are usually tied together with a combination of steel reinforcement, continuous masonry or framing; multiple elements can be affected when one element shifts.

If not addressed, foundation creep is likely to worsen over time. Homeowners who occupy sloping sites are well-advised to contact a foundation repair specialist if they notice foundation damage. When proper repairs are done in a timely fashion, high repair costs and more perilous foundation damage can be avoided.

Sloping Sites Present Problems

Contractors prefer to build a house on a flat, open site, but they don’t always get their way. Sloping sites are often developed because flat sites are no longer available. They can also be chosen because of attractive views and other features like rock outcroppings to create special appeal. Regardless of the reason for developing a sloping site, property owners have reason to be concerned when soil creep causes foundation damage.

A number of forces and factors are usually involved when soil creep occurs. Most obviously, gravitational force causes soil pressure to increase as the slope grows steeper. Vegetation usually helps to stabilize a steep slope, because plant roots consolidate the soil and also help to absorb excess moisture. However, vegetation also adds weight to the soil. It can increase downward pressure on a foundation if most of the roots are above the slip plane where soil movement is most likely to occur.

A discussion of soil movement usually involves water. Soil stability is enhanced by certain moisture content– in the same way that damp sand can be molded to create a solid form. However, adding more water to a sand sculpture will cause it to crumble and wash away. Soil can behave in similar fashion. On a sloping site, the pull of gravity begins to effect soil when a certain level of moisture saturation is attained.

Foundation creep can also be caused by clay-rich soil that expands naturally as it absorbs moisture. This type of soil pressure often damages foundations on flat sites. On a sloping site, soil expansion typically causes a downhill push against the foundation.

Tiebacks and Tiebeams Solve Foundation Problems

A foundation repair contractor is the best professional to diagnose and repair foundation creep on a sloping site. Helical tiebacks and tiebeams are possible solutions to stop the creep and restore stability to the foundation.

A helical tieback is a steel anchor equipped with helical plates that allow technicians to drive the anchor into the soil like a giant screw. A series of these anchors are typically driven through the foundation wall on the uphill side of the house, and deep into the soil. Such an installation effectively pins the upper foundation wall into the slope. The same repair technique is used to stabilize and restore retaining walls that are tilting due to soil pressure.

Since it’s usually the foundation wall on the downhill side of the house that is creeping downward, the repair strategy often involves installing beams to connect the stable uphill wall with the downhill wall. The combination of tiebacks and tiebeams is a commonly used repair strategy. However, the foundation specialist is likely to suggest other remedial work to help control drainage so that the soil around the house doesn’t get too heavy or too saturated.

Small Fireplaces – Gel Fuel, Electric, Wall Mounted or Digital?

Although most of today's homes no longer rely on a fireplace for heating purposes, they are still in high demand. Fireplaces will always have a special allure. The vision of cozying up in front of a roaring fire, mug of hot chocolate in hand, while snow falls gently outside the window or sitting in front of a rippling fire while you and your beloved spend a romantic evening together are two appealing scenarios that may come to mind when thinking of a fireplace. If you live in a small home, apartment or condominium, you may not have the luxury of a built-in fireplace. However, today you can purchase a fireplace that would fit into even the smallest of spaces. There are various options to choose from.

These include:

  • Virtual / Digital fireplaces
  • Compact fireplaces
  • Wall-mounted fireplaces
  • Tabletop fireplaces

Whatever your style leans more toward modern, contemporary or anywhere in-between, one of the above-mentioned fireplaces would suite it perfectly.

Electric or Gel Fuel Fireplaces

When looking into purchasing a fireplace for your small space, you will discover that some use gel fuel and others electric. The advantages are both eco-friendly, do not require venting or special hook-ups and are clean and odor-free. However, you may want to consider the cost and convenience of both before making a particular small space fireplace purchase.

Gel Fuel

Each gel fuel can lasts approximately 3 hours. They come in a case of twenty-four and cost $ 65 on average. By doing the calculations, it can be determined that one case of gel fuel will last around 72 hours. Due to the cost, most retailers will inform you that small fireplaces that run on gel fuel are mainly for decorative purposes rather than heating.

Electric

The advantage of purchasing a small fireplace that runs on electricity is the ease of use. It is also unnecessary to spend your valuable time (not to mention gas), to make trips to the store to get what is required to keep the fireplace going. The disadvantage is that your electric bill may increase significantly. However, this can be remedied by monitoring the amount of time the fireplace is in use.

Virtual / Digital Fireplaces for Small Spaces

Many may not consider a virtual fireplace as a serious fireplace option. However, before it is written off completely, it should be noted that today's technology has bought the virtual fireplace a long way from the mock fireplaces of yesteryear. Today's virtual fireplaces are basically a DVD that you put into your television or personal computer that creates a realistic illusion of a crackling fire. The DVD loops around and plays continuously until you turn it off.

Depending on your expectations, you may find yourself disappointed either by the quality of the video or that it is just not "real" enough for you. However, a virtual fireplace is perfect for small spaces. If you have room for a television or computer, you are already one step closer to having a fireplace. It may only be a facsimile of the real thing, but it is worth looking into if you have limited space and you want to add an ambiance of romance or the cozy cozy that adds a room.

Compact Fireplaces Made for Small Spaces

A normal size fireplace is around 40-50 inches wide. Those in the range of 25-35 inches wide would classify as a compact or small fireplace. Most traditional fireplaces are available only in floor models. Compact fireplaces are wonderful space savers as many are designed as corner units.

Wall-Mounted Fireplaces Perfect for Small Spaces

Wall-mounted fireplaces obviously take up no floor space. For that reason alone, a wall-mounted fireplace would have considered the ultimate in space saving design. If your style in décor is traditional, you may have difficulty finding a wall-mounted fireplace to suite your taste as most have a contemporary look and feel. However, as wall-mounted fireplaces increase in popularity, it is probable that the selection will grow offering more variety in design.

Tabletop Fireplaces Uniquely Designed for Small Spaces

Tabletop fireplaces are in one word "unique". If you are not wanting a floor model or wall-mounted fireplace, but you desire a small fireplace that is not only fun, but also out of the ordinary, then a tabletop fireplace may be just what you are searching for.

From a smokeless glass-fire tabletop fireplace made specifically to enhance the view of the dancing flames to a contemporary tabletop fireplace with stainless steel logs mounted on a slate base, these small scale fireplaces are miniature works of art that are bound to be great conversation starters .

Today, there are various options to choose from to have a cozy romantic fireplace in even the smallest of spaces. From compact, wall-mounted, tabletop, to a virtual / digital fireplace, there is sure to be one to suite any home or even office décor.

The Monastic Life – The Path To Spirituality?

INTRODUCTION

Elijah and John, like other hermits (a monastic way of life) lived in the deserts. Jesus did not. What then is the pathway to spiritual maturity? Is it the life of the monk or otherwise? What we achieve, it must be noted, the monastic life or otherwise, is by the grace of God. God looks at the heart. What was Jesus' first miracle? In which ceremony did he perform it? If Jesus performed a miracle in a wedding fever, so promoting joyful celebration (though, with limitations), is this not a hint that, the monastic, celibate or ascetic life is not godlier than the wedded, celebratory life? Is monasticism the path to spirituality? Although there are good principles in the monastic life, it must be emphasized, echoed and re-echoed that only God can bring us to spirituality. From the foregoing, spirituality is not by works of righteousness but but by His grace alone.

1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

a. Spirituality

The term spirituality is defined as living the Christian life with a consciousness or sensitivity to religious values. Striving or aiming for perfection and making particular use of prayer are therefore very important considerations in many different Christian circles. However, it must be emphasized that spirituality asserts various forms in several Christian traditions, for instance, from the solitude of the Orthodox monks to the activism of the Pentecostals.

b. The monastic life

The monastic life refers to a way of religious life that is usually pursued within the confines of a monastery where the residents take several vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, living by the rule of the order to which they belong. Generally celibate and universally ascetic, the monastic individual separates himself or herself from general society either by living as a hermit or anchorite (religious recluse) or by joining a society of others who profess similar intentions. It is believed that despite St. Anthony is viewed as the founder of monasticism, the founder of the rule of life is St. Louis. Benedict. The goal of the monastic way of life was the achievement of personal salvation with God through a continuous spiritual battle with temptation. It is therefore reasonable to note that "the chief aim of the monk, therefore, is personal sanctification …" (Cross, 1975, 914).

c. Monastic spirituality

Monastic spirituality implies a single-heart solitary seeking of God, an approach to Him in response to His invitation found in Scripture, for instance, "seek ye first the kingdom of God" (Mt. 6:33). It is meant to be transported out in a lifetime and perfected or finalized in eternal life after one's death. It is a "way of life … that requires a certain discipline to dispose oneself to meet the living God" (Monastic Spirituality 2004). It therefore flows from a belief in a God who comes to those who are disposed to listening, who will persevere in seeking God even when it seems pointless boring. The forty-eighth verse of The Rule of St. Benedict states, "Do not be daunted immediately by fear and man away from the road that leads to salvation." It is bound to be narrow at the outside "(The Spirit of Benedictine Life, 2004).

2. TYPES OF THE MONASTIC LIFE

The Encyclopaedia Britannica generally divides monasticism into two, organizational or institutional, and hierarchical and status types. The organizational or institutional type could be further divided into eremitic, quasi-eremitic, cenobitic, quasi-monastic, and mendicant monks. The two subdivisions in the latter group include sacerdotal, and secondary and religious orders.

A common feature of true eremitic institutions is the emphasis on living alone on a strict contemplative life. Quasi-eeremitic institutions had loose organizational structures with no external hierarchies. In cenobitic monasticism, ascetism was to be pursued in community life and in obedience. The quasi-monastic groups are Christian military orders. Strictly defined, mendicant monks are those who live by begging.

3. CAUSES OF THE MONASTIC LIFE

Several reasons could have been attributed to the rise of monasticism. An important influence was the philosophical. The dualistic view of flesh and spirit, with its tendency to consider flesh and evil and spirit good- so characteristic of the Orient- influenced Christianity though the Gnostic and Neoplatonic movements. It was thought that retirement from the world could "help the individual crucify the flesh and to develop the spiritual life by meditation and ascetic acts" (Cairns, 1967, 163).

Secondly, it would appear as if some Scriptures seem to justify the monastic life. I Corinthians 7 is a case in point. Some early Church Pathhers like Origen, Cyprian, Tertullian and Jerome, urged celibacy to support correct interpretation of the Scriptures. Furthermore, it is observed, Antony, probably the first monk, "in response to those words (Matt. 19:21), disposed of his property and wave the procedures to the poor, reserving only a portion for the care of his sister" (Gonzalez 1984, 141). He even disposed of the small reserve fund that he had kept for his sister, placed her under the care of the virgins of the church, and left for the desert when a later verse "Do not be anxious for tomorrow" (Matt 6: 34) moved him. Although we do not really know when the flight to the desert really began, "Antony first embarked on the life of a hermit shortly before the year 270; but it sees that he had predecessors" (Lawrence 1984, 5).

The total spiritual poverty that is demanded of Christians and to which monks respond without hesitation appears to be lovingly gifted through in the Beatitudes. This is the core of the Benedictine Spirit – adhering to His teachings, extremely following Him who has introduced the same path from His baptism in the Jordan through the trials, misunderstandings and humiliations of rejection, to His glowing obedience to His Father and the final unblinking act of sacrifice. Furthermore, thirdly, certain psychological tendencies strengthened the desire for a monastic life. In period of crisis there is always a tendency to retreat from the harsh realities. The late second and third centuries saw the beginning of civil disorder which was to become so prevalent in the later history of the Empire. It is evident there that "many left society for the monarchy as a means of escape from harsh reality and the moral contamination of the times" (Cairns 1967, 164). Historically, there was increasing moral deterioration, especially of the upper classes in Roman society and monasticism became a haven for those in revolted against this growing decadence of the times. Geographically, the warm dry climate and the multitude of caves in the hills along the banks of the Nile were conductive to separation of the individual from society.

4. BENEFITS OF THE MONASTIC LIFE

It is a truism that there is so much evil in the best of us and so much good in the worst of us that we have to critically evaluate and learn to accommodate each other in the Christian faith. No denomination has it all right. There are strengths in the different denominations and the Christian needs to have a receptive spirit to learn from each. The monastic life is not an exception. There are several good points in this way of life worth mentioning. It is observed that monasteries "are necessary because the world is not Christian. Let it be converted, and the need for a monastic life will disappear" (Chrysostom, 1972, 52-53). History has not vined his hope. Monasticism has a unique testonomy to the world. It is firmly believed that "monasteries were the conservators of learning and the centers of missionary and philanthropic work." The monks were the authors, preachers, philosophers and theologians of the age …. "(Vos, 1994, 122). This is why Cross believes that "the monks were the chief teachers of Europe and an important civilizing power" (Cross 1957, 104).

The life of the Church between Constantine and the Reformation reveals that "almost everything in the church that approached the highest, noblest and truest ideals of the Gospel was done either by those who had chosen the monastic way or those who had been inspired in their Christian life by the monks "(Noll, 2000, 85). Douglas, Cairns and Ruark argument that "the monks were prominent in the Origenist controversies, intervened tempestuously in the fifth-century christological disputes, and became Byzantine Church's 'democratic front'" (Douglas, 1978, 671). Leaders of the Reformation such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, Thomas Cranner and Menno Simmons used the writings of the monks to draw support for their theology. Luther and Calvin, for instance, reiterated the works of Augustine. In fact, "it should be remembered that Luther, Erasmus, and many other critics of the papacy had monastic backgrounds" (Vos, 1994, 122).
The monastic life was not only limited to manual labor but also extended to copying MSS., Teaching, art, all kinds of scholarly research and translation the Bible. A realistic summary of the influence of monastic life to Christianity could have been summarized thus:

If we read the Scripture in our native languages, we benefit from a tradition of biblical translation inspired by the monk Jerome (ca. 342-420). If we sing the praises of Father, Son and Holy Spirit, we follow where the hymn-writing monks Gregory (ca.540-604) and Bernard of Clairvaux … If we pursue theology, we (are) interested to the monks Augustine and Thomas Aquinas (ca.1225-74). If we pray for the success of Christian missions, we ask for blessing upon enterprises pioneered by monks Patrick (ca.390-ca.460), Boniface (680-754), Cyril (826-69) and his brother Methodius (ca. 815-85) and Raymond Lull (ca.1233-ca.1315). If we glow in the goodness that God imparted to the created world, we follow where the friar Francis of Assisi blazed the trail … (Noll, 2000, 85).

5. SPIRITUALITY OF THE MONASTIC LIFE

From the foregoing, a question that readily comes to mind is whether the monastic way of life is really a path to spirituality? Clebsch realistically observes that Antony's retirement from the world is, at the very least, an ambiguous retreat, for though he separates himself from the distractions and nagging presses of ordinary human community, the wilderness to which Antony flees holds more significant challenges and dangers. When Antony finds no relief from an enthusiastic crowd during a rare visit to the city, "he assures those around him that he must contend with equal numbers – of demons – at his cell in the wilderness" (Clebsch 1980, 8).

Monasticism preaches separation from society, which lives according to the elements of this world, and from its economic, political and social problems. This generally led to the flight to the desert and the later autonomous existence of communities that care for the needs of their members. The monastic republic is Mount Athos, for instance, is a striking example of a social, self-governing life, separated from the world and even opposed to it. The thorney issue is that since everyone can not realistically share this vote, the monastic solution remains limited. It is not the solution for the world in its totality.

Even though the researcher is coming from a war torn land (Sierra Leone), he has come to realize that forgiveness and love are ways to demonstrate true spirituality. It must be noted that monks "headed the Inquisition and persuaded multitudes to participate in the crusades" (Noll, 2000, 140). The question is why was this so If the monastic life aimed at personal sanitation? As Christians, we must be honest to admit that "as they unfolded, the Crusades never accomplished as much good as supporters hoped, while evil consequences, unintended and unforeseen by proponents like Urban, proliferated" (Noll, 2000, 140). Even in Christianity, it is not farfetched to say that the Crusades sealed the Schism. It is unimaginable to note that people living the monastic life took part in political warfare.

The conviction of Protestants (including the researcher of this paper) about the centrality of justification by faith is bound to raise questions about whether the monastic life encouraged harmful notions concerning the possibility of salvation by works. A legitimate question worth asking is whether what the monks owed to do did not obscure the fundamental or foundational reality of God's grace. Paul got it right when he observed that "… it is by grace you have been saved, through faith – and this not from yourself, it is the gift of God- not by works, so that no one can boast" (Eph 2: 8-9). Obtaining salvation by works is nothing but a legal approach which is consistently condemned by Scripture. The tense of the verb in Ephesians 2: 8 establishes the necessity of faith in Christ as the only means of being made right with God. How central is the teaching of grace? This is a question the person living the monastic life would have to struggle with.

Does the ascetic pration of the body by the monk affect the true seat of sinfulness? In response, it is vehemently argued that "the bent of the heart, rather than the disposal of the body, is the key matter in godliness" (Noll, 2000, 103). In fact, an issue in our recently concluded module was sex and spirituality. Although Catholics believe that sex is only for procreation, the Protestant views sex between husband and wife for pleasure also as true spirituality. Even Bro. Lawrence was honest enough to admit some of the problems of a type of monastic life. It is interesting to note that Brother Lawrence began to doubt the wisdom of his decision to live in the desert, wishing instead to live within a Christian brotherhood … Members of the group could have adjusted and exhort one another, protecting them against the changeableness of their individual whims (Lawrence, 1982, 78).

CONCLUSION

In all fairness to monasticism, the institution "owes its origin to the desire of leading a life of perfection in greater security than is normally possible in the world" (Cross 1975, 914). Monks for more than a thousand years sustained a lot of noble qualities in the Church. It is reasonable to note that the monastic life, "though never perfect, always in need of reform, and occasionally sunk in corruption- remains today, more than seventeen hundred years after Antony went into the desert, a guide and inspiration to large sections of the Church "(Noll, 2000, 104). However, it would be farfetched to state that monasticism is a path to spirituality. It is incontrovertible that there are good principles in the monastic life. This notwithstanding, one must hasten to note that only God can bring us to spirituality. It is not by works of righteousness but but by His grace alone. The environment is really not the issue. I believe that the inside of the man is the real issue. The philosophers believe that if a man is sick, he will still be at the same place if you were to remove him from the gutters to the palace. Why? The answer is that he carries his disease with him. Did Jesus avoid non-Christians? No. What does He mean when he observes that though the Christian is in the world, he is not of it? The researcher observes that these words suggest or recommend a very unique ministry. This ministry looks to show itself above the desert and the city, since it is called to surpass every form in order to express itself everywhere and in all circumstances. How can monks be given birth to or monasteries be populated without the life on the other side of the monastery? It is suggested that there is only one spirituality for all without distinction in its demands, whether of the bishop, monk or layperson. St. Seraphim left the extreme practices of the hermits and returned to the world. He was no longer a monk retired from the world nor a man living among people. He was both, and surpassing both, he was essentially a witness to Biblical spirituality.

WORKS CITED

Beaufort, Lawrence. The Practice of the Presence of God. New Kensington: Whitaker House, 1982.
Cairns, EE Christianity Through the Centuries. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing

House, 1967.
Chrysostom, John. Her Nature and Task, in Bible, Church Tradition: An Eastern Orthodox View,

Collected Works, Vol. 1. Maryland: Norland, 1972.
Clebsch, WA The Life of Antony and the letter of Marcellinus. New York: Paulist Press, 1980.
Cross, FL, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. London: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Douglas, JDEE Cairns and James E. Ruark, The New International Dictionary of the Christian

Church. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1989 ed. sv Sacred Offices and Orders.
Gonzalez, JL The Story of Christianity: The Early Church to the Dawn of the Reformation, Vol. 1

Cambridge: Harper and Row Publishers, 1984.
Lawrence, CH Medieval Monasticism: Forms of Religious Life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages.

London: Longman, 1984.
Monastic Spirituality. Available [online]: http://www.christdesert.org/noframes/

scholar / monastic_spirituality.html. Accessed 20th September 2004.
Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids,

Michigan: Baker Academic, 2000.
The Spirit of Benedictine Life. Available [online]: http://www.christdesert.org/noframes/

scholar / benedict / benedict_spirituality.html. Accessed 20th March 2004.
Vos, HF Introduction to Church History. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1994.

Food Safety Bacterial Growth Requirements

As food safety bacteria are very similar to us they need similar conditions in order to grow. The main conditions are food, moisture, warmth and time.

Food and Moisture.

There are four main food types:

· High risk foods

· Raw foods

· Low risk foods

· Ready to eat raw foods.

High risk foods are common in food poisoning outbreaks. They are usually composed of protein, are ready to eat, stored under refrigeration and no further processing such as cooking is required. Examples include pates, sandwiches, filled rolls, fresh cream and artificial cream cakes, pies and cold cooked meats.

Raw foods are a major source of food poisoning organizations. High risk foods must be kept away from raw foods at all times or cross contamination will result, compromising food safety and food poisoning will occur.

Low risk foods do not pose a food safety hazard mainly because they lack one or more of the requirements for bacterial growth. They could be acid foods with a pH of less than 4.5, they may have a high sugar, salt or fat content which are good natural preservatives. They may be treated products or preserved foods not requiring refrigeration. They may be foods that require ambient storage.

The last category of food is ready to eat raw foods. These include fruit and salad vegetables and they must be thoroughly washed before consumption to minimize the risk from low-dose pathogens.

High risk food contains sufficient moisture for bacterial growth.

Warmth.

The next thing to consider is warmth. If we control warmth then bacterial growth will not occur.

The maximum recommended temperature for freezers is -18 ° C. At this temperature there is no bacterial growth, bacteria remain dormant. Although some bacteria are killed during the freezing process, many remain alive.

Fridge temperatures should be between 1 and 4 ° C. Although the maximum legal fridge temperature in the UK is 8 ° C. At fridge temperatures some bacteria will grow very slowly including Listeria and C botulinum.

The next range of temperatures is the temperature danger zone. This is between 5 and 63 ° C. Once food is being prepared it must be kept out of the temperature danger zone. If food is left in the temperature danger zone bacterial growth will occur, affecting food safety and food poisoning will result. As bacteria enter the temperature danger zone at 5 ° C they start to grow slowly. As the temperature increases the bacteria will grow more profusely. Bacteria grow best at 37 ° C, which is body temperature. As temperatures increase from 37 ° C bacterial growth slows down. Most bacteria are killed by 52 ° C. The UK recognized safety cooking temperature is 75 ° C, although foods can be cooked at a low temperature over a longer period of time.

The hot holding temperature is 63 ° C, which is the top of the temperature danger zone. If food is to be served hot, for example in a carvery situation it must be retained above 63 ° C. If the food is above this temperature, there is no time limit to how long the food can be served for and there is no food safety hazard.

If cold food is refrigerated, it must be kept at 1 and 4 ° C. The time limit would depend on the food product. The food could not be retained without time limit as ever there would be mold growth (mold can grow at very low temperatures).

The two hour hot rule allows foods that had been prepared and are meant to be served hot, to be served at ambient temperature for no more than two hours. For example if food is being retained at 63 ° C and suddenly the heating equipment breaks down then that food which is losing temperature can be sold for a further two hours. After two hours the food is allowed to be chilled and reused at a later occasion after refrigeration.

The four hour cold rule allows foods that are normally sold at refrigeration temperature to be served at ambient temperature for no more than four hours. For example if sandwiches are prepared and refrigerated, and the refrigerator breaks down, the temperature will rise. The sandwiches must be sold within four hours. After four hours any remaining sandwiches must be disposed of.

In order to check temperatures of freezers, fridges, cooking temperatures and delivery of foods, a temperature probe must be used. It must be a thermocouple temperature probe which is able to be calibrated. You can calibrate with boiling water, when the probe should indicate a temperature of 100 ° C. The bottom range of temperatures can be checked with mixture of ice and water. The probe should indicate a temperature of 0 ° C. Probes must be cleaned and disinfected between use. This can be achieved by using alcohol wet wipes or simply boiling water. The temperature probe must be inserted into the thickest part of the food which is known as the core temperature.

For further information and details of food hygiene training courses go to: Food Safety Training .

Application for Rapid Product Development

Rapid product development can be explained as inventing new product and services to the global market cost effectively and quickly than its major competitors by having a strategic and competitive advantage. The key aspect of the rapid product development process is that the application of rapid advanced manufacturing technology and applications to the product manufacturing processes takes place at ease. The parametric growth of rapid product development techniques in web based applications has become a multitasking approach in SEO environments.

Rapid product development (RPD) and multitasking approaches have become centrally fused and marginally integrated to such an extent that both processes and applications have an extra dimension in intrinsically and extrinsically dynamic RPD related SEO environments. For instance Amazon and Accenture Management Consultancy, the world's largest management consultancy firm, have adopted RPD techniques that share an identical growth trajectory in both target marketing and SEO related concept development.

Amazon's Kindle and Wal-Mart's customer relations management (CRM) software has been developed on the same line as that of Microsoft's super brand related customer value creations dynamics. Ever since Wal-Mart launched its RPD applications on a newer SEO platform, its sales volume has been rising faster. In fact Wal-Mart's RPD applications have become a threat to Amazon. In this instance rapid application development, product design and development require SEO processes to be highly articulated in terms of CRM and CMS (Content Management Systems). In such situation SEO architecture can be both costs inefficient and less dynamic depending on the availability of flexible and variable design and development techniques.

Rapid product development and rapid application developments are synonymous. However, the latter concept has been used by industry experts to make reference to applications related to SEO environments that are highly characterized by modally segregated applications and systems. For instance Amazon's RAD process on its globally famous Kindle platform has all the advanced characteristics of a modern SEO architecture. Its applications have often been criticized for both non-conformity and non-integrity in keeping with facilitating function based environments. The process of bringing the products in to the global market and developing them according to the international standards cost effectively is the largest problems in the modern world.

Many advanced tools have been developed in the global market with the latest technology. Thus the applications can be both dynamic and static. For example dynamic applications can be seen in satellite communications and related applications. By adopting rapid product development strategies, companies can gain the strategic advantage and a better position in the global market place sooner than their competitors. For instance effective execution of the process allows the company to develop their products to be marketed within a few days ahead of the competitors. The key aspect of effective rapid product development is that the effective application of prototyping and advanced manufacturing technologies.

Thus the multitasking environment of the SEO enables to attract customers' attraction to the specific products that have been launched in the global market. One of the best web based applications to be used for the product development is the BugTracker.Net which is an efficient tracker used by thousands of development and support teams around the world. This enables the user to maintain and manage sound customer relations in order to facilitate the product development and increase the profitability of the corporation. This specifically determinates the product design and development, process where innovative product needs have been met in keeping with the multitudinal concepts and reliable theories in the differentiation of the market and the leadership. A particular design team with vast industrial experience can adopt CRM strategies in order to find the ultimate solutions to the complex problems.

Do I Have a Blown Head Gasket? – Critical Blown Engine Symptoms

You're sitting in traffic, minding your own business, when suddenly you see it: a cloud of white smoke drifting out from underneath your car hood.

Does this mean that you've got a blown head gasket on your hands?

Or how about this scenario: you open up the car hood to take a look at your engine, and you notice that the head gasket appears to be slightly warped. Does this mean that you have a blown head gasket? Or should it be considered normal wear-and-tear on a car, especially if it's an older model?

You do not need a mechanic to properly diagnose this problem; in fact, if you spot any of these symptoms while you're driving, then there is a high possibility that you've got a blown engine:

Early Symptoms

In order to prevent major motor problems – and saving yourself a surprise bill from your mechanic! – then watch out for some key preliminary symptoms, which arise when the head gasket is about to fail. Your car will often overheat, white smoke will appear from the exhaust and there will be a slight rumbling sensation when your car's idling.

Blown Engine

If you have not heard these preliminary symptoms, then watch out for the big-time signs: your car overheats, your air conditioning blows out hot air or your heater blows out cold air, there are clouds of smoke coming from underneath your hood, your car will roughly shake while idling, or it will not start at all. In either case, take a look underneath your hood at your engine. A warped or slightly bent surface can easily be fixed by a mechanic for a nominal fee; however, a crack in the block surface will indicate that the head gasket needs to be replaced altogether.

Another major symptom of a blown motor is oil running into your coolant. If your vehicle has been running it is very important to allow your car to cool before you remove the cap of your radiator. This may take 20-30 minutes. Then use a rag to remove the cap. If your fluid looks like chocolate milk, then you definitely have a blown head gasket.

If you engine repair, be sure to take your vehicle to an experienced mechanic with a stellar reputation and customer service.

3 Kinds Of Wood Used In Real Wood Furniture

Real wood furniture is the most popular furniture in
existence. It's been around for hundreds of years and
probably exhausted when the cave people got tired of squatting
on the dirt floor of their caves and looked around for a
better way.

The woods that are fashioned into furniture fall into three
categories:

1. Hardwoods

2. Softwoods

3. Composites

Even the term 'hardwood' or 'softwood' is deceptive.
Hardwoods are not necessarily harder, denser material. For
example, balsa wood is one of the lightest, least-dens
woods there is, and it's considered a hardwood. Technically,
lumber is classified based on how the tree reproduces. As a
general rule, though, softwood trees are evergreen year
round while the hardwoods create the gorgeous autumn foliage
that we all love so much.

Hardwoods are considered the highest quality and are the
most expensive. Their natural colors vary from the darkest
woods to the lightest ones and and they can be stained or
painted for even more variety. Hardwood furniture is least
likely to warp or bend and is prized in all high quality
homes. The five woods most commonly used in furniture
production are cherry, walnut, oak, maple and mahogany.

Softwoods are less expensive than hardwoods, but they are
require extra care. Because they are less durable, it's much
easier to scratch or dent softwood furniture. In addition,
they often do not have the beautiful grains of a hardwood,
and therefore do not stain as beautifully.

Pine is an example of a softwood that is commonly used for
furniture. These woods are often used in construction as
well so the choicest pieces are reserved for furniture. In
construction, knots and splits are common. Lots of
construction lumber will not accept paint and this kind of
wood is used for shelves or packing crates.

The softwood used in furniture is designated as "Appearance"
lumber and includes most softwood lumber that has been
custom milled to a pattern or other surfaced on all four
sides.

Composites are the cheapest form of wood and are literal
manufactured, rather than grown.

1. Plywood: multiple layers of thin wooden sheets are glued
together and pressed. Plywood is strong and resists
swelling, shrinking and warping. There is some furniture
made directly from plywood, but generally it is only used as
a support when incorporated into furniture.

2. Particle board: sawdust and small wood chips are mixed
with glue or resin which is then shaped and pressure
treated. When used for inexpensive furniture, particle board
is usually covered with laminate or veneer. This is
necessary because particle board splits easily and the
laminate prevents splitting. However, the downside is that
the laminate may separate from the wood because the particle
board responds to temperature and pressure changes by
swelling and shrinking.

3. Hardboard: is made like particle board but it's placed
under higher pressure so it's stronger.

4. MDF or Medium Density Fiberboard: wood particles are
bonded with resin and compressed. It is harder than particle
board or hardboard, and can be cut like plywood despite it
is not as strong as plywood. Some MDF is covered with
melamine which is a durable plastic in a variety of colors.
The exposed edges of MDF are rough and need covering with
molding or some other decorative material.

Technically, furniture made from all of these wood products
is "real" wood furniture, even the composites. Prices and
quality range from the hardwoods down to the composites.
The higher you go up the spectrum, the more you can expect
to pay for your wood furniture. The good part, of course,
is that with proper care hardwood furniture will last for
decades or even generations. If you can afford it, always
choose hardwood furniture.

How to Make an Ex Boyfriend Regret Leaving You

I'm guessing you are angry, hurt, confused, or all of the above. Your Ex Boyfriend split, and left you to pick up all the pieces. You might want to sit in your room and cry all day. Or maybe you are in the angry stage, and you want to go dump a drink on his head and slash his tires.

Take a deep breath. I'm going to tell you a healthy revenge tool. It is has been used by thousands of women to get under the skin of someone who rejected them. Here is what they did. They took all that emotional energy from the breakup, and used it to transform them into a New Woman.

Now, it may be difficult to find that ambition right now. There might be some roadblocks ahead. When women go through a terribly rough breakup, we naturally want comforting. Unfortunately, we may be used to going into our (ex) man's arms for that comfort, and now that is clearly not an option. Plus, he's the one that caused the discomfort in the first place!

Please seek out comfort amongst your good friends and confidants. They will be very important to you during this time. But be careful. It is also easy to seek comfort in unhealthy activities like getting plastered or eating way too much food or neglecting our fitness routines. None of these things will help you in the long run.

Be a Woman who found their best revenge! Take these negative and confusing emotions and energy imbalances you have, and turn it into something that will not only make your Ex look twice (with regret), but more importantly, empower You.

You can kill two birds with one stone. You can inflict "dumper's remorse" on your Ex, in a healthy way, and also make yourself hot! This is something you will be doing for yourself, your health, and most likely your new "hottie" waiting for you on the horizon.

Get a new hairstyle, go clothes shopping, get a makeover. All of these things are very fun to do. But to really have a true change from within to make you Extra Hot, you need to embark on a healthy eating and exercise plan. You can change your body from the inside out. And then if you combine your health plan with new clothes, hair, makeup, etc, the sky is the limit as to how hot you can really become!

This may sound artificial, but it is your time now. Go for it. I want you to fee good inside, and eating healthy and exercising will give you long-term comfort that temporary comforts can never give you. It will also be a magnificent move to make your Ex turn his head. And of course, you will pretend not to notice him!

Now, I'm not promoting you get all anorexic or over exercise. No, that is another denial method all in itself. I'm encouraging you to re-shape and re-think this break up. Maybe it has freed you to concentrate on becoming your Best and Hottest Self!

Wound Dressings – Composites

Composite dressings are dressings that combine the advantages of multiple layers, providing more than one function in wound care management. Each layer of dressing is physiologically distinct. To learn how to use these dressings, and when not to, read on.

Product Overview

Most composite dressings have three layers. The bottom layer is usually composed of a semi-or non-adherent material, which allows moisture to travel though to the next layer while preventing the dressing from sticking to the freshly granulating tissue of the wound bed. The middle layer is generally composed of an absorbent material which pulls moisture away from the wound bed, keeping it moist but preventing maceration of the skin. It also helps to inhibit bacterial growth and assists in the process of autolytic debridement. The outermost layer protects the wound from bacterial invasion and allows air to circulate. The outer layer also prevails moisture from leaking through to the top layer of dressing, allowing for less frequent dressing changes.

Indications

  • Partial- and full-thickness wounds
  • Wounds that have minimal or heavy exudate
  • Wounds with granulating tissue
  • Wounds that are necrotic (have necrotic tissue)
  • Wounds that have a combination of necrotic and granulating tissue

Contraindications

  • Patients who are very dehydrated
  • Patients who have fragile skin ie. the elderly

Advantages

  • Can be used as both primary and secondary dressings
  • Can be used on a variety of wounds with varying degrees of exudate
  • Easy to remove, as the bottom layer is usually non-adherent
  • Prevent maceration of the surrounding skin
  • Have antibacterial properties
  • Facilitates autolytic debridement
  • Shape well to different wounds on different parts of the body
  • Can be cost-effective, owing to less frequent dressing changes

Disadvantages

  • Some of these dressings are not appropriate for use on infected wounds (check the manufacturer's directions for use)
  • Composites with an adhesive border require that there be intact skin around the wound edges
  • Some insurers will not reimburse for these types of dressing when they are used as secondary dressings

As each of these dressings are different, it is important to read the manufacturer's instructions for use. They should be changed when scheduled, or when recommended by the manufacturer. To learn more about these dressings and others, you may want to consider becoming certified as a wound care specialist. The benefits to you and your patients are immeasurable, and WoundEducators.com is dedicated to helping you take this all-important step in your career. Because Medicare and other government entities are now holding health care professionals responsible for outcomes in wound care, the time has never been better to consider becoming a wounded care specialist, able to handle any type of wound you may encounter in your practice.

Structural Analysis – Effective Way to Study Building's Behavior

Structural analysis is considered as a base of any construction project. It is a process that examines the physical integrity of any building structure. It is wise to analyze everything about your building structure before you actually start building it. This will make future construction activities a lot easier.

How your building structure will be, how it will react to certain external factors are the most common questions for any professional. Structural analysis – a calculation about behavior of any building with respect to certain laws and methods gives the perfect answer to such questions. It gives general information such as:

o Calculation of deformations
o Internal forces – how your building will react against heavy internal forces between various building components like beams, windows, stairs etc
o Stresses – How much capable is your building to deal with stresses
o Loads – Predicting about how well any building will withstand internal loads as well as external loads
o External forces – Structural analysis will give you detailed information about how your building will face external forces

This information is based on set of physical laws and mathematics required to study and predict the behavior of structures. Builders, contractors and engineers depend on structure analysis to render structurally sound plans and models. To implement an accurate structural analysis a user must determine information regarding structural loads, geometry, support conditions, and materials properties. In this way, one can easily build a behavior.

Also structural analysis has many applications to offer to construction industry such as:
• Use in structural steel plate girder, truss girder, gantries, industrial sheds etc.
• Wooden structures like fish repair centers, sheds, residential structures etc.
• Pre-stressed and Post-tensioned structures like parking structures
• Deteriorated structures
• Composite structures

Above mentioned applications of structural analysis reduce work load of builders, contractors and engineers. They become more familiar with their proposed building structure's behavior.

How to Create a Successful Bowl-A-Thon Fundraiser

This article explains how to take an ordinary bowl-a-thon fundraiser that might have produced $ 5,000 and turn it into one approaches six-figures. Below is a quick summary snapshot of the idea, followed by sections describing how it works and ideas to consider.

Summary Snapshot:

  • Potential Revenues: $$$$$
  • Revenue Source: Attendance fees, silent and live auctions, raffles, lane sponsorships
  • Advertising: Social media, press releases to local newspapers and TV / radio stations, website, signature, all communications
  • Equipment / Supplies: Event planning with area bowling establishment, tables for auction items, audio system
  • Partners: Area businesses, restaurants, corporations, bowling lane owner
  • Volunteers Needed: Extensive committee structure to handle all aspects of the event

How It Works:

This fundraising idea can be a surprisingly large fundraising event. The Domestic Violence organization of New Haven, CT uses this as their premier annual event, and earned $ 91,000. The great part of this event is that the bowling alley comes fully equipped to handle your event. Simply arrange to rent a block of lanes or the entire building for your event.

The hard part is deciding on fundraising venues. Typically, the event is either done by inviting teams to come in and compete, or by open bowling. The preference is for the teams, as you can pretty much decide ahead of time what you'll be getting for donations, as well as what you'll be needing for space. Typically, teams pay between $ 60 to $ 150 and more to compete. Prizes are donated and awarded, and team scores are posted as the day goes on.

The day is usually broken up into multiple time slots, and teams are assigned to each slot for the competition. If you have a 60-lane facility, you can see how quickly the contributions can add up. Five 2-hour time slots, completely filled, equals 300 teams. At $ 100 to enter a four-person team, that's $ 30,000 to begin with. Then there are the other added fundraisers that can be combined: silent auctions, live auctions, food and drinks, sponsorships, and even an awards dinner later in the evening.

Ideas to Consider:

So where do you come up with 400 teams? Well this becomes a perfect venue for existing bowling leagues, local businesses and associations (like Kiwanis and Rotary) to participate in. Contact each local business and ask them if they're support your event by entering 1 or 2 teams. Explain the rules, prizes and your cause. It's not too hard to come up with 1 or 2 teams in a company, and a healthy competition makes for great press releases and sponsorships.

While you're in talking with the businesses, ask if they'd like to sponsor one of the lanes during the event. Sometimes a good sign sponsorship would cost $ 200. With 50 lanes, that's an additional $ 10,000. Allow fans to attend for a small donation, or even for free. You want a lot of participation in the silent auctions, buying food you have for sale, or attending the rewards dinner event that evening. Remember that you have to charge to attend, unless you've included it in the team entry fee.

If you can get a few of the local celebrities to attend, that will draw additional people to the event. Make sure that you use the Live Auction and Silent Auction formats at the dinner.

Make the prizes fun. Come up with unusual prizes to augment the normal first, second, and third place prizes. Maybe you can get a car dealership to come in with an overall sponsor, and offer up a car for a 300-game. (Believe it or not, Lloyd's of London insures these types of rewards, based on expected risks.) The more prizes the better: most gutters, lowest individual score, highest individual score, best team jerseys, and so forth.

For more details about how this fundraiser works, you can go to www.FundraisingAlmanac.com/bowl-a-thon.php .