Cessna 182 – Tips for a Smooth Transition

One of the first upgrades most pilots face is the one from basic training aircraft to something with a bit more performance and complexity. At one time the common transition was from a Cessna 152 to a Cessna 172, or from Piper Tomahawk to Piper Warrior. As those very basic aircraft disappeared from training inventories for a few years, it became much more common to start off in a 172 or something similar, pushing the first transition to a more complex aircraft such as the Cessna 182.

According to the FAA, the 182, with an engine of over 200 horsepower, is considered a high performance aircraft. To fly a high performance aircraft the FAA requires you log ground and flight instruction with a certified flight instructor (CFI). Though the amount of time is not specified by the FAA, instructors commonly indicate around 5 to 10 hours as the amount of time required- though that may vary significantly based on a student’s background and experience.

While the 182 is classified as a high performance aircraft, it does not fit in the complex category. Though it has two of the three requirements (flaps, constant speed prop, retractable gear), its fixed landing gear means it’s not considered a complex aircraft.

Though the FAA may not consider the 182 complex, beginning students may think differently. As mentioned, the 182 adds a constant speed prop and cowl flaps to the already familiar controls. More weight means different handling techniques, and a bigger engine means more attention has to be paid to its management. Overall, these additional elements give more weight to the importance of following checklist procedures.

As far as what the new controls mean, the prop RPM will be controlled by the blue knob. The throttle will go from controlling the RPM as in a 172 to controlling the manifold pressure. Most of the time in the 182, ground ops, takeoff and landing will be with the prop control pushed all of the way in. That will give you the most power available. In cruise flight though, that setting isn’t very efficient, so you’ll bring the blue knob back to a slower RPM, which will have the propeller taking a bigger bite out of the air. The settings for RPM and manifold pressure vary slightly from one model of 182 to the next, so consult the POH for your particular aircraft for the exact numbers.

When adjusting the engine controls the inevitable question will arise as to which control to move first. The easiest way to remember is that the blue knob will stay in more than the throttle. So, when you want to increase power, lead with the prop control. When reducing power (as in leveling off), lead with the throttle.
Bigger engines tend to foul more easily than their smaller counterparts- meaning the proper leaning technique must be adhered to. Proper technique is to lean during taxing and in cruise flight. On the ground it’s usually sufficient to pull the mixture out an inch or so or just a bit before the engine coughs. In cruise you can lean by fuel flow or cylinder head temperatures based on the equipment in your aircraft. Check the POH for detailed instructions.

The cowl flaps are another thing to remember. They control the amount of cooling air flowing over the engine. Cooling air is good when it’s hot or you’re slow or on the ground; but it increases drag the rest of the time. For the 182 the cowl flaps will remain open until you reach cruise flight, then they can be closed. They will usually remain closed until landing. As in all cases, follow the checklist.

As for handling, the 182 is heavier in both roll and pitch than a 172. Pitch will be the first notable difference as you’re rolling down the runway for takeoff and realize that it will take a decided pull to get the nose moving up. That same characteristic will come into play on landing as it will take a conscious effort to keep the nose wheel up longer than the mains. Proper trim, which is more important in heavier planes, will minimize this effect. You should be trimming for hands off flight at all times. There are many 182’s that have suffered bent firewalls in testament to the importance of a good flare and proper trim.

The Cessna 182 is nothing to be intimidated by. It’s not much more difficult to fly than a 172, with the addition of some checklist items to keep in mind. After a few hours you will come to enjoy the increased speed, range and stability that it will give you.

Communicate Effectively And You Will Respect Yourself And Your Mate

It's As Easy As One Two-Three:

To get the most positive effect in communication with our partner, we should try a more interactive approach. You will see that it will more than strengthen your relationship. Straight-away let me say that when we build up our listening skills, we notice a new spark in our partners and our listening abilities. When they speak to you, look them straight in their left eye. In this way, it will be to them, less domineering on your part, and a much smoother and a softer connection from them to you. When you are speaking to them, it is suggested that you look straight into their right eye they will be more inclined to do what you suggest, and will more readily accept what you are saying. This will capture the eye-to-eye affect and you will have their full attention, and they will be more inclined to listen to you, because this gaze will say that: "I'm serious and I want to too hear me". You do not have to arch your brow or make a stern face to get their attention or for them to actually hear what you're saying with this perfectly placed eye contact. It's just another form of communication.

Do You Know This Person?

Now people, we need to stop choosing a mate that we feel needs saving, in some way. Has it ever occurred to you why we choose needy people or someone who we feel is broken and, we feel, needs to be fixed in some way? Why do we always choose to be the "Florence Nightingale" in our mate's life? You do not even considering the amount of mental and emotional work you've got to put into helping this person to feel useful and happy in their own skin, if this is, indeed their true story. Sometimes, it's just a game that our bleeding heart just does not take the time to see, before we give them our all. As soon as we begin to hear that "somebody done me wrong song", we should immediately think "what's in it for me?"

Think of it for a moment, do you fall for someone that you feel is so misunderstood and that you are convinced, if in a relationship with you, this person will definitely see how a life with you can be the best thing since sliced ​​bread. And, that you will make them feel so strong and needed that they will be spoiled for anyone else besides you? Oh yeah wait, and that you will show them how it feels to have someone who is in their corner and will stand by them, no matter what? Yeah, right, you're not the only one who fell for that one. It is a hard habit to break, and an emotionally, deadly one to keep. We need to reprogram ourselves to cut this method completely out of the partner finding equation.

It appears that when we choose partners this way, we seem to fall for them in all of one to three months tops of just meeting them. Bad business people! Now we can not charge them for how we feel, they did not have to do or say much before we decided to become their savior. If we had just waited a bit longer, we would have seen, clearly, the game that this person was playing. The waiting game! They are just testing the waters to see just how quickly they can get us to show our vulnerability, how easily are we fooled, our naivety etc.? This is done in order to get a feel of your level of weakness. They are wondering just what can they get from you, in, a short amount of time that they could not get from other women, or are you just as strong.

It's Time For That Feel Good Moment:

Effective communication will put the "ole kibosh" on such antics. Try just going with the flow at bit longer, listen to the stories they tell a bit more intentionally, and watch where it quickly goes from there. I'm sure you get the point. When we allow ourselves to continue to go down this road, we must ask ourselves, "do I continue to put myself last, because I feel unworthy of having the kind of relationship I deserve?" or do you reject putting yourself first, for fear that someone else will reject you first? Is this why we continue to choose or select the lower base mates for ourselves? No fears people, it's all self programming and we can reprogram ourselves to get the best of the best that's out there, if we just take our time. We go out, we have fun and it's OK when we go home alone. It's not the end of the world. We save the best for the best that the Creator has to offer us.

The better we learn the skills of communication and enhance our listening skills, we will spot them every time. Maybe we'll even get a good laugh, just before we walk away, on to the next one. Let's face it, most of us are sensitive and loving people. We deserve all of the love, nurturing, and friendship that comes to us from a mate and that we are ready to give in return. We can not and should not give away our power. This is a gift that was given to us from birth, both to women and men. The more you give away the more chips away at your self esteem and self respect. Sometimes, both sexes are just looking for that one-night-thing. Look beyond the obvious, and that unspoken word. And do not be surprised if you get that "ha-ha!" moment.

They do not deserve that from you, and you should not be willing to give it to them, so easily without investing time and patience on your part. The stronger aspect of communication is to listen more than we talk, when we first meet someone. Let them tell you about them. To show that you are actually listening by occasionally repeating what they said, or ask a question relating to a comment that was made and they'll know you are listening.

You Got Him, Now Keep Him:

If you are already in a stable and secure relationship, do you use that old tried and true, listening technique? Ladies, men do not know everything that they would have us to believe, on all subjects. When he is trying to share something with you for the fifteenth time about what is bothering him about you or the way your relationship is going, let's say, and why he's not so forthcoming anymore, but wants to clear the air now, you need to stop and really listened to what he is trying to tell you. Is something happening there that makes him feel inadequate? Just take a deep breath and stop talking. Listening is a huge part of communication, as well.

If you do not learn to listen to your mate, somebody else will! Maybe it's that we fast talk our way through the conversation, and they can not get a word in edgewise. This is after you asked him to loosen up just a bit and let you in. As soon as we hear a statement from them that we do not like, unzipped go the lips and off we go again. Or, we notice a slight raise in their tone of voice, or their emotional expression changes and we feel they are going on the defense. Still we need to keep our mouth shut long enough to let them say what they need to say, and be heard. If you do not the next thing you could hear from them is, "see, this is why I do not talk to you anymore!" Egypt "you just do not listen!" and or maybe they just turn their back and walk off.

It Is Time For A Change:

Enough of that ladies, we have to change our communication methods if our relationship is important to us. It is the pattern that, if all of our past relationships went down this same road, we must stop, now. Maybe that's what they do to us, when we're trying to tell them how we feel, as well. You do not want them to push further away and seek the ear of someone else. We do not need any help from another woman, to talk to our man. Just a little silence and patience will get the job done from us. No outsiders needed, just open and relaxed one-on-one from the two of us. If that moment is too tense, wait for or create that special moment to gradually bring it up, after you both are loosened up and had a few laughs. Ask calmly if you could revisit that topic he was trying to get at, and that no matter what, you are ready to listen, and not a word from you until he's finished. Honest!

Communication is an art and if we really love and respect ourselves and our mate, then we need to practice this skill, at every possible instance, in order to get better at it. Practice does not make perfect, it makes us better. Honest and effective communications will help us to slay that beast. Who knows, just maybe, you've found that diamond in the rough!

Different Types Of House Cleaning Services

The house cleaning companies offer several different and supple regularities in their services. A cleaning service is one opportunity you might consider in opening a business for your own. Having a beautiful, well-kept and clean home is always a plus point. Today, there are several types of house cleaning services being offered. Some of the notable major types of house cleaning services include agencies, companies, local independently working cleaners, “mother’s helper”, freelancer, franchise, maid service companies and apart from the types, house cleaning services can also be categorized as domestic and commercial cleaning services.

Domestic cleaning agencies are where you act as a manager and you take on board local cleaners to carry out the cleaning for you. I think that professional home cleaning companies are the finest of the lot. You do all the cleaning, advertising and appointment bookings yourself. But the cleaning is done by the local individual or helpers. Mother’s helper or commonly referred as house helper is actually a group of people – unlike the name – this group consists of men and women who offer different house cleaning solutions. You can get your job done and pay a usually feasible hourly rate.

A freelancer means referring to those individuals actually who are generally not insured or licensed or who are busy in doing several private jobs at once. The advantage of using this type of service for house cleaning is that you get the choice of suitable time for the job to be done. Several unemployed as well as employed individuals do freelancing jobs on a part time basis. There are many franchises offering cleaning solutions of the big companies but their staff is local and all the resources are of the person locally in-charge of the franchise. Maid services companies are the preferred ones when it comes down to house cleaning. When you are hiring the maid service then you are making sure that quality is going to be the excellent one as such organizations are insured and have proper license, which means they are very reliable.

If we talk about the other types: commercial cleaning and consumer house cleaning, then all the services such as window cleaner, residential maid services, carpet cleaner or any other relevant cleaning solutions comes under the category of consumer cleaning. While the other services such as janitorial services that offer more range of services including giant cleaning companies related to every type of cleaning services comes under the category of commercial cleaning. Whatever services you go for always do your homework.

Ingredients of Your Chinchilla Dust Bath

Although rain rarely visits the dry and rocky environment of the Andes Mountains in South America, wild chinchillas have adapted and managed to make the most out of their environment. For the various succulents covering the area alone, these have evolved in such a way that whenever precious water is available, either growing vast roots underground to soak every drop, growing very close to the ground for immediate access, or storing the water in their juicy flesh. For wild chinchillas, eating some succulents replaces drinking. And since water is hard to come by, grooming includes bathing in the fine sand and ash scattered about.

Since many chinchillas have been bred in captivity and domesticated, companies and pet owners have tried to mimic aspects of their natural habitat by providing them with a variety of special chinchilla dust baths available in pet stores.

Chinchilla’s fur is rich and thick, helping them insulate their bodies against extreme temperatures, protecting their sensitive skin from bacteria and parasites. Unlike other domestic animals, you cannot wash your pet chinchillas with water or shampoo. Their skin is prone to bacterial and fungal infection with moisture. This is why, even when in the wild, chinchillas roll in fine dust to clean. Chinchilla dust is formulated in such a way that it does not dry out your pet’s coat, only absorbing and stripping away excess oil, dirt, and moisture.

Most chinchilla dust baths available in the market today usually have the vague phrase “natural chinchilla dust” written under the ingredients portion of the label. In the wild, the dust they roll around in is composed of either fine volcanic ash or eroded pumice rock found in the area; or a mix of both. Some products are made of grounded pumice rock. The “Chinchilla Bath Sand” product claims that it is made entirely out of “100% Natural Volcanic Mountain Pumice found in the Andes Mountains.” The tagline also includes that such an ingredient is “dust free” lessening the trouble of dust flying around during bathing time.

For other products like “Sun Seed Sunthing Special Chinchilla Dust Bath”, the product lists ‘Fuller’s earth” as an ingredient. This is a mineral that is known to be capable of absorbing oil, moisture, and other impurities; also added in some cosmetics, powders and pharmaceuticals. Interestingly, movie sets also use the powdered mineral to simulate larger and cheaper explosions. For other uses in pet care, the ingredient is also known to be in cat litter and other pet powders.

Other possible ingredients put in the mix of chinchilla dust include either a portion of really fine sand or fragrances. Be wary of cheap knock-offs that are only made of sand as this doesn’t really do a good job in cleaning your pet chinchilla. The Kaytee and Pet Scentsations brands offer various chinchilla dust baths with scents ranging from melon, to raspberry and vanilla. Other brands state their products to be environment-friendly and all-natural. These are great considerations in choosing the perfect chinchilla dust variety for you.

Chinchilla dust is usually affordable depending on the size you require or would like to keep in stock. Prices range from approximately $4 (for about 30 ounces) to about $30 (for a big sack of over 60 pounds of dust). Many pet owners usually try a variety of products to see which best suits the chinchilla they have.

Knowing what exactly is in the chinchilla dust bath you buy helps in understanding your chinchilla and its basic needs even better. And just like any good consumer, it pays to be on the look-out for only the best products available for your pet.

Hybrid Diamonds Or Diamond Stimulants – Which is Better?

Diamond stimulants have been around for many years. In fact, the common simulated diamonds have been available in the market today for many years now. In 1998, a more brilliant diamond was introduced. It is hard like the diamonds since it can also cut glass but still, mined diamonds are the best.

Hybrid diamonds came into the industry several years ago and since the, it has gained worldwide acceptance. The hybrid variety consist of small diamond crystals which were aligned to form one diamond. Such creation became the flawless diamond simulant and with modern technological advances, jewelry lovers craved for more. Most simulated diamonds were off-white in color while the hybrid versions can be easily created to have the same color as the mined diamonds. Aside from that, hybrid diamonds are more affordable since the production cost is quite low. The hybrid variety is FG graded, durable, good quality, and possesses almost the same color as the mined ones.

With the combination of non-precious cores and man made crystals, diamond hybrids feel and look like real diamonds. A patented process is used to manufacture diamond hybrids. The infused layer will not disconnect or peel and so the diamonds are of good quality. Throughout the FCVA-Ion Jet Beam Diamond Seeding, crystal seeds are implanted. A real diamond layer will grow inside the core. The patented process is not expensive and so the hybrids are more affordable. It would be best to purchase diamond hybrids that were cut in Israel since diamond cutters there are well known for their skills. By choosing diamond hybrids sold in quality settings, you can witness the diamond's unmatched brilliance. If you want, you can also get the colored varieties like blue, cognac, lavender, purple, gold, yellow, and pink.

So, are you going for the hybrid variety or will you choose the other diamond simulants? Simulated diamonds are bright and shiny but they are nothing compared to mined diamonds. Their specific gravity, refractive index, hardness, and weight are not even close to real diamonds. True diamonds came from carbon which was subjected to extreme pressure and suffocating heat deep down the Earth. Later on, it became diamond crystals.

Most of today's simulated diamonds came from synthetic, minerals, and glass; they are marketed in various names like white corundum, yttrium aluminum garnet, rhinestones, strontium titanate, and gadolinium gallium garnet. Fine quality simulated diamond jewelries are usually sold in attractive settings. They are sold in different price ranges under $ 100 to about $ 500 per carat. Today, many couples choose simulated diamonds for their special occasions because it is much affordable and with proper care, the jewelries can last for a long time.

Whether you go for the hybrid diamonds or the diamond simulants, you can still get great value for your money. It's now up to you to choose the design and setting of the diamond jewelries. If the simulated varieties are still expensive for you, you can always choose the hybrid diamonds. Search for the perfect diamond jewelry online or in local stores.

Diabetes in Astrology

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder of the endocrine gland pancreas. When we eat, the pancreas automatically produces the appropriate amount of insulin to break down the sugar into glucose which is the main source of energy.

Diabetic people’s pancreas either produces little or no insulin, hence excess glucose build up in the blood which overflows into the urine. In this way the body loses its main source of energy and subsequently becomes weak.

In astrology by the careful examination of the horoscope, it is possible to predict the susceptibility to the disease diabetes.

Astrological factors influencing diabetes are:

  • Ascendant: the general build up and strength of physical body
  • Venus: rules kidney, suppression of urine
  • Moon: rules pancreatic action and blood flow, urinary derangement
  • Jupiter: arteries, veins, degeneration, diabetes
  • Sign cancer: rules pancreas, blood
  • Sign Libra: rules kidneys,and excretory system
  • Sign Sagittarius: arterial system
  • 6th house: house of disease

Planetary combination’s which cause diabetes are:

Venus:

  • Venus afflicted by Sun/Mars in watery signs.
  • Venus and Jupiter are afflicted by malefic and a malefic planet is posited in 8th house gives diabetes.
  • Malefic Venus placed in ascendant/inauspicious house.
  • Venus and Jupiter are afflicted by malefic and a malefic is posited in the ascendant.
  • Venus combined with a malefic in 8th house and also aspected by a malefic.
  • Ascendant is afflicted by malefic and its lord is in depression/set/hammed between malefic/inimical sign and Venus placed/aspect 8th house causes diabetes.
  • Venus placed in 2nd house, ascendant is aspected by malefic and lord of ascendant placed in 6th house in the state of debilitation.

Moon:

  • Moon afflicted by Sun/Mars in watery sign.
  • Moon is heavily afflicted by Saturn
  • Moon in a watery sign and that’s sign lord placed in 6th house again aspected by a watery sign planet indicates diabetes.
  • Moon placed in a watery sign and lord of that sign is placed in 6th house and aspected by Mercury [which is placed in watery sign].
  • Moon and Jupiter are afflicted by malefic and a malefic sitting in 8th house.

Jupiter:

  • Saturn heavily afflicts Jupiter.
  • Jupiter placed in Purvashadha constellation.
  • Jupiter situated in the constellation of Rahu and afflicted by it.

Sign Cancer/Libra/7th house:

  • Two or more malefic planets placed in 7th house or sign Libra.
  • Sign Cancer is heavily afflicted by Saturn.

6th /8th house:

  • 6th lord is placed in 8th house or vice versa.
  • Two or more malefic planets placed in 6th house.
  • Rahu combined with lord of 8th house in 8th house/trine causes diabetes to the native.
  • A very negative malefic planet sitting in 8th house and Jupiter and Venus are heavily afflicted indicates diabetes.
  • Lords of 4th and 7th house are placed in 6th/8th/12 house.
  • Lord of 6th/7th combined with lord of 12th house and aspected by Saturn indicates diabetes disease.

General:

  • Two or more malefic planets placed in watery signs.
  • Lords of 4th and 7th are sitting in inimical signs and aspected by malefic
  • Lord of 3rd combined with mercury and Mars in ascendant indicates diabetes.
  • Mercury posited in the sign of Jupiter [Sagittarius and Pisces] and aspected by Mars may cause diabetes.

BY

GEETA JHA [SPIRITUAL HEALER]

INDIA

Principles of Accounting and Accounting Assumptions

In the modem world no business can afford to remain secretive because various parties such as creditors, employees, taxation authorities, investors, public and government etc., are interested to know about the affairs of the business. Affairs of the business can be studied mainly by consulting final accounts and the balance sheet of the particular business. Final accounts and the balance sheet are end products of book-keeping. Because of the importance of these statements it became necessary for the accountants to develop some principles, concepts and conventions which may be regarded as foundations of accounting. Such fundamentals having wide acceptance give reliability and creditability to the financial statements prepared by the accountants. The need for 'generally accepted accounting principles' arises for two reasons: First, to be logical and consistent in recording the transactions and second, to conform to, the established practices and procedures.

There is no agreement among the accountants as regards the basic concepts of accounting. There is no uniformity in generally accepted accounting principles (GAPP). The terms-axioms, assumptions, conventions, concepts, generalizations, methods, rules, doctrines, techniques, postulates, standards and canons are used freely and inconsistently in the same sense.

Principles

"A general law or rule, adopted or professed as a guide to action, a settled ground or basis of conduct or practice." This definition given by dictionaries comes closest to describing what most accountants mean by the word 'Principle'. Care should be taken to make it clear that as applied to accounting practice, the world principle, does not connote a rule for which there can be no deviation. An accounting principle is not a principle in the sense that it admits of no conflict with other principals.

Postulates

Mean to absorb without proof, to take for granted or positive consent, a position assumed as self- evident. Postulates are assumptions but they are not arbitrary deliberate assumptions but generally recognized assumptions which reflect the judgment of 'facts' or trend or events, assumptions which have been borne out in past by facts provided by legal institutions making them enforceable to some extent.

Doctrines

Mean principals of belief: what the scriptures teach on any subject. It refers to an established principle propagated by a teacher which is followed in strict faith. But in accounting practice, no such doctrine should be adhered to but the word denotes the general principals or policies to be followed.

Axiom

Denotes a statement of truth which can not be asked by anyone.

Standards

Refer to the basis expected in accounting practice, under different circumstances. In Indian context, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) issued an Accounting Standards Board on 21st April, 1977. The main function of ASB is to formulate accounting standards taking into consideration the applicable laws, customs, usages and business environment.

Accounting Assumptions

The International Accounting Standards Committee (LASC) as well as the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) treat (vide IAS-I & AS-I) the following as the fundamental accounting assumptions:

(1) Going concern

In the ordinary course, accounting assures that the business will continue to exist and carry on its operations for an indefinite period in the future. The entity is expected to remain in operation sufficiently long to carry out its objects and plans. The values ​​attached to the assets will be on the basis of its current worth. The assumption is that the fixed assets are not intended for re-sale. Therefore, it may be contended that a balance sheet which is prepared on the basis of record of facts on historical costs can not show the true or real worth of the concern at a particular date. The underlying principle there is that the earning power and not the cost is the basis for valuing a continuing business. The business is to continue indefinitely and the financial and accounting policies are followed to maintain the continuity of the business unit.

(2) Consistency

There should be uniformity in accounting processes and policies from one period to another. Material changes, if any, should be disclosed even though there is improvement in technique. A change of method from one period to another will affect the result of the trading materialally. Only when the accounting procedures are adhered to consistently from year to year the results disclosed in the financial statements will be uniform and comparable.

(3) Accrual

Accounting attempts to recognize non-cash events and circumstances as they occur. Accrual is concerned with expected future cash receipts and payments: it is the accounting process of recognizing assets, liabilities or income for amounts expected to be received or paid in future. Common examples of accruals include purchases and sales of goods or services on credit, interest, rent (not yet paid), wages and salaries, taxes. Thus, we make a record of all expenses and imports relating to the accounting period whether actual cash has been disbursed or received or not. If a fundamental accounting assumption (ie Going concern, consistency and accrual) is not followed (in the preparation of financial statements) the fact should be disclosed. [AS-I para 27].

What Is The Difference Between Laminate Flooring and a Floating Floor?

What is a floating floor? I get this question often from customers because someone has told them they should get it. But, they don’t understand what a floating is.

Technically, a floating floor means that it is “floating” on top of the floor below it and is not directly secured to the floor (i.e. no nails and no glue). Instead it is held down or secured around the edges of the room – the base molding/shoe molding and transitions. This is often used if it is going over an existing floor or on top of cement – more about this later. Now, because the floor is floated and not secured to the floor there tends to be a bit more movement in the floor – you especially see and hear this in laminate floors and it’s more noticeable if it was poorly installed.

Given the definition, there are many types of floating floors as you’ll see below, so anytime someone tells me they want or think they need a floating floor, I need to dig a little deeper to make sure I’m understanding their wants and needs because there are many types of floating floors. (Plus sometimes someone tells me they need a floating floor and when I get to their house I discover that they don’t need a floating floor).

1. Laminate floors -Laminate floors are floating floors. Laminate is fake – it looks like hardwood, but it’s not – it’s a digital picture of hardwood and it clicks together. (There are also versions that look like tile) One of the advantage of laminate is that is less expensive than hardwood – both material-wise and labor-wise and it can often be placed on top of existing flooring without needing to rip it up, so this saves more money in labor.

2. Some engineered hardwoods are floating floors. Hardwoods can be installed 3 ways: 1) nail down (if there is plywood there), 2) glue down (engineered only) and 3) floated (engineered only). Some hardwoods are specially made to click into place just like a laminate does (they are easier for do-it-yourselfers and some can be installed over radiant heat). You click them into place and once they clicked, they are locked into place. The other option for non-clickable engineered hardwood is to glue the joints of the hardwood. Either way, both options require underlayment underneath the hardwood just as you would use for a laminate.

3. Cork is a floating floor. They come in interlocking pieces (usually 1 ft x 3ft) and click together just as a laminate does.

4. Some vinyls are floating floors (but most aren’t). Usually vinyl is glued down, but some of the more recent fiber floors that have some fiberglass and extra cushion for your feet can be glued or floated. If they are floated, they just lie on top of the floor and are secured along the base molding or cove base along the walls and cabinets.

So, after all of that, why would someone want a floating floor? Here are some of the reasons:

1. They want to save money by not ripping up the floor. Instead, they just want to go on top of it.

2. They have asbestos tile on the floor and it would be dangerous/illegal to remove that (or very costly to have an abatement company come in and professionally abate it).

3. They have a floor where glue will not adhere to it well (e.g. epoxy floor or floor w/ lots of ridges and not a flat surface.

4. They are putting hardwood on top of radiant heat (and hence need to avoid adhesives and nails).

Here are some reasons why customers mistakenly THINK they need a floating floor.

1. They don’t have plywood or it’s going over a cement subfloor. This is the most frequent area of confusion. While floating floors definitely will work over cement, you do not need to do a floating floor. You can, but you also have the option of doing an engineered hardwood and gluing it down. So, be sure to understand your objectives and your budget before ruling options out.

2. It’s below grade/in a basement. Floating floors can work in the basement, but other floors can also work so this is where it’s necessary to understand the objective of the room, moisture issues and budget.

3. There is a moisture issue. Well if there is a moisture issue, this should prob. be addressed first. Or, if you are not going to make any changes, then pick the appropriate floor that will work with moisture. Hardwood, laminate and cork are no no’s if you have a moisture issue. Many customers mistakenly believe that laminate is waterproof, and I have news for you…it’s not. It’s made w/ hardwood shavings, so if you are concerned about hardwood and moisture same goes for laminate. If there is a moisture issue, consider vinyl or tile.

4. They have a sloping or uneven floor. Hard surfaces don’t generally work well over uneven floors regardless of whether it’s hardwood, laminate, or tile. it’s best to level these out first, but the floor prep will cost you more money. If budget is a concern w/ the leveling, the consider a more flexible surface such as vinyl, carpet or rubber.

I know there are a lot of issues to consider and I suppose this is why it’s best to consult a professional. Everyone’s situation and budget is different. Frequently, I will narrow down to the 2 or 3 choices that could work for my customers and price them all out and then let them decide what works best with their needs and budget. I’ll always add in my 2 cents (or sometimes even a nickel).

Mold – A Very Dangerous Carpet Problem

Mold is a very serious and sometimes misunderstood contaminant in houses and other buildings. There are guidelines regarding inspection and treatment of mold in Orange County for all sales, purchases and rentals of any type of property and there is good reason for this. Mold can cause severe health problems and even death to certain individuals as some form of mold are pathogenic and extremely toxic.

Carpeting is a part of almost every home and office and helps to make it a nicer appearance although carpeting applied to concrete floors can trap mold more than other type of material. Mold can also grow under tiles on concrete floors, as well as area rugs. Moisture is the number one cause of mold and you want to be certain that if any large amounts of moisture by way of humidity, spills or flooding occurs that you consult with a local Orange County carpet cleaning specialist that can help you to determine if you do in fact have mold and how to treat it.

In order to stave off any mold from appearing one of the best methods of attacking it would be to pull back all of the carpeting to expose the wet or moist areas and let a fan run continuously in order to dry them completely. If mold has been discovered growing on or underneath the carpeting and padding both will have to be removed for cleaning or possibly replaced, so time is certainly of the essence. If the padding has mildew in it, it will most likely need to be discarded and replaced as it can be almost impossible to remove all of it. Padding is rather low cost in comparison to carpeting, so again, the sooner this is remedied the better!

You value your Orange County home and office and you value the people in them. When thinking about something such as carpeting, which most do not normally give a lot of thought to in their day, you would have hard pressed to come up with safety issues as any type of concern for something that is, in essence, an accessory to make a place look nicer when in fact it most certainly can cause harm if not treated properly. In most cases it would be best if you do not attempt to clean or remove the mold yourself as it can be extremely dangerous to you, your family and anyone entering if not properly attended to.

If you find you want to do the mold removal yourself be sure to pull back all the carpeting and padding to help you ascertain that the entire area is dry and use a chemical such as bleach to clean with. Use gloves and a mask and make sure the area is well ventilated and take numerous breaks outdoors for your benefit. Make sure to water the bleach down so as to not cause damage to any surface areas, as well.

Be sure to consult with a specialized carpet cleaning company for any concern and desires you may have regarding mold to keep yourself, your family and friends and co-workers as comfortable and healthy as you can!

Your Fireplace's First Fire

As winter approaches, you may be one of the lucky few that have recently installed a new fireplace in your home. Whether it is a typical brick fireplace, or a contemporary type there are some things you need to understand before you start your first fire. One contemporary type, ventless gas models, essentially require the user to turn it on and the technology takes care of the rest, but other types require the user to build a fire similar to building a fire at a campsite or in an outdoor fireplace.

Here is a quick checklist and brief description of each item to get you started:

-Open the damper of the chimney

-Ensure the chimney has positive draft. In other words, the chimney and fireplace are designed to suck the smoke from the fire up the chimney shaft and outside the home instead of your living room. To do this, simply light a match and hold it adjacent to the start of the chimney outlet inside the firebox. The flame of the match should bend in the direction of the outlet. If this happens, your chimney is ready to go.

-Building a perfect fire starts with using seasoned firewood cut to the appropriate length. Seasoned firewood has typically been cut, split, and stacked a season prior to when it is used. If you do not have access to timber, you can find several local vendors which will be happy to sell you a cord of firewood.

-Place crumbled up paper under the wood grates, usually ten pieces of paper will work, then cover with small kindling or a premanufactured fire starter log.

-Safely light the crumbled up paper and its fire will light the kindling on fire. Once the kindling is on fire and is burning brightly, place a few (no more than three) small pieces of seasoned firewood onto the fire.

-Place the fireplace screen over the hearth or close the door on the wood burning fireplace insert.

-After the season firewood is burning swiftly, add a few additional pieces being careful not to tumble out the fire and not to overload the firebox creating excess heat.

While the fireplace is in use, it is important that the fireplace screen is in place for safety purposes. Many individuals have purchased contemporary fireplace accessories, including beveled glass enclosures or have designed their brick fireplaces to have integral inserts which have doors as opposed to screens or enclosures. Which ever type you have, safety remains first as burns from a fireplace can be very serious.

Landscaping Materials – Plants, Lumber and Stone

There are many different types of landscaping materials available to anyone and you do not have to be a landscaping professional. Do-it-yourself landscaping has become popular and materials that were once available only to contractors and landscapers are now available to the general public. There are now many more stores that supply exotic landscaping materials then there once was. If you have an area to landscape and can lift, dig and use a shovel then you can create an attractive design using plants and other landscaping material.

Walls and pathways can be very pleasant and can be fully integrated into your design. These features are usually made using stone landscaping material. Materials needed for paving, retaining walls and dry setting are much more extensive than just using brick. Design stones, textured patio paving and articulate granite can be combined to form many different patterns. You can access information on planning and stone laying online and you will soon discover that these types of projects are easier then you first thought.

When you use landscaping materials that create a lovely outdoor area you will be spending more time outdoors than before. Decks that were originally wood are now being ripped up and replaced with stones, creating a relaxing outdoor patio.

Patio Deck Materials

Other landscaping materials have progressed much further for boards and lumber than the old green-treated wood. There are other options available if you can not afford to replace your old lumber with the newer wood materials. Boards can now be found made of recycled materials that look better than natural lumber and these recycled boards will last much longer than regular wood.

Plastic board can be found in a wide range of colors that can be neatly accessorized with greenery and other outdoor plants. There are also many natural stains available if you decide to use natural wood for your patio deck. When using a grain on wood it is important to apply a waterproof coating, as this will provide long-term protection for you patio deck.

Stone materials can also be used on patio decks and should not be limited to only paths and walls. Stones can be used as stand-alone attractions, such as a large rock surrounded by shrubs and plants. You can also use stone for a variety of seating ideas. Stone landscaping material are popular choices to bring life to a dull yard. Also using stone your design should also include trees, flowers, shrubs and plants to create an attractive outdoor area.

No matter what landscaping material you decide to use you should always make sure that your design blends in with the surroundings. It is important to enhance your home with landscaping and create a comfortable area where you can relax. You can enhance interesting features and create shady lounging points. You do not want your yard to be too busy so remember to keep things simply and create a lush look with greenery and potted plants.

Installation of Polystyrene Insulation on Fiberglass

Insulating a home can be performed by setting up a blend of fiberglass and the polystyrene foam insulation. Generally the fiberglass filling is utilized in between the hoops of the walls that are outside the home and is set up from indoors. On the other hand the polystyrene foam insulation is generally set up and fixed to the externals side of a home. The polystyrene insulation and the fiberglass insulation combine in a form where the polystyrene filling is set up on the fiberglass one. Given below I have provided the process by which these two kinds of insulation can be combined.

Utilize a measuring strip in order to determine the proportions of the place that requires to be covered with polystyrene foam insulation. Determine the altitude from the peak to the base and then measure the breadth from sides. Buy the panels of polystyrene insulation from any house development store. Utilize the calculations that have already been taken of the entire place in order to decide the number of panels you must buy.

First of all set up lone panels as they will not require to be slashed for fitting. Now set a panel straightly on the fiberglass filling and then fix it to the side. Utilize a mallet and fixers to secure the panel of the filling to the hoops in the side. Afterwards determine the dimensions of places that will require a particular range of filling cut. Always remember to create a mark on the panel of insulation with a pen or marker at the place from where you are going to cut it. Finally take the help of a sharp blade or saw in order to slash the panel of the filling to accurate dimension and after fix it on the fiberglass filling on the wall.

How To Buy Replacement Wood Shed Doors For Your Back Yard Storage Shed

Generally speaking, shed doors are the first problem you'll have with your shed (other than Mother Nature). It makes sense as your shed doors are the only moving part of your shed and are opened and closed many times through their use.

If you purchased your shed from one of the big box stores, you will have shed door problems sooner than later because of the way their doors are built.

The sheds the big box home improvement stores sell are shipped by the manufacture on tractor trailers and all the parts and pieces of the shed must fit into a nice box so they are lighter and take up less room to cut down on shipping costs and make them easy to load and unload.

Quality wise, the item that suffers the most are the doors. They need them to be as light as possible and fit flat into the box; so many shortcomings are taken giving the shed buyer a weak set of doors that will fail sooner than later.

The shortcuts include; using weak trim pieces as the actual frame structure of the door, only using staples to fasten the door sheeting to the trim and not using a complete 2×2 "or 2×4" frame on the inside of the doors for strength.

As your shed ages and settlements into its footprint in the backyard, the shed floor becomes un-level resulting in hard to open doors. The shed owner must use more force to open and close the doors which loosens the staples and nails that hold the doors together. Note: the shed builder is trained to add screws to the factory built door for added strength but seldom is this actually done and if it is, they use too much force and spin the screws which result in no holding power at all.

As the staples and nails loosen, the seams and trim in the door start pulling farther apart making it even harder to open and close the doors. Even more force is needed and before you know it, the doors are falling apart.

Most big box sheds come with a warranty and you can get the doors replaced. Most warranty claims are not scheduled appropriatively and it will take many calls to get your new doors. The squeaky wheel will get the grease in this case so be diligent in your complaining.

The bad news; the replacement doors will be the exact replica of the existing doors and the same problems you're having will happen again. There is no warranty on the replacement doors so be prepared to spend around $ 500.00 for doors from the original manufacture.

The good news; you can buy replacement doors on the Internet that are better than the doors that came with the shed and are easy to get and install yourself.

The first step is to measure the vertical and horizontal door opening (also called rough opening) of your shed. Use your measuring tape and measure from the bottom of the header to the floor. This is your vertical measurement. The header is the piece of wood (usually a 2×4) that is above the door opening. It could be a 2×6 if you have a larger shed. Then measure your horizontal width from the stud (usually a 2×4, also called a jack stud) on one side of the opening to the stud on the other side. This is your horizontal measurement.

On cheaper sheds, the jack stud could be a 2×3 (which is okay) or the door opening may not have 2×4 studs on both sides. If this is the case, you can easily add a stud (s). Measure the length needed cut to fit and toenail the new stud in.

Once you have your measurements, you can shop online and find the best deal. As of this writing, there are only 2 companies that build and ship wooden replacement shed doors. Both companies are reputable, make a superior shed door to the one you'll replace and both ship UPS. All you have to do is find the best deal.

Quarter Sawn Wood Furniture VS Plain Sawn

Furniture artisans such as Gustav Stickley, Frank Lloyd Wright and the Amish used and often preferred the look of quarter sawn woods, especially oak, over any other woods. In oak the quarter sawn pattern exposed is often informally known as "tiger oak", especially when the cut has created that amazing striped effect. Popularized in the Arts and Crafts era by Mission furniture designers, the quarter sawn look is timeless and intriguing.

What then is the difference between plain sawn lumber and quarter sawn? Why does each one present their own beauty and production issues in furniture making?

The various sawing techniques used on the timber will affect and cause a difference in the wood's appearance. The way it is sawn even affects the properties of the tree and eventually its final use. The efficiency of the plain sawing technique means the production yields more. It is much faster and more efficient to plain saw and leaves less waste that can be sold for much less. An important factor furniture makers must consider is that the nature of wood is to expand and contract depending on the grain. Plain sawing timber can typically cause the board to be less stable. Because of wood movement plain sawn wood has some disadvantages. Plain sawn wood, however, can even have a very thoughtful after and interesting pattern to its grain called cathedrals and really can not be recreated by any other method.

A real prize of any furniture craftsmen or collector is in the grains and the ray flecks, of the woods. A tree always display growth rings and rays but the more obvious the rays, the more character is in the wood. Irregular growth rings can actually enhance the character of the rays. The proper cutting technique alone will bring out these other hidden lustrous rays. The nature of the oak is always beautiful and strong but the true beauty, much like in a good diamond cutting, is arguably revealed in higher priced quarter sawn oak. A log is first cut into quarters lengthwise and then each quarter is cut again lengthwise with parallel cuts. These cuts run sort of perpendicular to the tree's natural growth rings. This style of cutting, while less cost effective to produce, has an advantage. Because of the properties of the grain quarter sawn lumber makes it less pre to warping and shrinkage. Plain sawn lumber's grain is in many directions so making it more vulnerable to these two common enemies of wooden furniture. Quarter sawn wood adds a certain stability to furniture. Also, because of the features of quarter sawn boards, furniture makers can glue together boards for large projects and the grain can be matched as if it were seamless. This can make larger high end quality designs a masterpiece of nature and man.

Since cost is a factor in many furniture designs plain sawn boards have been used by many furniture manufacturers for decades since they are less expensive. Depression era furniture is often identified by its plain saw cut woods, or by its slightly more expensive quarter sawn veneers. That said not all veneers mean low end furniture but in many cases it is a cost cutting measure. Like Gustav Stickley, honorary father of American Arts and Crafts Mission furniture, the Amish still carry on the use of quarter sawn white oak with no veneers in their Craftsman style furniture.

8 Deadly Mistakes That Can Disable Your SSDI Claim and 6 Actions That May Help You Win!

Applying for and obtaining Social Security Disability Benefits (SSDI) can be a frustrating and confusing process. Did you know that almost 70% of claims are denied initially. That is staggering. While there is no surefire way to guarantee you will get SSDI benefits, this article outlines some of the common mistakes Louisiana SSDI claimants make. Also included are a few actions that you can take during the process to help give your social security disability claim the best opportunity for approval.

Deadly Mistake No. 1 – You Take "NO" For An Answer.
The truth is that close to 70% of initial social security disability applications are denied. If you take "NO" or "DENIED" for your answer, you miss out on your right and ability to appeal your denial. Statistically, social security disability claimants do much better on appeals to an administrative law judge (and then the court) than they do to the initial review. You have to be persistent, patient, and willing to be told no, or denied, and then move to the next step.

Action No. 1 – Appeal Every Denial and Reapply If Necessary.
Do not take NO. If you believe that your medical records and functional limits qualify you for disability, do not give up. Keep fighting by appealing the denials until you can no longer appeal. If you miss an appeal, or your limitations worsen after you have reached a final decision on a prior claim, apply again.

Deadly Mistake No. 2 – You File An Incomplete Disability Application.
Many social security disability claims fail to provide all of the necessary information or documentation social security needs to properly review your file. Sometimes, it is not your fault, but the fault of your doctor or medical facility. But either way, the result is the same, failing to provide all necessary information and records, and make sure your doctor has done so as well, can kill your SSDI claim.

Deadly Mistake No. 3 – You Fail to Dispose All Medical Conditions or Injuries.
Some SSDI claimants will only tell social security about their most obvious medical problem – for example, back pain – but not about other medical issues they may be experiencing, especially mental health problems – such as depression. The fact is that in examining your claim, social security is required to determine how ALL of your medical conditions affect your ability to work. If you do not tell them about all of your problems (no matter how minor each is), they will evaluate you only on your major issue.

Action No. 2 – Discose ALL medical conditions and limitations – physical and mental.
Social Security has to determine how all of your medical limitations affect your ability to work in determining your disability claim. So you need to tell them about all of your problems. Your knee that locks up and hurts for 20-30 minutes every once in a while after strenuous activity is as important as your congestive heart failure. Your ability to maintain personal relationships and take direction from supervisors can be as important as your back pain. Tell Social Security about all of your impairments.

Deadly Mistake No. 4 – You Wait Too Long To Appeal Your Denial of Disability Benefits.
You have 60-days from the date of your denial to appeal to the next step of the process. This is true with each relative denial. Missing the 60-day window to appeal can and often does spell the end of your disability claim. Now you can reapply, but you have to go back to the beginning of the line.

Action No. 3 – Appeal Within 60-days.
Social Security laws and regulations provide you 60-days from the date you receive a denial to appeal. In determining what day you received the denial letter, Social Security rules assume that you received it 5-days after it was dated. To make life easier, if you believe the denial was in error appeal as soon as you can after receipt of the letter. You can appeal online at http://www.ssa.gov or by calling your local social security office. You do not want your valid disability claim to be denied simply because you failed to file your appeal within 60-days.

Deadly Mistake No. 5 – You Over Exaggerate Your Limitations or Speak in Absolutes.
Some SSDI claimants will tell social security – "I can not sit" or "I can not walk". For most disability claims, this is simply not true. You will be able to sit for some period of time or walk some distance. (I do admit that there are a few people where these absolutes are true, but not for most.) When you speak in such terms, the examiner gets a bad impression of you because this is simply not true in the large majority of cases. What happens when the examiner gets a bad impression of you and your credibility is asked? You get denied. Be truthful.

Action No. 4 – Be Truthful And Tell Social Security The Details.
You can never go wrong with the truth. The truth is important to your Social Security Disability Claim. While you do not want to over exaggerate your limitations by speaking in absolutes, you also do not want to under report your abilities. Good responses are those that include details such as "I can hold a gallon of milk and walk with it for 10 feet before I need to put it down and rest," or "I walk to my mailbox to collect my mail. 30 feet. Before I walk back, I need to rest for a few minutes at the mailbox to regain my strength. " Responses such as these that accurately describe your true limitations and provide concrete details allow an examiner to effectively evaluate your limitations. You should also remember that these examiners have heard it all and hear it all. They are very adept at spotting exaggerations and untruths. If they sense that with you, you will lose credibility, which is important.

Deadly Mistake No. 6 – You Approach the SSDI Process Without Understanding It.
For most people, the only experience you will ever have with applying for disability benefits is when you have to do it for yourself. Do you know exactly what you are trying to prove? Many people do not. Often, disability claims think all they have to prove is that they have some type of medical condition and they should win. This is not correct. You need to know what you need to do and prove in order to do it and prove it. Otherwise, you could have a ship sailing to an unknown harbor without a map.

Action No. 5 – Read Informational Sources to Help You Understand The Process.
I believe it is important for social security disability claims to know something about the process the government uses to determine whether or not you will qualify for disability benefits. That's one of the reasons why I write articles, blog, and provide information to disability applicants – it is a complicated process. You can find valuable information across the internet and especially on SSA.gov (the Social Security Administration's homepage). These resources can help you better appreciate the process, especially if you are determined to fight for your benefits alone.

Deadly Mistake No. 7 – Failing to Dislose Your Entire Work History and Vaguely Describing Your Duties.
Sure, you have been doing the same job for the last 7 years, and before that you worked for another company for 5 years. You remember those. But what about in between those two jobs, when you worked with your brother-in-law for 2 weeks and was paid. Social Security will know about every job you had where you paid taxes – no matter how much. You need to think about exactly what jobs you had and what you were required to do in each job and accurately report that to Social Security. This again will go to your credibility if you fail to do so.

A second part to this mistake is not accurately describing your duties. You may tell social security you drive as part of your job. But for how long at one time? How often each week? These details can have a major impact on the disability determination. Leaving out these details can be deadly to your disability claim.

Deadly Mistake No. 8 – Failing to Get A Disability Attorney To Help You.
Disability attorneys are familiar with social security's complex rules and regulations. They know what medical records are necessary to prove up your diagnosis and know the questions to ask your doctor to help prove your limitations. Do you? They know what role a volunteer expert will play during your hearing. Have you heard of a volunteer expert? Do you understand what they are trying to do? I am not saying that you can not win a disability case without an attorney (actually, many people have), or that an attorney guarantees you a win (even the best football teams lose during any given season), but having a well prepared attorney who knows the game plan of the opposition can put you in a better position to find success.

Action No. 6 – Hire A Disability Benefits Attorney.
This may sound self-serving, but doing so can help you present your disability claim in the best possible manner to social security. You would not treat your own broken arm although you have seen a doctor wrap it in plaster of Paris and put it in a sling. A doctor can make sure that it is set properly and knows precisely how long the arm needs to remain immobilized. Similarly, with a Social Security disability attorney, the attorney knows and understands the process as well as certain strategic moves that can bolster you chances for success.

By avoiding these deadly mistakes that can disable your disability claim and taking the actions that could help, you will give yourself the best opportunity to get the SSDI benefits you need to survive.