Narcotics and Foot Pain – A Poor Combination

The use of narcotic medication to treat body pain is a common practice for many doctors and other health care providers. Narcotics are effective at relieving many types of pain, and are safe if properly used. The use of narcotics to treat severe foot pain is a practice that still enjoys some popularity, primarily amongstst non-foot specialists. Unfortunately, unlike pain in the rest of the body, foot pain often has a mechanical cause directly related to the way one's foot structure functions when walking. The use of narcotic pain medication for foot pain will often lead to a worsening of the condition causing the pain. This article will discuss the nature of narcotic medication, foot pain, and how the two do not need to work well together.

Narcotic pain medication is part of a large family of prescription drugs called opioids that effect the way people perceive pain sensation. These drugs typically bind themselves to cells from tissue found in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal system. The part of a cell an opioid binds to is called the opioid receptor. The medication binds itself to this area, and the end result of a complex process that follows is reduced pain sensation, increased pain tolerance, and euphoria. Unfortunately, some side effects can occur despite a good track record of safety when used properly. These can include sedation, a reduction in breathing ability, and constipation. Dependance on these drugs can also develop if they are taken long enough. When someone becomes addicted to pain medication, the dependency effect as well the euphoria created by the drug reinforces the body's desire to continue on the medication, even if it is not medically needed. By stopping the medication, a withdrawal effect can also develop, limiting the ability of an addict to discontinue the medication.

The traditional use of narcotic pain medication was for chronic, unrelenting pain. This type of pain is seen with terminal cancer, major surgery recovery, or during severe injuries like burns and major fractures. Recently, the use of narcotic pain medication has expanded to many types of pain, both acute and chronic. The masking of the pain can be beneficial for people to help restore a normal life without pain. This works fine if the pain is from an inflamed gallbladder, back arthritis, or rib fracture. When the source of pain comes from a foot injury, a more unique approach must be taken to control the pain, as simply 'feeling better' can often lead to a worsening of the injury that caused the foot pain and a delay in healing.

Most foot pain is due to an injury that occurs directly or indirectly as a result of some abnormality of the foot structure. For example, the vast majority of heel pain is due to an injury of a ligament in the arch called the plantar fascia. This injury is usually due to flat feet or high arches causing strain or shock, respectively, on the fascia. Without the abnormal foot arch structure, the heel would not hurt. The same can be said for many other common sources of foot pain, including Achilles tendonitis, arthritis, neuromas (pinched nerve), most toe pain, pain in the ball of the foot, bunion pain, and many causes of pain around the ankles. The common factor seen in these various conditions is the development of inflammation in the foot as a result of the body's overzealous attempt to heal the injured tissue. The treatment for these conditions ideally needs to revolve around supporting the injured foot, restricting motion at the injured area, and reducing the overzealous infection the body creates during the healing process. By reducing the inflammation, the pain is reduced. With this and proper support, the body heals efficiently without excessive pain.

Unfortunately, the use of narcotic pain medication only addresses pain control, and not inflammation or foot structure. Narcotics do not help at all with pollution, which is the true source of most foot pain. These medications will only reduce the body's perception of pain, allowing the inflammation process to continue. This will delay the body's ability to heal the foot for two reasons. Firstly, the excess of inflammation not reduced by the narcotic medication will continue and the body will heal when it is good and ready. Often this time period will be for much longer than what is really necessary, since the body forms an overzealous reaction to injury just to be on the 'safe side'. Secondly, with narcotics, the tension of many people is to resume activity as normal, since the foot does not hurt as much. When foot pain is correctly reduced because of inflammation reduction, increased activity may not be as harmful if proper foot support is still maintained. However, if foot pain is simply eliminated by a narcotic pain medication only, the feeling of 'normal' invites many into mistakenly resuming their activity as usual. This only worsens the foot injury and increases the inflammation, as the true nature of the injury is masked by the pain relief.

The foot is unique in that it receives the weight of the body above it and the stress of walking below it. Injuries to the foot need much more support and rest than any other part of the body. Narcotic pain medication use for foot pain allows excessive activity too early in the healing process, and should not be used for most types of foot pain as it does not address the underlying cause of foot pain: inflammation as a result of mechanically-caused injury. There are times in which narcotic pain medication is acceptable, and even advised for foot pain. Severe crushing injuries, fractures, burns, and other injuries that have nothing to do with foot structure or normal infection can benefit from pain control. However, narcotic pain control in fractures should be short term, and strict control of motion and activity is necessary, even if the foot 'feet better' with pain control. Foot pain from surgery can also be treated with narcotic pain medication in the short term, as much of that pain is due to the cutting of tissue. Most people require only a brief period of pain control following foot or ankle surgery, which does not usually exceed 3 weeks in most cases.

Narcotic pain medication has its place in the treatment of pain in the body. When dealing with most causes of foot pain, the combination of a likelihood of worsening the foot injury, delaying healing, and the problems of narcotic addiction make the use of these powerful drugs ill-advised. Properly addressing the inflammation of the injury, supporting the foot, and dealing with the abnormal foot structure that often led to the painful condition in the first place are far better ways to treat foot and ankle pain.

Dimensions of Group Dynamics – Keys to Effective Group Learning Discussions

In an age when active involvement of learners is recognized as crucial to effective learning, teachers and instructors in all settings are using group discussions as a method to promote more active involvement.

While some critics caution that brain-based learning research tells us there is still a need for time for individual reflection, it is hard to deny the fact that group activities promote more active involvement on the part of most learners. In addition, they are cost-effective and relatively easy to implement.

Teachers look for creative ways to structure group tasks, but some fail to recognize the importance of effective group functioning in achieving learning objectives. Simply turning over a task to a group is often not enough. The group must be able to function to perform the task while at the same time achieving beneficial learning outcomes for each participant in the group.

The academic discipline of Social Psychology has been studying how individuals perform in groups for decades. While there may be some debate over some issues, a review of the literature reveals five key dimensions for group functioning cited by most experts. Although there are differences in terminology, the underlying meaning is the same. The following five dimensions were popularized by Organizational Psychologists Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in their book, Spectacular Teamwork. Here are the dimensions:

1. Power and authority
2. Roles and responsibilities
3. Norms and standards
4. Morale and cohesion
5. Goals and objectives.

All groups – even those coming together for the first time – will exhibit these dimensions to varying degrees depending on their personal experience. In seminar and workshop settings, participants come from organizations structured under a “boss.” In the absence of a designated leader, some groups may choose to elect one. In other cases, a member emerges to fill the role. The point is, at some level, someone in the group must have or take the power and authority to provide direction to the group.

In some highly structured work groups, roles and responsibilities for different aspects of group functioning are assigned. Person A might be the designated timekeeper while Person B is the designated group recorder. In other cases, roles are assumed and different members may play different roles at different times.

Norms and standards are guidelines for acceptable behavior. For example, some work groups have discussion standards that only allow participation when the leader recognizes an individual. Other groups have norms that allow some individuals to contribute little to the discussion without being challenged. In a seminar setting, these norms and standards will develop over time, but initially, they are nothing more than the sum total of the experiences of the participants.

In the early stages of development, groups lack cohesion or a sense of togetherness. Consequently, morale is often neutral. Over time, effective functioning leads to increased cohesion and successful outcomes breeds a sense of morale.

Finally, all groups have goals and objectives. The most obvious is the group outcome as defined by the task. However, each individual in that group has his or her own goals and there can be a great deal of divergence across those goals. In some cases, individual goals can actually be at cross-purposes, making it difficult for the group as a whole to work towards a common objective.

Demons In A Dream House: The Sober Truth Behind The Amityville Horror

P aranormal researchers – if they are prudent – trust little of what's heard, and nearly nothing of what is read. Sensational stories, one finds, particularly of the supernatural sort, are catnip for a media often geared more to profit than truth.

Such was the case with Amityville.

The evolution of this infamous story tracks back to November 13th, 1974: Ronald De Feo, the Long Island son of a prosperous car dealer, fired eight shots from a.35 caliber rifle, killing his mother, father, two brothers and two sisters as they lay sleeping in their spacious, three-story Dutch Colonial home.

News of the criminals sent ripples of anxiety through the normally placid town, lifting the floodgates of speculation. Unexplainable wax drippings –leading a trail between rooms in the house – evoked dark murmurs of Satanic ritual and sacrifice. Others pondered the mystery of how De Feo managed to commit each of the six murderers without arousing his victims from sleep, asking why no one in the neighborhood had heard gunshots, and why all six victims were found lying face-down in death.

As Amityville's gossip mill ground overtime, attorneys in the case hunted for a motive. They did not need to look far. Abundant evidence shown De Feo harbored a deep-imprisoned malice for his family along with a "thirst for money": plaintiffs cinched their supposition of robbery with the discovery of a $ 200, 000 life insurance policy and an empty cash strongbox found hidden benefit the saddle of a closet in the family's master bedroom.

At first demonstrating his innocence, De Feo finally broke down and confessed. "It all started so fast," he told police. "Once I started, I just could not stop." He stated he had heard "voices" just prior to the murderers and upon looking around saw no one there, and assumed "God was speaking to him". William Weber, De Feo's attorney, pushed for an insanity plea, but lost. On December 4, 1975, De Feo was sent to twenty-five years to life on each of the six counts of second-degree murder for which he had been convicted.

Many residents expected that with De Feo's conviction the ugly fog of sensationalism which depended upon Amityville would at last begin to disperse.

But it did not; in fact, it thickened.

George and Kathy Lutz, a young, married couple from Deer Park, Long Island, were busy house-hunting. George worked as a land surveyor, and earned a respectable income. LaTelly, however, business had fallen off sharply, placing him in a financial squeeze. Of the 70 houses he and his wife had inspected, the De Feo house about the only one they found they could afford. Undaunted by its tragic history, high taxes and heating costs, they purchased it, and moved in with their three children on December 18, 1975.

The Luts had bought the house for $ 80,000, half of which was held in escrow by the title company because of a legal complication tied to the De Feo family estate. Sporting six bedrooms, 3-1 / 2 baths, an enclosed porch, and a matching boathouse and garage, it was – in the Luts' words – a dream come true. That dream, as much of the world already knows, was rudely shattered when, 28 days later, the Lutzes fled their home, declaring it was infested by demonic forces.

Newspapers such as Newsday and the now defunct Long Island Press splashed coverage on the story, reporting that De Feo's defense attorney, William Weber, had been introduced to the Luts in January by "mutual friends" and was now providing them "legal advice."

The Lutzes, Weber said, had expressed concern over "strange noises, doors and windows which mysteriously opened, inexplicable changes in room temperature, and sudden personality changes from pleasantness to anger", in the Amityville house. He added he had discovered that the land on which the house was built in 1928 was once a "forbidden" burial gound, and that one of the original owners had the name of a cultist who appeared in colonial folklore.

Based on the Luts' paranormal complaints, and providing an early whiff of foul play, Weber announced he was seeking a new trial in which he planned to argue that Ronald De Feo had been suborned into murdering his family through "demonic possession."

In the spring of 1977 – and ironically enough in Good Housekeeping – journalist Paul Hoffman presented a chronological summary of the Lutze's alleged experiences in a piece entitled "Our Dream House Was Haunted."

Hoffman had conducted extensive interviews with the family, and provided a dozen or so examples of paranormal activity that supposedly terrorized them into leaving. Many of the examples, however, were surprisingly mild in nature: senses of "unseen forces", temperature changes, strange noises and odors, mood shifts, episodes of obsessive-compulsive behavior – unsettling, no doubt, but far from extraordinary.

As for physical evidence, the Lutzes mentioned "black stains" that appeared on bathroom fixtures that could not remove and "tricks of red" that occasionally ran from some of the keyholes. The front door, which George Lutz claimed he'd double-latched earlier one evening, was discovered "wide open" the next morning; windows opened and closed by themselves. And once, George Lutz claimed, he awoke to find his wife sliding across the bed "as if by levitation."

Not long after Hoffman's article hit newsstands, Jay Anson, a screenwriter noted for his work on The Exorcist, conjured up real terror with his book The Amityville Horror: A True Story – creating an instant bestseller.

Within just a year, hardback sales of the book climbed to 3.5 million, and a movie – staring James Brolin and Margot Kidder, and penned by Anson himself – followed, and became a box office smash, raking in over $ 40 million in one month in New York alone. Anson and the Luts split all proceeding 50-50, making the Amityville story, not only one of the most publicized, but one of the most profitable in the history of the paranormal.

What instantly struck me while reading Anson's 200-page book was how dramatic and varied the phenomena had become since it had been reported to journalist Paul Hoffman earlier that same year. This kind of improvement – experience has taught me – is a sure sign of trouble.

How could anyone, for example, believe the Luts would have forgotten to tell Hoffman about something as shocking as a red-eyed pig named "Jodie," a ceramic lion that attacked and bit them – or green, gelatinous ectoplasm that oozed down from the ceiling? If anyone's memory is that bad, then it obviously can not be trusted at all!

Smelling a large rat in the woodpile, and anxious to expose what more and more I came to believe had been a tragic hoax, I began an official investigation into the case in November of 1977. Working in collaboration with a New York photojournalist named Rick Moran , I studied Anson's book carefully, and over a period of several months followed a trail of evidence that historically forced the case to crumble under an avalanche of contradictions, half-truths, exaggerations – and, in some cases, outright lies. In reality, one could devote an entire volume to all of the discrepancies dislodged during our investigation; in this condensed report, we will confine ourselves to the most glaring.

A central figure in Anson's book is a priest from the chancery of the Rockville Center Diocese. Anson credits this individual with a baffling array of hair-raising experiences, masking his identity with the name Father Frank Mancuso. The priest, it is claimed, was asked by the Luts to bless their new home and, upon entering the front door, was confronted by a disembodied voice commanding him to leave. Later, as the priest was traveling along the Van Wyck Expressway in Queens, his car was forced upon the shoulder of the road, the hood flew open, and, as he attempted to brake the car, it stalled. Shortly thereafter, Mancuso was supposedly afflicted with abnormally high temperatures accompanied by red, blistery splotches which appeared on the palms of his hands.

At the same time, reports Anson, the putrefying odor of human excrement pervaded the perpetrators' quarters at Sacred Heart and caused other practices to flee the rectory.

The priest – who real name is Ralph Pecoraro – was forced to leave his practice in New York as an ecclesiastical judge in the wake of massive public stirred by the release of the book. Pecoraro filed a lawsuit against the Luts for "invasion of privacy," claiming that was reported in Anson's book concerning him had been "grossly exaggerated." The suit was eventually settled out of court.

In addition, a fellow clergyman who challenged he was with Pecoraro on the evening of that fateful drive on the Van Wyck claims they experienced nothing more than an ordinary flat tire! The impact of the vehicle as it stuck a claim reportedly caused some minor damage opening the hood and door, but the reason for the accident was an old car in disrepair – not the interference of unseen forces, as Anson implies.

In a final blow to the story, Father Alfred Casola, pastor of Sacred Heart, dismisses the report of a pervasive odor in the rectory as "nonsense." Priests present at the time of the alleged incident also have no recollection of any such stench and deny being forced at any time to leave the building.

More troubling inconsistencies emerge with regard to Sergeant Pat Cammorato of the Amityville Police Department. Shortly after the publication of Anson's book, Cammorato found himself burdened with chronic problems over trespassing and vandalism at the Amityville house. Although by then the house was occupied by new owners (Jim and Pat Cromarty) who had not reported any psychic activity, this seemed to have done little to dampen the enthusiasm of the steady stream of thrill-seekers who nonetheless came at all hours of the day and night to inspect it.

Cammorato's heads were composed by claims made in Anson's book that the police officer once conducted an "official investigation" into reports of psychic disturbances at the Lutz's home during which he witnessed a wrecked garage door, the snow prints of a "cloven-hoofed" animal , and was overcome with "strong vibrations" upon entering the house. Cammorato punctures deep holes in these claims, and hauled out police logs to show why they could not possibly be true: on the very day Anson claims Cammorato visited the Luts, the logs indicate Cammorato was out on sick leave for surgery. The logs also testify to the fact that the Luts had not contacted the police during their own stay in the house, only afterwards, at that time requesting that the house be watched on account "it was empty."

For me, however, a nagging question about Seargeant Cammorato remains. Was he implicated in Anson's story merely by accident? Or was there possibly an ulterior motive? An incident concerning Ronald De Feo and Cammorato that occurred in the summer of 1973 suggests a possible answer.

While driving home from work one evening, Cammorato stopped at the De Feo house to talk to Ronald (whose nickname was Butch). Commarato had known the De Feo's since they had first come to Amityville, and his daughter was a good friend of Ronald's sister, Allison. "You know, Butch, we're having an awful lot of larcenies of outboard motors," he told him. "We have reason to believe you may be involved. If you are involved, you bettter stop because we're going to get you." "I do not steal outboards," De Feo replied.

Near the end of September, Cammorato spotted Suffolk Police arresting De Feo outside the latter's home. The officers were standing next to the open trunk of De Feo's car, which contained an outboard motor. Cammorato stopped to get the details. The seventeen-hundred-dollar motor had been stolen from a Marina in Copiague. Although Cammorato had nothing to do with the collar, he could not resist saying something. "See, Ronnie," he told De Feo, "we did get you." A few weeks later, the sergeant's daughter told him that Butch De Feo had threatened his life. The sergeant phoned Ronald De Feo, Sr., who blew up at his son.

Did Anson learn of De Feo's refused for Cammorato by entering into a secret collusion with him?

Alex Tannous, a noted psychic, recalls an interesting visit he made to the Luts' Amityville house in the spring of 1976. While there, he says he could sense nothing of a paranormal nature. Deciding to try psychiatry, he asked the Luts if they might happen to have anything personally connected to De Feo. He was handed a sample, he says, of De Feo's handwriting that he was shocked to see was part of a legal contract outlining he distribution of profits from a proposed book and movie. The experience served to reinvigorate his original feelings that the matter was a collective hoax.

The "horror" in Anson's book about Amityville is provided, in large measure, by manifestations of physical damage – at times mushrooming into epidemic proportions. Through the story are countless reports of damage to the house, garage and grounds we are told were fixed by outside repairman. Proof of this, however, is notably absent.

The book states that George Lutz contacted the services of the same repairmen and locksmiths that were originally used by the De Feo family. Checks, however, made with these businesses failed to confirm the commission of any such repairs at the Lutz home. More importantly, my investigation into this case with Rick Moran culinated in a detailed inspection of the entire house and no signs of damage were visible anywhere – no new hardware, no new locks, and no signs of repairs to any doors.

A comic perversion of logic was never more striking than in Anson's report of how George frantically nailed boards across the doorway to one room he felt was most negatively "tainted" by the surrounding forces of evil. We could not help noticing, however, that the door to this room, as do all doors on that floor of the house, opens inwardly – and, once again, shown no signs of damage.

In another scene from Anson's book, Cathy Lutz hurls a chair at a red-eyed entity through her daughter's bedroom window; yet there are no signs of any such damage and that particular window is at least as old as the others on the floor.

As for the third-floor window which the Luts often claimed "opened by itself," Moran and I found it surprisingly easy to reproduce this effect purely by stomping our feet in the center of the room. The window, it turns out, is counter-weighed improperly, with the weights heavier than they need be. The result is that any moderate-sized vibration will cause the window to open if they are not latched properly; that latch is broken now and was broken when the Luts lived at 110 Ocean Avenue. On interviewing the De Feo housekeeper we learned that finding the window open was no surprise, as it happened even when the De Feo's lived there.

A prominent feature of Anson's tale is a "secret" red room, hidden behind a bookcase in the basement of the Amityville house. The room is approximately 2 feet by 3 feet, with head room too low for anyone – except perhaps a hunchback mouse – to stand in. In reality, it is part of an existing gravity-fed water system from an earlier house built on the lot. The land was originally owned by Jesse Purdy, who was then in his 90s and lived in the house that once stood at 110 Ocean Avenue. This house was moved in the early 1920s to lot several hundred yards away. Part of the water storage system for the old house, the "secret" room is now used to give access to the water pipes that otherwise would have been walled up. Why is it painted red? Local neighborhood children said they painted it that color. As they indicated this is where they traditionally stored their toys, red appeared an appropriately bright and cheerful color. Anson, though, blithely ignores these facts, and links the room to images of blood, demons and animal sacrifice.

In discussing the physical phenomena Anson claims held the Lutzes in a visgrip of fear for 28 days, I would certainly be remiss were I did not make mention of the infamous green. gelatinous substance said to have nearly flooded their home. This material has undergone a radical change in both form and color since I first saw it mentioned in Paul Hoffman's article in Good Housekeeping, in which the Luts witnessed a keyhole in one room oozing a "red, blood-like substance, a few drops at a time. " In Anson's expanded version, however. the material looks more like lime gelatin, although George Lutz tasted it, and remarked that it was not. The substance, according to Anson, ran in such quantity that it had to be taken out in bucketfuls and dumped into the Amityville River. Here again we are faced with a truly unfathomable mystery: why would George Lutz be so curious as to taste and smell the offending material, but not curious enough to save some for analysis?

Anson closes his book of horrors with a description of a dramatic seance conducted at the Lutz home on February 18th, 1976. Seated at the dining room table were a useful of psychics, one newsman, and a representative from the Psychical Research Foundation (PRF) in Durham, North Carolina. The participants, according to Anson, reported impressions which ranged from glimpses of dark menacing shadows to shortness of breath, heart palpitations, numbness, quickened pulse rates, and nauseous unrest. Except for PRF's field investigator, psychics present at the seance, says Anson, were firm in their belief that the house on Ocean Avenue harbored a demonic spirit and could only be removed by an exorcist.

In contacting Jerry Solvin, Project Director of the Psychical Research Foundation, however, I was informed that while the book's description of the seance is basically accurate, Anson, Solvin charges, tends to "select facts to support his own conclusions." Solvin, for instance, dismisses Anson's claim that George Kekoris, PRF's representative at the time, suddenly became "violently ill" and was forced to quit the room. Solvin claims he has recently become "queasy", but does not find this odd given the hot, stuffy, "emotionally-charged" situation. Moreover, he explains, the room was small – approximately 12 feet by 15 feet – and more than 20 persons were present, including a film crew using hot movie lights. Solvin also explained that members of the Psychical Research Foundation did not conduct a full investigation of the Amityville case for two reasons: 1.) the family had moved out of the house at an early stage, reducing in PRF's opinion the probability of continued activity; 2.) the phenomenon reported were far too "subjective" to be reliably measured.

Given the foregoing, it seems impossible to escape the conclusion that Anson's account of what transpired at Amityville was large, if not entirely, one of fiction. This is based not only on conflictual evidence and testimony, but on disturbing revelations published by People magazine and other sources in 1979. William Weber, Ronald De Feo's defense attorney, announced that year he was suing the Luts for "breach of agreement" and for a share of the Lutz profits on grounds they had "reneged on a deal with him and another writer." "I know this book's a hoax," Weber confessed. "We created this horror story over many bottles of wine." I told George Lutz that Ronnie De Feo used to call the neighbor's cat a pig. . "

While under oath, George Lutz began to repudiate some of the book's more spectacular claims, accusing Anson of abusing his creative license. A solid wooden door which, according to Anson for example, was wrenched off its hinges by a "demonic force" was in reality, Lutz said, a frail metal screen door which had blown off during a winter storm.

Lutz also deflated Anson's account of the infamous green "slime", noting it was more "like jello", and that there had only been small "dabs" of it which appeared here and there.

Being a charitable sort, I will concede the possibility of Lutses may, in fact, have been telling the truth when they first reported their experiences of light paranormal phenomena to the press in February of 1976, and to Paul Hoffman the following year. Allowed for this, however, severely dissuades parapsychologists from consigning the case to the circular file.

So badly tainted is the affair, so slippery the characters implied, that in the end one is left wondering as to who the demons of Amityville really were.

Sparkle Paper Towels and Other Paper Towels

Sparkle paper towels are claimed to be made of 100 percent virgin fiber.These towels are used for a number of different purposes in homes and in commercial areas. There are different brands of paper towels aside from Sparkle and they are generally comparative on the absorbent qualities they possess. The thickness of these towels is vital in absorbing moisture and is one of the primary features that set them apart. Sparkle paper towels, like most towels, are made of ingredients used to absorb as much moisture as possible.

To give you a brief history, they were first invented by a person named Arthur Scott. He was the head of the Scott Paper Company.Towels were a result of a mistake he committed while he was processing toilet paper. The rolls had been made too thick and were not able to be used as toilet paper. Scott then sold these to a teacher. These were the first ever to be sold. The product then began to be sold to restaurants, hotels, and even public bathrooms. It had the name Sani-towels. In 1931, Scott sold the first towels used specifically in the kitchen.

They can be used in restaurants, schools, hospitals, and other places. Usually, paper towels are used to wipe up spills. They can also be used to dry your hands after using the bathroom, cleaning windows, furniture, and other surfaces and they are frequently used as table napkins.

Aside from Sparkle paper towels, there are many other popular brands used today. The most popular of these brands include Brawny, Scott, Viva, So-Dri, 7th Generation, and Bounty among others. Towels are usually white. However, some have different designs on them. There are even generic brands that are less expensive, but most are far less absorbent.

Unlike cloth towels, paper towels are disposable and can be thrown away after use. Many people prefer to use paper towels for exactly this reason. However, many people like to use cloth towels because they are more environmental friendly, though that is even debatable since they require constant washing and thus consume a lot of water and energy in the process. The other issue is that these towels are also a potential breeding ground for bacteria because of the moisture they retain after use.

These towels can be bought at discounted prices and to save even more money, you can use towel coupons. You can also opt to buy cheaper generic towels if you like. However, understand that cheaper paper have lesser absorbent capabilities and you will likely use more of them which will partially offset the cost savings. If you are in need of towels which can absorb more moisture, buy the thicker ones.

Sparkle paper towels are useful in many ways. They can be used anywhere – in restaurants, in hotels, in offices, and in homes. However, in order to reduce the use of towels, you can use electric hand dryers in washrooms.

How Much Should a Logo Design Cost?

How much does it cost to get a logo designed for your business? The correct answer to this question is anywhere from nothing up to hundreds of thousands of dollars.

You could generalize and say that you get what you pay for. This statement would be true 70% of the time but there are definitely many cases where people spend a lot of money and get rubbish and cases where people spend only a little and get a real branding jewel that works wonders for their business. So it is worth putting some thought into the process of choosing a designer.

Here are some factors that will affect the price that you pay for a logo.

1) The free model – Do it yourself logo design templates are available online for little of no cost. You can throw something together with some clip-art, customize the name and you're away laughing. The downside is that you will not be able to trademark the design and without schooling in good design practice your results will likely be amateurish. Some cheaper logo companies will put something together for you but they will sell the same logo many times over so you are not getting something original that can be copyrighted. Going for a custom logo design is the best option as you will have a designer put something unique together that is taylor-made to your company branding needs.

2) Meeting face to face – If you go for a local designer you will benefit from face to face consultations to discuss the project but this comes at a price. Online logo design firms cut costs by avoiding coffee drinking sessions with clients and will still understand your needs from the briefing form that you fill out online. Web based designers also cut overheads by working in back offices instead of fancy design studios.

3) Location of the company – Western designers usually understand how to brand western companies better than foreigners, however there are some great designers in places like the Philippines and India who will work for much cheaper. The problem here is that if you are sued for trademark infringement you will not be able to take legal action against them if they are outside the US. Local designers will always confirm that you will indeed own the rights to your unique logo design.

4) Service level – The more expensive package you go with the more will be included. Take note of how many designers will work on your case, how many unique initial concepts you will be offered and how many chances you will have to request small changes (rounds of revisions).

Ask about the guarantee policy before you go ahead and order. Find out if they will offer a complete redraw if you do not like the concept or if they will refund your money in the case that you do not like what they present to you.

Delivery time can vary between companies and other factors can affect pricing such as the format that you get your files in.

5) Design Quality – Definitely the most important factor in determining how much a logo design should cost. If you are paying top dollar and plan on spending over $ 1000 you should first seek proof that you will end up with value for money. Check out their design portfolio, ask for references from other customers, find out how experienced and qualified the designers really are and even seek evidence that they have won some design awards or competitions.

Think about why you need the logo. If its just for a website or a short term project you should be fine with some of the cheaper service providers. If, although you are building a future fortune 500 mega-corporation then you may want to spend at least $ 300 to $ 400 and possibly a lot more.

Usually you can get a reasonable good custom logo design for between $ 25 and $ 200. The high end operators will tell you that you can only get junk at this price level but in my opinion they are wrong. It is possible to get a great logo online for a low price.

How much should an online logo design cost? As much as you are prepared to pay. But do not kid yourself that price is everything.

Principles of Accounting and Accounting Assumptions

In the modem world no business can afford to remain secretive because various parties such as creditors, employees, taxation authorities, investors, public and government etc., are interested to know about the affairs of the business. Affairs of the business can be studied mainly by consulting final accounts and the balance sheet of the particular business. Final accounts and the balance sheet are end products of book-keeping. Because of the importance of these statements it became necessary for the accountants to develop some principles, concepts and conventions which may be regarded as foundations of accounting. Such fundamentals having wide acceptance give reliability and creditability to the financial statements prepared by the accountants. The need for 'generally accepted accounting principles' arises for two reasons: First, to be logical and consistent in recording the transactions and second, to conform to, the established practices and procedures.

There is no agreement among the accountants as regards the basic concepts of accounting. There is no uniformity in generally accepted accounting principles (GAPP). The terms-axioms, assumptions, conventions, concepts, generalizations, methods, rules, doctrines, techniques, postulates, standards and canons are used freely and inconsistently in the same sense.

Principles

"A general law or rule, adopted or professed as a guide to action, a settled ground or basis of conduct or practice." This definition given by dictionaries comes closest to describing what most accountants mean by the word 'Principle'. Care should be taken to make it clear that as applied to accounting practice, the world principle, does not connote a rule for which there can be no deviation. An accounting principle is not a principle in the sense that it admits of no conflict with other principals.

Postulates

Mean to absorb without proof, to take for granted or positive consent, a position assumed as self- evident. Postulates are assumptions but they are not arbitrary deliberate assumptions but generally recognized assumptions which reflect the judgment of 'facts' or trend or events, assumptions which have been borne out in past by facts provided by legal institutions making them enforceable to some extent.

Doctrines

Mean principals of belief: what the scriptures teach on any subject. It refers to an established principle propagated by a teacher which is followed in strict faith. But in accounting practice, no such doctrine should be adhered to but the word denotes the general principals or policies to be followed.

Axiom

Denotes a statement of truth which can not be asked by anyone.

Standards

Refer to the basis expected in accounting practice, under different circumstances. In Indian context, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) issued an Accounting Standards Board on 21st April, 1977. The main function of ASB is to formulate accounting standards taking into consideration the applicable laws, customs, usages and business environment.

Accounting Assumptions

The International Accounting Standards Committee (LASC) as well as the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) treat (vide IAS-I & AS-I) the following as the fundamental accounting assumptions:

(1) Going concern

In the ordinary course, accounting assures that the business will continue to exist and carry on its operations for an indefinite period in the future. The entity is expected to remain in operation sufficiently long to carry out its objects and plans. The values ​​attached to the assets will be on the basis of its current worth. The assumption is that the fixed assets are not intended for re-sale. Therefore, it may be contended that a balance sheet which is prepared on the basis of record of facts on historical costs can not show the true or real worth of the concern at a particular date. The underlying principle there is that the earning power and not the cost is the basis for valuing a continuing business. The business is to continue indefinitely and the financial and accounting policies are followed to maintain the continuity of the business unit.

(2) Consistency

There should be uniformity in accounting processes and policies from one period to another. Material changes, if any, should be disclosed even though there is improvement in technique. A change of method from one period to another will affect the result of the trading materialally. Only when the accounting procedures are adhered to consistently from year to year the results disclosed in the financial statements will be uniform and comparable.

(3) Accrual

Accounting attempts to recognize non-cash events and circumstances as they occur. Accrual is concerned with expected future cash receipts and payments: it is the accounting process of recognizing assets, liabilities or income for amounts expected to be received or paid in future. Common examples of accruals include purchases and sales of goods or services on credit, interest, rent (not yet paid), wages and salaries, taxes. Thus, we make a record of all expenses and imports relating to the accounting period whether actual cash has been disbursed or received or not. If a fundamental accounting assumption (ie Going concern, consistency and accrual) is not followed (in the preparation of financial statements) the fact should be disclosed. [AS-I para 27].

How Long Does Teak Furniture Last?

If you have done any research on teak you have probably come across a common word, "strong." Not only is teak strong but it has many properties that naturally repel aging and natural damage and weathering of other furniture pieces made of different woods. Lets go over some of the unique properties teak wood has that makes it so superior to other furniture woods.

Natural Oils. Teak produces natural oils and special resins that repel pests such as termites and other wood damaging insects. This in turn keeps the wood solid and improves it's strength quality and extends the life of the wood. Because of these resins it is unnecessary to put a protective chemical finish on the wood like you do with most other wood furniture.

Teak is easy to alter. Many people like to alter the color of woods. Teak wood is excellent to stain as it is easy to contract staining color and keep the color for a very long time without fading. Although teak wood has a very beautiful golden look, you can rest assured that if you want your teak a little more red or darker brown that you can achieve this project with ease.

Teak is ageless. Did you know that teak furniture can last up to and over 100 years? Teak holds up very well to natural weathering and its resins and oils also prevents rotting. The really nice thing about teak is that it does not split or warp like other woods do. Because of this one property, teak was the main building material of ships in the past and is continued being used in modern boats and yachts.

Teak is easy to clean. Patio furniture always looks to be the most aborted furniture pieces of a home. When you have yard parties people spill drinks and food all over your patio furniture. Unlike cloth pieces that never let go of stains, teak is easy to clean. When a teak piece of furniture needs cleaning one can clean it with these everyday house supplies; hose, mild soap, and a gentle scrub brush. Just combine the water and soap and use the brush to lightly scrub off the mess. Simple use the garden hose and spray off the chair and your all done!

To conclude a teak chair can survive years upon years of frequent use without any special care. This alone makes teak wood furniture one of the most thoughtful after types of furniture in the world!

Sports Education in Jamaica – The New Way to Go

The Jamaican education system has paved the way enabling the island's Olympic gold glory. Through its physical education syllabus and its dedicated physical education teachers we now reap the benefits. The coaches are also to be commended for their dedication and effort in supporting athletes, helping them to stay focus. To be an Olympic medalist is what every parent dreams for his / her son or daughter, When Husain Bolt, Asafa Powel, Melaine Walker, Veronica Campbell, Shelly Ann Frazer, all won Olympic gold medals In Beijing the world was surprised, Jamaicans on the other hand were happy not surprised. There is a history of producing medal winners in track events going as far back as the London Games of 1948.

Jamaica will always be seen as a gold mine for athletics. The world may wonder at our success and what is the secret, some even implying that our athletes do drugs. I recommend Jamaica as the ideal place to educate your child and if s / he has athletic talent it is one of the best places to develop that talent. The hilly terrain is good practicing ground to develop muscles, strengthening heart and lung. capacity Many of our talents in track and field are those who have ran miles over hilly terrains. The yellow yam was given as one reason why Jamaicans can run. The sickle cell trait that many Jamaicans possess and team work were also given as reasons for success in tract and field.

For such a small third world country Jamaica has a tradition of performance in track and field as in Merlene Ottey, Donald arry, Author Wint, and many others who have gone before. Jamaica has what is considered raw talent, pushed by motivation and a culture of competitive spirit, all go to make the Jamaican athlete shine. One very important factor for the country's success is, Jamaica has one of the best organized track and field program in the world. Although restrained by funding, the country still promotes track and field from as early as kindergarten. In Jamaica we train body and mind to achieve. Each year we look forward to which new athlete will better a Usain, or a Veronica. All year round if you follow the country's sport calendar you will realize that there are always some sporting activities taking place all across the island geared at preparing our athletes.

There is the yearly sport day for all kindergarten and primary schools, high schools and college; at these events students compete among themselves in organized house meets. Next there is the parish inter school sports. From these the best are chosen for the all island sports meets such as The JTA primary and all age schools meet and Boys and Girls Champs for high schools.The foundations for this fast running show was laid long ago in 1910, when Champs, an event designed to discover and develop the best school sprinters, was launched. There is the intercollegiate and university sports with special emphasis on track and field geared to keep Jamaican athletes trained in Jamaica to represent the country instead of performing for other countries like the USA and Canada. After these elimination and screening we arrived at our best, selected to be trained, and to compete on the international stage. This is the point that athletes with raw talent are monitored by the Jamaica Amateur Athletic Association. With the correct funding Jamaican will continue to collect glory medals internationally.

Celebrity Reveals Sexual Child Abuse

In her autobiography, "Home: A Memoir of My Early Years," Julie Andrews reveals the all too often kept dark secret of sexual abuse. Andrews reveals that when she was fifteen, her stepfather, who was drunk lunged toward her saying, "I really must teach you how to kiss properly." He then kissed her full on the lips. Andrews states, "It was a deep, moist kiss – a horrible experience." He tried to repeat his endeavor to teach Andrews how to kiss properly, she fended him off. She also, installed a bolt on her bedroom door and managed to avoid being alone with him.

Andrews does not reveal if she told anyone. One might wonder if she did tell, what was done. Since she did not reveal that she told, my guess is that she did not. Not telling about the sexual abuse is a sad state of affairs, because it leaves the person, as well as others, vulnerable to being abused. Yet, this is a common response to this horrific experience.

Girls are scripted and rewarded to not cause a scene and to be cute and demur. Boys are scripted and rewarded to be strong, and to exhibit bravery in every situation. The typical child sex offender molests an average of 117 children, most do not report the offense – National Institute of Mental Health. 1988 This statistic has remained consistent for many decades.

Child sexual abuse is the greatest hidden epidemic in the world. US statistics reveal as high as 62 percent of females and 31 percent of males will be sexually violated before age 18.

"If a disease affected our children in these severe numbers we would declare a national emergency. Monies for research to find a cure would be made available immediately." States Claire R. Reeves, President / Founder / Chief Executive Office of Mothers Against Sexual Abuse – MASA

Prevention has eluded all of society, even passionate and committed prevention advocates, because society concentrates the majority of efforts absolutely on repairing the damage. Over the last several years many informative and educational books have been written about incest and child sexual abuse. That this heretofore taboo subject is being addressed is of the utmost importance to enlighten society regarding this heinous crime against our innocent children. While this terrible crime has been expounded on extensively, little has been offered in the way of preventing it.

Children, as young as two or three years old can thwart a would-be sex offender if they are
armed with the permission and knowledge. Parents need to empower their children and support them in the ownership of their bodies and their lives.

How to Break in Prescription Orthotic Shoe Inserts

The use of true prescription-level orthotics to aid in the treatment of foot ailments has steadily increased over the last thirty years. Commonly prescribed by podiatrists, sports medicine doctors, and other medical professionals, orthotics function to provide support for flat arches, shock absorption for high arches, and allow for an excessive amount of control to the pressures of the heel and the bottom of the foot. Because each orthotic is made specifically from a structurally corrected mold of the foot, the alteration and improvement of foot function is dramatically improved over that of less specific over-the-counter inserts and inserts made of a non-corrected mold of the foot. Each orthotic should 'fit like a glove', so to speak, and should be completely satisfied to wear the entire day. Most people can begin wearing new orthotics without discomfort right from the start. However, there are a small amount of people who require a break-in period to get the feet used to standing on the inserts all day. This article discusses this break-in process, and how one can get the most out of their new orthotics in as little time as possible.

When new orthotics are uncomfortable to wear, it can be incredibly frustrating. Many people expect instant relief of foot discomfort, and this is understandable given the nature of foot pain and the costs sometimes contributed to get orthotics in the first place. Orhotics should not cause discomfort. One has to assume that they were properly casted for in the first place, and the proper prescription was used to make additional configurations to the basic design based on the physician's examination of the foot structure. One also has to assume the lab correctly fabricated the insert to the proper specifications. To immediately assume that either one of these steps were done incorrectly does not help what really must be done: a break-in period performed with patience and persistence. The frequency of improper casting, prescription writing, or manufacture of orthotics is usually quite low. These factors should only be realistically considered after all other measures have failed to provide last comfort.

The break-in period is a short span of time in which the foot becomes accustomed to the control that the orthotic is providing. In essence, a proper orthotic will provide gentle but firm support of the foot structures. This includes support of all the muscles and ligaments which have become lax during a lifetime of abnormal support. The orthotic will force these structures to realign properly. For some, this can cause a brief irritation of the lax tissue, or it can force some muscles to function properly for the first time. These actions can cause discomfort, and this will be felt while the orthotic is worn. A simple plan to gently introduce the foot to increased support is vital in making the orthotic comfortable to wear. When one first receives their orthotics, they should be worn immediately. When and if the orthotics become uncomfortable, they should be removed from the shoes. After several hours, they can be placed back in the shoe and used again until discomfort develops. Alternately, one can wait until the next day to try again. This cycle is to be repeated daily, with a longer wear time achieved each day. Occasionally, after two or three weeks, the orthotics will no longer be uncomfortable. Another common strategy is to wear the orthotics for one hour the first day, and then increase the wear time by one hour each day that follows. In this author's professional experience, it is very uncommon for a properly followed break-in period to fail providing a complete adjustment of the foot to the orthotic.

There are other factors that do contribute to the failure of a break-in period leading to comfort with an orthotic. The most common of these involves an incompatibility of the shoe with the orthotic. Although orthotics are designed to fit into a wide variety of shoes, not every shoe in circulation is appropriate for an orthotic. The orthotic should not slide under the foot with shoe use. This indicates a shoe that is sized to big for one's actual foot size. They also should not have to be crammed into the shoe, with little room left for the foot. This indicates the shoe is too small for the foot or is too small or narrow to work with an orthotic. Stubbornly holding on to improper shoes at the expense of orthotic comfort strictly for style reasons is foolish, and will never lead to a comfortable orthotic. One must be sensible and reasonable regarding their shoe selection. This does not mean a sacrifice of fashion sensitivity, it simply means being reasonable and accepting of ones own body and foot structure needs. Another good example of this is the high heel. High heels force the body to place great pressure on the ball of the foot. This takes away the natural walking pattern the body uses to propel itself. An orthotic will never function properly in a high heel shoe as the body does not use the foot properly during this abnormal walking pattern, and pressure is not properly transferred through the orthotic. Although some boutique-style orthotics are constructed to be used in these types of shoes, their usefulness is debatable. Another factor contributing to break-in failure involves instances in which a shoe may properly fit, but certain design choices by the manufacturer creates a limitation for proper orthotic use. For example, some athletic shoes contain extra padding around the top of where the shoe hits the heel.

This padding pushes the heel slightly forward in the shoe, causing the foot to slide too far down the orthotic. The 'arch' of the orthotic will now be slightly further back, and this can be the source of discomfort. Another example includes shoes that already add arch padding inside the shoe. Although this padding on its own offers little true support, the bulk of its volume can force the orthotic slightly out of alignment in the shoe, or it may prevent its fitting altogether. This internal padding needs to be removed prior to wearing orthotics. Sometimes this material is easily removed in one loose piece, and other times it is lightly glued into the shoe. If it is stitched in, removal will be difficult and may leave an rough surface for the foot to rest on. A different shoe should be selected in this case. Finally, one must consider the medical condition leading to the use of orthotics in the first place as a possible cause for break-in failure. When someone has a foot condition in which there is a constant state of inflammation and tissue damage, and this has not yet healed, then the introduction of a firm device under the irritated tissue can cause pain and discomfort. Certain conditions, such as those involving heel or arch damage, must be healed or adequately improved before an orthotic can be tolerated properly. Once the condition is treated, then the orthotic will function more comfortably and will usually contribute to the prevention of the condition returning if it was related to one of foot structure in the first place (as many foot problems are).

Once all outside factors are accounted for, and one has gone although a proper break-in period, any continuation of orthotic discomfort should be a cause for concern. It is at this very uncommon time that one must consider factors like improper casting, prescribing, and manufacture as a cause for continued discomfort. The physician prescribing the orthotic should review the orthotic completely at this point, as subtle changes or problems can sometimes be missed that can contribute to an uncomfortable orthotic. At times the orthotic may need to be returned to the lab for modification or replacement. In many instances, a simple modification in the doctor's office can bring about an alteration that is successful in making the orthotics comfortable. With all this in mind, one final factor needs to be considered. There are those out there, who by personal quirk, psychological irritation, or bad luck simply can not tolerate anything to be placed under the feet outside of a loose and cushioned shoe. Unfortunately, these people will never be able to tolerate an orthotic. Fortunately, this is an extremely rare occurrence in this author's experience.

Cotton Vs Synthetic Towels – Which is Better?

There are a lot of opinions surrounding the relative merits of cotton vs. synthetic towels. Both of them are really fine to use. And whether toweling off after a swim during your stay at a hotel or after a bath at home, it really all boils down to personal preference. Since both have their own pros and cons, you might find that one is better suited to your tastes than the other. Your choice is just that – your choice – no better or worse than what other people prefer. But there are differences.

Recently, the use of cotton towels by many hotels and health spas has declined. This is probably because synthetic towels are generally less expensive and dry faster than 100% cotton. Generally, cotton towels are very good at absorbing moisture. This is the reason why bathrobes are most often made of real cotton. They are able to absorb the water from your body in no time at all so you can avoid feeling cold when you step out of the pool or jacuzzi.

However, this strength of cotton towels is also its weakness. Although cotton towels are very good at absorbing moisture, it also takes a lot of time before they dry out. This means that they are pretty much useless once they are soaked with water. Even if you wring them out completely, you still will not be able to rid them of moisture to make them usable again in the short term. This is why you'll find that swimmers often use some cotton towels when they are training. It gives the used towels a chance to dry up completely.

Synthetic towels, on the other hand, are free from this particular flaw of cotton towels. When absorption ability is the main issue, there is no doubt that that cotton towels will win hands down. However, synthetic towels are able to get rid of absorbed water completely even with a simple wringing. It's reliably easy to remove the moisture completely and you do not have to use so many towels. A synthetic towel is reusable in this way, and relieves you off the burden of having a pile of towels to wash frequently all at once. You can use them for longer periods of time between laundry.

The other disadvantage of using cotton is that the cotton towels are softer and often less durable than synthetics. After you have used them several times, surviving the wash becomes more of a challenge and they tend to get threadbare quicker. Unlike synthetic towels that are able to go through many more washings and stay intact, cotton towels are more prone to damage with regular use. Synthetic towels are also good for use in more demanding jobs like spills. However, when absorption quality is concerned, cotton towels are still better.

The common wisdom says that cotton is more luxurious than synthetic. But since both of them have their pros and cons, you can just choose the one you think is best suited for your taste or particular use, although many people purchase towels as an afterthought and cost and / or impulse become the overriding purchasing factor.

Importance of Using Wooden Furniture and Wooden Products

Furniture is the only thing which increases the beauties of your home a lot. It pulls towards the guests to your home. So if you have a beautiful home then you should have good furniture in your home. If you are not sure what kind of furniture is suitable for your home then here is a perfect solution for you. These days, wooden furniture and wooden products are most popular than any other. Those days are passed when people used iron furniture or iron products. These are strong than wooden products but odd in looks. However there are lots of advantages of wooden furniture.

It is not true that wooden furniture and wooden products are not durable at all. If the products are made up of good quality of woods then there is no doubt about its durability. These have lighter weight than iron products. So it becomes easier to shift those from one area to another area. Therefore, if you are residing in a rental apartment then you need to use. Not only that, you can separate the parts of wooden furniture but in case of iron or steel you can not do that as those are fixed. This feature makes the wooden furniture more outstanding one.

Wooden household products are safer than iron products as wood does not conduct electricity. So it is safe for everyone in your home, especially for the children. As these are not heavy so it will not damage your sophisticated floor even after a great crash or collision. Like this you can maintain your home-floor by using the wooden furniture. You can renovate the furniture whenever you need or wish as these are not fixed like the material substances. This easy renovation feature adds another finest quality to these wooden products.

The wooden furniture and wooden products are cheaper than the iron or steel products. If you are planning for decorating your home but you do not have so much money then you can choose these wooden products. Even if you have sufficient money but you want to make your home more beautiful then you must go for the wooden furniture. At present, these are used not only in residential houses but even in commercial areas as well. You can see the wooden furniture instead of iron or steel furniture in hotels or restaurants, offices as this increase the beauty a lot.

Overall it can be said that wooden products or furniture will be the best choice. These days, the use of iron or steel products is even called old fashion. So why should not you use the wooden products or furniture while you are getting so much advantages.

African-American Hair – Tips To Obtain Semi-Relaxed, Healthy Curls

While it can be difficult to manage, African-American hair is extremely versatile in terms of being able to achieve a wide variety of hairstyles. For many women, the ideal style is a semi-relaxed, loose curl that still has plenty of body and moisture and is not discharged out or neglected by harsh hair products.

Here are some tips for keeping African-American hair soft, loose, manageable and healthy-looking:

1. The bottom line for soft, healthy black hair is moisture. Start by moisturizing your hair from the inside. Drink lots of water!

2. Select the right shampoo, using one that's moisture rich and detangles while cleansing without stripping the hair of all its natural oils. Also – do not over-shampoo which can strip hair of moisture. Wash your hair no more often than every week to week and a half. And shampoo only once, never twice.

3. Be sure that shampoo is completely rinsed out before conditioning, and be patient – leave conditioner in for several minutes to help moisturize your hair. Hop out of the shower and cover your hair with a towel or shower cap while you organize your jewelry or makeup tray or take off old nail polish, just so you are not tempted to shorten the moisturizing time.

4. Try hemp-based moisturizers on your hair, such as Malibu's Hemp Moisturizer for Dry Skin, as a moisturizer for hair also.

5. After rinsing out the conditioner, towel dry and add natural plant oils back into your hair, such as grapeseed oil, almond oil or a very light application of virgin olive oil. Use your palms to spread one of these shine-enhancing oils evenly through your hair and then comb or brush your hair to secure the ends are also moisturized.

6. Apply a gentle straightening product such as Curlaway® Relaxing Gel, which is natural and semi-permanent. As Curlaway relaxes curl is also moisturizes with plant oils, Vitamin B-5 (panthenol) and MSM. Unlike alkaline, quick-acting relaxers, Curlaway Gel can be used on chemically straightened, permed or colored hair, which permits highlights or even a shade change.

7. All heating appliances can dry and damage hair. It's better to use a mid-range setting and best to let hair dry naturally tightly on rollers. Ironing your hair while it is damp or slightly damp can cause severe breakage and damage.

8. For sleek, romantic waves, set your hair with large rollers or use narrow rollers for sexy, bouncing ringlets.

9. For the tousled, casual look, use a medium barrel curling wand and let the curls fall where they may.

10. After using rollers under a dryer bonnet or air-drying naturally, running your fingers through your hair a few times after you are done straightening will help smooth out your hair, and achieve a natural look.

11. To keep great volume, use a flatiron only on the top layers and the front to achieve a frizz-free, smooth look, while the curlier hair underneath pumps up the volume.

12. Find a style that works with your natural hair type and growth pattern, and do not over-relax your hair until it is bone straight, strawlike and life-less without body or curl. Show off your curls! Try to work with your hair and not against it.

13. Eat a balanced, HEALTHY diet rich in fruits, vegetables and protein and your hair will grow faster and healthier, as well.

The bottom line is, to have healthy-looking, semi-relaxed hair use gentle relaxers and shampoos, lots of moisturizing, and avoid too much heat.

How to Convert a Desktop Computer to WiFi

WiFi or wireless fidelity connection makes internet connection a lot more convenient. In this way, you can connect more computer to a wireless connection to anywhere in the house. The process is fairly easy as long as you have the right tools to use.

You need to make your desktop computer wireless ready first. While you can connect to a wireless router using an Ethernet cable, it is still better to connect using wireless signals as this is really the whole point of the process.

Unfortunately, most Desktop PCs are not yet wireless ready. If your computer belongs to them, you can purchase wireless card and install it in your mother board the same way you will install a memory card.

The next thing you need to do is to purchase a competent wireless router. This usually costs less than a hundred dollars for a decent brand. Once you have these ready, do the following steps:

Step 1: Place your router on an area where it can transmit signal to every part of the house easily. This should be next to your DSL or wireless internet adapter. If you are using DSL, you can remove the Ethernet connection that connects the modem to your desktop. Connect one end to the modem and the other end at the back port of the router.

Step 2: Now that your desktop is wireless ready, it should be able to pick up signals once you turn on the computer, router and modem. Turn the modem first and then the router and then your computer. Allow the router and modem to process the connection first.

Step 3: Do some configurations to your wifi connection. Log on to the IP address of your router settings, input password and username and then change SSID settings and password settings to make it more secure. Now that you have wireless connection, other computers can enter your local area connection.

Step 4: Save the changes you made and then click log off router settings. You can connect as many computers as you can. As long as it is wireless ready, it will already pick up signal. Just input the router password to the other computers and you should be able to connect to the computer.

Just follow these steps in converting your desktop PC into a computer that is wireless ready. Be able to experience the benefits of connecting and communicating with other computers without the cumbersome and restrictive cables and wires.

History and Components of a Modern Mainframe Computer

Mainframe computers are crucial for some of the largest corporations in the world. Each mainframe has more than one modern processor, RAM ranging from a few megabytes to several-score gigabytes, and disk space and other storage beyond anything on a microcomputer. A mainframe can control multiple tasks and serve thousands of users every second without downtime.

The chief difference between mainframes and other computing systems is the level of processing that takes place. Mainframes are also different in terms of data bandwidth, organization, reliability, and control. Big organizations-banking, healthcare, insurance, and telecom companies, etc.-use mainframes for processing critical commercial data.

In this article, we discuss the evolution of mainframe computers and their components.

History of mainframe computers

IBM developed a crucial part of mainframe computing, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC) for arithmetic operations, in 1944. From the late 1950s through the 1970s, several companies manufactured mainframes: IBM, Burroughs, RCA, NCR, General Electric, and Sperry Rand, for example. Since then, System/390 by IBM is the only kind of mainframe in use. It evolved from IBM’s System/360 in 1960.

An Early mainframe occupied a huge space. New technologies have drastically reduced the size and cost of the hardware. A current-generation mainframe can fit in a small closet.

Components of a modern mainframe computer

Like a PC, a mainframe has many components for processing data: operating system, motherboard or main board, processor, controllers, storage devices, and channels.

• Motherboard: The motherboard of a mainframe computer consists of a printed circuit that allows CPU, RAM, and other hardware components to function together through a concept called “Bus architecture”. The motherboard has device slots for input cards and cable interfaces for various external devices. Where PC motherboards use 32- or 64-bit buses, mainframes use 128-bit buses. General instructions regarding the internal architecture help the motherboard connect to the other devices and retrieve data using binary computation.

• Processor: A CPU acts as the central processing point in mainframe architecture and includes an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) for performing arithmetic calculations. It also works as a controller for the bus architecture and handles traffic and data requests. The processing power of mainframes is much higher compared to PCs, so that they can handle huge amounts of data.

• Storage devices: Storage devices are for entering, retrieving, storing, and recording data. Many are external devices, such as hard drives, tape drives, and punch card readers, all connected to terminals of the mainframe and controlled by the CPU. Their capacity for data storage can be hundred or even thousands of times that of a PC.

• Communication controllers: Communication controllers allow remote computers to access a mainframe. With the help of networks, LAN or WAN, communication controllers establish connections with various devices, perform data transmission over communication channels, and keep track of users at terminals.

• Channels: The “channels” are the cables used to connect the CPU and the main storage to other parts of the system and make sure that data is moved in a systematic way without losing its integrity.

Modern mainframes have advanced features such as expanded service management capabilities, cross-platform integration facilities, etc. and thus are suitable for critical data center operations. The cost of maintaining modern mainframes is much less compared to older models.