Bearpaw Boots – An Affordable Alternative to Uggs and Emus

For some time now women have been purchase Uggs and Emu boots, not only do they look stylish but they are comfortable as well. However, there are a new range of sheepskin boots available which look just as great and which are more affordable than the ranges offered by Uggs Australia and Emu Australia. The boots that we are in fact talking about are the ones known as Bearpaw boots.

If you were to go to sites such as Amazon you would soon discover that the boots that this company make are some of the most popular selling ones. Of all the styles that Bearpaw has produced the ranges which are proving most popular of all are the styles known as T410 and M410. Each pair has a suede outer lining and inside they are lined with soft sheepskin.

The natural lining in these boots as with those made by Uggs and Emu help to keep your body temperature at a constant level. Plus these boots enable moisture to escape so no matter how long you wear them for your feet remain dry, warm and cozy.

There is one difference however between these styles of boots and those made by Uggs and Emu including styles such as the Emu Bronte or Ugg Classic Crochet Tall. The boots that Bearpaw have made come with a thermo plastic rubber sole and again this helps to ensure that whilst being worn your feet remain cozy and warm inside them.

As with any style of sheepskin boots you can purchase today these ones are so comfortable that many women choose to wear them without putting socks on first. But not only have Bearpaw created a wonderful array of boots for women to wear they also have plenty of wonderful styles for children and men. However, now we will take a closer look at the two styles that seem to be proving the most popular.

1. Bearpaw Model T410 – This style of boot has an outer suede covering and the height of the boot from the arch is 12 inches. Most women tend to wear these boots with a great pair of jeans or a casual skirt and although some prefer to wear them at their full height. Other women tend to fold the top of the boots over in order to expose some of the boots best feature its sheepskin lining.

These boots are perfect for wearing in cold weather (although not wet or snowy conditions) as the rubber soles on them provide ample grip as you walk along. As well as being comfortable these boots come in a number of different colors including sand, chocolate, chestnut, and nutmeg and of course black.

2. Bearpaw Model M410 – Again this style of sheepskin boots has a suede outer lining, but the length of these is slightly less than the T410 version. In fact the height of this particular boot is only 10 inches in length from the arch of it. As with the other style we discuss in this article these look great worn with jeans or even a long denim skirt of Boho skirt.

Again these boots come with the rubber soles so that the offer you plenty of traction when you wear them and even in cold weather, although not wet or snowy they are suitable. What makes these particular boots stand out from the ones we have mentioned as well as the similar styles created by Uggs and Emu is you have more choice of colors. Along with the neutral colors like sand, black, chestnut and chocolate this range comes in Light Pink and Navy.

If you do purchase a pair of Bearpaw boots then before you wear them for the first time it is a good idea to use a good quality suede protector on them. There are plenty of different ones now available and using this will help to main the look and feel of your Bearpaw boots.

How to Deal With Party Crashers

Gatecrashers can ruin parties. So, to avoid spoiling your party, here is an effective way of dealing with party crashers.

1. Study their behavior.

After finding out that those people are not invited, watch and observe their actions. Carefully study how they behaved without being obvious. What do you think is their purpose of going to your party uninvited? Did they come because of the food and drink? Are they posing aggressive or disruptive behavior? Are they mingling with and causing trouble to your guests? Observe them and ask a few of your friends to do so.

2. Figure out if they are troublesome or not.

After watching them for a while, you will be able to know if can or will cause trouble and ruin your party. Talk to your friends you have asked to observe the gatecrashers about what they think of them.

3. Decide if you will let them stay or escort them out.

Many times, people walk into a party uninvited just to have fun or some thrill, or for free food and drinks. At some point, you have to approach them and politely ask them who invited them to your party. If they say, they were invited by one of your guests who is present, approach and ask that particular guest they are referring to. If they were actually invited by one of your invited guests, then you might want to consider letting them stay. If they are really gatecrashers and do not mean any harm, go with your instincts and consider the observations you did earlier. If you feel they just want to have pure fun and would not bother any of your guests, they you can consider having them. But, if you feel and see that they can become a threat to you and your guests, politely ask them to leave. Tell them with all kindness and firmness that your party is private. Do this with some of your friends. Approach their group without being too intimidating or threatening, otherwise you might trigger a commotion. If things get to worst, call the police and let them know what you did. That will serve as a warning for them and hopefully they will leave without making things worse.

5. Talk to your DJ for hire.

Your DJ can do so much in maintaining the happy and relaxed mood in your party despite the presence of gatecrasher who try to make some trouble. When you go for DJ bookings, talk to the DJ of your choice and make a plan on how to handle such a situation. You can talk to him that once he observes that a little commotion is going on, he could get the attention of your guests away from the trouble going on with the gatecrashers. He can ask your guests to dance, play a game, or anything that would make the overall mood of your party normal and not intense.

How to Cook Chestnuts

Wondering how to cook chestnuts? It's not so mysterious or difficult as you may think and even if you do not decide to cook them yourself, there are some wonderful chestnut products that make it even easier to enjoy this fabulous nugget of nutrition.

Selecting and Preparing Chestnuts

  • If you wish to cook chestnuts yourself, be sure that you buy only very fresh chestnuts. They should feel heavy in your hand and not rattle about in their shell. Chestnuts tend to go bad – rapidly growing moldy and wormy.
  • Chestnuts have a hard outer shell and a thin inner skin, both of which you need to remove in order to eat them. It is easier to remove these when the chestnuts are hot.
  • You always need to pierce the shell before cooking, otherwise pressure will build up in the nut and they will explode.

Three Methods for How to Cook Chestnuts

  1. Roasting chestnuts – Just like in the Christmas song, learn how to cook chestnuts over an open fire for a fun family activity . You will need a special long handled chestnut roasting pan or popcorn popper to do this. Using a sharp knife, cut an X through the shell of each chestnut. Place in the pan and roast for about 20 minutes, tossing and turning the pan occasionally.
  2. Baking chestnuts – This gives similar results to roasting but requires no special equipment. Simply slit the shells with an X and place on baking tray. Bake at 375 ° F for about 20 minutes. If you wrap the chestnuts in a dishtowel while they are still hot, this can make shelling them easier.
  3. Boiling chestnuts – Boiling chestnuts is a good option if you are planning on using them in a recipe. You can cut the chestnuts in two and make sure they are good before boiling. Place the chestnuts in a pot of cold water and bring to a boil. Boil for five minutes or until the chestnuts are done as you wish (this depends some on the size and what recipe you are using them in). Shell and peel the chestnuts under cold running water while they are still hot (you may want to wear gloves).

Chestnut Products

Chestnuts are very nutritious, low fat, and can be employed in a variety of ways. Even if you do not learn how to cook chestnuts, do try using some of the great chestnut products available on the market to add this interesting food to your life.

  • Roasted chestnuts – You can buy jars of roasted chestnuts ready to use. Add these to soups, stews, steamed vegetables, or just enjoy them straight from the jar.
  • Chestnut puree – This comes in both sweetened and unsweetened preparations depending on how you would like to use it.
  • Chestnut flour – This is an excellent product for people on gluten free diets. Adds an interesting dimension to cakes, spreads, crepes, and other baked goods.

Cuisinart Coffee Maker – Tips on How to Prolong Your Coffee Machine Lifespan

It is important that you take good care of your machine to ensure that they will serve you well. I personally have a Cuisinart Grind & Brew Coffee Maker which I have use for years without problem. This is because I take good care of it. I am going to share with you some good tips on how to prolong the life of your machine by proper maintenance.

I have notice that Cuisinart coffee maker parts need proper care to ensure their lifetime. This is because they are top notch machine which perform better compare to other brands and its parts are more flimsy. It is very important that you take care of them.

Many people do not know that location is important, this means that you must find a strategic place to put your Cuisinart coffee maker. This machine like said are build with high technology and have many electronically parts that are quite sensitive in nature. Always make sure that you find a place not to near to high temperature like near stoves or oven or even places near the back of radiators or refrigerators. The consequence of that is you may encounter more breakdowns if you place them at extreme temperature places. Do take note of this simple tip might lead you to lower costs of maintaining your coffee machine.

The best place I would suggest putting your Cuisinart coffee maker at your kitchen counter top. They are not very bulky in nature and also stylish in a way so just place them at your kitchen countertop.

Personally mine does not have any problems and I have not replaced any parts for years.

The next important tip is cleaning your Cuisinart coffee maker. For me personally, I clean my machine every time after use. Yes I know it is hard for most people but I advise that if you want them to perform longer, you need to do this. The reason is that the residual oil of the coffee beans would turn into rancid and if you do not rinse them off it will eat your parts up. So the best way is to clean them after use. If you really do not have the time, at least make an effort to rinse them off especially the carafe.

Cleaning your Cuisinart coffee maker is very important like I say earlier. It is a very good way to pro long their lifespan and you would have ensured that it will brew you the best coffee every day. If you really do not have the time you should at least wash them twice a week if you are a daily brewer.

My last tip on ways to pro long your Cuisinart coffee maker is you need to gauge how frequently you brew coffee. If you are those people that brew 2 to 3 times a day half capacity, this may wear off your machine in the long run. Try to cut it down by brewing a full pot once daily. This is because when you are brewing at half pot capacity, you are stressing your machine in a way. Try to purchase a coffee machine that caters to your capacity needs. If there is not so many people that drinks coffee, do not buy a 12 cup brewing machines. Try to look at your needs before buying.

Simple rite, these 3 steps if you follow them, I could guarantee you that your Cuisinart coffee maker will serve you long and well trouble free.

What Are Panchaloha Idols and How Are They Manufactured?

As one of the oldest religions in the world, Hinduism carries a broad set of traditions, rituals and worship. Hinduism in the real sense is a way of righteous living and professes the unity of worship and the concept of a formless divine. But these are abstract concepts for many and the best way to help relate is through images. Over time, this was how the concept of various ‘Gods’ and ‘idol worship’ was developed, giving the free choice of worship ultimately to the individual. In this regard, Panchaloha idols play a key role in this regard.

Silpa Shastra is an ancient Hindu text dealing with arts and crafts and contains various design rules and standards. All idols whether stone or of metal have to be sculpted and manufactured according to these rules and prescribed rituals have to be followed both during manufacture and installation in order to obtain the correct benefits. Panchaloha idols are traditional idols of Gods fashioned from an alloy of 5 metals (silver, gold, copper, zinc and iron). The percentages in which these metals are used in the alloy varies between different regions in India.

The idol manufacturing process involves 2 steps. The first is the construction of the mould and the second is the actual creation of the idol. Initially, an image of the deity is created in wax with all the details. This wax is prepared by mixing paraffin wax, resin from the tree Damara Orientalis, and ground nut oil. Since wax produced by this method is quite hard, softer bee’s wax of high purity is mixed to make it easier to bring to life finer details.

To create a mould, the wax model is covered in layers of fresh clay and soil and then allowed to dry. Once the clay dries, it is heated to melt the wax and create a hollow mould. The melted Panchaloha metal alloy is then poured slowly into this mould to allow air bubbles to escape. This is then allowed to cool and solidify into the idol or deity. The cooling period varied between a few hours to a few days depending on the size of the statue and is judged based on experience. Finally, the craftsmen break the clay mold starting from the head of the statue to get the preliminary image. This image is then worked on to produce the final product.

The process has remained the same since the time of ancient dynasties like the Chera and the Chola and it is heartening to note that the art continues to thrive in various corners of India even today.

Mold – A Very Dangerous Carpet Problem

Mold is a very serious and sometimes misunderstood contaminant in houses and other buildings. There are guidelines regarding inspection and treatment of mold in Orange County for all sales, purchases and rentals of any type of property and there is good reason for this. Mold can cause severe health problems and even death to certain individuals as some form of mold are pathogenic and extremely toxic.

Carpeting is a part of almost every home and office and helps to make it a nicer appearance although carpeting applied to concrete floors can trap mold more than other type of material. Mold can also grow under tiles on concrete floors, as well as area rugs. Moisture is the number one cause of mold and you want to be certain that if any large amounts of moisture by way of humidity, spills or flooding occurs that you consult with a local Orange County carpet cleaning specialist that can help you to determine if you do in fact have mold and how to treat it.

In order to stave off any mold from appearing one of the best methods of attacking it would be to pull back all of the carpeting to expose the wet or moist areas and let a fan run continuously in order to dry them completely. If mold has been discovered growing on or underneath the carpeting and padding both will have to be removed for cleaning or possibly replaced, so time is certainly of the essence. If the padding has mildew in it, it will most likely need to be discarded and replaced as it can be almost impossible to remove all of it. Padding is rather low cost in comparison to carpeting, so again, the sooner this is remedied the better!

You value your Orange County home and office and you value the people in them. When thinking about something such as carpeting, which most do not normally give a lot of thought to in their day, you would have hard pressed to come up with safety issues as any type of concern for something that is, in essence, an accessory to make a place look nicer when in fact it most certainly can cause harm if not treated properly. In most cases it would be best if you do not attempt to clean or remove the mold yourself as it can be extremely dangerous to you, your family and anyone entering if not properly attended to.

If you find you want to do the mold removal yourself be sure to pull back all the carpeting and padding to help you ascertain that the entire area is dry and use a chemical such as bleach to clean with. Use gloves and a mask and make sure the area is well ventilated and take numerous breaks outdoors for your benefit. Make sure to water the bleach down so as to not cause damage to any surface areas, as well.

Be sure to consult with a specialized carpet cleaning company for any concern and desires you may have regarding mold to keep yourself, your family and friends and co-workers as comfortable and healthy as you can!

The Many Benefits of Pine Furniture

Have you ever given serious thought to the type of wood used to create your household furniture? Would you know the difference between a piece of pine bedroom furniture and cherry bedroom furniture? If not, you are not alone. Most people shop according to price and appearance without even considering the type of wood that was used to make the items. Yet, you have very good reason to start thinking about this.

The type of wood chosen for furniture will determine how strong the furniture is, how long it lasts, and whether it promises to split and break apart easily. It will also affect the color and appearance of the furniture if it is not painted. This is where knowing the difference between different types of wood furniture becomes important.

Out of all the wood furniture available today, pine furniture is one of the most popular options. Let's take a look at why it is so appealing to so many people.

Aesthetics

The natural color of pine is very appealing. It is a lighter shade of wood that can be stained or painted to virtually any other color that could be desired. Yet, many people who purchase furniture made from pine opt for the natural wood grain to be shown off. When it is properly manufactured it is a very beautiful wood that is very appealing to most people.

Furniture made from pine that has the natural coloring looks more elegant and gives warmth to the home.

Durability

Pine is a strong wood that creates very durable furniture. As long as it is cared for properly pine bedroom furniture will hold up to routine use for many years. You can even purchase furniture made from pine for use in a child's bedroom without worry that it will fall apart in a short period of time.

Durability is one of the most important things to consider when purchasing furniture. One of the reasons people have to replace items in their home routinely is because they do not purchase high quality furniture made from durable wood sources. Plastic and metal furniture is often less expensive than a solid wood piece of furniture, but they also tear up much faster because the materials just are not as durable.

Pricing

Of course, you can expect to pay more for a nice piece of solid wood furniture than you would for something similar made from plastic or thin metal. Yet, there are ways to get affordable wood furniture. Pine is a very affordable wood source so you can often find high quality furniture made from pine that costs less than the same pieces made from other types of wood.

The quality is still there, but you will pay less in general for a nice piece of pine bedroom furniture than you would for the same furniture in other types of wood.

Pine Furniture Styles

Due to the light painting of natural pine wood, many pieces of pine furniture have a very country, warm feeling to them. You can use pine to create virtually any style of furniture, but it is often used to create furniture with a country or more traditional feel to it.

There is a reason why so many DIY woodworkers enjoy working with pine when they make furniture for their own home. They are able to save money while creating very stable, durable pieces that last for years and look amazing in the home.

Top Rated Mississippi River Bridges

Mississippi River, cited as the natural boundary for US divisions, either on west or east sections has made its mark in US popular culture. The construction of different Mississippi River Bridges carries several routes, and interstates made traveling a wonderful experience for the citizens. Until this very moment, new bridges are conscientiously being transported and carefully planned to help ease out traffic in other states.

One of the most popular bridges crossing the Mississippi River is the Rock Island Government Bridge built in 1856. It was the first bridge across the Mississippi River to connect Rock Island, Illinois, Davenport, and Iowa. It has two sets of railroad tracks above auto lanes. This was the bridge rammed by Effie Afton and went up in flames. Abraham Lincoln defended the railroad against a lawsuit filed by steamboat interests and navigation.

Stone Arch is the first bridge upstream built in1883 for Great Northern Railway. It connects Mississippi River and Saint Anthony Falls. It is now used for pedestrian and bicycle bridge.

Eads is the most historic and one of the oldest bridges. It is a combination of road and railway bridge. It was the first to use steel through cantilever construction. It was responsible for the caisson disease or bends outbreak because it used pneumatic caissons. The construction killed 15 workers and injured 77 people.

Poplar St. Bridge, also known as the Popular St. Bridge, was completed in 1967. It is the busiest downtown bridge with 120,000 vehicles passing over it daily. It is a steel girder bridge with 8 lanes.

MacArthur is a narrow truss bridge with a monster curve. It is one of the oldest bridges built in 1917. It is now used as a rail traffic bridge.

Martin Luther Bridge was built in 1951. It is the second newer bridge, also known as the Veteran's Bridge. It has an overall length of 4000 feet with a cantilever style. It was refurbished during the 1980's.

Santa Fe Bridge is also known as the Fort Madison Bridge. It is the largest double deck swing span bridge in the world. It was completed in 1927. It serves as an automobile traffic bridge. It is owned by BNSF railway.

Hernando de Soto Bridge is known for its unique structural letter shape. The arches shaped the letter M and it made it into Guinness Book of World Records. It carries Interstate 40 connecting Memphis, Tennessee and Arkansas. It opened in 1973.

Memphis and Arkansas Bridge is the longest Warren truss bridge in the US. It carries Interstate 55 to Memphis. It is a cantilever through truss bridge, which opened in 1949.

Frisco is the longest cantilever truss railroad bridge in North America. It was opened in 1892. It was formerly known as the Memphis Bridge. It has an overall length of 4,887 feet.

Clark Bridge is also known as the Super Bridge. It is a cable stay bridge built in 1994. It was named after William Clark. It carries Route 67 with an overall length of 4,620 feet.

Norbert Becky is the first bridge to use light emitting diode lights. It is also known as simply Becky Bridge. It was completed in 1972 carrying Iowa Highway 92 and Illinois Route 92. It has an overall length of 3,018 feet.

Black Hawk is also known as the Lansing Bridge. It is a cantilever trough truss bridge with an overall length of 1,653 feet. It was named after Chief Black Hawk, an appointed war chief. It is listed in Historic American Engineering Record.

Julien Dubuque Bridge Connects Dubuque, Iowa and Illinois. It is an uninterrupted steel truss arch bridge. It carries 2 lanes of US Route 20 with an overall length of about 5760 feet. It is also listed in National Register of Historic Places. Last June 2008, it got stuck by 15 barges.

Savanna – Sabula Bridge is a steel truss through deck bridge carrying US Highway 52. ​​It has an overall length of 2482 feet. It was opened in 1932.

Bridge 9340 is also known as I-35W Mississippi River Bridge. It was the one that collapsed in August 1, 2007 killing 13 people and leaving many others injured. It was an 8-lane steel truss arch bridge with an overall length of 1,907 feet.

Origin Of Collective Bargain

The term collective bargaining was coined in 1891 by Beatrice Webb in her work cooperative move in industries.

The employment term according to her can be determined either unilaterally by the state, unilaterally by employees, unilaterally by workers and by the combined efforts of the employers and their organs, workers and their organs and the state representatives.

C.I.B study text (1982:258) observed that since the 1960s there have been certain developments in the system of collective bargaining. It explains that negotiating arrangements have been introduced in many organizations at local or plant level, i.e. in “domestic” bargaining. For example, a union might negotiate minimum wage rates at a national or company level and then separate negotiations at plant level might be concerned with extra payments for special arrangements, such as a productivity agreement in the plant.

Before the advent of collective bargaining, employees bargain individually, through the interview i.e. individual contract.

Collective bargaining is therefore collective in the sense of multi-party involvement in form of decision making concerning a broad range of issues that effect all parties in the industry.

Contrary to Webb’s definition of collective bargaining as a collective equivalent and alternative to individual bargaining. Alan Flanders (1975:253) says collective bargaining is primarily a political institution because it is a rule making process, which involves power relationship between organizations or organized interest groups.

Dunlop (1958:302) drew attention to the dynamic of collective bargaining processes, he observed that the major activities of collective bargaining involves the determination of priorities within each side in the bargaining process i.e. there are disagreement within each side. Constant discussions, disagreement and compromise and exists from time to time in these processes.

Collective bargaining is an important technique or mechanism in industrial relations meant for resolving goal conflict. It is a joint activity where each side recognizes the right of the other to be present in equal terms. I.e. when you talk of collective bargaining, it is a forum where the employers and employees are to be present. The employer do not tell the employees to leave the negotiating table, they both have fifty-fifty chance.

Employees and employers through their representative come to agreement on pay and condition of employment. The process of negotiating is often referred to as COLLECTIVE BARGAINING.

The development of Collective Bargaining

The C.I.B study text (1988: 355) observed that before the advent of collective bargaining, employers bargaining individually through the interview i.e. individual contract.

It is also observe that since the 1960s there have been certain developments in the system of collective bargaining. Some of these are:

Negotiating arrangement has been introduced in many organizations at level or plant level i.e. in “domestic” bargaining.

Another is that more matters are now brought within the sphere of collective bargaining arrangement because negotiation now might cover not only pay and condition of service or employment but also promotion, training, agreement, job demarcation etc.

Finally, collective bargaining has been extended to more group of employees.

Factors influencing Collective Bargaining

According to the N.U.T study circle materials (1992: 68), some of the factors that influence collective bargaining are itemized below:

(i) The ability to pay

(ii) The mandate of the employers representative

(iii) The relative strength of the union and management

(iv) The sensitive nature of the job and the importance society attaches to it.

(v) Strategies adopted by the union officials

(vi) The quality of work.

(vii) Influence of international financial institution e.g. I.M.F.

(viii) Statistics, which are generally economic in nature, collective, collated and interpreted by the union officials.

However, the C.I.B study text (1988: 355) stated that one final point to note is that there is a complex of factors within an without the organization which affect the bargaining relationship and that although there is an agreement to go through grievances or dispute procedures (in a constitutional way) the majority of conflict in this country are unconstitutional, that is in breach of procedure.

Negotiation procedure

Standoher (1982: 217) defined Negotiation as the act of discussing, conferring in order to come to an agreement, arranged by discussion. He also defined bargaining as making a condition, or give up something in return for something else.

However, Yoder (1982: 471) wrote that the negotiating procedures consist essentially of advancing proposal, discussing them, receiving counter proposal and resolving differences. He asserted that it may involve elements of training, as concessions are granted bye ach of the parties.

Moreover, he stated that negotiation procedures are determined in part by the law, states and administrative board and courts decision regulate the particular issues that bargaining can decide. The law further requires that the parties negotiate their contract in good faith.

Formal negotiation according to yoder (1982: 471) creates the collective bargaining agreements. In formal negotiation, the parties met at predetermined times and places to exchange proposal, agreement and rebuttals. Informal negotiating he said is a continuing process arising out of the day-to-day interoperation, and application of the formal agreement. Representatives of the parties exchange ideas, and arrive at agreement with respect to the meaning of various clauses and appropriate programmed for putting them into effect.

He also observed that informal negotiation can be regarded as part of the total process of contract administration. It is highly important in the relationship established by collective bargaining: the degree to which informal negotiation takes place and how the parties adapt themselves to resulting changes may well be a measure of their maturity and effectiveness as collective bargainers.

Yoder stressed that the formal process of negotiating begins in several ways. If the parties are bargaining for the first time, sessions may follow union recognition by management or certification by federal or state agencies. If the parties have already negotiated one or more agreements, the timing of the negotiation process may be prescribe by existing agreement. It may call for formal, advance announcement by either party if changes are to be sought in a new agreement. The process may begin by an exchange of letters between the parties. Or one party may announce to become news. Negotiation continues until differences are resolved or until the parties find that they cannot arrive at a satisfactory agreement without assistance. Conciliation and mediation services may help in settling their differences. Certain unsettled issues may be submitted to arbitration. If agreement is not achieved in negotiation, employees may strike, in which case, settlement of the strike involves further negotiation.

They may, on the other hand, continue working without agreement while negotiation goes on.

Preparation for Negotiation

Yoder (1982: 472 observed that although the extent of advance preparation by both managers and unions differ, many of them spend month in getting ready for negotiation, unions study the experience with existing agreements in the investigate the financial condition of employers. Union members may be polled to determine their preferences.

He noted that many management undertake similar preparation for the negotiating process. They seek information on the nature of settlement made by other employers in the same or related industries. They study the operation of the present agreement to discover section in which they desire changes.

Moreover, he asserted that they forecast financial prospect and secure information on the labour markets in which they must shop. They try to anticipate union demands and have at the argument they may use in opposition to demands they regard as unreasonable.

Experience is reviewed to provide a basis for further negotiation.

Both management and union need fact as well as philosophy and policy to guide them in actual negotiation. Representatives know the basic policies of the organization they represent. They should be well informed on current practice in the industry and locality and on recent changes in practice. Both parties may require extensive statistical and other information with respect to their experience and that of other firms and unions.

Yoder finally noted an important objective in preparing for negotiations is determining the cost of changes in contract provision.

Strategy and tactics

According to Yoder (1982: 471), strategy refers to the overall plan of how to proceed at the bargaining table to achieve objectives. Examples would be to take a “hard time” or to be con-operative, tactics include the individual method that a party utilizes to implement its strategy. Example would be to table round, bluff or trade-off issues. The behavioral approach of Walton and Mckersie, outlined, lends itself to analysis of strategy and tactics. Strategically, most managers and union leaders view negotiation as a contest in which the “smart player” wins.

This comports with the fact that since most negotiations is distributive in nature, the parties are competing in an “win-loss” situation on individually bargaining items. Thus, negotiation is seen primarily as an adversary relationship.

Yoder (1982: 495) stressed that in applying tactics to distributive issues, both sides typically adopt extreme positions. The unions present a “laundry list” asking for the “sun, moon and stars”, and management typically, offers very little at the onset. He further asserted that both parties recognize the need to bluff.

They may make dire threat with no serious though of carrying them out. Negotiators sometimes fell a need to impress their constituencies that they have fought hard and avoided a catastrophe.

Bluffing may help to create this impression.

However, Standoher noted that one effective position for management may be to make demand of its own in bargaining. Underlying this is the adage that “the best defense is a good offence”. In recent years, management has sought to ease restrictive work rules, and ahs even proposed “take away” lowering or eliminating benefits that existed under the previous contract.

Strike and trade disputes

The C.I.B study text (1988: 380) defined strike as a temporary stoppage of wok in the pursuance of a grievance or demand. It explains that strikes are the most common form of industrial conflict and there are a wide variety of issues that can result into strike and mis-understanding in an organization.

The trade dispute Act, section 37 defines a trade dispute as “any dispute between employers and workers or between workers and workers which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the term of employment and physical conditions of work of any person.

How Durable Are Laminate Cabinet Doors?

Even though laminate cabinet doors are almost the cheapest selection for your cupboards, they are far from being the lowest in quality. When speaking from a standpoint of durability, I think high-pressure plastic laminate doors are the most durable of all.

Now I’ve been in the kitchen cabinet manufacturing business for many years and have owned several companies related to the industry. I’ve seen my share of old Formica cupboards that were in excellent shape. I have also seen some that were not in such good condition. Just like anything else, when something is maintained correctly, it’s possible “that” something will last a lifetime.

Laminate doors will last thirty to fifty years. The only thing that is required of the owners is to keep them wiped down regularly. Formica doors are easily cleaned with Windex, Formula 409 or just a damp cloth.

If you are considering having Formica in your kitchen or bathroom, may I suggest that you select white or off white for the color. Through the years these two colors have long withstood the ever changing kitchen cupboard trends. Many different shades and patterns of laminate get discontinued every year, but white remains on the color chip chains of all the suppliers.

Now it is important that you DO NOT confuse Formica laminate doors with Thermofoil doors. Raised panel Thermofoil doors WILL NOT last as long as the hard-shell, high pressure plastic laminate doors.

The two things that have a negative effect on Formica plastic laminate doors are how they are fabricated and cared for. If the manufacture did not use enough glue on the doors, then you will experience problems. In my expert opinion this only occurs once in ten thousand kitchens.

It’s important to understand the difference between a Melamine door and a plastic laminate door. Melamine is actually applied to the core board by the people who make the board. Formica laminate is applied by the people building your kitchen. Melamine is NOT as durable as laminate; it is thinner and not available in as many colors as Formica.

Here are a few cabinet door styles listed from cheapest to the most expensive:

  • Melanine
  • Plastic Laminate Doors
  • Thermofoil
  • Real Wood

Here’s a list of cupboard door styles from the lowest quality to the highest:

  • Thermofoil
  • Melamine
  • Real Wood
  • Formica

The way laminate doors are made is the sheet of plastic is purchased separately from the board. The board gets cut to the correct size for cabinet doors and then the plastic is cut a little over size. The laminate edges of the door are glued on first. Next, the front and backsides of the doors are covered with the Formica. Contact glue is used as the adhesive and routers are what the laminate is trimmed flush with the door’s edges with. Cabinet makers use a file to smooth off the sharp edges. Any access contact adhesive is cleaned off with lacquer thinner.

Kitchen cabinet doors are laminated with “vertical” grade or VT plastic. This is the thinner of the two choices. Countertops are made out of the thicker plastic that is called “standard” thickness. VT is generally one thirty second of an inch thick and standard is one sixteenth of an inch thick.

If you are considering getting Formica plastic laminate doors for your kitchen or bathroom, ask your cabinet maker if they can be three quarters of an inch thick. Five eighths thick laminate doors are durable and hold up well, but the thicker option will be more durable in the long run.

Benefits of Building a Shed With Plastic Lumber

Maintaining wood can be expensive, time consuming and a great effort, which are just a few of the reasons why it makes more sense to use plastic instead.

Plastic recycled lumber has many benefits over natural wood and it will not splinter, warp, crack or rot. Recycled lumber is also denser than wood and requires very little maintenance, and will last for more than forty years. Being resistant to UV rays, graffiti and stains, pleasing to the eye and available in a variety of different styles and colors are just more reasons why using recyclable plastic lumber for building a shed just makes more sense.

When considering whether or not to use recycled lumber to build a shed, it is important to remember this product requires no pre-treating before it can be used in the outdoors. One of the most attractive features of using recyclable plastic lumber is because it is made from recycled products. The lumber comes in many colors and can be dyed to emulate the appearance of natural wood. There are different grains of wood, colors and styles available and it can be used to erect a shed or to replace existing rotted wooden boards on a shed already constructed.

People elect to use recycled plastic materials on decks, patio furniture and sheds because of durability and value. Unlike wood products, recyclable plastic lumber will retain its appeal and is designed to withstand even the most sever of outdoor weather environments. Recycled plastic lumber will not bow or break, regardless of how old it is and it is lighter than wood, which means it is easier to work with.

Another benefit of using recycled plastic is the consumer's ability to order the planks with pre-drilled holes. Having the holes pre-drilled saves time and is less tedious when constructing a backyard shed and the material is not as heavy as traditional wood, which makes it extremely easy to use for whatever structure you are building. Recycled lumber planks will not experience color fading over time, which means it will always look attractive no matter how old the structure might be and you have no worries about needing to replace rotting or warped boards because of weather exposure.

You can save a lot of time and money when wanting to construct a shed, if you choose to use recycled plastic lumber. Instead of using wood to build a shed, by constructing it from recyclable plastic lumber you are doing your part to go green and using a material which has a longer life than traditional wood. Check out all the different varieties and colors available in recycled plastic lumber and you are sure to find something to suit your needs and requirements.

What Makes Something the Best in the World?

Anyone who experienced the recent performances put in from Usain Bolt can certainly have no arguments that the Jamaican athlete is the best in the world when it comes to 100 and 200 meters sprinting. However, many people and organizations claim to be the best without necessarily having a way to quantify their claim.

So what really makes something or someone best? According to the Oxford English Dictionary, best when used as an adjective is defined as the most excellent or desirable type of quality or the most suitable, appropriate or sensible. And when used as a noun, best is defined as the most excellent or desirable, the highest standard one can reach or a record performance.

When Angela Smith, the Minister for the Third Sector, said that Britain's charities and voluntary organizations were the best in the world, these specific definitions may or may not have been met but there is certainly an argument that Angela Smiths comments are true based on some impressive facts. Facts including that 73% of UK adults take part in volunteering or that 78% of people give to charity – the highest level of giving in Europe.

The UK voluntary sector may well be the best as they workirelessly to support people, communities and make the national and international environment a better place.

And so what can we all learn from their efforts to become the best in whatever we do? To begin with, people and organizations who are deemed the best seem to share a few key practices and these are determination, a hard work ethic and a belief in what they do. Many people do not necessarily set out to be the best in their field but by having a positive mental attitude and desire to succeed, they can end us as the best. Obviously having a gift like Usain Bolt helps but even those athletes who are competing against him know that even if they can not be the best in the world, they can achieve great things by being the best they can.

Going back to charities, community groups and other voluntary organizations, nobody knows who is really best, but in reality this does not really matter as the work they do is superb and it benefits society and that alone is better than any best tag. Likewise for charities who are searching for charity liability insurance or trust indemnity insurance, who is really the best insurance broker to choose from? Well since they should instead focus on choosing an insurance broker who specializes in charity insurance and who can help them get the protection they need the best possible price.

If you are looking for service providers, focus on what is best for you and there is every chance you will find the best one around.

Liuhe Pagoda (Six Harmonies Tower) of Hangzhou China – History and Information

Liuhe Pagoda or Six Harmonies Tower is a tall multi-storied pagoda in southern Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China. Located on the Qiantang River, at the foot of Yuelun Hill, the pagoda was built in 970 AD during the northern Song dynasty but destroyed in a war. It was then rebuilt and ruined several more times. The current wood and brick structure dates to 1152.

Being one of the impressive masterpieces of ancient Chinese architectures, Liuhe pagoda attracts thousands of tourists every year. The 196.5 feet tall pagoda has 13 stories outside and 7 stories inside. The six harmonies refers to the 6 directions (heaven, earth, east, west, north and south) as well as the six regulations of Buddhism. A bright lamp installed in the top can also served as a lighthouse.

The pagoda was originally built by the ruler of the Wuyue State (which is an area that now become a part of Zhejiang province). It is also believed that one of the reason for building Liuhe pagoda is to calm the tidal waters of Qiantang River as well as to become a navigational aid. During the night, lanterns were lit almost everywhere in the pagoda so that boats and ships on the Qiantang River could see the building and use it as a navigation tower. You can also see 104 large iron bells hung on its flying eaves as this was done to ward off harmful spirits who responsible for the heavy tides which had caused so much flooding before dykes were finally constructed.

Every story of the pagoda consists of 4 elements; the interior walls, the exterior walls, a zigzagged corridor and a small chamber. This octagonal tower also has a spiral staircase which leads to the top floor. Each of its seven ceilings are carved with painted figures such as birds, flowers, animals and characters. When the pagoda is viewed from the outside, it may appears to be layered-bright on the upper surface but dark underneath. That is harmonious alternation of light and shade.

If you climb to the top of the pagoda, you can see a beautiful and impressive view of the Qiantang River Bridge spanning the surging tides of Qiantang River. There is also an exhibition center near the pagoda that displays many details about other important ancient pagodas in China including all the information about their architectural style. That gallery is also known as the Pagoda Park.

Fireplace Cleaning and Maintenance

People experience pleasure having their own fireplaces in their own homes. It is considered a central appliance in a room due to the warmth and comfort it provides. But to keep it working that way, people need to do a bit of effort to keep their fireplaces working well and they should also make sure to remember fireplace cleaning and maintenance tips.

The fireplace needs regular care and clean-up to ensure a secure and cost-effective fire. Creosote, a combustible tar-like matter that builds up in the chimney and flue, should be cleaned out by a professional to do away with at least one possible fire hazard. The fireplace and its accessories must be given routine cleaning all through the wood-burning season to eradicate a buildup of ashes, soot, and creosote tars.

To maintain the efficiency of fireplaces, cleaning and maintenance should be kept regular. During yearly inspections, the chimney should be examined for damage, buildup and proximate to combustibles. The place around the chimney and the fireplace must be kept tidy and free from debris. The flue should be checked for obstructions like birds' nests, and overhanging branches must also be cut. The fireplace, in general, must be cleaned when necessary. It must be directed to make sure that there is sufficient protective linings and smoke ducts and that the chimney should be in good condition. The fireplace must likewise be kept clean so it would appear more pleasant to use and also to make it a better attribute for guests and visitors.

Some tips for fireplace cleaning and maintenance include the following:

· To keep the brass shiny, a toothbrush and Worcestershire sauce should be used. The brass knobs and the door or metal parts around the fireplace can be cleaned by scrubbing since this would keep the area tidy and gleaming.

· Doors should be open for venting. Avoid fire that burns longer than five hours.

· To avoid hot embers from jumping onto the carpet, the screen should be kept close. Place a non-flammable rug directly on the fireplace. This is to avoid sparks from ignoring the carpet or wooden floor.

· Do not leave the fire unattended, especially when there are small children.

· Use a chimney cap to avoid animal nesting, water damage or debris. This is also to avoid obstruction the chimney.

· Clean out the firebox once a week. To help coals heat faster and to retain their heat longer, an inch of ash must be kept in the bottom to work as an insulator. Before the ash is taken out from the firebox, open the damper to avoid ashes spreading out. Do not use a vacuum cleaner in cleaning out the ash.

· Use a brick cleaner when cleaning a brick fireplace. Use lemon oil every month or two to clean exterior slate hearths.

· Clean gas logs once a month using a soft bristle brush. Avoid cleaning them right after a fire. periodically remove the excess ashes and unburned logs from the fire.

These are just some of the ways to ensure that the fireplace performs at its best. In addition, it's always an advantage to follow the fireplace cleaning and maintenance pointsers religiously.

How to Hang a Mayan Hammock

Mayan hammocks have very different hanging requirements from the more commonly observed rope and bar hammocks. Following the guide lines below will ensure a safe installation and hours of unbelievable comfort.

How to Hang a Hammock Properly

At each end of the Mayan hammock are loops, called the eyes of the hammock. These loops should be 5 or 6 feet above the ground when the Mayan hammock is installed properly. The distance between supports can be about a foot less than the length of the hammock. For most Mayan sizes, this will mean 11-13 feet. If you have more distance, that is great. Use adjusting bars, and attach the hammock a little higher off the ground. The greater the hanging distance, the higher the attachment points must be. The hammock should hang in a catenary droop with the bottom about 2-3 feet above the ground. The best installations space the supports a little wider than the minimum, and take up the difference with the use of rope. This allows you to adjust easily for stretching.

A Special Tip : The first time you set up your Mayan hammock, hang it, then sit on it, unopened … and bounce your full weight a few times to test the installation and stretch the weave.

From Hammock Stands

If you have one of those typical low hammock stands that fit your old bar hammock. Forget about it. It just will not work. You will need a stand that is taller.

From Trees

Use "Tree Huggers", straps, or a strong rope tied around the tree trunk. Screwing hardware into trees is ill advised. Tree trunks or branches used to support hammocks should generally be at least 6 "to 8" in diameter to support the weight at the attachment height. If you use rope, be sure you know your knots, or you will get to know the ground!

From Posts

Set 10 'pressure-treated 4 "x4" or larger posts firmly in the ground approximately 12 -15 feet apart, depending on the hammock size. Bury the posts at least 3 feet in the ground, surrounding them with concrete, and allow the concrete to cure two or three days before using the hammock. Install 3/8 inch diameter 4 1/2 inch long lag eye screws in the posts for hammock attach points.

Inside Your Home

Locate a stud or beam by tapping the wall or ceiling or by using a stud-finder. You will hear a solid sound when you hit one. Hammer a small nail or drill with a narrow bit to make absolutely certain you're directly on the stud or beam. Locate the center of the beam by tapping additional holes to the left and right of the first one. Once properly located, drill a 1/4 "starter hole, then attach a heavy-duty 3/8" eye lag screw. Then use S hooks and poly rope to attach hammock. You MUST hang your hammock from a structural member such as a wall stud, ceiling beam, or concrete wall, etc. Never try to hang a hammock from plaster or wall board!

One Final Word: TEST BEFORE YOU REST!