Painless Hair Removal

Laser hair removal is rapidly growing to be the most popular quick hair removal treatment of all time. This is large because of the immense benefits that the treatment seems to promise to millions of people around the world who are feeling unattractive due to the presence of unwanted body hair. Electrolysis for hair removal is fast becoming a thing of the past even as quick hair removal methods like waxing and tweezing continue to diminish in popularity as long-term or permanent hair removal treatments.

So you are beginning to catch the drift here, that while some marketers may offer a variety of permanent hair removal solutions, few actually make consumer sense in terms of the total benefits that it offers. And this where laser hair removal has stood its ground, offering a miraculous mode of escape from unwanted hair, it it facial hair removal for women, it it back hair removal for men. This space age technology is gaining in popularity primarily because of the marginal utilities it can offer you, be it time or money, speed or accuracy as far as quick pain hair removal treatments go.

The beauty of laser hair removal as a permanent hair removal solution is it applicability over a wide range of body areas and surfaces. You can choose you pick some specialized laser hair treatments for hair removal from your back, cheeks, upper lip, under arms, legs, arms, back, thighs, shoulders, bikini hair removal amongst a wide range of possibilities. And what's more, not only is this, a quick painless hair removal procedure, but the effect is also long lasting so much so that there is a lobby advocating this treatment as a permanent hair removal solution.

The secret of this form of hair removal treatment is the fact that the lasers with the help of light energy beams thermally agitate the base of your hair follicles and destabilize it without physically ever affecting your skin. And since it's a highly concentrated focused beam, the accuracy and effect are greatly accentuated to the target area of ​​hair removal. In just a few treatments lasting from under 5 minutes to up to a maximum of an hour, you can experience a technology that not only gives you a permanent hair removal solution but one which also promises to effect a quick pain hair removal.

Laser hair removal – benefit from the future today itself!

Payless Vs Famous Footwear – Understand the Differences and Similarities

If you are looking for shoes and you are wondering which store is better to go to, Payless or Famous Footwear, then you need to understand the benefits of choosing either store. Each store is good, but you are going to find some key differences that might make you choose one over the other. Right out of the gate, I can tell you that Famous Footwear has many name brand shoes while Payless does not. Nevertheless, this is not the only reason you might choose to go to one store over the other.

Now the main reason to go to Payless over Famous Footwear is simple. When you go to Payless you are going to pay less money. In fact, you might be able to get multiple pairs of shoes for what you would pay at the other store. When it comes to Famous Footwear, a lot of their shoes are athletic and there are not as many choices to get anything else. Payless offers other benefits such as nice looking bags and other accessories.

On the other hand, you have many people who feel that Famous Footwear has better overall shoes. This is referring to the quality. Many people think the quality is just better. Then you have some people who feel that Famous Footwear has more shoes overall. This may or may not be true depending on the size of the store you go to. However, one thing is for sure, most people agree that Payless has more accessories.

Most people believe that a discount shoe store like Payless is not good because the shoes are inferior. They believe this because they shoes are cheap. Understand that designer shoes are more expensive not only because they are made with expensive materials, but because the methods used to make them as well as the brand. The manufacturing process for making name brand shoes is usually harder, more work is needed as well. Some shoes might even be handcrafted, which is definitely going to make them cost more.

Payless has a similar manufacturing process for the shoes they make. But you are not paying a premium for the brand name attached to the shoe, which can be significant. I will use a certain name brand for example to shoe the different. You can get a Ralph Lauren polo shirt for $90.00. If you get the same shirt, same craftsmanship and quality at a place like Target it is only going to be $25.00 or less. This is because there is not a little jockey on the chest of the shirt. That is a difference of $65.00. It works the same way with shoes.

Famous Footwear is good for those who want name brands for less. Payless is for those who want quality without having to spend an arm and a leg because there is a certain brand name attached. Each store gives you the chance to find good deals. One just might have more of what you want then the other.

How to Write a Motion Graphics Design Or Animation Treatment

Give Yourself the best chance of winning the Design or Animation project with these guidelines

The Title & Introduction

The very first thing you will write on any treatment is the name of the project, so it is highly advisable to make sure you get this part correct. When taking a brief it is always a good idea to take as detailed notes as possible about all aspects of the project including the people involved, key words, reference material, technical aspects or limitations, audio preferences and project working titles. These notes will assist when putting the basics into a treatment, and showing your fullest understanding of the brief, like the correct title, or key words that the client was at pains to describe the project with.

Once you have a clean leading page with the clients name, the name of the project, and any subtitle, you are ready to add the first and most important body of text, the introduction or approach.

The introduction, outline, premise or approach to a treatment is a vital and concise 2 or 3 line paragraph, clearly telling the reader what it is they are about to read, and the reason for reading it. Ideally this paragraph will ‘grab’ the reader immediately and tweak their interest, wanting to read the rest of the document.

The Writing Style

The use of descriptive language is an important part of the art of all writing, no less with treatments, where you ideally need to squeeze all the information into one or two sides of a4 paper to paint a clear picture in the readers mind’s eye of exactly what they can expect the final film or animation to look like.

When describing your concept, try and use flowing and elegant phrasing while being descriptive and to the point. A wide use of vocabulary will keep the reader interested and their brain visualising the result.

For example, The brief is for a television crime drama title sequence, and the Director wants the style of the title sequence to reflect the period, atmosphere and subject matter of the script. The Director may use quite descriptive words in a brief like, dark or chilling, ensure to re-use these words in your treatment and add some of your own to further embellish. For example; dark foreboding blackness, or chilling, spine jarring finale.

Try not to repeat the same word too many times, and think of alternative ways to describe the same or similar part of the project. For example; when mentioning a transitional effect in the animation or film, try and find new ways to write about that effect.

Your Branding

Ensure that your business, company or studio logo and branding is clearly marked on the front of the treatment, as well as the body of the treatment to ensure that all who read it will know where it is from and who wrote it. It will also help ensure your ideas stay as your own and are not borrowed by someone else. Another consideration is to flatten your document to ensure that the logo and graphics are displayed correctly and no one is able to edit your treatment or take paragraphs for re purposing into another document. Saving your MS Word or other word processor document as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file is an ideal way of achieving this.

The Concept

This is the main body of text where you can flesh out the idea in more detail. It is important to ensure that this paragraph is easy to read and to the point. Use this part of the treatment as a way of quickly describing the rest of the information that you eloquently touched on in your Introduction. Try and keep the sentences brief with enough space around them to be absorbed easily. Allow the sentences to flow together easily to ensure the reader does not get lost partway through, it is vital that your idea makes sense from start to finish giving your reader the chance of constructing the piece in their own minds eye.

Imagery

Consider including images to assist your concept.

You will probably be producing a storyboard separately to your treatment, but using additional reference images, character illustrations, environment and backgrounds or mood board images in your treatment can really help the reader to grasp what you are saying. Positioning the images is also important, breaking up the paragraphs can lose the readers flow, so try adding an image or series of images under a paragraph.

Using a large image under the Introduction can act as a real eye grabber for the rest of the document.

Reference Material

Reference material is key to helping sell your idea, especially if you can reference your own past work. It is another chance to showcase your work and give the client every confidence in your ability to deliver what you are writing about. References can be web links, embedded links, images, sounds, music tracks, illustration or video. If possible, try and collate it all into one place, an ftp location, a website, a file share location or as zipped attachments to make it easy for the client to explore your references and not have to go to many different internet sites. Again, keeping the treatment easy to read, follow and absorb is paramount.

The Technical Breakdown

The technical section of a treatment should be very factual, very brief and very clear. The clarity will, once again, illustrate to the reader that you have carefully thought the process through and understand exactly what it will take to achieve the finished result. You will always be able to change your thinking with kit later, but at least at this early stage you have approached the idea with a way of technically creating your masterpiece. This paragraph will also illustrate your ability to handle both aspects of any motion graphics project, creativity and technical knowhow, the core components to any motion graphics designer.

Think about outlining what and how many computers you will need, how much disk storage space and backup will be required, which software packages will you be using and are there any specific plug-ins or presets that are relevant. Also take into account the amount of rendering time and hardware that will be needed, archiving considerations, and final delivery formats and other delivery aspects.

Music and Audio

As we all know, music and sound effects can really bring animation and video to life and is a major part of any visual experience. Touch on ideas you have for the music and sound design, include references to other similarly styled videos and describe the tone and atmosphere that the music will evoke with your visuals.

The Budget & Estimated Costs

Costs and quotes are also a huge factor in whether you will succeed in getting the project you desire, but refrain from including any mention of money in the treatment. Instead provide a separate quotation document including any reference to technical or creative specifics in the treatment.

The Conclusion / Summary

The final part of your treatment should act in a similar way to the introduction.

It is a short paragraph that allows you to quickly remind the reader of the key points you discussed in the rest of the document. It is also a chance to use good language to leave the reader wanting to see what you have described, wanting to explore further, wanting to make it come to life.

List of Components

INTRODUCTION – short and sweet

CONCEPT – main descriptive body of text

IMAGES – reference material

TECHNICAL – geeky but essential breakdown

AUDIO – style and reference guide

SUMMARY – the final roundup

The Services Provided by House Clearance Companies That Makes Your Life Easy and Stress Free

The level of service that is provided by the house cleaning companies nowdays, have come a long way from the old days when this service was first started in a professional way. The stress is being more environment friendly, so you can be assured that the waste that is collected from your home will be recycled in an useful way, rather than being discarded in a dump yard where it would collect rust. All the ethical companies of recent times are very conscious of this fact and if you hire a reputable company then you can be rest assured that your stuff which has been restored will find a suitable end.

So how do you find a reputable house clearance company that will adhere to all the rules and regulations while carrying out their task in a sensitive an deficient way … well there are a number of methods, and if you keep in mind some points, then you will certainly get a company that carry out the service in a way which does not harm the environment as well as takes care of all your clearance needs. Below mentioned are some tips for choosing the right company:

  • Before beginning the job, specifically ask the company how they plan to recycle your waste products, and what are the fees that they will charge for the entire work. It will be better if the entire thing is taken down in writing, so that there is no answer on the charges applicable while the job is completed midway.
  • Make sure to ask the clarification company what they plan to do with the bulky and hazardous items and how they plan to recycle the same, so that there is no harmful carbon footprint left behind during the clearance process.
  • Make sure that the company you are thinking of shaving has all the necessary legal papers to carry out each clearance task in a proper way, and do not land you into trouble in any way by irresponsibly dumping things where they are not supposed to get dumped. Ensure that they are fully covered with liability insurance so that you do not face any huge damage if by accident there is any damage to the items that you have planned to keep or to the property in general.
  • Pay attention to the fact that the house clearance company that you have hired has all the heavy duty trucks or vehicles that can haul away any item, as well as their manpower are trained and experience so that there is no hitch in the clearance process.
  • Make sure that the company you choose is properly registered with the environment agency, and carry out their clearance function in an eco friendly way. All the materials should be hauled away so so that the grounds around the house or property is not littered and does not mess up the locality.

There can be a number of reasons why the services of a house clearance company is required by a homeowner or a property holder. Whatever the reason it is the main aim of the house clearance company to clear the clutter and bring things to a manageable level. The services of clearance can also be required by people looking for selling off their property or letting them out on rent. The house cleaning company should be trained to handle a wide variety of items starting from washing machines, refrigerators to carpets and furniture, books and bikes, as well as clothing or upholstery items. A qualifies house clearing company provide services that will most likely be charged, based on cubic foot of area to be cleared, in addition to any additional instruction such as removal of toxic or harmful substances and recyclable substance. Molds, mildew, lead based paints all come under the purview of clearance and make sure that you choose a thorough professional who will be able to handle all and everything.

Veneer Brick Looks and Feels Like Real Brick But is Much More Affordable

Veneer is a material that is used in construction for decorative purposes. The material is also referred to as facing and can be found in many different materials. Veneer brick is one of the most popular kinds of this material and has the appearance of brick without the cost of brick.

Facing is a term used to identify the application of a material to a wall surface. This material is often used on both exterior and interior walls. Veneer provides a textured finish and creates a richer appearance than a standard flat painted wall. Both brick and wood are common veneer materials.

There are many different types of hardwood that can be found in veneer. Typically exotic woods have a prohibitive cost for the average homeowner, but these same woods are available in veneer at much more affordable prices. Also popular among veneer finishes are plaster and stone. By using these materials a space can be transformed.

The good look and durability of veneer make it just as qualified for commercial spaces as it is for residential ones. In fact, if the material is applied properly it may be impossible to tell the difference between the real thing and veneer. This is particularly true with woods such as oak or pine.

Veneer brick can be commonly found in rustic settings, but is just as conducive to classic or contemporary decors as it is to rustic decors. It all depends on how it is used and what materials are used to accent it. By using the correct type of brick and the right decorating accents, you can use veneer to create a setting style you desire.

Applying veneer is actually pretty simple and quick. Before starting the process it is necessary to apply a damp cloth to the wall and make sure the wall is clean and free of bumps. If there are bumps on the surface of the wall they should be sanded down. Once the surface of the wall is clean and free of debris, mortar can be applied. The mortar adheres to the wall and is used to stick the veneer to the wall in a manner that is similar to applying tile. The veneer is placed over the mortar and allowed to dry. While it is drying, there is a plastic mold that is commonly used to make sure the brick places in place and is uniformly placed around the entire wall.

Brick veneer looks particularly smart used around a fireplace and has the illusion of being the chimney. This material also looks good as a closure around a wood burning stove. Another neat decorating trick is to use this material along with some plaster to create the feeling of an old factory loft. A wine cell or the new cool 'man cave' can also be decorated with this material.

Health Insurance Companies Are Now Using Biometric Technology to Approve Or Deny You Coverage

The next time you apply for individual health insurance will be prepared for a variety of preliminary evaluation testing procedures to see if the insurer will reject or accept you including: testing of blood, urine, presence of alcohol or smoking, and evaluating your genetic composition.

In the individual private healthcare market there is the concept of health insurance medical underwriting. It involves assessing and quantifying a prospective applicant who is applying for coverage as a potential liability or risk to the insurer by a professional underwriter. The process is similar to applying for a loan from a commercial bank. There are basically three types of risk the insurer will screen for.

(1) Physical Risk; The primary concern regarding the applicable. In this context the issue is in regards to the medical condition of the proposed insured or a propensity towards cancer determined by family history.
(2) Morale Risk; A potential insider would forgo consideration of an application alt if there is any explicit or implicit evidence of the applicant involved in hazardous avocations, sports, or occupations.
(3) Moral Risk; An insurer will definitely attempt to avoid the speculation of insuring an applicant who has an inclination to suicidal tendencies, criminal behavior, and certain lifestyle habits or tendencies.

For years insurers predicated on the reliance of multiple sub-systems derived from strategic cumulative integration of intelligent computers to draw their conclusions for the purpose of risk assessment. A new technology currently in experimental phases funded through Kaiser University has discovered a statistical method to ascertain and unify all three risk categories in unison during real time for the purpose of medical underwriting by utilizing genetically calculated risk scoring algorithms. It is a highly interoperable biometric screening application interconnected to a plurality of relational healthcare databases. The silicon apparatus utilizes an infrared thermal touch screen sensor as a biometric identifier that verifies the integrity of an applicant's personal genetic profile with razor sharp precision by credentialing his or her fingerprints against federal law enforcement regimes, national automated verification systems, and a compilation of tabulated DNA repositories.

DNA?

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes containing their DNA blueprint. One member of each chromosomal pair comes from their mother, the other comes from their father. Every cell in a human body contains a copy of this DNA. The large majority of DNA does not differ from person to person, but 0.10 percent of a person's entire genome would be unique to each individual. This represents 3 million base pairs of DNA. In clinical studies this percentage has proved to be meaningful enough to structurally composite predictive valuations of significant importance to an insurance company including approximating personal behavioral tendencies, psychological proficiency, and expectation of mortality or morbidity. It has been so proficient in screening risk that a law was recently passed to protect employees and insured applicants from its discriminatory prejudice known as the Genetic Information Non Discriminatory Act. However, the act is convoluted by pretenses directly or indirectly imposed by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act which places little restriction on the information that can be shared by HIPPA covered entities.

What Does My DNA Have To Do With My Health Insurance?

Over the last few decades insurance carriers began data warehousing many of the popular DNA databases such as the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System and CODIS with mixed usage proprietary commercial datasets such as Ingenix, Physician Computer Network, Intelliscript, Medical Information Bureau, and even Secure Flight Passenger Data compiled by The Transportation Security Administration. The so called purpose of this was for authentication and with the recent caveat of electronic health records identity theft, authenticity of an applicable was the alibi insurance companies needed to exploit and get away with this, at the same time create a more robust underwriting system. Just remember the next time you visit the general practitioner you signed a petition form authorizing all parties managing your care to share knowledge regarding your health which in unique circumstances grants special permissions to all parties above.

How This New System Works.

A fingerprint is made of a number of ridges and valleys on the surface of the finger. Ridges are the upper skin layer segments of the finger and valleys are the lower segments. The ridges form so-called minutia points: ridge endings (where a ridge end) and ridge bifurcations (where a ridge splits in two). Many types of minutiae exist, including dots (very small ridges), islands (ridges slightly longer than dots, occupying a middle space between two temporary divergent ridges), ponds or lakes (empty spaces between two temporary divergent ridges), spurs (a notch protruding from a ridge), bridges (small ridges joining two longer adjacency ridges), and crossovers (two ridges which cross each other ).The unequeness of a fingerprint can be determined by the pattern of ridges and furrows as well as the minutiae points. There are five basic fingerprint patterns: arch, tented arch, left loop, right loop and whorl. Loops make up 60% of all fingerprints, whorls account for 30%, and arches for 10%. Fingerprints are usually considered to be unique, with no two fingers having the exact same dermal ridge characteristics. The biometric device measures kinetic heat frequencies from an applicants touch distributed through minutia points and automates a recognition key cipher query from ridges through a call interface dispatched by an encrypted terminal control program. Basically, the examiner will inquire based on the information presented to him and await an answer from the mainframe computer in remote proximacy. I do not know about you but somehow the thought of my data traveling around through a typical client / server type architecture does not make feel comfortable at all. Just imagine all the errors that can go wrong. The new system is ripe for exploits at at every social level in addition to invading all our rights of privacy as citizens, never mind qualifying for coverage.

There Is Something You Can Do.

If you do not want to insurance companies having access to your sensitive private health information among many other things such as your financial prowess, consumption, personality or lifestyle the first thing you might want to do is avoid applying with Kaiser Permanent or any of the fellow member insurance companies owned by National Electronic Information Corporation, it is bad enough we have to be arranged by The Medical Information Bureau just to even get health insurance in the first place.

The second thing you can do is visit our website to find more health insurance information or simply leave your information (for the purpose of protecting your privacy, you need not leave any other information you will not feel comfortable to share) We will be glad to provide competitive quote from Major Medical Insurance carriers who do not participate in this practice. Not all insurance carriers participate in this type of screening procedure but you probably will want to avoid the carriers that do as once you are in the system and that one place you do not want to be if you value your healthcare and how much you spend on it.

The Role of Glycerine in the Production of Soap

Glycerin, also spelled glycerine, is a basic ingredient in most soap. In fact, it is a by-product of soap manufacture as it occurs due to the reaction of strong alkali with an animal fat. This process is known as saponification and it is this process that brings out soap or detergent. While most manufacturers separate glycerin from the mixture, others incorporate the compound for its natural benefits.

Lots of soap-makers recommend glycerin as a basic ingredient because it has the ability to draw in moisture preventing drying of the skin. The compound is a natural moisturizer. In fact, it is a humectant – a substance that attracts water. Thus, soap containing the hygroscopic compound is known to have skin conditioning and moisturizing effect.

Glycerin is a viscous liquid that is at the same time sweet and colorless. It solidifies to a paste-like substance and has a high boiling point. During the soap-making process, some manufacturers remove the compound from the soap mixture and incorporate it into other products like lotion and creams. However, when it is added to a bar of soap it results to a nearly transparent product with moisturizing properties.

The compound is known to be a good solvent and this is one of its most remarkable properties. In some instances, it is better as a solvent than water or alcohol. This property makes it highly miscible in both alcohol and water. However, it never dissolves in oils. In its pure form the compound is called glycerol which suggests it belongs to a classification of organic compounds called alcohol.

It is extremely hygroscopic, which means that it readily absorbs moisture from the air. For instance, leaving a flask of pure glycerol open allows attraction of water that it soon loses the purity.

It was in 1889 when the compound was first obtained from animal fat through candle making. During which time the only way to derive the compound is through this process. Also, in that time animal fat was the only raw material for making candles. During the World War II, it has become a major component of dynamites and heavy demand for the substance was not sufficed by soap making industry. Thus there was an abrupt production of synthetic forms of the compound.

The substance has a chemical formula C3H8O3 which is also occurs as a liquid by-product during the production of biodiesel in a process called transesterification. This syrupy liquid occurs in nature. Found in cells of plants and animals (including humans), it is a part of the large bio-molecules of many lipids. In biologic processes the compound occurs as a result of the fermentation of carbohydrates. In organic chemistry it is produced by propylene synthesis.

Glycerin is an ingredient in several health-care products and toiletries. It is found in food products, as well as pharmaceutical and cosmetic items. It is found in moisturizing lotions and creams because of its hydrophilic and hygroscopic properties, which allow the substance to retain moisture. There is a debate whether it is the hygroscopic properties of the compound that makes it good for the skin, or it may be possible that the chemical has other unexplored and unidentified properties aside from the one already mentioned. The moisture-drawing property makes it an excellent emollient when added in soaps and moisturizing creams. An emollient is a substance that smoothens and softens skin. Another reason personal care products utilizes the substance is because of its skin lubricating advantage, not to mention it serves as a thickening or emulsifying agent in cosmetic products.

Home-made soaps or the hand-made varieties naturally contain glycerol, which commercial soap-makers remove. The separated liquid is used in massage oils, lip balms, skin softeners and moisturizers, perfumes and essential oils, and pharmaceutical preparations.

How To Buy Replacement Wood Shed Doors For Your Back Yard Storage Shed

Generally speaking, shed doors are the first problem you'll have with your shed (other than Mother Nature). It makes sense as your shed doors are the only moving part of your shed and are opened and closed many times through their use.

If you purchased your shed from one of the big box stores, you will have shed door problems sooner than later because of the way their doors are built.

The sheds the big box home improvement stores sell are shipped by the manufacture on tractor trailers and all the parts and pieces of the shed must fit into a nice box so they are lighter and take up less room to cut down on shipping costs and make them easy to load and unload.

Quality wise, the item that suffers the most are the doors. They need them to be as light as possible and fit flat into the box; so many shortcomings are taken giving the shed buyer a weak set of doors that will fail sooner than later.

The shortcuts include; using weak trim pieces as the actual frame structure of the door, only using staples to fasten the door sheeting to the trim and not using a complete 2×2 "or 2×4" frame on the inside of the doors for strength.

As your shed ages and settlements into its footprint in the backyard, the shed floor becomes un-level resulting in hard to open doors. The shed owner must use more force to open and close the doors which loosens the staples and nails that hold the doors together. Note: the shed builder is trained to add screws to the factory built door for added strength but seldom is this actually done and if it is, they use too much force and spin the screws which result in no holding power at all.

As the staples and nails loosen, the seams and trim in the door start pulling farther apart making it even harder to open and close the doors. Even more force is needed and before you know it, the doors are falling apart.

Most big box sheds come with a warranty and you can get the doors replaced. Most warranty claims are not scheduled appropriatively and it will take many calls to get your new doors. The squeaky wheel will get the grease in this case so be diligent in your complaining.

The bad news; the replacement doors will be the exact replica of the existing doors and the same problems you're having will happen again. There is no warranty on the replacement doors so be prepared to spend around $ 500.00 for doors from the original manufacture.

The good news; you can buy replacement doors on the Internet that are better than the doors that came with the shed and are easy to get and install yourself.

The first step is to measure the vertical and horizontal door opening (also called rough opening) of your shed. Use your measuring tape and measure from the bottom of the header to the floor. This is your vertical measurement. The header is the piece of wood (usually a 2×4) that is above the door opening. It could be a 2×6 if you have a larger shed. Then measure your horizontal width from the stud (usually a 2×4, also called a jack stud) on one side of the opening to the stud on the other side. This is your horizontal measurement.

On cheaper sheds, the jack stud could be a 2×3 (which is okay) or the door opening may not have 2×4 studs on both sides. If this is the case, you can easily add a stud (s). Measure the length needed cut to fit and toenail the new stud in.

Once you have your measurements, you can shop online and find the best deal. As of this writing, there are only 2 companies that build and ship wooden replacement shed doors. Both companies are reputable, make a superior shed door to the one you'll replace and both ship UPS. All you have to do is find the best deal.

What Does Satellite Radio Advertising Cost?

Space … The final frontier …

It is also a land loaded with floating metal objects that rotate the planet and beam signals back to our gadgets. One of these floating metal objects is a satellite designed to push radio programming to our receivers. In the United States the only brand on the market is Sirius XM satellite radio.

Satellite radio is filled with hundreds of stations with programming that varies from hit to obscure music; talk programming from conservative views to home design tips to Howard Stern. Essentially it is a medium that offers something for everyone. This is one of the reasons it is becoming a very popular option for satellite radio advertising.

A common misconception about the medium is that it is "commercial free". While the music stations do remain free of any satellite radio advertising, the talk stations do not. They have several commercial breaks per hour just as any talk show on AM or FM radio would. The shows that advertising advertising options are quite diverse and offer advertisers a way to micro-target an audience with a specific interest.

What does satellite radio advertising cost? The answer to that question will vary depending on the station you want to advertise on. Some of the more nich 'formats with a lower audience can fall as low as fifty dollars per commercial, while the top stations such as Howard Stern may cost hundreds of dollars per airing because the reach of a station like this is much greater.

Satellite radio offers smaller and medium-sized companies that do not have a large budget the opportunity to reach a national audience.

This is something new, because the price point to reach a national audience on national TV or a syndicated radio show can be far to cost prohibitive for most small and medium sized businesses. With a starting budget of around 5k, almost any business can have their message broadcast to the nation through satellite radio advertising. The message can also be targeted to a very specific group of people based on the programming that the radio commercial airs on. Programming targets range from pet lovers to cigar enthusiasts to new moms and everything in between.

What was once the work of science fiction, is now a medium that puts another tool in the arsenal of small business when they want to get an effective message out to the masses on a restricted budget.

The Stirling Engine

A ‘Stirling Engine’ is in the family of heat engines. It is a closed cycle regenerative hot air (or other permanent gas) engine.. Closed cycle means that there is a fixed volume of the ‘working fluid’ in the system. There is no intake, there is no exhaust.

The Stirling engine was first patented in 1816 by Dr. Robert Stirling. The original patent focused more on ‘The Economizer’ which was a heat exchange unit that saw primary interest for use as the first incarnation of the solar water heater.

Originally the Stirling engine was developed by Robert Stirling and his brother James. It resulted in many patents and the first Sterling in commercial use was used to pump water in a quarry in 1818. After more development many patents for various improvements, including pressurization, which directly affected the amount of work or force the engine could produce, came about in 1845. By this time, the power output of this engine had been brought up to the level that it could drive all the machinery at a Dundee iron foundry.

The engine was promoted as being very fuel conserving and was pushed to be a safer alternative to steam engines of the time that had many deadly incidents involve exploding boilers. However because of the heat required and the level of exchange required, coupled with the materials of the day, the Stirling engine could never really give the steam engine serious competition, and by the late 1930’s the Stirling was all but forgotten in mainstream science and industry and only represented in odd toys and small ventilation fans.

Around this time, Philips, the large electrical and electronic manufacturer was seeing to expand its market for radio sets into areas where a power source or supply of batteries was considered unstable. Philips further developed the Stirling engine through World War II and really only achieved commercial success with the ‘reversed Stirling engine’ cryocooler. However Philips did take out quite a few patents and gain a large amount of information about the Stirling engine.

Since the Stirling engine is a closed cycle, it contains a fixed mass of gas called the “working fluid”, most commonly air, hydrogen or helium. In normal operation, the engine is sealed and no gas enters or leaves the engine. No valves are required, unlike other types of piston engines. The Stirling engine, like most heat-engines, cycles through four main processes: cooling, compression, heating and expansion. This is accomplished by moving the gas back and forth between hot and cold heat exchangers. The hot heat exchanger is in thermal contact with an external heat source, e.g. a fuel burner, and the cold heat exchanger being in thermal contact with an external heat sink, e.g. air fins. A change in gas temperature will cause a corresponding change in gas pressure, while the motion of the piston causes the gas to be alternately expanded and compressed.

The gas follows the behavior described by the gas laws which describe how a gas’s pressure, temperature and volume are related. When the gas is heated, because it is in a sealed chamber, the pressure rises and this then acts on the power piston to produce a power stroke. When the gas is cooled the pressure drops and this means that less work needs to be done by the piston to compress the gas on the return stroke, thus yielding a net power output.

When one side of the piston is open to the atmosphere, the operation is slightly different. As the sealed volume of working gas comes in contact with the hot side, it expands, doing work on both the piston and on the atmosphere. When the working gas contacts the cold side, the atmosphere does work on the gas and “compresses” it. Atmospheric pressure, which is greater than the cooled working gas, pushes on the piston.

To summarize, the Stirling engine uses the temperature difference between its hot end and cold end to establish a cycle of a fixed mass of gas expanding and contracting within the engine, thus converting thermal energy into mechanical power. The greater the temperature difference between the hot and cold sources, the greater the potential Carnot cycle efficiency.

Pros and Cons of Stirling Engines

Pros

  • They can run directly on any available heat source, not just one produced by combustion, so they can be employed to run on heat from solar, geothermal, biological, nuclear sources or waste heat from any industrial process.

  • A continuous combustion process can be used to supply heat, so most types of emissions can be greatly reduced.

  • Most types of Stirling engines have the bearing and seals on the cool side of the engine; consequently, they require less lubricant and last significantly longer between overhauls than other reciprocating engine types.

  • The engine mechanisms are in some ways simpler than other types of reciprocating engine types, i.e. no valves are needed, and the fuel burner system can be relatively simple.

  • A Stirling engine uses a single-phase working fluid which maintains an internal pressure close to the design pressure, and thus for a properly designed system the risk of explosion is relatively low. In comparison, a steam engine uses a two-phase gas/liquid working fluid, so a faulty relief valve can cause an over-pressure condition and a potentially dangerous explosion.

  • In some cases, low operating pressure allows the use of lightweight cylinders.

  • They can be built to run very quietly and without an air supply, for air-independent propulsion use in submarines or in space.

  • They start easily (albeit slowly, after a warm-up period) and run more efficiently in cold weather, in contrast to the internal combustion which starts quickly in warm weather, but not in cold weather.

  • A Stirling engine used for pumping water can be configured so that the pumped water cools the compression space. This is, of course, most effective when pumping cold water.

  • They are extremely flexible. They can be used as CHP (Combined Heat and Power) in the winter and as coolers in summers.

  • Waste heat is relatively easily harvested (compared to waste heat from an internal combustion engine) making Stirling engines useful for dual-output heat and power systems

Cons

Power and torque issues

  • Stirling engines, especially those that run on small temperature differentials, are quite large for the amount of power that they produce (i.e. they have low specific power). This is primarily due to the low heat transfer coefficient of gaseous convection which limits the heat flux that can be attained in an internal heat exchanger to about 4 – 20 W/(m*K). This makes it very challenging for the engine designer to transfer heat into and out of the working gas. Increasing the temperature differential and/or pressure allows Stirling engines to produce more power, assuming the heat exchangers are designed for the increased heat load, and can deliver the convected heat flux necessary.

  • A Stirling engine cannot start instantly; it literally needs to “warm up”. This is true of all external combustion engines, but the warm up time may be shorter for Stirlings than for others of this type such as steam engines. Stirling engines are best used as constant speed engines.

  • Power output of a Stirling tends to be constant and to adjust it can sometimes require careful design and additional mechanisms. Typically, changes in output are achieved by varying the displacement of the engine (often through use of a swashplate crankshaft arrangement), or by changing the quantity of working fluid, or by altering the piston/displacer phase angle, or in some cases simply by altering the engine load. This property is less of a drawback in hybrid electric propulsion or “base load” utility generation where constant power output is actually desirable.

Gas Choice Issues

  • Hydrogen’s low viscosity, high thermal conductivity and specific heat make it the most efficient working gas, in terms of thermodynamics and fluid dynamics, to use in a Stirling engine. However, given the high diffusion rate associated with this low molecular weight gas, hydrogen will leak through solid metal, thus it is very difficult to maintain pressure inside the engine for any length of time without replacement of the gas. Typically, auxiliary systems need to be added to maintain the proper quantity of working fluid. These systems can be a gas storage bottle or a gas generator. Hydrogen can be generated either by electrolysis of water, or by the reaction of acid on metal. Hydrogen can also cause the embrittlement of metals. Hydrogen is also a very flammable gas, while helium is inert.

  • Most technically advanced Stirling engines, like those developed for United States government labs, use helium as the working gas, because it functions close to the efficiency and power density of hydrogen with fewer of the material containment issues. Helium is relatively expensive, and must be supplied by bottled gas. One test showed hydrogen to be 5% absolutely (24% relatively) more efficient than helium in the GPU-3 Stirling engine.[14]

  • Some engines use air or nitrogen as the working fluid. These gases are less thermodynamically efficient but they minimize the problems of gas containment and supply. The use of Compressed air in contact with flammable materials or substances such as lubricating oil, introduces an explosion hazard, because compressed air contains a high partial pressure of oxygen. However, oxygen can be removed from air through an oxidation reaction, or bottled nitrogen can be used.

Size and Cost Issues

  • Stirling engine designs require heat exchangers for heat input and for heat output, and these must contain the pressure of the working fluid, where the pressure is proportional to the engine power output. In addition, the expansion-side heat exchanger is often at very high temperature, so the materials must resist the corrosive effects of the heat source, and have low creep (deformation). Typically these material requirements substantially increase the cost of the engine. The materials and assembly costs for a high temperature heat exchanger typically accounts for 40% of the total engine cost. (Hargraves)

  • All thermodynamic cycles require large temperature differentials for efficient operation; however, in an external combustion engine, the heater temperature always equals or exceeds the expansion temperature. This means that the metallurgical requirements for the heater material are very demanding. This is similar to a Gas turbine, but is in contrast to a Otto engine or Diesel engine, where the expansion temperature can far exceed the metallurgical limit of the engine materials, because the input heat-source is not conducted through the engine; so the engine materials operate closer to the average temperature of the working gas.

  • Dissipation of waste heat is especially complicated because the coolant temperature is kept as low as possible to maximize thermal efficiency. This increases the size of the radiators, which can make packaging difficult. Along with materials cost, this has been one of the factors limiting the adoption of Stirling engines as automotive prime movers. However, for other applications high power density is not required, such as Ship propulsion, and stationary microgeneration systems using combined heat and power (CHP).[13]

    There are many possible uses for the Stirling design. More research and devolopment will help move the technology along.

Is That a Chicken Coop Or an Outhouse? Chicken Coop Construction Plans

Chickens need a safe and comfortable home just like any other animal. Their home is called a coop. For people who wish to raise chickens in their backyard, it is highly recommended to construct a coop where the birds will be kept safe from bad weather and their predators.

But first, you have to plan well for this particular poultry backyard project. Planning means deciding on the number of chickens you will raise, the size of your coop, the materials you will use, the design and the location. If this is a first for you, you can just start with a few say, three chickens and find out how you're doing as you go along. You can add a few more later on if you feel you can manage well.

Other important factors you will have to take into account are the ventilation and insulation of your coop as well as the lighting. Just like humans, chickens also feel the heat of the summer season and when proper ventilation is not provided, the birds can get sick. If you're building a closed coop, you can install vents ideally on the south or facing the east or you can create large holes on the north and south areas preferably at the point where the walls meet the roof.

For the cold winter months, the insulation will help keep the birds dry and warm so do not forget this as well. You can use Styrofoam sheets and place them between the walls and ceiling.

Lighting is as vital. Remember in your Science subject in the elementary grades, you were taught that plants and animals need light, water and air to live. Chickens, therefore, need natural light as often as they can. If you're going to put your coop in a dark or shaded area, build a structure that has openings to allow sunlight to enter or you can also install light fixtures for your birds.

Placement of feeders is another important aspect. Feeders are containers where you put the food of chickens. These have to be placed at a higher level and not on the floor to keep dirt away. Make sure that you place them in a way that you can easily reach them when feeding your chickens.

When building the structure, you do not have to make a complicated one. Start simple if possible. Keep in mind that chickens require sufficient space to move around so determine the right measurements. The standard measurement for each bird is two to three square feet. As your chickens grow, though, additional space will be needed. Do further research if you're special about the chicken breeds and their minimum space requirements.

You can use cheap wood materials combined with chicken wire for the coop. GI sheets can be used for the roof but be sure to build this in a sloping style to keep the water running when it rains.

Raising chickens is a nice hobby and one which can benefit you and your family. You not only have poultry meat for your meals but you can also enjoy chicken eggs for breakfast.

How to Buy a Quality Used Sailboat and Avoid the Lemons

Buying a used sailboat can go one of two ways – it can either be a great bargain or it can turn out to be an awful money pit. Of course, everyone wants to find that great bargain they can brag about to all their sailing friends. This article will help you understand the important things you need to consider when purchasing a used sailboat. If you are new to sailing and would not know a well crafted boat from an inflatable dinghy, consider bringing an experienced professional to help you inspect the boat. It will be worth the investment, and you'll probably get an education in the process.

Construction Material

The most important thing to remember with sailboat materials is to avoid wood. It is difficult and costly to maintain, in addition to hiding flaws that could have been impossible to detect without teething it apart. Fiberglass would be the best choice. While some claim that a fiberglass sailboat is "maintenance-free," this is very true. Plan on spending a few days per year on maintenance which could include applying antifouling paint to the bottom (to prevent the growth of barnacles and algae), regular waxing of the topsides with a good marine wax to prevent oxidation of the gelcoat, varnishing any teak trim annually, regular inspections of the mast and rigging (about as regularly as you have your car tuned up), annual inspection of your sails by your sailmaker to repair any small rips or tears, and regular engine maintenance.

If you're not a fan of fiberglass, you can also consider steel. However, be careful to inspect for rust. This is one problem you do not want to have. There are also boats constructed from a material called ferro-cement. Ferro-cement is the least expensive construction for boats over 25 feet. This construction methods uses steel wires covered with a sand and cement plaster. But, unless you build this boat yourself, steer clear of these as they are typically built by amateurs.

Engine

Only consider sailboats with newer engines, as older or vintage engines will be difficult to find replacement parts for. While it may be enticing to own a vintage model, really evaluate how much time and money you are willing to spend on maintenance.

The most reliable engine test is the "Smoke Test." Well-maintained diesel engines will blow small amounts of black smoke with some white – especially if started cold. However, steer clear of diesels that blow blue smoke or a steady stream of white smoke. While diesels are generally very reliable, they do require regular maintenance. Ask for maintenance records for oil changes, etc. Gasoline engines should be leak-free and have a bilge blower that operates correctly. Again, ask for maintenance records.

Sails and Rigging

The only way to make sure the sails are in good repair is to remove them from their bags and spread them out on a flat surface. Look for mildew, previously made repairs, worn spots, folded stitches, and broken slides. Check that the winch operates smoothly. Inspect for worn pins and shackles, worn lines, broken blocks, and fraying wire. Hoist the sails, if possible, to ensure everything works properly.

Miscellaneous

Look for any leaks around hatches or portholes. These can be costly repairs to have to fix later on. Have someone who really knows electrical check the wiring. Again, this can be expensive to fix later, or even dangerous if a fire breaks out while on the water. Check to see if there are any wires banging around inside the mast – as this could surely keep you up at night if you're a light sleeper.

Conclusion

Just remember when you're buying a used sailboat that you're really in the driver's seat. Most sellers are typically in either one of two scenarios: They are either upgrading to a larger boat or they're getting out of sailing altogether. Either way, they will be pretty motivated to sell. Do not pay more than you need to. Start with a low offer and see if they counter. If buying through an auction website, do not get caught up the passion of bidding. There are plenty of boats for sale, so if you do not win the first auction, do not give up.

Use a reliable sailboat transporter, to ensure your new purchase arrives in the same condition you bought it in. And, above all, enjoy your new boat. There's nothing like a day on the water!

How to Save Money Using Carpet Remnants

If you are looking to redo the carpeting in your home, you may wish to consider using carpet remnants in some of the rooms. This is something that may sound strange at first, but you would have surprised at the quality you can find following this money saving method.

All rooms are equipped with a TV, cable / satellite channels and a mini bar. Instead, this is a very popular method that people and contractors use in the smaller rooms such as bedrooms, offices, and dens. The do this for several reasons, all of which will help you understand why using such remnants can be very worth the little extra time it takes to find them either online or in the store.

First, you can save a lot of money by using carpets remnants. You can save over 50% versus traditional, full length carpeting, which can obviously add us in our current economic environment. Not only that, but you can find this discounted carpet remnants for all types and for all brands of carpets. So what is the reason for the discount? It's very simple – contractors and other carpet layers always have extra carpet. The main carpet rolls obviously will not fit perfectly for every home and job, so the leftovers are left for people to use as remnants.

Second, by using different remnants in various rooms in your home you can add a level of style that does not come when you use the same carpet through your whole house. So, you get savings and style at the same time.

Blown-In Home Insulation – Turn Your Leaky Home Energy Miser

Blown-in home insulation is one of the proven home improvement methods to keep the cold at bay in winter. The method of cramming the insulation into your walls has been found by most people to be quite difficult. But the attempts are worth making as they make your old energy-liberal house an energy miser.

The blown-in insulation process has a myriad of variations, depending on the materials to be used such as fiberglass, foam or cellulose. By retrofitting these materials into the leaking walls or loft space, your house will be able to retain the heat. Here, your house turns into an energy mister and reduces energy consumption as it does not require heating systems to warm up the indoor temperature. Therefore, you can mitigate energy bills up to 20 to 30 percent. So, do not you want to adopt blown-in home insulation to control thermal fluctuation and keep chilling winds at bay?

Blown-in insulation can be done by selecting any common home insulation materials. Once fitted, effects of this typical insulation are guaranteed and last for the life of the house. However, the inconvenience of blowing in materials puts off most of the homeowners from adopting this. Even the most determined DIY installers find it hard to obtain the necessary equipment and difficult to learn how to handle the equipment and issues pertinent to blown-in insulation.

Considering such inconveniences, it is best to hand over your home thermal insulation project to a registered pro. Also, a registered installers' involvement comes with the seal of guarantee that ensures effectiveness for up to 25 years. Therefore, once a specific area that is emitting heat and gaining cold air from the outside is insulated following the blown-in method, it becomes completely resistant to heat transfer.

Fiberglass-based home insulation is the most suitable for loft insulation and insulating other difficult-to-access areas. Fitting fibreglass insulation materials is quite critical for laymen. Also, fiberglass materials tend to fluff up due to lack of proper care and methodological approaches during blowing in to the targeted area. Here, fiberglass materials are submitted to be left to professional contractors to avoid risks and ensure optimal effect of the insulation.

While you select any insulation material, it is imperative to follow the government as well as the manufacturers' recommendations, considerations, consider R-value of the materials and also follow compulsory achievable depth (per square foot).

The Importance of Kitchen Design

Professional and competent kitchen design services are carried out by architects, interior designers, and / or efficient installers. Or, if you are design savvy, you yourself can design the look and layout of your kitchen.

Results of a survey conducted by Kitchen and Bath Business Magazine in 2010 showed that 16% of the people surveyed had already renovated their kitchen in the previous financial year, while 22% understood the importance of kitchen design services and showed interest, but were undecied due to the lack of enough funds.

The Remodeling magazine's Cost vs. Value Report for the year 2011-2012 shows that for middle-range budgets, a major remodeling of a standard 200 sq ft of kitchen space can cost up to $ 57,494; whereas, a minor remodeling would cost up to $ 19,588. For upscale remodelers, the costs could go up to $ 110,938 for a major remodel.

When you decide to invest such an amount of money in your kitchen renovation, the importance of procuring the most appropriate kitchen design services can not be overlooked. Here, invest in kitchen design to make sure that you're getting the most bang for your buck.

Unique space should be assigned to different kinds of utensils, containers and chinaware, in accordance with their usage and order of importance, so that they do not create one big mess. Design your kitchen so that you can avoid bending over, stooping or running into appliances during your day-to-day activities. Drawers and cabinets should not clash with each other or with other equipment like the oven-door when you open them. Also, the design and appearance of the floor, walls, ceiling, countertops, and the cabinetry should go hand-in-glove while suiting your taste and budget. Invest in an efficient designer and a meticulous installer to see astonishing results and a trouble-free time in the kitchen.

Anyone can design a kitchen layout, placing all the appliances, cabinets, and countertops in the right places. However, you may run into some trouble in you are planning to turn two rooms into one kitchen, for example. In such cases, a professional can help you make the most of your space, taking into account your existing windows and walls. In most cases, all you have to do is look for inspiration from online pictures on home and garden sites. The general style of your kitchen is going to be determined by the materials you buy: flooring, cabinets, countertops, and appliances.